from Bob Graybosch, 1/96 About PNW Regional Quality Data PNW Regional Quality Data contains the results of wheat quality analyses conducted by the USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, WA. Samples analysed were entrants in the USDA-ARS Regional Performance Nurseries; the present file contains data from 1981-94. Four data files are presented. File 1 contains information on nursery, year, pedigrees, entry identification (ID number) and market class of wheat. ID number is used to identify samples in the remaining files. File 2 contains information on wheat milling performance, protein contents, and mixograph characteristics. File 3 presents cookie, sponge cake, noodle, and breadbaking characteristics. File 4 contains farinograph and rapid viscoanalyzer data. Not all tests are conducted on all samples, dependent upon the market class of wheats. A list of abbreviations and description of materials and methods is given below. Special thanks are due to Doug Engle and Craig Morris, USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA for providing data. DESCRIPTION OF ABBREVIATIONS AWRC Alkaline water retention capacity BABS Bake water absorption (percentage by weight, corrected to 14% moisture basis) BCRGR Bread crumb grain rating code BFYELD Break flour yield (percentage flour from break rolls by weight of total products) %BFYELD Break flour yield (percentage flour from break rolls by weight of total products, short flow method) %BRAN Bran recovered (percentage bran from break rolls by weight of the total products, short flow method) BREEDER # Plot or bag number within a nursery CAVOL Japanese sponge cake volume (cc) CLASS Hardness, color, and season planted (market class, subclass) CNCOL Cooked noodle color score CODI Cookie diameter (cm) COLOR Alkaline flour color rating DSI Cibacron blue dye test for alpha-amylase FABS Farinograph water absorption (percentage by weight, corrected to 14% moisture basis) FASH Flour ash (percentage by weight, corrected to 14% moisture basis) FMIST Flour moisture (percentage by weight) FN Falling number test for sprout damage FPEAK Farinograph mixing peak time (minutes) FPROT Flour protein (percentage by weight, corrected to 14% moisture basis) FSTAB Farinograph stability time (minutes) FYELD Flour yield (percentage flour by weight of total products) LECOFPROT Flour protein content LECOWPROT Wheat protein content (see Appendix B) LOCATION Location sample was grown LVOL Bread loaf volume (cc) MABS Mixograph absorption (percentage by weight, corrected to 14% moisture basis) %MIDDS Unground middling stock (percentage middlings from break rolls by weight of the total products, short flow method) MSCOR Milling score MTI Farinograph mixing tolerance index (see Appendix B) MTIME Optimum mixing time for bread dough (minutes) MTYPE Mixograph type (see Appendices B and C) NIRFMIST Flour moisture (see Appendix B) NIRFPROT Flour Protein (see Appendix B) NIRWPROT Wheat Protein (see Appendix B) NOSCOR Noodle score (scale 1-100, see Appendix B) NURSERY Nursery number (located in the upper left corner of the tables) NYELD Noodle yield (weighted score assigned to WTIN) OVENFMIST Flour moisture %PFYELD Potential flour yield equal to break flour and unground middling stock (percentage by weight of the total products, short flow method) PROQ Protein quality REG NURS Regional Nursury - SW Spring Wheat - WWW White Winter Wheat - HSW Hard Spring Wheat - HRWW Hard Red Winter Wheat - HRSW Hard Red Spring Wheat - SWSW Soft White Spring Wheat RNCOL Raw noodle color score RVA Rapid Visco-Analyzer (peak starch paste viscosity, centipoise X 10) SAMPLE # Sample number SCSOR Sponge cake score (scale 1-100) SKHRD Single kernel hardness SKHRDSD Single kernel hardness standard deviation SKMST Single kernel moisture SKMSTSD Single kernel moisture standard deviation SKSIZE Single kernel size SKSIZESD Single kernel size standard deviation SKWT Single kernel weight SKWTSD Single kernel weight standard deviation TEXTNO Cooked noodle texture score TGS Cookie top grain score (scale 0-10) TWT Test weight (lbs/bu, after cleaning but before scouring) UWHRD Udy cyclone mill wheat grain hardness (NIR value, dimensionless) VARIETY Variety name, state number or unique