Winter Barley Production and Research in 2003
J.J. Paling, W.S. Brooks, M.E. Vaughn, C.A. Griffey, T.H. Pridgen, E.G. Rucker W.E. Thomason, and D.E. Brann
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Growing Conditions and Diseases
The 2002-2003 growing season was wetter than normal. Dry conditions
prevalent during the prior year changed mid way through planting in the fall
of 2002. Unusually wet conditions continued through the winter months
and into harvest. Lower than expected yields and test weights were
common across the state. Frequent rain and wind during the spring resulted
in more lodging than previous years. Incidence of powdery mildew [Erysiphe
graminis f. sp. hordei (syn. Blumeria graminis)] was low to nil. Incidence
of leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) and net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) was moderate.
Septoria (Septoria passerinii) was prevalent but incidence was low in the
state barley test at one location in 2003.
Virginia producers harvested 45,000 acres (18,220 ha) of winter barley for
grain in 2003. Grain yields across the state averaged 62 bu/ac (3330
kg/ha). This is the lowest average yield since 1998 (similar cool and
wet spring) and more than 20 percent lower than each of the previous four
years. Total barley grain production in Virginia was down to 2.8 million
bushels (60,900 metric tons).
State Variety Tests
A total of 48 barley entries were evaluated in Virginia’s Official Variety
Test at four locations in the commonwealth in 2003. Twenty-two hulled
and 26 hulless entries were tested. There were six released hulled
varieties and 16 experimental hulled lines entered. Among the hulless
entries, two released varieties and 24 experimental lines were tested.
Yields of hulled lines over the four locations ranged from 71 to 96 bu/ac
(3815 to 5160 kg/ha) with test weights from 42.2 to 47.4 lb/bu (543 to 610
kg/m3). Yields of the six released cultivars ‘Thoroughbred’, ‘Nomini’,
‘Price’, ‘Barsoy’, ‘Callao’, and ‘Wysor’ were: 96 bu/ac (5160 kg/ha), 90
bu/ac (4840 kg/ha), 88 bu/ac (4730 kg/ha), 86 bu/ac (4620 kg/ha), 85 bu/ac
(4570 kg/ha), and 71 bu/ac (3815 kg/ha), respectively. Test weights
among the released cultivars ranged from 42.7 to 46.7 lbs/bu (543 to 610
kg/m3). Yields of the experimental hulled entries ranged from 75 to
92 bu/ac (4030 to 4945 kg/ha). Average yield among hulless entries
ranged from 59 bu/ac (3965 kg/ha) to 71 bu/ac (4770 kg/ha) across the four
locations. Test weights among the hulless barley lines ranged from
49.4 lbs/bu (636 kg/m3) to 55.2 lbs/bu (710 kg/m3). The statewide average
test weight of hulless entries was 53.7 lbs/bu (691 kg/m3). Two experimental
Virginia lines yielded significantly higher than the test average. Average
yield of ‘Doyce’, a recently released hulless barley variety, was 67 bu/ac
(4500 kg/ha). This was slightly lower, but similar to the two highest
yielding experimental lines. Doyce was the highest yielding hulless
variety over the past three years.
2003 Virginia Barley Yield Contest
Richard Sanford of Westmoreland County participated in the Virginia Barley
Yield Contest in 2003. His field of Callao barley yielded 101 bu/ac
(5430 kg/ha) on a minimum 3 acre (1.2 ha) test area.
Barley Research and Outlook for 2004
Since 1996, the Virginia Tech barley-breeding program has focused on development
and evaluation of hulless winter barley varieties as an improved feed crop.
Increased interest in the use of hulless barley in manufacturing food and
fuel products, as well as feed, has accentuated our desire to develop hulless
varieties having greater marketability in both domestic and foreign markets.
The Virginia Tech Barley Breeding Program is pleased to announce the release
of ‘Doyce’ as the first winter hulless barley variety in the Mid-Atlantic
Development of barley varieties having high energy and digestibility designed
for feed, food and fuel markets have been of particular interest. Barley
grain contains health-related compounds similar to those found in oats, therefore,
adding to its appeal in the health-food sector. The use of barley in
ethanol production may soon become a reality and will provide a viable market
for mid-Atlantic barley. Hulless barley is ideally suited for ethanol
production because it has high digestible energy as a result of reduced fiber
and elevated starch content. Other advantages to using hulless barley
in addition to wheat and corn include lower price and potential to produce
a distiller grain product with higher protein content for livestock feed.
Hulless barley research and development has grown significantly over the
last several years due to its potential in feed, food, and industrial uses.
If hulless barley is to continue to grow as a crop, we not only need to understand
its nutritional advantages, but also need to understand the agronomics of
production to assist the producer in achieving maximum production and quality.
