Edited by James Chong, Cereal Research Centre, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Winnipeg.
Special thanks to Dr. Dave Matthews for assistance in getting this issue of the Oat Newsletter on the Internet (http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/oatnewsletter/) via a link from GrainGenes.
Please obtain the consent of the author(s) prior to citing information
in the Oat Newsletter.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Oat Newsletter Announcement
Instructions for Contributors
Statement of Purpose of the Organization of the American Oat Workers Conference
American Oat Workers Conference Committees 1998 - 2002
American Code of Ethics for Germplasm Exchange
VI International Oat Conference Announcement
III. CULTIVARSOat Improvement in Southeastern Australia - P. K. Zwer, K. J. Williams, S. D. Hoppo, T. M. Hoppo, D. K. Schaefer, P. J. Smith, and C. A. RossCAMDENOccurrence and Pathogenic Specialisation of Puccinia coronata (oat crown rust pathogen) in Australia - 1998/99 - Robert F. Park
Pathogenic Changes in Puccinia coronata (Oat Crown Rust Pathogen) With Respect To Recently Deployed Crown Rust Resistant Cultivars in Australia - Robert F. Park
CANADAMANITOBAOat Crown Rust in Canada in 1998 - James ChongSASKATCHEWAN
Oat Stem Rust, a Potential Problem for Oat Production in Western Canada - Brent McCallum, Donald Harder, and Ken Dunsmore
Oat Breeding Program at Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada Cereal Research Centre Winnipeg - Jennifer Mitchell-Fetch
'Quantitative Indoor Assay' (QIAssay) identifies Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) tolerance and related traits in a population of Kanota/Ogle Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) - Steve Haber, Brian O. Gillis, and James ChongGermplasm of the Genus Avena at Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) - A. Diederichsen, D. Kessler, and D. Williams
Production of Microsatellite Markers for Oat (Avena sativa L.) - Cheng-Dao Li, Brian G. Rossnagel, and Graham J. Scoles
Groat Breakage in Milling Oat - B. G. Rossnagel
Oat in Saskatchewan 1998 - B. G. Rossnagel and G. J. Scoles
NEW ZEALANDOat Breeders Seek Southern Advantage - Michael Breitmeyer
RUSSIANew Catalogue of Avena World VIR Collection - I. G. Loskutov
Response of Oat Species on Gibberellic Acid - I. G. Loskutov
UNITED STATES OF AMERICAIDAHONational Small Grains Collection Activities - H. E. BockelmanMINNESOTA
Evaluation of National Small Grains Collection Germplasm Progress Report - Oats - H. E. Bockelman and D. M. WesenbergOat Rusts in the United States in 1998 - K. J. Leonard, D. L. Long, M. E. Hughes, D. H. Casper, and G. E. OchockiOHIO
Oat Production and Research in Minnesota - D. D. Stuthman, H. W. Rines, R. L. Phillips, K. J. Leonard, D. V. McVey, and R. Dill-MackyOat Breeding and Research in Ohio 1998-1999 - R.W. Gooding, L.D. Herald, K.G. Campbell, and B. FranchinoSOUTH DAKOTAOat Research in South Dakota - Dale L. Reeves
WISCONSINOat Breeding, Genetics, and Molecular Genetics Research - H. F. Kaeppler and R. D. Duerst
CDC Baler - B. G. Rossnagel
Vista - H. F. Kaeppler, R. D. Duerst, and R. A. Forsberg
The Oat Newsletter is intended for informal communication among oat workers. Persons involved in any aspect of the oat industry and research, including production and breeding, pathology, biotechnology, and milling and processing, are invited to submit information about their programs in the Oat Newsletter.
