Coordinator’s report: Eceriferum Genes
SE-268 81 Svalöv, Sweden
Hard-copy edition page 165.
No activity and no research work on gene localization has been reported on the collections of Eceriferum genes since the latest reports in Barley Genetics Newsletter (BGN). As my possibilities in searching for literature is very limited, I apologize this. If I missed any paper please send me reprints to include in next year’s report. Images of the eceriferum genes are currently in a special Nordic Gene Bank Database and will be downloaded to GrainGenes during 2002.
Every research of interest in the field of eceriferum genes, ‘Glossy sheath’ and ‘Glossy leaf’ can be reported to the coordinator as well. Seed requests can be forwarded to the Nordic Gene Bank, email@example.com, regarding the Swedish mutants, all the others to the Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility (USDA-ARS), Aberdeen, ID 83210, USA, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org to the coordinator at any time.
Diter von Wettstein
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences,
Washington State University
Pullman WA 99164-6420, USA
Hard-copy edition page 166.
The stock list and genetic information presented in the Barley Genetics Newsletter 21: 102-108 is valid and up-to-date. The stocks have been transferred to the Nordic Gene Bank. Requests for stocks available for distribution are to be sent to:
Dr. Mats Hansson
Department of Biochemistry
Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
SE-221 00 Lund, SWEDEN
Phone: +46-46-222 0105
Fax: +46-46-222 4534
Sterile Barley Collection
Agriculture and Agrifood Canada
Brandon Research Centre
Box 1000A, RR#3, Brandon
Manitoba, Canada R7A 5Y3
Hard-copy edition page 166.
The GMSBC has been at Brandon since 1992. If there are any new sources of male-sterile genes that you are aware of, please advice me, as this would be a good time to add any new source to the collection. For a list of the entries in the collection, simply E-mail me at the above address. I can send the file (14Mb) in Excel format. We continue to store the collection at -20oC and will have small (5 g) samples available for the asking. Since I have not received any reports or requests the last years, there is absolutely no summary in my report.
SE-268 81 Svalöv, Sweden
Hard-copy edition page 167.
The Swedish ‘Calcaroides’ (cal) mutants, were described regarding their morphology and locus distribution by Lundqvist, 1993. Since that, intensive studies have been carried out by the F. Salamini group at the Max-Planck-Institute for Plant Breeding, Köln, Germany. Pozzi et al. 2000, reported and confirmed the previous four loci for this group and an additionally fifth one, but not assigned to a special locus.
Subjacent hood (sbk), BGS 62, was also included in their studies. Franckowiak, 1997, reported in his map of chromosome 2H that the calcaroides cal-d locus is allelic to sbk. Pozzi et al., 2000 used AFLP markers and could map several calcaroides (cal) mutants. Only one of the five cal mutant loci was localized in chromosome 2H. The cal-a locus is in chromosome 2HS distal from molecular marker CDO057A and probably near Bin 2H-01. Since the sbk (subjacent hood) gene in chromosome 2HS is the only previously mapped calcaroides-like mutant, Pozzi et al., 2000, suggested that the cal-a gene and the sbk gene are alleles. A new revised description of BGS 62 is published in this BGN32: issue.
Regarding the other cal loci, Pozzi et al., 2000, reported mapping of cal-b in chromosome 5H (7), about 4.2 cM from the AFLP marker E4040-4 and probably near the molecular marker CDO749 in Bin 5H-04, Cal-c, the dominant gene, in chromosome 5HL (7L), very close or allelic to cal-b, near molecular marker WG530 in Bin 5H-06, cal-d in Chromosome 3 (3H), near the centromere and near molecular marker CDO684, which is in Bin 3H-06, and finally the not assigned locus by Pozzi, in chromosome 5HS (7S), about 23.0 cM distal from AFLP marker E3432-2, which is proximal from molecular marker WG889 in Bin5H-06. This last locus is now designated as cal-e.
New descriptions of four Calcaroides (cal) loci are prepared in this issue of BGN 32 with the BGS stock numbers 620, 621, 146 and 622 respectively. See: <Descriptions of barley genetic stocks for 2001> in this volume.
Franckowiak, J.D. 1997. Revised linkage maps for morphological markers in barley, Hordeum vulgare. BGN 26.9-21.
Lundqvist, U. 1993. Coordinator’s report: Ear morphology genes. BGN 22:137-139.
Pozzi, C., P. Faccioli, V. Terzi, A.M. Stanca, S. Cerioli, P. Castiglioni, R. Fink, R. Capone, K.J. Müller, G. Bossinger, W. Rohde, and F. Salamini. 2000. Genetics of mutations affecting the development of a barley floral bract. Genetics 154:1335-1346.
