ITEMS FROM INDIA
Cytogenetic and Plant Breeding Laboratory, Department of Botany,
Coimbatore - 641 046, India.
Genetics, breeding, and induced-mutation studies in wheat
V.R.K. Reddy, P. Viswanathan, and S. Arumugam.
Leaf rust-resistance genes (Lr19, Lr24,
Lr26, and Lr28); stem rust-resistance genes (Sr25,
Sr26, Sr27, and Sr31); and the stripe rust-resistance
gene (Yr9) were transferred from wheat stocks and addition
lines to the Indian wheat cultivars HD 2009 and HD 2380 after
backcrosses and through homoeologous recombination (using homozygous
recessive ph ph mutant). Selection was made at both BC2F5
and BC5F5 generations. Early generation
selection was found to be better for obtaining superior lines.
The lines were tested for yield performance under rust-free conditions.
No yield depression effects were noticed in the lines. The presence
of rust-resistance genes in an Indian wheat background was confirmed
by selecting for the following morphological markers: awnlessness,
lax spike, club tip, waxy color, and red grain. That dominant
genes controlled rust resistance in the constituted lines also
was confirmed by studying the inheritance in F1, F2,
and BC1 hybrids derived from a cross between an Indian
wheat and the universally susceptible cultivar Agro Local. Significant
increases in nuclear DNA, total free phenol, tannin, soluble protein,
and peroxidase activity were noticed in the constituted lines.
Ten agronomically desirable mutants were isolated
in durum wheat, bread wheat, and triticale using gamma rays, EMS,
or a combination of both. Agronomic mutants performed better
than the parents in both the M3 and M4 generations.
Slow-rusting of the resistant mutants was confirmed by the parameters
of incubation period, latent period, CDL, AUDPC, and TS. The
genetics of mutants for plant height indicate that dwarf mutants
(dwarf I and dwarf II) in the durum wheat Jairaj are controlled
by a single recessive gene. However, the two are nonallelic and
complement each other. The two plant-height mutants in hexaploid
wheat (dwarf I and dwarf II) are nonallelic, though each is controlled
by single recessive genes.
Three plant-height mutants in triticale, double dwarf,
dwarf, and semidwarf, are controlled by a single recessive gene.
The semidwarf mutant was dominant over the dwarf and double dwarf,
whereas the dwarf mutant was dominant to the double dwarf. An
early-flowering mutant in triticale was controlled by two recessive
gene. Grain mutants (bold and plump) in triticale were each controlled
by a single recessive gene. A leaf rust mutant in the bread wheat
WH 147 was controlled by one dominant and one recessive gene.
Incorporation of specific rust-resistance genes in wheat
and their confirmation through biochemical and molecular markers.
S. Dhamodaran and V.R.K. Reddy.
Four NILs for each of the leaf rust-resistance genes
Lr9, Lr19, and Lr24 were developed by incorporating
the Ae. umbellulata-derived leaf rust-resistance gene Lr9,
and the leaf rust-resistance genes Lr19 and Lr24
from Ag. elongatum into the four rust-suspectable, Indian
wheat cultivars LOK-1, HUW234, J28, and K68 through a backcross
breeding program. The endopeptidase null allele Ep-D1c
is closely linked to Lr19. The presence of Lr19
in the four NILs was confirmed. The leaf rust-resistant NIL with
Lr19 was crossed with the leaf rust-susceptible wheat cultivar
Agra Local and the F2 plants were evaluated for endopeptidase
polymorphism. All the F2 plants that expressed Lr19
and the endopeptidase allele Ep-D1d-D1D were
We are presently trying to confirm the presence of
leaf rust-resistance genes Lr9 and Lr24 in the NILs
through RAPD/STS markers obtained from the Swiss Federal Research
Group for Agroecology and Agricultures, which showed polymorphism
between the NILs for leaf rust-resistance genes Lr9 and
Reddy VRK, Viswanathan P, Asir R, and Arumugam S.
