I. 1. Proposal for a revised system of nomenclature and symbolization of barley genes by the Barley Genetics Committee, American Barley Research Workers' Conference.
The following is the report prepared by R. T. Ramage and published in BGN, Vol. 2, pp. 10-15. This report includes "The Recommended Rules for Symbolization."
The Barley Genetics Committee of the American Barley Research Workers' Conference met in August, 1970 and formulated proposals concerning genetic and cytological nomenclature and symbolization, maintenance of world collections of genetic and cytological stocks, coordinators, Newsletters, and related subjects. These proposals were published in Barley Genetics Newsletter 1:4-10. Comments, criticisms and suggestions were solicited and many were received from both within and outside of the American Barley Research Workers' Conference. The Barley Genetics Committee met in August, 1971 to consider comments, criticisms and suggestions concerning their first proposal. The Committee then formulated policies and procedures for adoption by the Conference. These policies and procedures were presented to the members of the Eighth American Barley Research Workers' Conference in January, 1972. The policies and procedures were revised and amended. The revised and amended report was adopted at the business meeting of the Eighth American Barley Research Workers' Conference, January, 1972.
The American Barley Research Workers' Conference is convinced of the need for international policies and procedures concerning barley genetics. To generate ideas and discussions that will lead to international policies, the report of the Barley Genetic Committee that was adopted by the Eighth American Barley Research Workers' Conference is presented below.
REPORT FROM THE BARLEY GENETICS COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BARLEY RESEARCH WORKERS' CONFERENCE
The following report from the Barley Genetics Committee was adopted by the Eighth American Barley Research Workers' Conference at Tucson, Arizona on January 27, 1972.
There shall be a Barley Genetics Committee of the American Barley Research Workers' Conference. The Barley Genetics Committee shall consist of those members of the American Barley Research Workers' Conference who have been appointed as genetic and cytogenetic coordinators by the Committee on Genetic Marker Stocks, Nomenclature and Symbolization of the International Barley Genetics Symposium and any others appointed by the chairman of the Barley Genetics Committee of the American Barley Research Workers' Conference. The chairman of the Barley Genetics Committee shall be Dr. Takumi Tsuchiya.
Among the responsibilities of the Barley Genetics Committee are:
1. To formulate policies and procedures for genetic and cytogenetic nomenclature and symbolization, maintenance of world collections of genetic and cytological seed stocks, duties and responsibilities of coordinators, and related subjects.
2. To encourage editors of journals to submit manuscripts concerning barley genetics and cytogenetics to members of the Barley Genetics Committee for review.
3. To integrate policies and procedures of the American Barley Research Workers' Conference with those of the International Barley Genetics Symposium.
Members of the American Barley Research Workers' Conference will use the following rules for gene symbolization and nomenclature.
The "Recommended Rules for Symbolization" reported by the International Committee on Genetic Symbols and Nomenclature 1957, along with amendments applying to barley will be used for barley gene nomenclature and symbolization. The following is a list of the "Recommended Rules for Symbolization" followed by amendments and comments where applicable to barley.
1. In naming hereditary factors, the use of languages of higher internationality should be given preference.
2. Symbols of hereditary factors, derived from their original names, should be written in Roman letters of distinctive type, preferably in italics, and be as short as possible.
AMENDMENT: The original name should be as descriptive as possible of the phenotype. All gene symbols should consist of three letters.
COMMENTS: All new gene symbols should consist of three letters. Existing gene symbols of less than three letters should be converted to the three letter system whenever symbols are revised. When appropriate, one or two letters should be added to existing symbols. For example, add the letter "ap" to "K" to produce the symbol "Kap" to replace "K" as the symbol for Kapuze (hooded). As another example, add the letters "ud" to "n" to produce the symbol "nud" to replace "n" as the symbol for naked seed. Similarly the letter "g" can be added to "ms" to produce the symbol "msg" for genetic male sterility and the letter "e" can be added to "ds" to produce the symbol "des" for desynapsis. When inappropriate or when conflicts arise, questions should be referred to the Committee on Genetic Marker Stocks, Nomenclature and Symbolization of the International Barley Genetics Symposium for resolution.
3. Whenever unambiguous, the name and symbol of a dominant begin with a capital letter and those of a recessive with a small letter.
AMENDMENT: When ambiguous (co-dominance, incomplete dominance, etc.) all symbols should consist of a capital letter followed by two small letters that designate the character, a number that represents a particular locus, and a letter or letters that represents a particular allele or mutational event at that particular locus.