identifying number VISC Predicted McMichael viscosity (observed modified Brookfield viscosity x 7.5) WMIST Wheat moisture (percentage by weight) WPROT Wheat protein (percentage by weight, corrected to 12% moisture basis) WTIN Noodle weight increase (percentage water uptake after cooking) YEAR Year sample harvested METHODS Sample Preparation: The wheat samples are logged into the WAS computer system and assigned a Nursery code number (NURSERY), which includes SAMPLE #, LOCATION, BREEDER #, VARIETY, and YEAR. All wheat samples are frozen at -27 C for 2 d to kill insects, cleaned on a Kice aspirator, measured for test weight and then scoured and sub-sampled for proximate analysis. Test Weight (TWT): Determined by AACC Method 55-10 (1). Udy Wheat Hardness (UWHRD): The standard FGIS NIR wheat grain hardness value.Uses the Udy Cyclone mill with a 0.5-mm screen as the standard grinder (AACCMethod39-70A). Single Kernel Analysis: 300 kernels are individually analyzed using a SingleKernelWheat Characterization System (SKWCS) commercial prototype (Model P3) made by Perten Instruments. The mean and standard deviation from the 300 kernel sample are reported for four parameters. They are hardness, size, moisture, and weight. Themachine works by weighing (SKWT) each kernel prior to it being dropped between a rotor and crescent which crushes it (ow!). The crescent has a load cell attached which will sense the kernels size (SKSIZE), the force (SKHRD) needed to crush the kernel, and the moisture(SKMST) of each kernel. The rotor is ribbed to sweep the crushed kernel past the crescent preparing the machine for the next kernel. Buhler Milling: All of the samples of advanced and regional nurseries aremilled on aBuhler MLU-202 pneumatic laboratory mill (Fig. 1). The samples are tempered to a predetermined moisture content ranging from 14.0% to 16.0%, depending on the hardness and known flour-bolting properties. The harder wheats require more water. Thus, the grain is conditioned so that the most rapid and complete separation of endosperm can bemade. The temper solution contains a wetting agent (0.1% Aerosol OT) to hasten moisture penetration. The wheat is allowed to temper for 16-24 hours before milling topermit uniform distribution of the moisture. An additional 0.5% water is added 15-20 minutes before milling. The first and second break and first and second reduction streams predict long patent flour yield. All six flour streams are then combined tomake a straight-grade white flour by sifting on a 120 stainless steel wire screen and thoroughly blending. Flour Yield (FYELD): The percentage by weight of the total products recovered as straight-grade white flour. Break Flour Yield (BFYELD): The percentage by weight of the total products recovered as flour off the break rolls. Milling Time: The time required in minutes to mill a 2-kg sample with theBuhler experimental mill and obtain a normal separation of bran, shorts, and flour. Time is dependent on adjustments made by an experienced miller after visually observing themilling properties. Milling Score (MSCOR): Calculated as follows: MSCOR = 100-[(80-flour yield)+50(flour ash-.30)+0.48(milling time-12.5)+ 0.5(65-per cent long patent)+0.5(16-first tempering moisture)] Modified Quadrumat Milling: The preliminary nurseries (250-500 g) are experimentally milled on a Quadrumat System as modified by Jeffers and Rubenthaler (11). The procedure is described in the 27th Annual Report, Oct. 1976 (Pgs. 1-14). Conversion of the data to give a predicted Buhler flour yield and milling score are done with the following linear equations: Predicted Buhler Milling Score Soft Wheat (y = -21.60185 + 1.27367 x) Hard Wheat (y = - 3.43818 + 1.0448 x) where, y = Predicted Buhler flour yield and x = Original Quadrumat flour yield Modified Quadrumat Milling Short Flow: Wheat samples (approximately 40-100 g size)are atmospherically conditioned (tempered) by placing the wheat (in envelopes) into a constant temperature and relative humidity chamber. Moisture content is raised to the desired level (13.0% - soft wheat and 14.5% - hard wheat). The conditionedwheat is ground only through the Quadrumat break rolls. The standard sifting schedule used in the Modified Quadrumat SR. milling