Department of Plant Sciences
North Dakota State University
Fargo, ND 58105, U.S.A.
Hard-copy edition pages 168 - 170.
Zhang 2000 reported that two cultivars frequently used as parents of barley cultivars in China have the uzu (uzu dwarf) gene for reduced plant height. His analysis of two crosses showed that the uzu gene in chromosome 3HL is linked in coupling to genes for dense spike and long spike. Recombination estimates from the two crosses were 5.3 and 6.1 uzu and dense spike, 10.3 and 8.9 for dense spike and long spike, and 13.9 and 14.2 for uzu and long spike.
The alleles sdw1.a (Jotun) and sdw1.c (denso) at the sdw1 (semidwarf 1) locus are used to reduce plant height in many semidwarf cultivars; however, they also delay heading (Hellewell et al., 2000). Delayed plant development is a problem in environments where rapid growth and maturation are needed to avoid disease epidemics, limit weather related stresses, or facilitate production of subsequent crops. In the Upper Midwest of the U.S., the sdw1.a gene delays maturity about three days and has not been incorporated into cultivars recommended for malting and brewing (Hellewell et al., 2000).
The hcm1 (short culm 1) locus, which is linked to the vrs1 (six-rowed spike 1) locus in chromosome 2HL, is used to reduce plant height in barley cultivars developed for the Upper Midwest (Franckowiak, 2000). Marquez-Cedillo et al., 2001 presented more information about QTLs in chromosome 2H of the Midwest six-rowed cv. Morex. Their analysis of agronomic traits in a doubled-haploid population from a ‘Harrington’/Morex cross found that the vrs1.a allele is associated with higher yield, lower values for kernel plumpness and test weight, and shorter culms. A region proximal from vrs1.a caused early heading in the eighth test environments. The QTL for early heading is likely the dominant, photoperiod sensitive gene mapped to Bin 2H-08 by Tohno-oka et al., 2000 using the ‘Steptoe’/Morex doubled-haploid lines. The allele symbol Eam6.h was assigned to this maturity gene in Morex (Franckowiak, 2001).
Presence of the Eam6.h and hcm1.a alleles in Morex and other Midwest barley cultivars is a problem because they are linked in repulsion to QTLs for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance. Kolb et al., 2001 and Rudd et al., 2001 summarized recent studies on resistance to FHB in barley and wheat and reported that QTLs for FHB resistance (Rfg genes) are present in chromosome 2H. This is the same region where Marquez-Cedillo et al., 2001 identified factors for spike type, maturity, plant height, and kernel plumpness in Morex. Recombination in this region is needed to transfer the Rfg genes into locally adapted cultivars. Rudd et al., 2001 reported that FHB resistant six-rowed lines were selected from a ‘Foster’/CIho 4196 cross; however, the recombinants are tall and late like CIho 4196, a two-rowed introduction from China. This indicates that the vrs1 locus is located distal from the Eam6, hcm1, and Rfg loci.
If desirable recombinants cannot be isolated in this region of chromosome 2HL, other maturity and height genes must be used in barley cultivars for the Upper Midwest. The most promising source of such genes are cultivars from regions of the world where maturity, lodging, and FHB are barley production problems. At least two regions meet these criteria, East Asia (China and Japan) and the Mexican highlands. Many East Asian two-rowed cultivars have a spring growth habit, but are sown during the fall and harvested in the spring before the rice crop is planted. The lines developed in Mexico by Dr. Hugo Vivar of the ICARDA/CIMMYT barley program are relatively early and photoperiod insensitive because both fall and spring sown nurseries are used in the breeding scheme (Vivar, 2001).
Progenies from crosses between Midwest cultivars and introductions from East Asian and ICARDA/CIMMYT program contain a few tall, late segregates. This suggests that the introductions have retained a segment of chromosome 2H from their FHB resistant parents and that genes other than Eam6.h and hcm1.a control early heading and reduced plant height.
Some Chinese and Japanese cultivars seem to have the sdw1 gene or one of its alleles as a plant height factor. Many, but not all, cultivars have the Eam1 gene for early heading under long-day conditions. Since the Eam1 gene cannot cause early heading in fall sown barley, earliness in Chinese and Japanese cultivars is more likely conferred by the eam9 gene (Franckowiak and Konishi, 1997; Yasuda, 1978). Plants with the eam9.l allele head early under short-day conditions and show a 15 to 20% reduction in plant height (Yasuda and Hayashi, 1980). Lodging resistance in these introductions may be associated with the compact or dense spike trait.