COMMENTS: As an example, the letter Mdh can be used to designate the character malate dehydrogenase, Mdhl would represent a particular locus for malate dehydrogenase and Mdhla, Mdhlb, Mdhlc, etc. would represent particular alleles or mutational events at the Mdhl locus. Row number can be used as an example of symbolizing factors showing incomplete dominance. At the present time, the symbol "v" is used to represent the row number in Hordeum vulgare, "V" is used to represent the row number in H. distichum, and "Vt " is used to represent the row number in H. deficiens. According to the amendment to Rule 3, if row number were to be designated by the letters "Vul", the designation of the locus on chromosome 2 would then become "Vull" and the alleles "v", "V" and "Vt " would then be designated "Vulla", "Vullb" and "Vullc".
4. Literal or numeral superscripts are used to represent the different members of an allelic series.
AMENDMENT: All letters and numbers used in symbolization should be written on one line; no superscripts or subscripts should be used.
5. Standard or wild type alleles are designated by the gene symbols with a + as a superscript or by a + with the gene symbol as a superscript. In formulae the + alone may be used.
AMENDMENT: This rule will not be used in barley symbolization.
6. Two or more genes having phenotypically similar effects are designated by a common basic symbol. Non-allelic loci (mimics, polymeric genes, etc.) are distinguished by an additional letter or Arabic numeral either on the same line after a hyphen or as a subscript. Alleles of independent mutational origin may be indicated by a superscript.
AMENDMENT: Barley gene symbols should consist of three letters that designate the character, a number that represents a particular locus, and a letter or letters that represents a particular allele or mutational event at that particular locus. All letters and numbers should be written on the same line without hypens or spaces. Alleles or mutational events that have not been assigned to a locus should be symbolized by three letters that designate the character followed by two commas used to reserve space for the locus number when determined, followed by a letter or letters representing the particular allele or mutational event. After appropriate allele testing, the correct locus number will be substituted for the commas. Where appropriate (when assigning new symbols or when revising existing symbols) letters representing alleles or mutational events should be assigned consecutively without regard to locus number or priority in discovery or publication.
COMMENTS: The use of the proposed system of symbolization can be illustrated by the desynaptic mutants. Two loci are known: lc on chromosome 1 and ds on chromosome 3. These will be resymbolized as des1a and des2b. A large number of desynaptic mutants have been collected. They will be designated des,,c, des,,d, des,,e, etc. If allele tests show that de,,c is at a different locus than desl and des2, des,,c will become des3c. If allele tests show that des,,d is at the same locus as des2, des,,d will become des2d. In practical use, the symbol des will be used when speaking of desynapsis in general or if only one locus was known for the character. The symbol des2 will be used when speaking of that particular locus, and the symbol des2b will be used only when speaking of that particular allele or mutational event. If additional designation is needed in particular symbolization, it can be obtained by adding numbers behind the allele letters, and, if still further designation is needed, letters can be added to the symbol behind the last number. Symbolization consisting of alternation of letters and numbers written on the same line without hyphens or spaces will allow for the expansion of the symbol as future needs arise. In any work with large numbers of polymeric gene mutants, every mutant has to be given a designation not shared by any other mutant of this polymeric group and this designation should become a part of the permanent symbol representing that particular allele or mutational event. This requirement can be met by assigning allele designations in consecutive order without regard to locus number.
7. Inhibitors, suppressors, and enhancers are designated by the symbols I, Su and En, or by i, su and en if they are recessive, followed by a hyphen and the symbol of the allele affected.
8. Whenever convenient, lethals should be designated by the letter l or L and sterility and incompatibility genes by s or S.
AMENDMENT: This rule will not be used in barley symbolization.
9. Linkage groups and corresponding chromosomes are preferably designated by Arabic numerals.
10. The letter X and Y are recommended to designate sex chromosomes.
11. Genic formulae are written as fractions with the maternal alleles given first or above. Each fraction corresponds to a single linkage group. Different linkage groups written in numerical sequence are separated by semicolons. Symbols of unlocated genes are placed within parenthesis at the end of the formula. In euploids and aneuploids, the gene symbols are repeated as many times as there are homologous loci.
12. Chromosomal abberations should be indicated by abbreviations: Df for deficiency, Dp for duplication, In for inversion, T for translocation. Tp for transposition.
