Agronomic, baking, and plant health characteristics of wheat
cultivars and lines of the Parana
State Yield Trials, 1996.
L.J.A. Del Duca, C.N.A. Sousa, and E.M. Guarienti.
is the most important Brazilian state for wheat production. A
nursery including 85 cultivars and lines tested in intermediate
and final trials in that state in 1996 was evaluated under field
conditions at the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo (National
Research Center for Wheat), Passo Fundo, RS. Information regarding
scab and kernel note was obtained under field conditions, with
natural infection (planting 13 June, 1996). For scab, the scale'
ranged from 0 (immune or without symptoms) to 5 (highly susceptible),
and for kernel note, the rating varied from 1 (excellent) to 5
A nursery to evaluate effects of aluminum was seeded
on 14 June, 1996, in an acid soil with a high aluminum level.
The index of susceptibility varied from 0.50 (highly resistant)
to 5.0 (highly susceptible). Information on baking quality from
the alveograph (W = deformation energy of dough) at EMBRAPA-CTAA
and EMBRAPA-CNPT obtained over 1990-96
period is presented. These data represent the averages from different
numbers of years for each genotype.
The listed wheats were outstanding for the following characteristics:
Kernel note (< = 2):
IAPAR 60, IOR 90537, OC 962, TRIGO BR 18, OC 9611, OC 9612, OC
9614, ORL 9361, ORL 93132, ORL 93320, PF 9293, EMBRAPA 27, IAPAR
46, IAPAR 78, OCEPAR 15, OCEPAR 21, OR 1, ORL 9285, PF 91204,
Scab (< 2): OC 964,
CEP 934, OC 9614, ORL 9361, ORL 93132, CEP 24, IAPAR 46, IAPAR
53, PF 9099, PF 90294, PF 9122, PF 91204;
Aluminum tolerance (IS
< = 1.26): IAC 5-MARINGA, LD 951, EMBRAPA 49, PF 92108,
PF 92568, PG 9337 and TRIGO BR 35;
W (> 200): IA 956,
IAPAR 29, IAPAR 60, IWT 9430, IWT 95001, IWT 95041, LD 941, OCEPAR
16, PF 92494, TRIGO BR 18, EMBRAPA 49, PF 9293, PF 92292, PF 92412,
CEP 24, EMBRAPA 16, IAPAR 6-TAPEJARA, IAPAR 53, IAPAR 60,
IAPAR 78, OCEPAR 10-GARCA, OCEPAR 21, OCEPAR 22, OCEPAR 23,
OR 1, ANAHUAC, IAPAR 17, IAPAR 28, OCEPAR 18, OC 958, OC 959,
OC 9511, ORL 9285, EMBRAPA 52, PF 9099, PF 90294, PG 9337, IA
948, IA 949, IDS 934-21, IOR 90226, OC 939, PF 91450.
The data should be interpreted as preliminary results,
considering that most of the information refers to only 1 year
Distribution by state of the main Brazilian wheats during
the 1995-96 period.
L.J.A. Del Duca and P.L. Scheeren.
As a result of better price perspectives, Brazilian
wheat production has increased from nearly 1.5 million tons in
1995 to nearly 3.2 million tons in 1996. Nevertheless, this expectation
of higher prices, because of reductions in world stocks was not
confirmed to the Brazilian farmers. Therefore, in spite of greater
production, consumption increasing to nearly 8 million tons will
lead to keeping imports of most of domestically consumed wheat.
The most important cultivated wheats are detailed
in Table 3, with information regarding cross, soil aluminum tolerance,
and breadmaking quality. For the 17 listed genotypes, only fiver
are tolerant to aluminum (EMBRAPA 16, CEP 24, Trigo BR 35, IAC
and IAC 120-Curumi), and four are moderately tolerant (Trigo BR
23, CEP 27-Missates,
EMBRAPA 21, and EMBRAPA 41). Twelve cultivars are considered
as very good (EMBRAPA 22, EMBRAPA 42, and Trigo BR 40-Tuiuca)
or good (Anahuac 75, EMBRAPA 16, EMBRAPA 41, CEP 24, IAC 24-Tucuru,
IAC 120-Curumi, OCEPAR 16, Trigo BR 18, and Tribo BR 31-Miriti)
for breadmaking quality.