1996. Effect of variation in rye chromosome composition on chlorophyll
mutations in triticale. Adv Plant Sci 9(1):51-53
Reddy VRK, Damodaran S, Asir R, Viswanathan P, and
Arumugam S. 1996. Development of disease rust resistance in
hexaploid wheat -
An overview. In: Plant Breeding Advances and In-vitro
culture (Siddiqui BA and Khan S eds). CBS Publishers, New Delhi,
India. pp. 179-194.
HIMACHAL PRADESH KRISHI VISHVAVIDYALAYA
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Palampur - 176 062 (H.P.), India.
Surbhi HPW 89 -- a new high-yielding and
rust-resistant wheat cultivar for Himachal Pradesh.
Satish C. Sharma, D.L. Sharma, G.S. Sethi, K.S. Thakur,
and A.K. Basandrai.
Surbhi HPW 89 (pedigree:
Intermedio Rodi/HD 2248) is a new, high-yielding, wheat cultivar
with a high degree of resistance to both yellow and brown rusts
that has been recommended for cultivation in the low and mid-hill
m elevation) of the state under rainfed and irrigated conditions.
The cultivar will replace Sonalika and HS 2380 and provide an
alternative to the cultivar HS 240. Because Sonalika (the predominantly
grown wheat cultivar) and HD 2380 have become highly susceptible
to yellow and brown rusts, immediate replacement was needed.
HPW 89 is a semidwarf wheat with dark-green, waxy
foliage, and good tillering ability with stiff straw and white
glumes. The grains are bold, white-amber,
and semihard. The cultivar had significantly higher grain yields
than the checks HD 2380 and Sonalika, under both rainfed and irrigated
conditions in 1993-94,
and irrigated conditions in 1992-93.
HPW 89 had a 13.1-15.9
% increase in grain yield over HD 2380 and a 15.1-35.7
% over Sonalika in coordinated trials during these years. However,
it is statistically similar in grain yield to the cultivar HS
240. In Himachal Pradesh, HPW 89 was 10.8 and 62.1 % higher in
grain yield than HD 2380 and Sonalika, respectively, under rainfed
conditions. In irrigated conditions, HPW 89 had 7 and 26.4 %
increases in grain yield over HD 2380 and Sonalika, respectively
Table 1. Performance of' wheat cultivar HPW 89 (Surbhi) under timely-sown conditions in Himachal Pradesh (H.P.).
|Cultivar / production condition||Mean grain yield (Qx/ha)||Overall mean|
|1991-92||1992-93||1993-94||H.P.||Northern Hill Zone|
|HS 240 (check)||27.9||24.7||25.8||26.1||26.5|
|HD 2380 (check)||30.9||20.2||21.8||24.1||25.4|
|HS 240 (check)||39.4||36.9||37.3||37.9||40.7|
|HD 2380 (check)||45.1||27.7||33.2||35.3||37.4|
Surbhi (HPW 89) has shown a high degree of resistance to both stripe and leaf rusts under natural and artificial epiphytotic conditions than the best check variety HS 240, which is susceptible (40 MS (7.3) to 25S (14.2)) to leaf rust under artificial conditions (Table 2). Therefore, this new cultivar will provide the necessary disease resistance in addition to the next-best cultivar HS 240.
Table 2. A summary of rust scores and probable resistance genes of the wheat HPW 89 in comparison to the check cultivars.