13. The zygotic number of chromosomes is indicated by 2n, the gametic number by n and basic number by x.
14. Symbols of extra chromosomal factors should be enclosed within brackets and precede the genic formula.
The American Barley Research Workers' Conference policy on coordinators is as follows:
Coordinators for the various chromosomes, for special gene collections and for various chromosomal variations are necessary for the advancement of barley genetics. These coordinators should be appointed by the Committee on Genetic Marker Stocks, Nomenclature and Symbolization of the International Barley Genetics Symposium. Workers studying special gene collections are encouraged to act as coordinators during the period that they have an interest in such a collection. The chairman of the Committee on Genetic Marker Stocks. Nomenclature and Symbolization of the International Barley Genetics Symposium should coordinate the appointments of coordinators for special gene collections. He should publish a list of the active coordinators in each issue of the Barley Genetics Newsletter.
The duties and responsibilities of the coordinators should be:
1 Maintain current information concerning their area and serve as a source of information concerning that area.
2. Prepare an annual report for the Barley Genetics Newsletter.
3. Maintain world collections of genetic and cytological seed stocks.
4. Perform, and encourage and support others to perform, special work necessary to the advancement of barley genetics.
5. If a coordinator feels that he cannot meet these and other special duties and responsibilities as they develop he should notify the Chairman of the Committee on Genetic Marker Stocks, Nomenclature and Symbolization of the International Barley Genetics Symposium so that another coordinator can be appointed.
R. T. Ramage
For more information, readers are referred to the following:
1. Proposals concerning genetic and cytological symbolization and maintenance of World Collection of Seed Stocks of Barley. BGN 1:3-10.
2. Remarks to the proposals and comments on genetic symbolization, etc., in BGN, Vol. 1. BGN 2:5-8 (F. Scholz).
3. Remarks to the proposals in the Report of the Barley Genetics Committee, Bozeman, August 1971. BGN 2:8-9 (F. Scholz).
4. Comments on the proposals from Aberdeen Meeting in 1970. BGN 2: 9-10 (R. Takahashi and coworkers).
4. Report from the International Committee of Nomenclature and Symbolization of barley genes. BGN 2:16-20.
Genetics Committee members of the American Barley Research Workers' Conference met in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A., October 6, 1974 and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, August 13, 1978 and discussed the proposed new symbols for various genes.
Three letter symbols were given to those genes which have been well studied and for which genetic stocks are available. Table 1 lists those genes.
In Table 2 the symbols for pest resistant genes are shown. Table 3 includes all other genes for which information and/or materials are not available. Gene symbols in Table 3 are all previously used ones and new symbols are not proposed. If information and stocks become available in the future, new three-letter symbols will be proposed and added to Table 1.
The above nomenclature and symbolization was proposed by the Genetics Committee of the American Barley Research Workers' Conference, although some international committee members were briefly consulted regarding this proposal.
The International Committee members will meet in Edinburgh on July 21, 1981 and discuss this matter. Also, the International Committee may hold additional meetings before the business session where final decision for the adoption of the new system will be made.
All barley workers interested in and/or concerned about the new system are urged to read this proposal and express their opinions at the meeting or personally to the members of the International Committee or the Barley Genetics Committee of the American Barley Workers' Conference during the Symposium.
If any worker receives this copy of BGN, Vol. 11 early enough, one may have time to write comments to those members listed below.
International Committee for Nomenclature and Symbolization of Barley
DENMARK: J. Jensen, D. von Wettstein
DEUTSCHE DEMOKRATISCHE REPUBLIK: F. Scholz
JAPAN: R. Takahashi
SWEDEN: Udda Lundqvist
U.S.A.: J. G. Moseman, R. T. Ramage, T. Tsuchiya
Genetics Committee for American Barley Research Workers' Conference
CANADA: G. Fedak, K. J. Kasha, G.W.R. Walker
U.S.A.: R. F. Eslick, T. E. Haus, E. A. Hockett, J. G. Moseman, R. A. Nilan, R. T. Ramage, T. Tsuchiya
Tables 1 through 3 were prepared by T. Tsuchiya and T. E. Haus. During the preparation of the tables, some revision and modification was made from the final version agreed upon by the members of the Barley Genetics Committee in the American Barley Workers' Conference (Milwaukee, Saskatoon).
Table 1. List of mutants and gene symbols.
albino seedling to brittle rachis (p. 8)
eceriferum to long glume hairs (p. 9)
glossy seedling to lax spike (p. 10)
long chromosome to purple veined lemma (p. 11)
pubescence of outer glume to semi-naked caryopsis (p. 12)
spotted mutant to zebra striped leaves (pp. 13-14)
Table 2. List of pest resistant mutants and gene symbols.
Table 3. List of mutants for which no stock is available.
BGN 11 toc
BGN Main Index