Table 3. Seed availability of the most cultivated wheats in the Brazilian producing states
|State 1||Main cultivar||Al tolerance 2||Breadmaking quality 3||Seed 4||% for state 5|
|RS||EMBRAPA 16||HULHA NEGRA/CNT7 // AMIGO/CNT 7||T||good||1,554,548||66.7|
|CEP 24 - Industrial||BR 3/CEP 7887 // CEP 7775/CEP 11||T||good||373,047||16.0|
|Trigo BR 23||CC/ALD SIB/3/IAS 54-20/COP // CNT 8||MT||poor||128,318||5.5|
|SC||EMBRAPA 16||HULHA NEGRA/CNT 7 // AMIGO/CNT 7||T||good||125,551||91.4|
|Trigo BR 35||IAC 5*2/3/CNT 7*3/LD // IAC 5/HADDEN||T||intermediate||5,197||3.8|
|CEP 27 - Missões||CEP 8057/BUTUÍ // CEP 8324||MT||intermediate||3,184||2.3|
|PR||OCEPAR 16||SISKIN SIB/VEERY SIB||MS||good||649,953||20.3|
|Trigo BR 18 - Terena||D 6301/NAI 60 // WEIQUE/RED MACE/3/CIA*2/CHRIS=ALD 45 SEL||MS||good||618,592||19.3|
|EMBRAPA 16||HULHA NEGRA/CNT 7 // AMIGO/CNT 7||T||good||364,179||11.4|
|SP||IAC 24 - Tucuruí||ALBATROZ/IRN 579-60||T||good||21,420||32.9|
|ANAHUAC 75||II 12300 // LR 64/8156/3/NORTEÑO M 67||S||good||14,575||22.5|
|IAC 120 - Curumi||IRN 33-70/IAC 5 - Maringá||T||good||12,300||19.0|
|MS||Trigo BR 40 - Tuiuca||ANAHUAC 75/HUACAMAYO SIB||S||very good||78,610||29.6|
|Trigo BR 18 - Terena||D 6301/NAI 60 // WEIQUE/RED, MACE/3/CIA*2/CHRIS=ALD 45 SEL||MS||good||43,488||16.4|
|Trigo BR 31 - Miriti||KVZ/BUHO SIB // KAL/BB=VEERY 1(GLENNSON M81)||S||good||42,786||16.1|
|MG||Trigo BR 26 - S. Gotardo||KAVKAZ/BUHO SIB // KALYAN/BB=VEERY SIB||MS||intermediate||13,050||68.6|
|EMBRAPA 41||PF 813/POLO 1||MT||good||3,150||16.5|
|EMBRAPA 21||PAT 10/ALD SIB // VEERY SIB||MT||intermediate||2,828||14.8|
|GO/DF||EMBRAPA 22||VEE SIB/3/KLTO SIB/PAT 19 // MO/JUP||MS||very good||10,888||83.7|
|EMBRAPA 42||LAP 689/MS 7936||MS||very good||1,460||11.2|
|EMBRAPA 41||PF 813/POLO 1||MT||good||660||5.0|
1 Brazilian states: RS - Rio Grande do Sul; SC - Santa Catarina; PR - Paraná SP - São Paulo; MS - Mato Grosso do Sul; MG - Minas Gerais; GO - Boiás;DF - Distrito Federal.
2 Al tolerance: Aluminum tolerance level (S=Sensitive; MS = moderately sensitive; MT = moderately tolerant; T = tolerant).
3 Breadmaking quality: poor (W 140); intermediate (W = 140 200); good (W = 200 280); and very good (W = 280). W = values from the alveograph method (deformation energy of the dough).