|Cultivar||Stem rust||Leaf rust||Stripe rust|
|HPW 89||40 MR (5.1)||Sr7b||20MS (2.1)||Lr23 Lr34 +||0||Yr3 Yr18 +|
|HS 240 (check)||40S (18.7)||Sr31 +||40MS||Lr1 Lr26 Lr34 (7.3)||0||Yr9 Yr18 +|
|HD 2380 (check)||30MS (15.0)||80S (41.2)||Lr10 Lr23||20S||Yr2 +|
|Sonalika||60S (36.5)||Sr2 Sr11||80S (56.7)||Lr13 +||60S||Yr2 +|
1 Rated in the south, under artificial epiphytotic conditions.
2 Rated in the north.
HPW 89 has higher tolerance to Karnal bunt (5.7 %)
than the checks HS 240 (11.5 %), HD 2380 (20.0 %), and Sonalika
(12.0 %). This cultivar also has immunity to FHB (0), compared
with the checks HS 240 (11 %), HD 2380 (32 %), and Sonalika (11
A survey of stripe and leaf rust diseases made by
the Zonal Wheat Monitoring Team during 1996-97
indicted that the prevalence and severity of stripe rust were
very high in the Kullu and Kangra valleys, particularly on Sonalika
VL 616 (60-80S),
HS 240 (60S), HS 277 (60S), and HPW 42 (10S). Similarly, leaf
rust incidence was high on the newly released cultivars HS 295
(60S), and Sonalika, and HD 2380. However, HPW 89 has been found
to be resistant to both stripe and leaf rust fungi.
Surbhi HPW 89 has a 1,000-kernel weight of 49.5 g,
compared to 36 g for HS 240. HPW 89 has a mean protein content
of 78.6 kg/hl. Flowering in 130 days, HPW 89 is earlier than
HS 240 (140 days) and, therefore, has a longer grain-filling period
than HS 240. In addition, farmers do not favor the cultivation
of HS 240, because its late flowering and maturity expose it to
natural hazards such as hail and bird damage.
HPW 89 responds to fertilizer application and was
superior to HS 240 at all levels of fertilizer application. In
agronomic trials, HPW 89 produced the highest mean grain yields
in the Northern Hill zone (48.3 g/ha) and was superior to both
check cultivars under early or late sowing. Comparable yields
were obtained under timely and late planting.
Table 3. Grain yields (Qx/ha) from on-farm trials of HPW 89 versus HS 240 in timely-sown rainfed and irrigated conditions conducted during 1994-95 in Himachal Pradesh. Numbers in parentheses under means indicate the number of trials for each mean.
|WPW 89||HS 240||HPW 89||HS 240|
|Zone I. Submontane, low hill, subtropical, elevation 500-650 m.|
|Research Station, Berthin||24.00||16.00||-||-||HPW 89 preferred. Maturity days: HPW 89 = 138, HS 240 = 144.|
|DDA, Una||-||-||29.00||30.00||Both cultivars preferred.|
|HPKV, RSS, Akrot||-||-||32.00||30.00||Both cultivars preferred.|
|HPKV, RRS, Dhaulakuan||25.00||25.00||32.00||25.00||Both cultivars preferred. HPW 89 preferred in irrigated conditions.|
|Mean of Zone I||26.58 (3)||22.67 (3)||31.31 (4)|| 30.31 (4)
|Zone II. Mid-hills, subhumid, elevation 650-1,800 m.|
|DDA. Kamdi||33.75||32.50||54.50||40.00||HPW 89 preferred.|
|Research Station, Sundernagar||33.30||31.20||-||-|
|DDA, Kullu||-||-||43.75||22.50||HPW 89 preferred.|
|HPKV, RRS, Bajaura||20.61||19.39||33.80||32.50||HPW 89 preferred for maturity and grain size.|
|Research Station, Malan||-||-||33.30||41.60||HPW 89 preferred. Early flowering.|
|Directorate of Extension||-||-||35.00||32.50|
|Research Station, Kangra||-||-||50.00||60.00|
|Mean of Zone II||32.81 (5)||26.92 (5)||35.50 (12)|| 34.34 (12)
|Zones I & II, weighted||(8)||(8)||(16)||(16)|
The results of on-farm trials conduced in Himachal
Pradesh indicated the superiority of HP 89 in grain yield (30.5
Qx/ha) over the best check cultivar HS 240. Particularly under
rainfed conditions, HP 89 had a 20.3 % increase over HS 240 for
the combined Zones I and II (Table 3). However, under irrigated
conditions, the grain yields were statistically similar.
Additional cultivar release - Aradhana
Aradhana (HPW 42), developed
by university scientists S.C. Sharma, D.L. Sharma, G.S. Sethi,
and K.S. Thakur, was released by the Himachal Pradesh State Seed
Sub-Committee for cultivation under late-sown conditions in low
and hid-hill areas of the state.
INDIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Division of Genetics, New Delhi - 110 012, India.
Accessing and exploiting rust resistance genes of alien
origin in wheat breeding.