In lines from the ICARDA/CIMMYT program, FHB resistance is associated with the Vrs1.t (deficiens) allele at the vrs1 locus (Zhu et al., 1999; Vivar, 2001). An sdw1 gene seems to be present in some lines. Since these lines do not have the Eam6.h and hcm1.a alleles, they should head extremely late. Yet, they are moderately early under both long- and short-day conditions. Based on the maturity of lines selected from crosses, a dominant gene for early heading may be present in ICARDA/CIMMYT line CMB85-533-H (Higuerilla*2/Gobernadora). The ‘Bowman’ backcross-derived line from CMB85-533-H appears to be day-length insensitive and has rough awns. If linkage drag caused the association between early heading and rough awns, this maturity gene is near the Raw1 (smooth awn 1) locus in chromosome 5HL. The only dominant, early maturity gene previously associated with chromosome 5H is Ea5 (Jain, 1961; Nilan, 1964). The locus symbol Eam5 and allele symbol Eam5.x are recommended for the early maturity gene in CMB85-533-H. Additional crosses will be made to confirm the presence of the Eam5 gene in FHB resistant lines from the ICARDA/CIMMYT barley program.
The information above suggests that a balance between maturity and semidwarf genes occurs in barley cultivars. However, the specific genes involved in this balance are different in various barley growing areas of the world. The array of plant height and maturity genes present in barley provides an opportunity to test several possible solutions to disease and adaptation problems. Other factors such as presence of yield QTLs in chromosome 2HL (Schmierer et al., 2001) may further complicate the already difficult breeding problem caused by linked genes for FHB resistance, early heading, and reduced plant height.
Franckowiak, J.D. 2000. Notes on plant height in six-rowed barley and FHB resistance. In S. Logue (ed.). Barley Genetics VIII. Proc. Eighth Int. Barley Genet. Symp., Departm. of Plant Science, Adelaide University, Waite Campus, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064. Volume 2:107-109.
Franckowiak, J.D. 2001. Coordinator’s report: Chromosome 2H (2). BGN 31:45-51. http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/bgn/31/ul1txt.htm#2H.
Franckowiak, J.D., and T. Konishi. 1997. BGS 181, Early maturity 9, eam9. BGN 26:204.
Hellewell, K.B., D.C. Rasmusson, and M. Gallo-Meagher. 2000. Enhancing yield in semidwarf barley. Crop Sci. 40:352-358.
Jain, K.B.L. 1961. Genetic studies in barley. III. Linkage relations of some plant characters. Indian J. Genet. Plant Breed. 21:23-33.
Kolb, F.L., G-H. Bai, G.J. Muehlbauer, J.A. Anderson, K.P. Smith, and G. Fedak. 2001. Symposium on genetic solutions to Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley: Challenges, opportunities, and imperatives. Crop Sci. 41:611-619.
Marquez-Cedillo, L.A., P.M. Hayes, A. Kleinhofs, W.G. Legge, B.G. Rossnagel, K. Sato, S.E. Ullrich, and D. M. Wesenberg. 2001. QTL analysis of agronomic traits in barley based on the doubled haploid progeny of two elite North American varieties representing different germplasm groups. Theor. Appl. Genet. 103:625-637.
Nilan, R.A. 1964. The cytology and genetics of barley, 1951-1962. Monogr. Suppl. 3, Res. Stud. Vol. 32, No. 1. Washington State Univ. Press, Pullman.
Rudd, J.C., R.D. Horsley, A.L. McKendry, and E.M. Elias. 2001. Host plant resistance genes for Fusarium head blight: Sources, mechanisms, and utility in conventional breeding systems. Crop Sci. 41:620-627.
Schmierer, D., N. Kandemir, D. Kudrna, D. Wesenberg, S. Ullrich, and A. Kleinhofs. 2001. Molecular marker-assisted selection for increased yield of traditional malting barley cultivars. BGN 31:6-11. http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/bgn/31/schmierer.htm.
Tohno-oka, T., M. Ishit, R. Kanatani, H. Takahashi, and K. Takeda. 2000. Genetic analysis of photoperiodic response of barley in different daylength conditions. In S. Logue (ed.) Barley genetics VIII, Proc. Eighth Int. Barley Genet. Symp., Adelaide University, South Australia, 2000. Departm. of Plant Science, Waite Campus, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064. Volume 3:239-241.
Vivar, H.E. 2001. Two decades of barley breeding. p. 77-82. In H.E. Vivar and A. McNab (eds.). Breeding Barley in the New Millennium: Proceedings of an International Symposium. CIMMYT, Mexico., D.F.
Yasuda, S. 1978. An earliness gene involved in Chinese native cultivars. BGN 8:127-128.
