CEREAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE -- CRI
H-6701 Szeged, PF. 391, Hungary.
Bread wheat growing conditions and cultivar release.
Z. Kertesz, J. Matuz, L. Bona, B. Beke, J. Pauk, M. Csosz, L. Cseuz, A. Mesterhazy, I. Petroczy, L. Purnhauser, Cs. Kertesz, J. Falusi, and R. Nagy-Kutni.
A below-average crop was harvested in 1996 in Hungary,
with an estimated production of 1.2 million hectares of winter
wheat and an average of 3,200 kg/ha. After planting in October,
there was an unusually long winter from November till the end
of March. In many parts of the country, 70-80
days of snow cover, with a strong ice layer on top, caused a severe
snow mold infection. Unfortunately, breeders and farmers were
not prepared for this very rare disease pressure. Damage caused
by snow mold was between 30-50
% in some areas. Powdery mildew and scab also were present, but
with less significant damage. GK Thalom, with approximately 15
% of the total planted acreage, has been the most popular wheat
variety in Hungary for the last 10 years. The winter wheat varieties
of the CRI (GK cultivars) constitute an estimated 40-50
% of the total acreage. Recently, HRSWs have been grown sporadically
in some part of the country.
New bread wheat cultivars.
GK Elet (GK Othalom//GK Sagvari/Bounty/3/Mv4/Baranjka) is an early ripening, awnless, semidwarf variety with excellent lodging resistance.
GK Hattyas (Ildiko/Mv4//Ildiko/Bgdw)
is a medium-early, awnless, middle-short SRWW, with excellent
winter hardiness and good baking quality.
GK Kalasz (GK Gobe//Lovrin
24/GK Korany) is an early-ripening, awnless wheat with excellent
head-productivity. GK Kalasz has good resistance to powdery
mildew, stem rust, and leaf rust. Under Hungarian growing conditions,
it probably will be a variety that will not require spraying with
Durum wheat breeding.
B. Beke, J. Matuz, T. Szebelledy, Zs. Kovacs, and L. Bona.
A new winter durum wheat variety, GK Betadur,
from the cross `BD456/GK
Pannondur' was registered at the end of 1996. The cultivar is
an early maturing wheat, with good winter hardiness and excellent
lodging resistance. In field trials of the National Institute
for Agricultural Quality Control, this variety yielded 5.7 T/ha
(average of 3 years), which is about 11 % more than the check
variety (GK Minaret) released in 1980. Additional features of
this variety include its quality parameters, higher betacarotene
content and vitreousness, and lower gluten extension, which are
superior to those of GK Minaret (Table 1).
Table 1. Quality of registered winter durum wheats of the Cereal Research Institute in variety maintenance at Szeged, in 1996.
|Variety||GK Minaret||GK Tiszadur||GK Novodur||GK Betadur|
|Semolina yield (brutto) %||71.5||72.5||71.0||69.2|
|Wet-gluten content %||37.1||35.0||40.0||37.0|
|Dry-gluten content %||12.0||11.8||13.0||12.0|
|Gluten extension (mm)||8.0||8.5||6.5||3.5|
|Pigment content (ppm)||9.8||6.5||5.6||10.8|
The selection and production of winter durum wheat had no tradition in Hungary. Research was initiated on macaroni wheat at the CRI, Szeged, in 1972. The aim of this work was to select and to introduce winter durum wheat varieties that:
This research started with the selection of segregating
materials originating from the CIMMYT station in Ankara, Turkey.
All of the selected lines were evaluated for winter hardiness,
productivity, lodging, and pasta quality. The results of this
program were the registration of the first two Hungarian winter
durum varieties (GK Minaret and GK Basa) in 1980 (Beke and Barabas
1981). During that time, new basic material was created by crossing
Italian, French, Russian, Romanian, and Slovakian durum wheats,
germplasms that were more suitable for the Hungarian climatic
conditions. After 10 years, three registered, patented cultivars
(GK Pannondur, GK Tiszadur, and GK Novodur) were selected from
this breeding material (Table 2). The winter hardiness and productivity
of these varieties are better than those of GK Basa and GK Minaret.