4Seed availability: in bags (50 kg) relatively to 1995/96 season, except PR, GO and DF (1996/97).
5Percentage for state: the three most cultivated wheats ordered by state. Sources of data: MAARA/RS; EPAGRI/SC; SEAB/PR; IAC/SP; APROSSUL and SPSB/MS; COOPADAP/MG; SPSB, COOPA-DA, CPAC/GO, DF.
Reaction of wheat cultivars to scab in the crossing block
conducted in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
C.N.A. de Sousa.
There was a severe incidence of scab in the state
of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil in 1996. Scab occurred
at all the five sowing dates in a wheat crossing block set up
in an experimental field at Passo Fundo in 1996. Escapes due
to cultivar cycle were observed. Sowing time began at the end
of May and ended in July. Flowering was in September in most
cases, with harvest in November. The amounts of rainfall per
month (mm) were May, 74 (normal 131); June, 141 (129); July, 126
(153); August, 214 (166); September, 119 (207); October, 158 (167);
November, 107 (141); and December, 123 (162). The average of
percent humidity per month was May, 73 (normal 75); June, 77 (76);
July, 73 (75); August, 67 (73); September, 73 (72); October, 74
(69); November, 68 (67); and December, 70 (67). High humidity
in September and October favored the occurrence of scab more severely
than in previous years.
Reaction to scab was visually assessed for three
of the sowing dates. As increased levels of scab were observed
at a sowing date in relation to the lateness of the cultivar,
an additional observation was made for these lines. Cultivars
with the best resistance to scab in the 1996 crossing block were:
Ning 8331 (China); GW 2, GW 3, GW 4, and GW 5 (Japan); Neepawa,
RL 6082, and RL 6114 (Canada); Oasis and Sullivan (U.S.A.); and
Hulha Negra, OR 1, PF 859114, PF 84511, PF 88522, PF 89156, PF
9052, PF 9234, PF 9293, PF 940085, PF 940077, and PF 950309 (Brazil).
The most susceptible cultivars were Anahuac 75 and
Sonora 64 (Mexico); Cailloux (France); FL 72185A-A2-Cl
(U.S.A.); Quilamapu 4-78 (Chile); Spika (Australia); and IDS 934-21, EMBRAPA 15, EMBRAPA 10, IAC 13, OCEPAR 16, PF
87301, PF 87451, PF 88711, PF 89319, PF 91618, PF 93.2004, PF
932005, PF 932017, Trigo BR 40, and Trigo BR 42 (Brazil).
ITEMS FROM BULGARIA
`K. MALKOV' INSTITUTE FOR PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES
Drouzhba 1, 4122 Sadovo, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
Identification of T1B-1R translocations
by gliadin electrophoresis and the assessment of aluminum tolerance
in wheat germ plasm.
S.D. Stoyanova, D.B. Boyadjieva, and Ch.Ch. Phylipov.
Wheat cultivars and breeding lines were the subject
of electrophoretic seed protein analysis. Wheat germplasm of
43 breeding lines and new candidate cultivars derived by wheat
breeding in the IPGR-Sadovo, 11 Bulgarian wheat cultivars, and
11 wheat cultivars from other countries were evaluated by A-PAGE.
The marker of wheat-rye
translocation known as Gli3 (T1B-1RS)
in the gliadin pattern of alcohol-soluble seed protein extracts
was investigated using Kavkaz wheat as a standard.
There were 13 breeding lines and one Bulgarian wheat, Shabla, with Gli3 bands diagnostic of the T1B-1RS translocation according to A-PAGE (Table 1). Five of the 11 foreign wheat cultivars had gliadin patterns of T1B-1RS translocation: Alondra `S', Bacanora 88, Mochis 88, Seri 82, and Burgas RDISN.
Table 1. Evaluation for the T1B-1RS translocation in breeding lines, candidate cultivars, and Bulgarian and foreign cultivars.
