ITEMS FROM THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR SOUTH-EAST REGIONS
7 Toulaikova St., Saratov, 410020, Russia.
Performance of new durum lines under dry conditions.
N.S. Vassiltchouk, V.M. Popova, V.I. Kassatov, S.N. Gaponov, and G.I. Shutareva.
Weather during the vegetative period of spring durum
wheats in the Volga river region was drier than normal for the
southeastern part of Russia, in 1996. Total precipitation at
Saratov for the season was 115 mm, compared to the long-term
average of 139 mm. Under these conditions and without any fertilizer
application, newly developed lines performed well with high gluten
strength and high yellow pigment content (see data in Table 1).
The line D-2034 , named Valentina, is now in
national testing. Lines D-2029 and D-2030 will be entered
in national testing in 1997 after seed multiplication.
Table 1. Yield, 1,000-kernel weight, test weight, protein content, SDS-sedimentation test, and carotenoid pigment content of cultivars* and promising new lines grown at Saratov, in 1996.
|LSD ( 5 %)||0.21||2.6||22||0.5||5||0.8|
Laboratory of Genetics and Cytology
Agricultural Research Institute for South-East Regions, 7 Toulaikova
St.,Saratov, 410020, Russia.
Reaction of red spring bread wheat near-isogenic
lines to drought.
S.A. Voronina, V.A. Krupnov, and V.N. Semenov.
In previous communications (Krupnov et al. 1995,
1996), we reported about the positive effects of Lr genes
and the prolamine locus on grain yield and protein content in
NILs under relatively wet conditions. The reaction of NILs under
heat and drought during 1995-96
is presented here. Only 15 mm of precipitation was recorded for
the period from shoot-to-heading in 1995. In 1996,
precipitation was absent from anthesis to the waxy-kernel
ripening period. The temperature ranged from 32-38 C.
The grain yield ranged from 0.654-1.396
T/ha in 1995 to 2.318-2.736
T/ha in 1996. Grain protein content varied from 16.05-17.10
% in 1995 to 15.68-16.87
% in 1996. The grain yield in 1995 was the lowest reported in
the last 20 years. Sib lines did not differ significantly from
each other for grain yield, 1,000-kernel weight, and grain
protein content in 1995 and 1996. However, the grain protein
contents in Lr sibs with Lr14a, Lr19, and
Lr23, and prolamine-locus sibs were higher than those in their
partners. Thus, the positive effect for grain protein content
in Lr genes and prolamine sibs was expressed under heat
and drought conditions.
Effects of R-genes in spring bread wheat for grain
yield under drought conditions.
S.A. Voronina and V.A. Krupnov.
Only red-grained cultivars of bread wheat are
grown in the Lower Volga Region. White-grained cultivars
are now replacing red-grained cultivars. We produced NILs
differing for R-gene alleles to study their effects.
Ten pairs of NILs grown on black soils did not show any significant
differences between R and r sibs for grain yield,
1,000-kernel weight, test weight, grain protein content,
and loaf volume. Under heavy drought conditions of 1995-96,
there were no differences between R and r sibs except
in the L 503 (R) and L 504 (r) pair.
The grain yield of L 504 (r) in 1995 was significantly
higher than that of its red-grain sibs L 503 (1.978 T/ha
and 1.222 T/ha, respectively; LSD = 0.190 T/ha). The causes of
these differences are unknown.
Field and laboratory analysis of a leaf rust population
of bread wheat in 1996.
S.N. Sibikeev, S.A. Voponina, and Yu.E. Sibikeeva
(Laboratory of Winter Wheat Breeding).
The leaf rust epidemic during the 1996 growing season
was not evaluated weekly. Nevertheless, infection types were
noted on cultivars and lines of bread wheat with different Lr
genes. Plants with genes derived from Agropyron species
Lr19, Agi1, Agi2, and Agi3 (Sibikeev
et al. 1995; Sibikeev et al. 1996) showed ITs = 3. A 0
IT was observed on an S55 NIL, which carries the Lr24 gene
from Agent. The Lr-gene combinations Lr26
+ Lr13, Lr26 + Lr23, and Lr26 + Lr23
+ Lr13; and the combination of LrAgi1, LrAgi2,
LrAgi3, and Lr19 with Lr 9, Lr23,
Lr24, Lr25, and Lr26 were highly effective with
ITs = 0.