All issues of the Oat Newsletter from Volume 44 onward will be published electronically in the Internet via a link from GrainGenes to the Oat Newsletter homepage at http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/oatnewsletter/. Printed paper versions will no longer be available. However, limited printed copies of the Oat Newsletter will be provided to those that do not have access to the Internet, on a cost-recovery basis. Requests should be sent to:
Dr. James Chong
Editor, Oat Newsletter
Cereal Research Center, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada
195 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2M9
Phone: (204) 983-0932
Fax: (204) 983-4604
Table of Contents
Instructions to Contributors for Volume 46
Contributions for Volume 46 may be submitted at any time, but should be submitted no later than April 1, 2000. The editor encourages you to submit your article(s) several weeks earlier than the deadline date, if you can do so. Contributions to the Oat Newsletter must conform to the following guidelines:
a. Prepare articles in English. Maximum length should not exceed 4 pages, single spaced.
b. Articles should be prepared in PC WordPerfect (preferred), PC Microsoft Word, or ASCII file format. Do not number pages. Articles should be titled as follows:
State or Country
Affiliation and Full Mailing Address
Please include full mailing address and/or e-mail address for each article, as the Oat Newsletter will no longer be distributed by mail, hence no need of publishing a mailing list in Volume 44 and future issues of the Newsletter.
c. To facilitate conversion to html format required for posting on the Internet, please use the "Create Table" feature in the word processor to make tables, as tables created by spaces and tabs do not convert properly.
d. Photographs or images saved in .jpg or .gif format can be submitted with your articles.
e. Manuscripts should be carefully proofed. Manuscripts considered unsuitable for inclusions will be returned to the author(s) for revision and resubmission for a future volume.
f. An electronic version of the article should be submitted by mail or e-mail to:
Dr. James Chong
Editor, Oat Newsletter
Cereal Research Center, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada
195 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2M9
Table of Contents
A Statement of Purpose of the Organization of the American Oat Workers Conference
This statement, approved by the members of the American Oat Workers Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota on June 22, 1994, shall serve to delineate the purpose and organizational structure of an American Oat Workers Conference. This Conference shall be made up of scientists and other workers actively engaged in the improvement, management, and utilization of oats. These requirements being met, active participation in the Conference constitutes membership, and all attending members at a particular meeting of the Conference shall have voice and vote in all matters properly brought before the Conference during a regular business meeting to be held during each meeting of the Conference. The Conference shall meet at a time, generally every four years, and at a location to be selected by vote of the attending membership at the previous meeting of the Conference. The Executive Committee, described below, shall have the authority to call emergency meetings of the Conference as necessary.
The purpose of the, American Oat Workers Conference shall be to advance oat improvement and culture in North America and the world by providing a vehicle for:
1. The dissemination of information on current research.
2. The discussion of regional and continental problems of oat improvement and integration of applicable research.
3. Encouraging the exchange and preservation of germplasm.
4. Standardization of data recording and terminology.
5. Planning regional and continental performance nurseries as appropriate.
6. Preliminary announcements of planned cultivar releases.
7. Action on other matters that may properly
come before the Conference.
American Oat Workers Conference Committee
The American Oat Workers Conference shall be under the general leadership of an American Oat Workers Conference Committee composed of official representatives of the various regions and countries and of a general Executive Committee. Members of the Executive Committee shall be the Chairman, Chair-Elect, Past Chairman, and Secretary of the American Oat Workers Conference and the Editor of the Oat Newsletter, and they need not be official representatives of the American Oat Workers Conference Committee. The Executive Committee shall appoint a nominating committee for a slate of officers for the offices of Chairman and Secretary of the Conference. The Chairman-elect and Secretary shall be elected by the membership of the Conference during the regular business meeting to be held each time the Conference meets. The term of office shall be four years and the Chairman, Chairman-elect, and Secretary will assume their duties immediately after adjournment of the Conference wherein elected. The Chairman-elect will automatically become the Chairman for the ensuing four year period. These officers may serve consecutive terms if properly elected by the Conference. The Editor of the Oat Newsletter shall be appointed by the Executive Committee. The Editor of the Oat Newsletter may serve consecutive terms. It shall be the responsibility of the Executive Committee to appoint an Acting Editor of the Oat Newsletter should that position be vacated between regular Conference meetings. The Past Chairman, Secretary, and Editor of the Newsletter shall be non-voting members of the American Oat Workers Conference unless they are also serving as representatives on the American Oat Workers Conference Committee. The Chairman shall be a voting member of the latter Committee and shall preside over all business meetings of the Committee and of the American Oat Workers Conference.