Yasuda, S., and J. Hayashi. 1980. Linkage and effect of the earliness gene ea,,c, involved in Chinese cultivars, on yield and yield components. BGN 10:74-76.
Zhang, J. 2000. Inheritance of agronomic traits from the Chinese dwarfing gene donors ‘Xiaoshan Lixiahuang’ and ‘Cangzhou Luodamai’. Plant Breed. 119:523-524.
Zhu, H., L. Gilchrist, P. Hayes, A. Kleinhofs, D. Kudrna, Z. Liu, L. Prom, B. Steffenson, T. Toojinda, and H. Vivar. 1999. Does function follow form? Principal QTLs for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance are coincident with QTLs for inflorescence traits and plant height in a double haploid population of barley. Theor. Appl. Genet. 99:1221-1232.
B.O Bengtsson and Torbjörn Säll
Department of Genetics, University of Lund
Sölvegatan 29, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden
Hard-copy edition page 171.
There is no new information on stocks of barley inversions. Every contribution and other research reports in this field are welcome to be sent to the coordinator.
SE-268 81 Svalöv, Sweden
Hard-copy edition pages 172 - 173.
Franckowiak, 2001 reported in his coordinator’s report on chromosome 2H studies made by Tohno-oko et al., 2000 in a ‘Steptoe’ x ‘Morex’ doubled-haploid population. They found two QTLs for early heading in chromosome 2H, one of them likely with the Eam1 gene for strong photoperiod reponse from Steptoe was expressed under spring sowing and 24hours-day conditions, but not under autumn sowing and 12hours-day conditions. It induced heading when the daylength was 14 hours or longer. The second QTL for early heading from Morex was strongly expressed in the autumn sowing. The gene was effective when the photoperiod was at least 13 hours or longer.
Franckowiak, 2001a and b also reported a second Eam gene in 2H of a QTL heading date, indentified in the proximal region of 2HS by Marquez-Cedillo et al., 2000, in a ‘Harrington’ x ‘Morex’ mapping population. As Woodward, 1957, mapped a dominant gene for early heading in the centromeric region of chromosome 2H, Robertsson et al., 1965, assigned the gene symbol Ea6. According to the three-letter coding scheme, the recommended locus symbol for the second early maturity gene in chromosome 2HS is Eam6. The allele symbol Eam6.h is suggested for the dominant photoperiod early maturity allele in Morex. This Eam6.h allele is rather common in barley cultivars developed for the Upper Midwest of USA including Morex. A new description for the gene Eam6 is prepared in this issue of BGN 32 with the BGS stock number 98.
Images of the Early Maturity genes are currently in a special Nordic Gene Bank Database and will be downloaded to GrainGenes during 2002.
Every research of interest in the field of Early Maturity genes can be reported to the coordinator as well. As my possibilities in searching for literature is very limited, I apologize for this. If I missed any paper, please send me reprints to include new results in next year’s report. Seed requests can be forwarded to the Nordic Gene Bank email@example.com the Swedish mutants, all the others to the Small Grains Germplasm Facility (USDA-ARS), Aberdeen, ID 83210, USA, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or to the coordinator at any time.
Franckowiak, J.D. 2001a. Coordinator’s report: Chromosome 2H (H). BGN 31:45-51.
Franckowiak, J.D. 2001b. Coordinator’s report: Semidwarf genes. BGN 31:71-73.
Marquez-Cedillo, L.A., P.M. Hayes, A. Kleinhofs, W.G. Legge, B.G. Rossnagel, K. Sato, S.E. Ullrich, D.M. Wesenberg, and the North American Barley Genome Mapping Project. 2000. QTL analysis for Agronomic traits in a barley cross. In S. Logue (ed.) Barley Genetics VIII. Proc. Eighth Int. Barley Genetics Symp., Adelaide, South Australia, 2000. Departm. Of Plant Science, Waite Campus, Adelaide University, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064. Volume III:239-241.
Robertsson, D.W., G.A. Wiebe, R.G. Shands, and A. Hagberg. 1965. A summary of linkage studies in cultivated barley, Hordeum species: Supplement III, 1954-1963. Crop Sci. 5:33-43.
Tohno-oka, T., M. Ishit, R. Kanatani, H. Takahashi, and K. Takeda. 2000. Genetic analysis of photoperiodic response of barley in different daylength conditions. In S. Logue (ed.) Barley Genetics VIII. Proc. Eighth Int. Barley Genetics Symp., Adelaide, South Australia, 2000. Departm. Of Plant Science, Waite Campus, Adelaide University, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064. Volume III:239-241.
Woodward, R. W. 1957. Linkages in barley. Agron. J. 49:28-32.