procedure is followed. Break flour produced from hardwheat is usually 25 - 30% and from soft wheat about 45 - 50%. This amount of flour produced is generally sufficient for certain physio-chemical predictivetests that require littleflour ie., mixogram, Rapid Visco Analyzer viscosity, Brookfield viscosity or AWRC. Bran (%BRAN): The amount of bran recovered. Break Flour Yield (%BFYELD): The percentage by weight of the total products recovered as flour off the break rolls. Midds (%MIDDS): Unground middling stock. Potential Flour Yield (%PFYELD): The potential flour equal to break flour and unground middling stock. Wheat Moisture (WMIST) & Flour Moisture (FMIST): The reference test uses 2 g of ground wheat heated in an aluminum dish in a forced-draft oven for 40 min at 130 C, allowed to cool and weighed. Flour moisture (OVENFMIST) is determined in the same manner except that it is heated only 20 min (1, modified Method 44-16). The NIRspectrometer (Technicon 450) (NIRFMIST) is routinely used and is calibrated to the above method. Flour Ash (FASH): The percentage ash from a 4-g sample of flour ignited and heated for 15 hours at 550 C in a muffle furnace (1, Method 08-01). Wheat Protein (WPROT) and Flour Protein (FPROT): Protein concentration is determined by NIR (NIRWPROT and NIRFPROT). Minor corrections are made based on the results from about 10% of the samples analyzed using the combustion method (Leco,model FP-428) (LECOFPROT and LECOWPROT). (1, Method 46-30). Alkaline Water Retention Capacity (AWRC): The per cent increase in weight of 7.5 g of flour due to absorption of water from 35 mL of 0.1 N NaHCO3 solution after centrifugation (18) (1, Method 56-10 with proportionate decrease to 5 g flour). Viscosity (VISC): Dial reading x 7.5 of a RVT Brookfield Synchro-LectricViscometer fitted with a modified No. 2 spindle at 50 R.P.M. using a suspension of 20 g of flour in 100 ml of water and 7 ml of 1 N lactic acid (15). Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA): A hot-pasting viscosity measured by the Rapid ViscoAnalyzer. The viscosity reported is the peak viscosity (centipoise X 10)and is obtained at 93 C after 2 min of pregelatinization at 65 C. It emulates the Brabender Amylograph. Foreign users have suggested that an Amylograph viscosity value (no tanalyzed here) of 500 Brabender Units (BU or AU) is a minimum value, and 1000 or greater is a desirable value for noodle quality. RVA and Amylograph peak viscosity values have a linear correlation of about 0.99. Therefore, minimum RVA values would be near 125 with values above 210 desirable. Falling Number (FN): Determined by AACC Method 56-81B.Cibacron Blue (DSI): Units: DU/g (dextrinizing units/g). Directly measures alpha-amylase activity through the liberation of Cibacron blue dye covalently linked to a beta-limit dextran substrate. Mixogram: Used to characterize wheats as to market class and estimate mixing and baking properties of flours. The 10-g instrument is used and the testing procedure and interpretation of K.F. Finney (9) is followed. To reduce the time and expense involved in reproducing the mixograms, a reference chart was developed to characterize each curve as to type ranging from very weak to exceptionally long and strong types. Farinograph: The Farinograph is equipped with a 50-g bowl and the Constant Flour Weight procedure (14% moisture basis) is employed (1, Method 54-21A). Farinograph Absorption (FABS): The amount of water required to center thehighest portion of the Farinograph curve on the 500 Brabender unit (BU) line. Farinograph Mixing Peak Time (FPEAK): The time interval, in minutes, from the firs taddition of water until the curve reaches its maximum height. Farinograph Stability Time (FSTAB): The number of minutes the top of thecurve remains above the 500 unit line when the highest portion (peak) is centered on the500 unit line. Farinograph Mixing Tolerance Index (MTI): The difference in Brabender Units(BU) from the top of the curve at peak mixing time to the top of the curve fiveminutes after the peak nixing time. Cookie Baking (yum!): The micro method employs 40 g flour at 25% absorption, 60%sugar,30% non-emulsified shortening, 3% dry skim milk, 1% NH4HCO3, 1% NaCL, and 1%NaHCO3 and 