Recent studies at several locations on the series
of leaf rust-resistance genes Lr1-Lr34
to individual races of leaf rust in the seedling stage, and mixture
of most important races in adult plants have identified Lr9,
Lr19, Lr21, Lr24, Lr25, Lr26,
Lr28, Lr29, and Lr32 as genes conferring
a moderate to high degree of resistance effective at all stages
of plant growth. In addition, Lr22a and Lr34, which
confer resistance only at the adult plant stage, were identified.
All these resistance genes except Lr34 are of alien origin
and are, for the most part, unexploited in India (Sawhney 1994,
1995). However, the wheat-rye
with resistance genes Lr26/Sr31/Yr9, has
been extensively used in breeding cultivars both in India and
throughout the world. The leaf rust resistance conferred by Lr26
in the translocation has now become ineffective due to evolution
of the fungus. Leaf rust resistance in the recently released
variety Kanchan (DL 803-3, Sawhney et al. 1995, 1996) is
possibly due to Lr34, because the genes Lr23 and
Lr26 in the T1BL-1RS
translocation are ineffective. Lr34 is associated with
durable resistance to leaf rust. Nevertheless, broadening the
genetic base of resistance with genes derived from species related
to T. aestivum is likely to remain effective for a longer
period of time. Resistance genes from alien species are mostly
available in agronomically poorly adapted backgrounds but can
be utilized effectively after crossing with genetically enhanced
germplasm. Recovery of desirable genotypes in a breeding program
is likely to be efficient.
A backcross-breeding program has developed several prebreeding stocks with yields higher, or comparable to, those of the recurrent parent wheats, Kalyansona (Sawhney and Sharma 1996) and Sonalika (Sawhney, unpublished data) with no undesirable effects. These materials encourage wheat breeders to use resistance genes transferred from alien species to tailor a new generation of cultivars with genetic diversity and high levels of resistance. Our efforts in this direction have already achieved significant results. The wheat cultivar Vaishali (DL784-3), with resistance genes Lr24/Sr24 from Ag. elongatum was released in 1993. Vaishali is for cultivation in eastern India under irrigated and high-input conditions. The use of the Ag. elongatum-derived resistance gene in the development of Vaishali was the first attempt in India (Sawhney and Joshi 1996). Vaishali is preferred by the farmers of eastern India, particularly in high humidity areas that are prone to leaf rust epidemics. This cultivar is perhaps the only wheat in the zone that continues to maintain a high degree of resistance to leaf and stem rusts. Another high-yielding short-duration wheat DL788-2, with Lr24/Sr24 resistance was officially released in August, 1996, for late planting in the Central Zone of India.
Exploitation of Aegilops tauschii var. meyeri Lr21/Sr21.
Kalyansona backcross derivatives, with resistance
genes Lr21/Sr21, when used in different cross combinations
have produced promising cultivars: DL1012-2, DL1013-6,
DL1017-1, DL1063-1, and DL1079-1. These wheats,
when tested as seedlings with diagnostic virulences, identified
specific genes (Lr21/Sr21) that were transferred
for resistance to leaf and stem rusts. Successful use of Lr21/Sr21
resistance leading to the development of cultivars is the first
attempt in the world. DL1013-6 has been identified as possessing
a unique combination of Lr21 and Lr23 genes. Like
DL1013-6, the other varieties also are likely to possess
genes in addition to Lr21. McIntosh et al. (1995) reported
that Lr2l has potential for use in breeding, but remained
Exploitation of Agropyron elongatum (Lr24/Sr24) resistances.
In addition to DL784-3 (Vaishali) and DL788-2,
a number of other wheats developed from different cross combinations
involving Kalyansona backcross derivatives have Lr24/Sr24.
These wheats include DL975-1, DL975-2, DL976-1,
DL944-1, DL995-2, DL997-4, DL997-7, DL1010-
2, DL1023-1, DL1070-1, and DL1107-1. All these
wheats are likely to possess resistance in addition to that contributed
by the specific donor genes Lr24/Sr24. Because
there is no virulence to Lr24 in India at present, identification
of additional leaf rust resistance in these wheats is difficult.