To date, significant progress already has been made in the development of
winter hulless barley lines. We have developed more than 2,000 hulless
winter barley populations. This year (2004), we will evaluate over
200 hulless populations and 348 pure lines in yield tests and select pure
lines among nearly 14,000 hulless headrows. Thirty-three of our advanced
hulless barley lines are being evaluated in four states (Maryland, Pennsylvania,
Kentucky and Delaware). In addition, 168 advance hulled and hulless
barley lines were sent to USDA-ARS Eastern Regional Research Center in Pennsylvania
for analysis of chemical composition and end-use properties.
We also will continue to make crosses between low phytic acid, spring barley
mutant lines and some of our superior hulled and hulless barley lines.
We hope to develop adapted winter barley cultivars with low phytic acid content,
which will improve the nutritional value of barley fed to poultry and swine
as well as provide a means for reducing waste-derived phosphorus pollution.
Our continued focus will be on development of hulless barley varieties for
specific end-use markets benefiting producers in the Mid-Atlantic Region.
Release of ‘Thoroughbred’ Winter Feed Barley
Thoroughbred, formerly designated VA97B-388, winter feed barley was released
by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2003. The name Thoroughbred
was selected to denote the superior seed quality of this cultivar, which
produces exceptionally bright and plump kernels. Thoroughbred is a
high yielding, full season, awned, six-row hulled winter-feed barley having
very good straw strength, high test weight, and bright plump kernel.
Thoroughbred was derived from the cross VA90-44-110/‘Plaisant’. The
parentage of VA90-44-110 is CIho8618/‘Surry’// ‘Sussex’/3/‘Henry’, ‘Maury’,
VA79-44-167. CIho8618 (PI178381) is an awned winter barley accession
from Turkey that was used as a source of resistance to scald (Rhynchosporium
secalis). Plaisant (PI584894) is an awned French winter malting variety.
Thoroughbred barley was developed using a modified bulk breeding method and
derived as a F5 headrow selected in 1996. Thoroughbred is broadly adapted
and has performed well in tests conducted in one or more of the barley production
regions of Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky,
Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Ohio.
On average, head emergence of Thoroughbred is 2 days later than Wysor, 4
days later than Nomini and Price, and 6 days later than Callao. Average
plant height of Thoroughbred (36 inches; 91 cm) is 3 to 4 inches (7.5−10
cm) taller than Callao and Price, and 3 to 4 inches (7.5−10 cm) shorter than
Wysor and Nomini. Straw strength (0=no lodging, 10=completely lodged)
of Thoroughbred (1.4) is similar to those of Price (1.5) and Nomini (1.7),
and better than those of Wysor (2.8) and Callao (5.0). Average grain
yield (1999−2002) of Thoroughbred (120 bu/ac; 6450 kg/ha) in Virginia’s Official
Variety Test has been excellent in comparison with those of Nomini (118 bu/ac;
6340 kg/ha), Price (116 bu/ac; 6235 kg/ha) and Callao (111 bu/ac; 5965 kg/ha).
In three out of four years, grain yields of Thoroughbred exceeded (P<
0.05) those of Nomini by 6−14 bu/ac (320−755 kg/ha) and those of Callao by
8−18 bu/ac (430−970 kg/ha). In the USDA-ARS Uniform Winter Barley Yield
Nursery, average grain yield of Thoroughbred (114 bu/ac; 6130 kg/ha) over
10 states in 2000 was 10−14 bu/ac (535−750 kg/ha) higher than those of Nomini,
Price and Callao, and in 2001 over four states average yield of Thoroughbred
(110 bu/ac; 5915 kg/ha) was 8−9 bu/ac (430−485 kg/ha) higher than those of
Nomini and Callao. Over all locations, Thoroughbred ranked 1st among
23 entries in 2000 and 3rd among 23 entries in 2001. Average test weight
of Thoroughbred (51.2 lbs/bu; 659 kg/m3) in Virginia has been similar to
those of Callao (51.5 lbs/bu; 663 kg/m3) and Price (50.9 lbs/bu; 655 kg/m3),
and significantly higher than those of Wysor (48.9 lbs/bu; 629 kg/m3) and
Nomini (48.3 lbs/bu; 622 kg/m3). In the Uniform Winter Barley Yield
Nursery, average test weight of Thoroughbred in 2000 (47.0 lbs/bu; 605 kg/m3)
was similar to that of Price and 0.5 lbs/bu (6.4 kg/m3) higher than that
of Nomini, and in 2001 Thoroughbred had an average test weight (48 lbs/bu;
618 kg/m3) that was similar to that of Callao and significantly higher than
that of Nomini by 1.7 lbs/bu (22 kg/m3).