The American Oat Workers Conference shall
be made up of official representatives from the various countries and regions
|Country and number of representatives|
|Region or Agency||USA||Canada||Mexico|
|North Central Region||1||-||-|
|Federal Dept. of Agric. Advisor||1||1||-|
Where the representative cannot attend an official conference, he may designate an alternate.
In addition to the above minimum representation, three representatives shall be elected at large by the Conference during the regular meeting once every four years. Also, the elected chairman of the Conference shall be a member of the Committee. Thus, the total voting membership of the committee shall not exceed 14. Representatives from the various regions shall be selected by one of the following methods:
1. U.S.A. Regional Representatives normally shall be elected by the appropriate Regional Committee. In the event no such committee exists, the Secretary of the Conference shall contact oat workers within the region by mail once every four years and solicit nominations for a representative and subsequently conduct an election by mail ballot. The individual receiving the most votes shall serve as representative.
2. Canadian Regional Representatives shall be elected by: Western: The Barley and Oat Subcommittee of the Prairie Regional Registration Committee for Grain; and Eastern: The Eastern Expert Committee on Cereals and Oilseeds. These groups will have the option of electing the third representative to fill the designated Federal position or of requesting Federal representation; whichever is more appropriate.
3. The representative from the U.S. Department of Agriculture shall be the National Technical Advisor for Oat Improvement.
4. The Mexican representative shall be designated by the appropriate government official or organization.
Alternates may be elected or appointed for each representative on the American Oat Workers Conference Committee.
There shall be Standing Committees of the American Oat Workers Conference as follows:
1. Committee on Nomenclature and Cataloguing of Oat Genes
This Committee shall consist of three Conference members appointed by the Chairman of the American Oat Workers Conference. It shall serve to assign symbols and catalog new genes governing characters in oats. Such genes will be listed and described in the Oat Newsletter on an annual basis. The Committee will also be responsible for considering periodical updating and revision of the original publication on the subject, which was entitled "A Standardized System of Nomenclature for Genes Governing Characters of Oats". There shall be no limit of office of committee members.
2. Nomination Committee for Distinguished Service to Oat Improvement Award
This Committee shall consist of three Conference
members appointed by the Chairman of the American Oat Workers Conference
and shall include at least two members who have served on the American
Oat Workers Conference Committee. Their term of office shall be from date
of appointment until the end of the following Conference meeting.
The American Oat Workers Conference shall sponsor an Oat Newsletter to be published on an annual basis for the purpose of dissemination of information on current oat research and research needs. Members of the Conference are encouraged to submit information about their current research programs in response to an annual request to be made by the Editor of the Oat Newsletter. The Newsletter shall also serve as a vehicle of publication for the minutes of the business meetings of the Conference and of the American Oat Workers Conference Committee as well as for Committee Reports and other Conference notes. Abstracts of papers presented at meetings of the Conference also shall be published in the appropriate issues of the Newsletter.
Contributions from countries outside the Conference will be accepted for inclusion in the Newsletter, and should be encouraged so as to promote the dissemination of oat research information and news.
The Oat Newsletter shall be distributed
to all members of the Conference and upon request, to other interested
oat and cereal crops workers outside the American Oat Workers Conference.
The American Oat Association in conjunction with the Editor of the Newsletter
shall maintain a mailing list for this purpose and publish it in each Oat
Newsletter. An Oat Newsletter Editorial Committee of four (three researchers
and one industry representative) is to be appointed by the AOWC Chair.
Distinguished Service to Oat Improvement Award
The American Oat Workers Conference shall confer the "Distinguished Service to Oat Improvement Award" upon persons in recognition of their outstanding research contributions and/or meritorious service toward making oats a successful agricultural species. The recipient(s) of this award shall be nominated by the Committee previously described as having this charge, and they shall be elected for the award by a majority vote of the American Oat Workers Conference Committee. No restriction shall be placed upon whom may receive the award. However, as a general guide, the award should be presented to person or persons who have devoted a significant portion of their professional career and a significant number of years working with oats through research, extension, or other professional activities. The number of recipients should not be limited, but in general, not more than one to three persons would be recognized at one Conference meeting.