The aluminum tolerance of 63 wheat accessions was
examined in media with five increasing Al concentrations (0 mg/l,
5 mg/l, 10 mg/l, 20 mg/l, and 40 mg/l). The effect of the aluminum
was expressed as the index of root growth of the seedlings cultivated
in the different media (Table 2).
The wheat accessions with T1B-1RS
translocations were compared by root growth index with those that
lacked the typical wheat-rye banding pattern. Regression
analysis indicated that wheat accessions with the T1B-1RS
translocation were slightly more affected (Table 3). However,
the high variation in root growth indexes between wheat cultivars
indicated that the tolerance is more complex and needs additional
Table 2. Aluminum tolerance of wheat accessions according to the root-grownth indexes at different Al concentrations.
|5 mg/l||10 mg/l||20 mg/l||40 mg/l|
|KC 552/Sadovo 552||0.70||0.57||0.41||0.38|
|D 272 K||0.90||0.70||0.65||0.50|
|D 378 R||0.92||0.85||0.74||0.65|
|D 388 R||0.85||0.75||0.79||0.53|
|LC 284/4400 R||0.73||0.59||0.65||0.35|
|K 609/3380 R||0.61||0.59||0.48||0.41|
Table 3. Relationships between aluminum concentration in the medium solution (x mg/l), and the IRG index of root growth (y).
|Group of wheat accessions||y=a+b.x||R2||r||s||IRG at x = 5 mg/l||IRG at x = 40 mg/l|
|With T1B-A1R translocation||Y=0.846-0.013.x||0.62||-0.79||0.15||0.78||0.32|
|1B - any translocation||Y=0.825-0.014.x||0.57||-0.76||0.17||0.76||0.28|
Black point of grain in bread winter wheat: 1. Association
between appearance of black point in different cultivars and the
level of nitrogen fertilization in the field.
Ch. Phylipov, Z. Dachev, V.I. Vassilev, and S.D.
The effect of the nitrogen fertilization at five
levels of nutrition was investigated using 10 winter bread wheat
cultivars in the experimental field of IPGR-Sadovo
in 1996. The mean temperature in March was under zero. Plants
reached maturity at the optimal term for this region. There was
a reduction in the vegetation of wheat cultivars and the intermediate
phases, probably because of the significant deviation in the temperature
in March. Significant variation in the amount of black-pointed
grain related both to the wheat cultivar and the level of nitrogen
fertilization (Table 4).
The differences between wheat cultivars were greater
in the unfertilized and lowest nitrogen level (60 kg/ha) treatments.
The most sensitive wheat cultivars at these levels of fertilization
were LC 318, Zlatostruj, Perla, and Sadovo 1. The highest numbers
of black-pointed grains were in the cultivars No301, Sadovo 552,
and Pobeda. The others cultivars, Slavianka 196, Momchil, and
Katya, were slightly affected but not more than 3 %. The number
of black-pointed grains was significantly reduced under higher
levels of nitrogen, especially over the critical point (about
Table 4. The effect of nitrogen levels on the number of black-pointed grains in several wheat cultivars grown at IPGR-Sadovo in 1996.
Black point of grain in bread winter wheat: 2. Biotic and
abiotic causal agents.
V.I. Vassilev, Y. Stancheva, Ch.Ch. Phylipov, Z.
Dachev, and S.D. Stoyanova.
The semiselective bacterial medium BCBRVB for the
plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae and a standard
one for fungi (potato dextrose agar) were used for a more precise
evaluation of several wheat cultivars with different levels of
black point on the grain and the nitrogen levels evaluated in
1996. The isolated bacterial and fungal species from surface-sterilized
grains were assayed for pathogenicity on 3-5
leaves and on the adult plant. Artificial inoculations were made
by spraying and injecting with fungi and bacteria, respectively.
Reisolation of the pathogen to prove pathogenicity and identification
of the pathogen were done. Collections of pathogenic bacteria
and fungi have been maintained for further analysis. Bacteria
were lyophilized, and fungi were stored in potato dextrose agar
at 4 C.