The leaf rust population was collected in mid-July
when air temperatures ranged from 30-32 C
at the ARISE Region fields. Collections were made by researchers
from the laboratories of genetics, winter wheat breeding, and
plant immunity. Laboratory inoculations were made in the greenhouse
at 20-22 C
with the leaf rust inoculum and verified the efficiency of the
above-mentioned Lr-gene combinations. Inoculations
with three samples of leaf rust surprisingly did not discover
the pp19 pathotype. The line with genes Lr19, LrAgi1,
LrAgi2, and LrAgi3 showed ITs = 0. An IT = 3 was detected
on cultivars susceptible to the pp19 pathotype (L503, L222, Agro58,
and L1736) under field conditions. These cultivars showed an
IT = 0 in the greenhouse at the same time. The sensitivity and
subsequent decline of the pp19 pathotype to high temperature and
low humidity during some weeks of July may help explain these
results. Another explanation may be the reduction in viability
of the pp19 leaf rust pathotype population during times of high
viability of other pathotypes.
The range and severity of leaf rust on spring wheat in 1996.
O.V. Zubkova and V.A. Krupnov.
The first leaf rust pustules appeared on susceptible
cultivars at the beginning of anthesis on 19 June, 1996. Afterward,
dry, hot weather halted the development of an epidemic. The rust
was supported mainly by dews at night. The lower leaves were
most susceptible under these conditions. The level of disease
was defined on cultivars and lines planted in full random blocks
with four replications. Seven-row plots were used with an
area of 7 m2.
The number of pustules was counted four times, at
intervals of 7 days, beginning on 30 June. Cultivars and lines
with genes Lr19 and Lr23 showed the highest resistance
to the local leaf rust pathotypes. The lowest level of disease
among susceptible cultivars (lacking resistance provided by oligogenes)
was in the old, local cultivar Lutescens 62.
The effects of genes for ear and leaf colors in durum wheat.
Lines differing separately for ear and leaf colors
were studied in field yield trials during 1995-96.
The durum wheat variety Hordeiforme was the source of genes for
red ear, and the durum wheat Azerbaaidjansky mestny was
the donor of genes for light-green leaves. The durum
wheat cultivar Bezenchukskaya 139 was the recipient parent. The
above-mentioned lines are not significantly different for
heading date, plant height, and lodging resistance. Under the
drought conditions of 1995-96,
lines with white ears had a slightly higher grain yield then those
with red ears A sib line with waxy leaves had a slight increase
in grain yield compared to a sib line with light-green leaves
(during 2 years the average increase was 0.07 T/ha). The increase
in grain yield was the result of an increase in the number of
tillers and 1,000-kernel weight.
Testing wheat-alien lines for bread- and spaghetti-making quality.
V.A. Krupnov, S.A. Voronina, I.N. Cherneva, and N.S. Vassiltchouk (Laboratory of Durum Wheat Breeding).
Bread wheat is sometimes used in the pasta-cooking
industry in Russia. We investigated the possibility of using
lines from crosses with durum wheat, T. dicoccum, Ag.
intermedium, and Ag. elongatum for bread and spaghetti
making. The grain yield of these lines in the drought of 1995
exceeded the grain yield of durum wheat cultivars by approximately
threefold, with excellent baking and good pasta quality. The
lines have the following characteristics: grain protein content
%, wet gluten content (the first group of gluten strength) of
nearly 50 %, and an alveograph W of 334-520
e.a. The lines were tested for color of spaghetti, spaghetti-breaking
strength, overcooking, and the firmness of cooked spaghetti.
The durum wheat cultivar Saratovskaya zolotistaya, having the
best spaghetti-making quality, was used as the local check. Preliminary
data show that all the lines were less than the local check only
for spaghetti color. The spaghetti-breaking strength also
decreased slightly. The above-mentioned lines were nearly
the same as the check, or surpassed it on overcooking and firmness
of cooked spaghetti. The most promising lines were L786, which
contained germplasm from T. dicoccum; L773 (T. dicoccum,
T. durum, and Ag. elongatum); and L2032 and 2033
(T. durum and Ag. elongatum). These preliminary
investigations indicate the need for further work in this direction,
because of the economical effects of using wheat-alien
lines in bread baking and spaghetti making.
ALL-RUSSIAN INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY - ARRIAB
Timiryazevskaya ul. 42, Moscow, 127550, Russia.
`Triticum durum x T. timopheevii' crosses as a way of cultivar nucleus reconstruction.