The Award shall be conferred at a regular
meeting of the American Oat Workers Conference. Manifestation of the award
shall be denoted by the presentation of a suitable plaque or certificate
to the recipient. A brief (not to exceed two typewritten pages) statement
about the recipient and a photograph of the recipient shall be printed
in the first volume of the Oat Newsletter after the presentation.
Table of Contents
American Oat Workers Conference Committees 1998-2002
Chair: Fred Kolb
Crop Sciences, University of Illinois
1102 South Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61821, U.S.A.
Past Chair: Brian Rossnagel
Crop Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan
51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A8
Chair-elect: James Holland
Iowa State University, Department of Agronomy
Ames, IA 50011-1010, U.S.A.
Secretary: Howard Rines
Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics
University of Minnesota
411 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Buford Circle
St. Paul, MN 55108, U.S.A.
Oat Newsletter Editorial Committee (1998 - 2001):
Editor: James Chong
Cereal Research Centre, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada
195 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2M9
Past Editor: Michael McMullen
Department of Plant Sciences
North Dakota State University
Fargo, ND 58105, U.S.A.
Editor-elect: Dave Hoffman
National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility
PO Box 307
Aberdeen, Idaho 83210-0307, U.S.A.
Member at Large:
Trevor Pizzey, Can-Oat, Portage-la-Prairie, Manitoba, Canada
Dale Reeves, Plant Science Department, South Dakota State University, South Dakota, Brookings, SD 57006, U.S.A.
Darrell Wesenberg, National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility, USDA-ARS, P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210, U.S.A. E-mail: Dwesenb@uidaho.edu
Regional Representatives: (page 20 vol 44)
Eastern Canada - Vernon Burrows, Eastern Cereal & Oilseed Research Center, Ottawa, Canada
Western Canada - James Chong, Cereal Research Center, Winnipeg, Canada
AAFC - Ken Campbell, Research Coordination, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada
North Central USA - Heidi Kaeppler, University of Wisconsin, U.S.A.
Northeastern USA - Mark Sorrells, Cornell University, Ithaca, U.S.A.
Western USA - David Hoffman, University of Idaho, Aberdeen, U.S.A.
USDA-ARS - Charles Murphy, USDA, Beltsville, U.S.A.
Mexico - Jose Salmeron, APDO, Cuauhtemoc, Chihuahua, Mexico
Table of Contents
American Oat Workers Code of Ethics for Germplasm Exchange
In past decades, oat workers worldwide have generously shared their oat germplasm with colleagues to enhance oat breeding and research. However, plant variety protection and patent mechanisms focus attention on proprietary rights afforded developers/owners of germplasm materials. The purpose of this code is to encourage the continued exchange of oat germplasm by recognizing these rights and by codifying the obligations of persons receiving unreleased oat germplasm. The following code was approved by the members of the American Oat Workers Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota on June 22, 1994.
The originating breeder, station, or company has property rights to unreleased oat germplasm such as pure lines, early generation lines or populations, bulk populations, breeding stocks, or genetic stocks. These rights are not waived with the distribution of seeds or plants of any of these unreleased materials. In this context, "released" materials include named cultivars or breeding or genetic stocks described in an official statement of release.
Table of Contents
Sixth International Oat Conference
Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand
13-17 November 2000
We have received a good response with registrations of interest, and have guided us in the development of the programme, associated workshops, and pre-/post-conference activities. We welcome your continued interest.
Confirmation of sponsorship has been good, with excellent support from Quaker Oats (U.S.A.), North American Oat Workers, and the Foundation for Arable Research (N.Z.). We are hoping to confirm several other potential sponsors that have expressed interest in this conference.
We welcome Australian colleagues Robyn McLean and John Oates, who have joined the local organizing committee. Their inputs are particularly valuable to ensure an Australasian perspective is maintained, as well as bringing a wealth of practical experience of the oat crop.