In a recent study, seed samples with typical symptoms
for fungal black point of wheat grain were infected by hyphae
in many cases. Diseased kernels were discolored, with black points
in and around the embryos. We isolated pure cultures from the
plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens,
the causal agent of basal glume rot of cereals and grasses and
other Pseudomonas sp., both from healthy (visually clean
around the embryo) and diseased (black-pointed) wheat kernels
Table 5. Pseudomonas colony (number and percent) isolated on the semiselective bacterial medium BCBRVB from diseased and healthy wheat kernels.
|Cultivar||Healthy grain||Diseased grain|
Germination tests were done on seed samples from
each of four replicates (according ISTA) were at 20C
in vertical paper rolls, and the grain surface, culms, and roots
were evaluated after 4 days using a 16-50
x stereomicroscope and using Sadovo 1 wheat as a standard. We
found mainly Alternaria fungi and only a few Pseudomonas,
Fusarium, and Drechslera (Helminthosporium)
in black-pointed wheat grains (Table 6).
Diseased kernels were discolored and black-pointed.
The grain coat also was discolored when invaded by hyphae in
many cases. The isolated bacterial and fungal species, except
for Alternaria, were pathogenic on the 3-5
leaves and on the adult wheat plant after artificial inoculations.
Several roots rarely were invaded by these fungi. Many of the
black-pointed grains were free of pathogens, i.e., some abiotic
factors induced discoloration in and around the embryos. This
phenomenon can be expected when cereals with seed-borne diseases
are evaluated in different environmental conditions, especially
in the case of low levels of nitrogen fertilization.
Table 6. Plant pathogens observed in black-pointed grain 4 days after beginning of germination tests. Observations were made using a 16-50 x stereomicroscope. The check cultivar was Sadovo 1 grown under unfertilized conditions.
Black point of grain in bread winter wheat: 3. Effect on
S.D. Stoyanova, Ch.Ch.Phylipov, Z. Dachev, and V.I.
Wheat seeds of the cultivar Sadovo 1, harvested in
1996, were divided in two batches: normally developed seeds and
seeds with black-pointed germ. Seed germination tests in four
replicates (according ISTA) were made in vertical paper rolls
The seed vigor was estimated by measuring root growth 48 hours
after the start of germination. The results indicated that germination
of seeds with black point was slightly lower than that of normally
developed seeds. Seed vigor, estimated in the two samples, indicated
that the growth of roots of seeds with a black-pointed germ was
lower. The differences between the compared samples were confirmed
Boyadjieva DB. 1996. A study of wheat productivity
criteria for the breeding of drought tolerant cultivars. Cereal
Res Commun 24(3):299-305.
Stoyanova SD. 1996. Variation of gliadins in wheat
cultivars associated with seed survival and multiplication. Seed
Sci Tech 24:115-126.
Stoyanova SD and Kolev KD. 1996. Gliadin electrophoresis
in the evaluation of Bulgarian wheat germplasm. Plant Genet Res
Vassilev V, Kolev K, Zaharieva M, and Sevov V. 1995.
Resistance of Aegilops, maize and wheat genotypes to Pseudomonas
syringae pathovar atrofaciens and syringae.
Vassilev V, Lavermicocca P, Digiorgio D, and Iacobellis
N. 1996. Production of syringomycins and syringopeptins by Pseudomonas
syringae pv. atrofaciens. Plant Pathol 45:316-322.
Zaharieva M and Vassilev V. 1995. Study of the
adult wheat and Aegilops resistance to Pseudomonas syringae
pathovar atrofaciens. Agronomie 15:21-24.
ITEMS FROM CANADA
AGRICULTURE AND AGRI-FOOD CANADA
Cereal Research Centre, 195 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T
Statistics of Canada's November estimate of 1996 wheat production on the prairies:
|Province||Wheat||Hectares seeded||Metric tons produced|
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