Two spring durum varieties, one from Austria (Lajtadur) and one
from France (Multidur), were also introduced by the CRI.
Table 2. Registered durum varieties from the Cereal Research Institute, Szeged, and their pedigrees.
|Name||Year of registration||Pedigree|
|GK Minaret||1980||Fata-Sell85.1 // 61.300 / Leeds|
|GK Basa||1980||Karabasah // 61.300 / Leeds|
|GK Pannondur||1985||Selection from SzD7 population|
|GK Tiszadur||1992||Leukomeljan 2 / GK Minaret|
|GK Novodur||1993||Parus / 2*GK Minaret|
|GK Betadur||1996||BD456 / GK Pannondur|
|Lajtadur (Austrian cultivar)||1990||NR66 / 85|
|Multidur 2 (French cultivar)||1990||Ruby / Coopdur // Edmore|
The main result of the durum research program of
CRI was the successful domestication of durum wheat in Hungary.
The sowing area of durum wheat in Hungary was instable during
the last 15 years, growing gradually from 1980 till 1989 and decreasing
strongly in 1990 and 1991. The sowing area has grown again since
1992, peaking in 1996 (14,000 ha). Currently, the sowing area
to durum wheat is it is about 8,000 ha in 1997 (Table 3). The
average yield was between 2,900-4,500
Table 3. Sowing area and average grain yield of durum wheat in Hungary from 1980 to 1997.
|Year||Hectares sown||Average yield (kg/ha)|
Joint research work with the Institute of Biophysics
of the Biological Research Center, supported by a Grant of Scientific
Research Fund (OTKA T017254), compared the predictive value of
different testing methods of drought tolerance in bread wheat.
Field trial testing was done by the desiccant test. Seven genotypes
were tested under three treatments (well-watered control, low-water
adapted, and seriously stressed) in the greenhouse. Plants were
characterized by computing their pressure-volume curves and
on the base of their proline and polyamine accumulation. Our
goals are to determine the predictive value of the field scoring
methods used previously and to invent a simple selection system
for this trait.
Fusarium head blight.
Highly-resistant winter and spring wheat material
was created by using resistance sources of Sumai-3 and Nobeoka
Bozu. These varieties are resistant to the most aggressive isolates
of F. graminearum and F. culmorum, their resistance
stability was excellent, and their toxin accumulation was near
zero, even when the most heavy epidemic situation resulted in
no toxin contamination. Some of the lines also have very good
resistance to leaf rust, powdery mildew, and stem rust (Sr36)
and very good baking quality. Several lines with good resistance
were identified among the winter wheats. Doubled haploids were
created from perspective lines and will be further analyzed in
1997. However, most of the commercial cultivars were susceptible
or highly susceptible to FHB, requiring chemical protection.
The tebuconazoles proved to be the most effective of the tested
fungicides, but under heavy epidemic conditions even their protecting
effects were moderate. The efficiency of fungicides to control
deoxynivalenol contamination of grains was linearly proportional
to the effectiveness measured by FHB severity, yield response,
and the ratio of scabby (tombstone) kernels.
Zearalenone and its derivatives were found to have
estrogenic effects on adult human beings and even children. Zearalenone
could be identified from blood samples of children fed certain
bran products of wheat. Early puberty syndromes were observed
by the Pediatric Clinic of Szeged Medical University in 2-4
year-old children. (This work was supported by OTKA Foundation
grant No. T 6231, OMFB Foundation grant No. 6315 and BAYER AG,
A large variation in resistance to wheat streak mosaic
and brome mosaic viruses was found in wheats previously not selected
for virus resistance in greenhouse trials with artificial inoculation.