Winter hardiness of Thoroughbred is good. In the 1999-2000 USDA-ARS
Uniform Barley Winter Hardiness Nursery, Thoroughbred ranked 1st among 29
entries with a mean survival score of 94%, compared with 81% for ‘Tennessee
Winter’, 85% for ‘Kentucky 1’, and 63% for ‘Trebi’. In 2000-2001 tests,
average winter survival of Thoroughbred (55%) was similar to those of Tennessee
Winter (50%) and Kentucky 1 (59%) and significantly higher than that of Trebi
(35%). Thoroughbred is resistant to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis
f. sp. hordei) and barley yellow dwarf virus. It is moderately susceptible
to leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) and net blotch (Pyrenophora teres).
Authorized seed classes of Thoroughbred are Breeder, Foundation, Registered
and Certified. Protection under the amended U.S. Plant Variety Protection
Act of 1994 will be sought. Thoroughbred Breeder seed will be maintained
by the Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences and the Virginia
Agricultural Experiment Station, Blacksburg, Virginia. The Virginia
Crop Improvement Association will be responsible for distribution of Thoroughbred
Foundation seed through the Foundation Seed Farm at Mount Holly, Virginia.
Requests for participation in production of Thoroughbred and availability
of Foundation seed should be directed to Bruce Beahm (804-472-3500), Manager,
VCIA Foundation Seed Farm, Mount Holly, Virginia.
Release of ‘Doyce’ Hulless Barley
Doyce hulless barley, formerly designated VA00H-137, was released by the
Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2003. The name Doyce was
selected in recognition of Dr. Doyce Graham, retired small grains breeder
of Clemson University in South Carolina, who developed an initial set of
winter hulless barley lines from which SC890585 was selected and used as
one of the parents in the cross from which Doyce was derived.
Doyce is a high yielding, moderately-late maturing, long awned, six-row hulless
winter barley with very good straw strength, test weight, and resistance
to leaf rust (Puccinia hordei G. Otth). Doyce barley originated from
a series of crosses comprised of CMB79-54//VA90-42-56/VA90-42-22/3/‘Pamunkey’/4/SC890585.
Doyce was developed using a modified bulk breeding method and was derived
as a F5 headrow selected in 1999.
In Virginia, head emergence of Doyce is 3 days later than the hulless check
SC890585, 2 days later than ‘Nomini’ and ‘Price’. Average plant height
of Doyce (32 inches; 81 cm) is similar to that of Price, 2 inches (5.1 cm)
taller than ‘Callao’, 7 inches (17.8 cm) shorter than Nomini, and 2
inches (5.1 cm) shorter than SC890585. Straw strength (0=no lodging,
10=completely lodged) of Doyce (3.2) is similar to those of Nomini (2.5)
and Price (2.6) but was significantly better than that of Callao (6.1).
Average grain yield (2000-2001) of Doyce (92 bu/ac; 6180 kg/ha) in Virginia’s
Official Variety Trials was better than that of the two hulless checks SC890585
(82 bu/ac; 5510 kg/ha) and SC880248 (85 bu/ac; 5710 kg/ha). In 2000-2001,
Doyce performed very well in trials conducted in Virginia, Kentucky and Maryland.
Grain yield of Doyce (111 bu/ac; 7425 kg/ha) in Kentucky was (18 bu/ac; 1209
kg/ha) higher than the test average. Average test weight of Doyce (56.0
lbs/bu; 721 kg/m3) in Virginia has been only slightly lower (1.0 lbs/bu;
12.9 kg/m3) than that of SC890585. In the 2002-2003 USDA-ARS Uniform Winter
Barley Yield Nursery, Doyce had an average grain yield of 63.2 bu/ac (4240
kg/ha) over six states and ranked 2nd among 16 hulless lines and 8th among
all 25 entries. Doyce is resistant to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis
f. sp. hordei), leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) and barley yellow dwarf virus.
It is moderately susceptible to net blotch (Pyrenophora teres).
Beta Glucan concentration of Doyce (5.03%) was slightly higher than SC890585
(4.97%) in tests conducted in 2000-2001. Starch content of Doyce (65%)
exceeded that of SC890585 (54%) on the basis of chemical analyses conducted
in 2001 and 2002. Starch concentration of Doyce (65.5%) was higher
than those of Nomini (57%) and Callao (60%) in chemical analysis conducted
Authorized seed classes of Doyce barley are Breeder, Foundation, Registered
and Certified. Protection under the amended U.S. Plant Variety Protection
Act of 1994 will be sought. Doyce Breeder seed will be maintained by
the Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences and the Virginia Agricultural
Experiment Station, Blacksburg, Virginia. The Virginia Crop Improvement
Association will be responsible for distribution of Doyce Foundation seed.
Requests for participation in production of Doyce and availability of Foundation
seed should be directed to Bruce Beahm (804-472-3500), Manager, VCIA Foundation
Seed Farm, Mount Holly, Virginia.