Dates of the Conference are now extended to include the full week. Monday 13 November for registration and workshops; Tuesday 14 to Thursday 16 November for the conference paper presentations, and Friday 17 November for a regional workshop at Gore. There will be a busy and interesting accompanying persons programme during the conference paper presentation period. We particularly recommend visitors attend the Canterbury Agricultural & Pastoral Show (11-12 November) and if possible attend the regional workshop tour of Southland. It will prove to be a good one!
We have made significant additions to our web site (to be completed by the end of May 1999). Visit us on http://www.crop.cri.nz/informat/oats2000.
Remember, for those wishing to make contributions
to the demonstration plots - please get in contact with Keith Armstrong
on firstname.lastname@example.org and
for general programme enquiries and workshops to contact Richard Cross
on email@example.com. For registration
details, contact Helen Shrewsbury on firstname.lastname@example.org.
Table of Contents
Oat Improvement in Southeastern Australia
P. K. Zwer, K. J. Williams, S. D. Hoppo, T. M. Hoppo, D. K. Schaefer, P. J. Smith, and C. A. Ross
South Australian Research and Development
and Victorian Institute for Dryland Agriculture (VIDA)
GPO Box 397, Adelaide SA5001, Australia
The SARDI based Oat Breeding Program in cooperation with VIDA develops improved oat varieties for both Victoria and South Australia. The breeding program is focused on improving yield potential, disease resistance, and milling, feed, and hay end-use quality in both naked and husked oat varieties.
Cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae), stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci), stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. avenae), crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae), and barley yellow dwarf virus are the major yield limiting diseases in South Australia and Victoria. The disease screening programs are a cooperative effort with SARDI Field Crops Pathology and the Plant Breeding Institute, The University of Sydney. In addition, field evaluation sites are sown and assessed by members of the breeding program for these important diseases.
The quality evaluation programs for grain and hay end-use are an important component in the breeding program. NIR whole grain calibrations were developed to predict protein, oil, and groat yield in seed of F4 and later generations. Digital imaging is currently being incorporated in the quality evaluation program for both grain and hay end-use. Hay samples are sent to FeedTest, Agriculture Victoria, where NIR calibrations are used to predict crude protein and digestibility. Palatability is also an important character that will be incorporated in the quality assessment program when a rapid reliable analysis is available.
Yield potential, agronomic characters, and disease resistance are assessed at 10 locations in southeastern Australia by members of the Oat Breeding Team. Approximately 20 locations are sown and harvested by the SARDI Field Crop Evaluation Team and District Agronomists in Victoria.
Linkages to other research programs in
SARDI, the University of Adelaide, and the Cooperative Research Centre
for Molecular Plant Breeding have resulted in projects to develop doubled
haploid technology and molecular markers for quality and disease resistance
in the Oat Breeding Program.
A genetic map is being produced to identify molecular markers linked to quality and disease resistance traits in a cultivated oat cross. This project is being funded by the Cooperative Research Centre for Molecular Plant Breeding, which is based at the University of Adelaide on the Waite Campus.
A single-seed descent population was produced from the cross Potoroo × Mortlock. This population is segregating for cereal cyst nematode and stem nematode resistance and tolerance derived from Potoroo and high protein, high groat yield, and desirable end use qualities for milling oats derived by Mortlock.
As a prelude to constructing a genetic
map of this cross, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) screens
are being conducted on the population parents, using mainly CDO and BCD
probes chosen to give good coverage of linkage groups on the published
hexaploid oat maps. To date, 165 RFLP probes have been tested, with 78
(47%) revealing polymorphism between the parents. The polymorphic RFLP
markers will be used as anchor loci for map construction, with amplified
fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers used to increase marker density.
Table of Contents
Occurrence and pathogenic specialisation of Puccinia coronata (oat crown rust pathogen) in Australia - 1998/99
Robert F. Park
Senior Research Fellow
Plant Breeding Institute Cobbitty
University of Sydney, Private Mail Bag 11, Camden, NSW2570.