Nuclear discordance of wide hybrids is known to permit
new mixogene formations. The possibility is of particular interest
in macaroni wheats, because the production of aneuploid and chromosome
addition lines is difficult. We have analyzed the cytology and
fertility in the F1BC1 of `T.
durum x T. timopheevii'
Hybrid spikes at the appropriate meiotic stage were
fixed in Newcomer's
solution, and the chromosome stained using standard squash methods.
The number of intergenomic substitutions was established according
to univalent pairing in over 75 % of the PMCs. We analyzed 260
The expected chromosome number of the female gametes
varied from 9 to 19. The average F1 metaphase configuration
was 9 bivalents and 10 univalents. Hypoploid egg cells were inviable.
Euploids (n = 14) and hyperploids (n = 15 or 16) were observed
at frequencies of 84.7 and 15.3 %, respectively. True euploids
averaged 15 %. The pseudoeuploids consisted of mono-tetra-substituted
cytotypes with frequencies of 14.8, 32.8, 17.5, and 3.6 %. The
average meiotic index varied from 93.6 % (euploid) to 30.9 %
in the tetra-substituted forms. The average F1BC1
fertility was 0.57 seeds/spikelet and varied greatly within the
specific cytotypes. A highly positive correlation between seed
set and meiotic index was found only for a group of di-substituted
plants. Partially fertile plants with intergenomic chromosome
substitutions were prevalent in the F1BC1,
and may be the reason why a `T.
durum x T. timopheevii'
cross enables the reconstruction of the tetraploid wheat nucleus.
Overcoming problems of female fertility possibly could improve
aestivum x T. timopheevii'
hybrids at the first backcross.
RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE IN CENTRAL REGIONS OF NON-CHERNOZEM ZONE.
Nemchinovka 1, 143013 Moscow region, Russia.
Pollen irradiation method in a distant wheat hybridization.
I.F. Lapochkina and G.L. Yatchevskaya.
The lengthy process of developing initial breeding
years) by routine methods encourages the search for more effective
ones that may ensure introgression of valuable traits into the
genome of common wheat (Yatchevskaya 1996; Lapochkina et al.
1996). Researchers have two main problems to solve: enabling
homoeologous recombination between alien and wheat chromosomes
and limiting the transfer of undesired traits from the wild species.
Material and methods.
Genotypes that can suppress the Ph system of common wheat
(ph1b mutant of Chinese Spring, Ae. speltoides,
and wheatgrass clones) and pollen gamma-irradiation of donors
have been used for many years to achieve the aforementioned introgression.
The gene pool of wild and synthetic forms used in
crosses includes the donors of resistance to fungal diseases:
Ag. intermedium, Ae. speltoides, Ae. triuncialis,
Ae. recta, T. timopheevii, and T. Kiharae.
Common wheat was the female parent, and the wild relatives were
the pollinators. Hybridization was accomplished with advanced-pollen
gamma-irradiation (60Co 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 5.0,
10.0, 13.0, and 15.0 Kr with 500 r/min). Meiosis in the hybrid
plant was analyzed on temporary acetocarmine-stained preparations.
Samples were fixed in Newcomer's solution.
Results and discussion.
The wide range of the irradiation doses and the large number
of donor forms with different chromosome numbers allowed us to
determine the regularities of wide hybridization accompanied by
gamma-irradiation of a male pollen component.
1. Irradiation doses (0.5-0.75
Kr) can raise seed set in interspecific and intergeneric hybrids
and sometimes may even overcome cross-incompatibility.
2. The direct influence of a radiation dose (up
to 15 Kr) on the maternal seed morphology with feasible or slightly
dented endosperm (the so-called `Gertwig's
first noted after irradiation of fish sperm; Pandey and Phung
1982) was determined. Hybrid and maternal-type kernels developed
after irradiation with intermediate (1.5 Kr) and high (5.0-15.0
Kr) doses had a high tendency for very low germination (up to
100 % nongerminable). The data on plant survival are shown in
3. Pollen irradiation used in hybridization leads to changes in chromosome number in F1 plants. Among surviving F1M1 plants, we theoretically expected 2n; hypo- and hyperaneuploids; mosaics; plants of maternal types where 2n = 42, 42 + fragment(s), or 43; single haploids of common wheat; and in the combination `T. aestivum x Ae. speltoides' (10 Kr dose), asymmetric sexual hybrids (Table 2).