There was no relationship between wheats for resistance to these
viruses, i.e., the resistance is inherited independently. Therefore,
the variability for breeding purposes is at hand. The ELISA survey
for four viruses (WSMV, BMV, BYDV, and BSMV) showed in most cases
a complex natural virus infection, i.e., at least 50 % of the
plants contained two or more or up to four viruses. This is important,
because we could show that under field conditions a complex virus
infection is the normal case and most of the symptoms are not
characteristic. Therefore, identification of symptoms cannot
lead to well-based results. Several genotypes were identified
on the field with good general virus resistance. We assume that
these lines have a resistance to more viruses, because in the
field all viruses were present. (This work was supported by OTKA
Foundation grant number T 6230.)
Inheritance of the quality traits in durum wheats (Triticum
J. Matuz and B. Beke.
The value of durum wheats depends on their quality
traits. The inheritance of some quality traits were studied in
early generations of the following two crosses: `D41/D30'
The pedigrees of the parental varieties are: D30: `Parus/GK
and D42: `BD437//M7793.26/DF407.78'.
The F1 generation was grown in an unreplicated
field trial with low plant density (80 plants/m2) in
1992. The F2 and F3 generations were grown
in a quadruple-replicated field trial with normal plant density
(500 plants/m2, 6.5 m2/plot) in 1994. The
grain yield of the plots was investigated for the following quality
traits: semolina yield, pigment content, wet gluten content,
vitreousness of grain, protein content, and cooking value of the
Positive and negative overdominance was found in
the inheritance of semolina yield of the hybrids in F1
generation, but in F2 and F3 generations
the semolina yields of the hybrids were similar to their midparent
values. The low pigment content was dominant in F1
generation, but in F2 and F3 generations
the pigment content of the hybrids was close to that of the midparent.
Negative overdominance was found in the wet-gluten content of
the hybrids in F1 generation, but in F2
and F3 generations positive heterosis was generally
observed. The vitreousness of grain was inherited intermediately,
and positive heterosis was often observed. The low protein content
dominated in one hybrid, but in the other combination it showed
recessive inheritance. The cooking value of pasta of the hybrids
(measured by alveograph) after 15 and 30 minutes cooking time
was similar to the value of the poorer parent. (This work was
supported by OTKA (National Scientific Research Fund) grant no.
Evaluation of some aspects of the variety maintenance in
Z. Kertesz, J. Matuz, J. Pauk, and Cs. Kertesz.
Comparison of variety maintenance methods.
Three maintenance systems were evaluated on five cultivars differing
in phenotype, homogeneity and the rate and capability to open
pollination. Three methods were used. In Pedigree 1, single
plant progenies were grown in a spaced planting system (`50
x 10 cm'
spacing) and their progenies were tested in yield trials under
normal density. Single heads were selected in Pedigree 2, the
head rows were evaluated, and the progenies of the head rows were
tested in yield trials. In the third (Jensen's bulk method),
a thousand of heads were selected and the blends of the head rows
were harvested as breeder's seed. All these methods were found
to be suitable in achieving adequate homogeneity during the maintenance
process, but the Pedigree 1 is the most expensive and space- and
bulk method is the cheapest, but can be used only in highly uniform
varieties. The Pedigree 2 method can be used for maintaining
different kinds of wheat varieties.
Study of open pollination.
The rate of open pollination was studied using a blue-endosperm
marker line as pollinator. Approximately 200 m2 marker
pollinator was planted in the middle of a `100
x 100 m'
wheat multiplication plot. Two ears were emasculated at a 1-meter
distance in four different directions on the examined variety,
to test pollen navigation. Ten heads were harvested in every
check point to test the open pollination. The wheat marker pollen
navigated for at least 20 m, but open pollination took place within
a 3-meter distance in the main wind direction. The study provided
valuable data for the seed-multiplication work.
Use of doubled haploids in variety maintenance.
Doubled haploid versions of 12-12
families were produced by anther culture in five model varieties.