0.24% emulsifier (distilled mono- and di-glycerides). Cookie Diameter (CODI): The average diameter, of one cookie (cm). Top grain score (TGS): A visual evaluation score describing the top grain of the sugar snap cookie. Range of 0 to 10, with 10 being the best. Bread Baking: An optimum absorption, optimum mixing, 90 minute fermentation straight dough method using 100 g flour, 1.8% dry yeast, 1.5% salt, 6% sugar, 0.3%malt extract,4% dry milk solids, 75 ppm ascorbic acid, and 3% partially hydrogenatedshortening with mono-and di-glycerides (Crisco) (5,6,7,10). Bake Water Absorption (BABS): The amount of water required to make a dough of proper consistency for bread baking when mixed to optimum conditions as judged by an experienced baker using the baking method described above. Mixing Time (MTIME): Time in minutes required to mix the flour and the other breaddough constituents to the optimum condition as judged by an experienced baker. Loaf Volume (LVOL): Volume of bread loaf, measured by canola seed displacement (cc). Bread Crumb Grain (BCRGR): Subjective judgement of crumb grain quality as judged by an experienced baker. Protein Quality (PROQ): An assessment of the protein quality for breadbaking. The loaf volume of experimental lines is compared to a historical regression that predicts loaf volume based on protein content. If loaf volume of the experimental line is +/- 25 cc of thehistorical, then PROQ = 0. If loaf volume of the experimental differs from the predicted loaf volume by more than 25 cc, then a "+1" or "-1" is generated. This new parameter replaces the previous X-Y scatter plot of protein vs. loaf volume with the historical and nursery regression lines. Currently the regression is of the form y=ax+b, where loaf volume (y)= flour protein (x) times 65 (a,slope) plus 140 (b,intercept), or LVOL =FPROT(65) + 140. Japanese Sponge Cake Baking: Formula contains 100 g flour, 100 g sugar, 100g fresh egg, 40 g water. Cake Volume (CAVOL): Volume displacement of sponge cake, measured with canola seeds (cc). Sponge Cake Score (SCSOR): Additive score of texture, volume, external factors and crumb grain (open-ended). The standard flour produces a cake with a score equal to 80. Udon Noodle Making: Formula contains 300 g flour, 6.0 g NaCl, 96 g water (14% constant flour moisture basis) with dough sheet and noodles prepared with an Otake Laboratory Noodle Machine. Often, optimum water absorption is used as opposed to constant absorption. Noodle Yield (NYELD): Relative score assigned to WTIN (see below). Noodle Score (NOSCOR): Additive score incorporating raw and cooked noodle color, yield and texture. Noodle Weight Increase (WTIN): Percentage weight increase of cooked noodle relative to raw noodles. Raw Noodle Color Score (RNCOL): The score subjectively assigned to raw noodles which were assessed visually. The standard control raw noodle is assigned a score of 16. Scores assigned to the experimental raw noodle can range from 1-20. Cooked Noodle Color Score (CNCOL): The score subjectively assigned to cooked noodles which were assessed visually. The standard control raw noodle is assigned a score of 16. Scores assigned to the experimental cooked noodle can range from 1-20. Cooked Noodle Texture Score (TEXTNO): The score assigned by a sensory panel which considers factors such as chewiness, firmness and/or softness, springiness,elasticity, and other bite characteristics. The standard control cooked noodle is assigned a score of 32. Scores assigned to the experimental cooked noodles can range from 1 to 40. Alkaline Flour Color (COLOR): An alkaline Pekar slick is prepared by pressing flour to a smooth surface, immersing in a 3.0% alkaline solution consisting of 50 % K2CO3 and 50%Na2CO3 for 2 minutes. The sample rests at a room temperature of 77 F for 4 hours before visual observation and scoring. Flours were scored by the following: S =satisfactory, Q= questionable, and U = unsatisfactory. Desirable flour color ranges from bright white through creamy yellow to bright yellow. Any dullness, brown, or greenish casts areunacceptable. Alkaline flour color is scored only on SWW, HWW, SWS and HWS flours which have a minimum RVA viscosity of 150 and a minimum NIR wheat hardness (UWHRD) value of 40.0.