Table 1. The level of plant survival in a pollen-irradiation experiment involving `T. aestivum x Ae. triuncialis' hybrids.
|Index||Doses of gamma-irradiation (Kr)|
|% of survival||23.6||56.3||70.0||1.5||4.9||0||0|
Table 2. Variability of chromosome number in surviving matromorphic F1M1 plants of the cross `T. aestivum x Ae. speltoides' developed after pollen irradiation.
|Dose (Kr)||Number of chromosomes (2n)|
|42|| 42 + |
Matromorphic plants (2n = 42) did not differ significantly
from the maternal common wheat varieties. Matromorphic plants
with altered karyotypes appearing in this combination were rather
rare for these intergeneric combinations and constituted only
0.07 % of the pollinated flowers.
The progeny of the matromorphic plants was analyzed
in the second and following generations for their resistance to
the mildew (natural conditions), the brown and stem rust (artificial
infection) fungal pathogens, and some quantity and quality traits.
Some of families did not show uniform resistance to diseases,
plant height, or ear density, providing indirect evidence of genetic
reconstruction of some matromorphic plants under pollen irradiation.
Asymmetrical sexual hybrids (2n = 49) were used
later as a base for the development of Ae. speltoides
addition, substitution, and translocation lines (Lapochkina 1996).
4. Chromosome pairing analysis at MI noted five
F1M1 combinations with hybrid chromosome
numbers, and the general outcome of irradiation doses between
Krs were established. The doses significantly raised the development
of multivalents in cells, frequency of cells with multivalents,
and chromosome number involved in the formation of multivalent
associations (Table 3).
Table 3. Character of chromosome conjugation at MI of meiosis in 42-chromosome plants of `Chinese Spring x T. Kiharae' F1 hybrids.
|Variant||Number of chromosomes||% cells|
|Control||27.76||2.18 + 0.05||1.94 + 0.05||67.3|
|1.0 Kr||27.76||4.01 + 0.04||3.77 + 0.04||78.0|
|1.5 Kr||26.60||5.78 + 0.07||4.38 + 0.06||87.2|
5. Variability of chromosome number and the presence
of chromosome reconstruction in F1M1 plants
influenced the development of form. Plants with hybrid chromosome
numbers and aneuploids did not have the dominant traits of the
pollinator in some cases, but the recessive traits of the maternal
forms (limited transition of the pollinator's genetic material).
Single plants of the maternal type that had some traits of the
pollinator or new formations provided evidence concerning introgression
of individual blocks of genes of the pollinator (as observed by
K.K.Pandey (1978) on tobacco, but with much lower frequency).
This knowledge will help to assess the effect of low doses of
pollen irradiation on chromosome pairing and introgression of
alien genetic material.
Conclusion. The effectiveness
of low and high pollen irradiation doses was shown. In both cases,
it was possible to develop material of common wheat with high
resistance to the brown rust and mildew fungal pathogens. This
pollen gamma-irradiation method overcomes the cross-incompatibility
between species, raises hybrid seed set, influences chromosome
pairing, and changes the genotypes of F1M1
hybrids. The effectiveness of the method first depends on the
limitation of the pollinator's genetic material transition and
on a form development shift nearer to the maternal genotype.
Based on pollen irradiation data for other species and F1
hybrid variability (Raquin et al. 1989), we suggest that these
features generally cause biological irregularities in development
in the progeny, providing broader possibilities for application
of these methods for plant breeding.
Lapochkina IF. 1996. Constant soft wheat lines
collection development by adding of Aegilops speltoides
chromosomes obtained on the basis of asymmetric sex hybrids 2n
= 49. 5th Inter Wheat Conf, 10-14
June, 1996, Ankara, Turkey. p. 431-432.
Lapochkina I.F. et.al. 1996. Common wheat lines
with genetic material from Aegilops speltoides Tausch.
Russian J Genet 32 (12):1651-1656.
Pandey KK. 1978. Gametic gene transfer in Nicotiana
by irradiated pollen. Genetica 49 (1):53-69.
Pandey KK and Phung M. 1982. "Hertwig effect"
in plants: induced parthenogenesis through the use of irradiated
pollen. Theor Appl Genet 62:295-300.
Raquin C et.al. 1989. Nucleus substitution between
Petunia species using gamma ray-induced androgenesis.
Theor Appl Genet 78:337-341.
Yatchevskaya G.L. 1996. Lines of common winter
wheat with substituted chromosomes of Agropyron intermedium
(Hjst) Beaw. carry genes resistant to mildew. 5th Inter Wheat
June, 1996, Ankara, Turkey. p. 168.
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