Some of these wheats are in the advanced stage of testing in
the All India Coordinated Programme, high-yielding, and resistant
Newly described adult plant resistance genes with potential
Leaf rust resistance in lines with Lr35 (source:
RL 534 `Ae.
and Lr37 (source: Ae. ventricosa) was recently
determined. Lr35, operative only in adult plants and nonspecific,
is likely to have durable resistance to leaf rust, but its durability
can be confirmed only after the gene is introduced in commercial
cultivars and grown extensively (Sawhney et at. 1994). Lr37,
effective in adult plants (Sawhney, unpublished), is reported
to be linked with stem rust-resistance gene Sr38 and stripe
rust-resistance gene Yr17. These genes have been extensively
used in the Australian breeding program where rust resistance
controlled by these genes is still effective. A number of wheats
with these resistance genes are being released (McIntosh et al.
1995). This source of resistance may play a significant role
in breeding a high degree of resistance that could possibly be
McIntosh RA, Wellings CR, and Park RF. 1995. Wheat
Rusts - An Atlas of Resistance Genes. CSIRO, Australia.
Sawhney RN. 1994. Breeding for durable resistance
to wheat rusts. IARI Monograph. Publication and Information
Directorate, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110 012. pp. 52.
Sawhney RN, Sharma JB, and Sharma DN. 1994. Non-specific
adult plant resistance to leaf rust with potential for durability.
Cereal Rusts and Powdery Mildews Bulletin 22 (part 2). pp. 9-13.
Sawhney RN. 1995. Genetics of wheat rust interaction.
Plant Breed Rev (Jenick J ed). 13:293-343.
Sawhney RN, Sharma JB, Sharma DN, Chowdhary HB, Mehta
H, and Singh SS. 1995. Kanchan - A high yielding rust resistant
wheat variety for sustainable production under diverse agroclimatic
conditions. Seed Tech News Bull, Indian Soc Seed Tech 25(4):1-3.
Sawhney RN and Joshi BC. 1996. Genetic research
as the valid base of strategies for breeding rust resistant wheats.
Sawhney RN and Sharma JB. 1996. Introgression of
diverse genes for resistance to rusts into an improved wheat variety,
Kalyansona. Genetica 97:255-261.
Sawhney RN, Singh SS, Choudhary HB, Mehta H, Sharma
JB, and Sharma DN. 1996. Kanchan, a high yielding wheat for
the Central India. Indian Farming 46(7):61-63.
INDIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE
IARI Regional Station, Pusa, Bihar, Dist. Samastipur - 848 125, India.
Two wheat cultivars identified for the NEP zone.
M.P. Jha, B.P. Sinha, K.M.P. Singh, and A.K. Sinha.
Two wheat cultivars, HP 1744 and HP 1761,
developed at the IARI Regional Centre, Pusa, have been identified
by the 35th All India What Research Workers Workshop in 1966.
HP 1744 (pedigree: Ciano/Parula/Chilero/Garuda)
is an early-maturing (110 days), semidwarf cultivar suitable for
irrigated, late sowing. The average height of HP 1744 is 80 cm.
HP 1744 is resistant to lodging and leaf rust. A genetic analysis
of HP 1744 indicated that Lr1, Lr13, Lr23,
Lr26, Lr34, Sr2, Sr8, Sr11,
Sr31, and Yr9 are present in this cultivar. Resistance
gene Lr34 provides adult-plant resistance. HP 1744 also is resistant
to foliar blight.
HP 1761 (pedigree: RL6010/6*Inia//3*Kauz) is suitable
for timely sown, highly fertile, irrigated conditions. This cultivar
will not lodge and may yield over 6 T/ha. HP 1761 has resistance
gene Lr9, providing near immunity to leaf rust. HP 1761
also is moderately resistant to the leaf blight fungus. Postanthesis
heat tolerance with quick grain filling may allow HP 1761 to escape
grain shrivelling during periods of dry, westerly winds in mid-March.
This cultivar may replace UP 262, UP 206, and K 8804, which have
become susceptible to the leaf rust and leaf blight fungi and
may compete with WH 542 (a Kauz line), a promising new variety
for the NWP zone.
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