R0 plants and R1 lines were grown in greenhouse
and field nurseries, respectively. The original families and
the DH R2 versions were planted together in yield trials
in the fall of 1995. Comparative evaluation of the families and
their DH versions will be made to clarify the usefulness of doubled
haploids in achieving homogeneity during the maintenance process.
(This work was supported by OTKA grant no. 6050).
Gene bank activity continues at the Wheat Department
of the Institute with the support of the Hungarian Ministry of
Agriculture. The main goal of the gene bank program is the preservation
of the local varieties or advanced lines selected by the institute.
Last year, 340 of the 4,000 genotypes stored were
included in the active collection where they were evaluated according
to the International Board of Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR)
system of characterization using descriptors to focus on morphological
and highly heritable agronomic characters. In 200 samples, farinograph
values also were calculated to get information on the breadmaking
quality. Resistance to rusts and powdery mildew was scored by
the modified Cobb's
scale at the adult stage and by Stakman's
scale in the seedling stage. All 500 entries were planted in
5.5 m2 plots for multiplication of seed and for continued,
detailed, quality studies. Seed samples are stored in a cold
chamber (in glass containers at 5 C)
of the Institute's
breeding station, Kecskes-telep,
Response of wheat genotypes to virus diseases under field
M. Papp and A. Mesterhazy.
The severity of the natural virus infection was estimated
in field conditions using 120 wheat cultivars and breeding lines
(T. aestivum and T. durum) in 1995. Each genotype
was sown in three replicates, 3 weeks before the optimal sowing
time at 30 or 60 cm row spacing and 10 cm plant spacing. The
row length was 9 m. The autumn was short, with early frosts.
No considerable aphid population developed on the plants. Therefore,
significant virus infection could not be detected in autumn, only
in spring. The infection severity was expressed as a percent
of the total spring plant numbers. The genotypes showed a significant
difference in the severity of virus infection. The number of
infected plants showing visual symptoms varied from 0 % to 30
% in the most susceptible genotypes. Some genotypes (GK Delibab,
GK Kunsag, GK Kende, and GK Cipo) were nearly free of heavily-infected
plants. Other genotypes were strongly infected (GK Minaret, GK
Barna, GK Betadur, and GK Orseg). Because a visual estimate of
virus infection is unreliable, 119 leaf samples were screened
by ELISA for four virus species, BSMV, BMV, WSMV, and BYDV, in
order to estimate the applicability of visual ratings. Complex
virus infection of diseased wheat plants generally was observed.
The dominant virus was BMV in 1995. More than 50 % of the samples
contained more than one virus species, and nearly 10 % were infected
by four species. (This work was supported by OTKA grant no. 6230.)
Effects of heavy metals on somatic tissue culture of wheat.
Heavy metals, as microelements in the culture medium,
may play important roles in plant regeneration. In this study,
heavy metals as AgNO3, CdCl2, CoCl2,
CuSO4 and Ni(NO3)2 were applied
at 0, 1, 10 and 100 [micro]M
concentrations in a hormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium.
Calli of three wheat cultivars initiated from immature embryos
were used as inocula. Shoot regeneration was significantly enhanced
by Ag+ and Cu2+ in all treatments. Co2+
and Cd2+ proved to be inhibitory at the highest concentration.
The order of heavy metals on the effect of shoot regeneration
was Cu2+ > Ag+ > Ni2+ >
Co2+ > Cd2+. Root regeneration was significantly
promoted by Cu2+ in all cases, and by Ni2+
at 100 [micro]M.
At the highest concentration, Cd2+, Ag+,
and Co2+ showed an inhibitory effect on rooting. The
order of heavy metals on the effect of root regeneration was Cu2+
> Ni2+ > Co2+ > Ag+
> Cd2+. We are currently investigating the relationship
between heavy metal concentrations and ethylene production or
stress protein levels in our cultures. (The research was supported
by OTKA grant no. 6102).
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