Oat leaf rust occurred widely in the eastern mainland states of Australia in the 1998 cereal growing season, where it was commonly found on wild oats. A concerted effort was made in 1998 to obtain a detailed picture of pathogenic variability in this pathogen. This task was a difficult one with P. coronata as most collections of the disease are made from wild oats, and in nearly all cases, such collections comprised two or more pathotypes. Coupled with this, the host:pathogen interaction with many of the genes represented in the differential set displayed temperature sensitivity, making it essential to have good temperature control in order to obtain meaningful results. The current differential set (Table 1) has been in use since 1995, and was developed by Dr. David Bonnett, a former Ph.D. student. The current pathotype nomenclature comprises a coded triplet value (Table 1a) followed by a list of numbers which correspond to virulence on 12 supplementary differentials (Table 1b). Several current cultivars are also included in the latter set.
About 80% of the samples received have been processed to date. Of these, about 70% comprised two or more (up to four) pathotypes. This contrasts with about 12% for the 1998/99 survey of wheat leaf rust. This meant that a great deal of subculturing was necessary in order to establish the identity of the pathotypes involved.
The results obtained to date indicate that the population is clearly structured with good evidence of groups of pathotypes within which individuals were most likely derived via single step mutation. As in previous surveys, pathotype diversity was greatest in NSW and Qld. The most widespread pathotype was 0071-0 (referred to as the Amby pathotype, formerly pt 384), which was detected in all eastern states. This pathotype, along with the Cleanleaf pathotype (0207-5,6,10) were by far the most commonly isolated pathotypes, accounting for about 60% of all isolates. The Cleanleaf pathotype was first detected in 1995 following the release of the cultivar Cleanleaf in 1992, and its frequency has increased rapidly in the years since. Previous genetic studies by Dr. Bonnett indicated that Cleanleaf has the genes Pc38, Pc39, and an uncharacterized resistance gene.
Virulence was also detected for the new
cultivar Warrego, in a variant of pt 0007-5,6,8,10. The resistance in Warrego
which has been overcome by the new pathotype does not correspond to any
of the genes in the differentials being used. Virulence was not detected
for the genes Pc50, Pc68, and Pc91, or for the cultivars
Bettong and Barcoo.
Table 1. Differential oat genotypes used
to differentiate pathotypes of P. coronata in Australia, 1998/99
A. Coded triplet differentials:
|Differential||Resistance gene||Octal Value|
|Cleanleaf||Pc39, 39, Cl||200|
B. Supplementary differentials:
Table of Contents
Pathogenic Changes In Puccinia coronata (oat crown rust pathogen) With Respect To
Recently Deployed Crown Rust Resistant Cultivars In Australia
Robert F. Park
Senior Research Fellow
Plant Breeding Institute Cobbitty
University of Sydney, Private Mail Bag 11
The crown rust resistances of several oat cultivars released in north eastern Australia in recent years have been overcome by new pathotypes of Puccinia coronata.
The gene Pc68, transferred from Avena sterilis to A. sativa by Wong et al. (1983; Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 25, 329-335), was incorporated into two cultivars released by Agriculture Canada, A.C. Assiniboia and AC Medallion. These cultivars were released in Australia in 1997 under the names Graza 68 and Moola, respectively. A differential with Pc68 was included in the differential set used to assess pathogenicity of P. coronata in Australasia in 1995, and all isolates examined during years 1995 to 1998 were avirulent for this gene. In June 1999, leaf rusting of Graza 68 and Moola was noticed in experimental plots in Queensland at two sites, Warwick and Kingsthorpe. Additional observations at Gympie also indicated heavy rusting of Moolah. Greenhouse tests with rust samples from both locations confirmed virulence for Pc68, and further indicated that the new pathotype had most likely arisen by a single step mutation to virulence for Pc68 in pathotype 0207-4,6,10 (the "Cleanleaf" pathotype) (Fig. 1). The designation for the Pc68 virulent pathotype is 0307-4,6,10 (the "Graza 68" pathotype).
The presumed parental pathotype, 0207-4,6,10, was first detected in 1995, in Queensland, following the release of cultivar Cleanleaf in 1992. It combined virulence for three resistance genes present in the cultivar Cleanleaf (Pc38, Pc39 and an unidentified gene, PcCl), and by 1998 had increased in frequency to comprise about 45% of isolates examined from northern New South Wales / Queensland (99 isolates out of a total of 227). This pathotype is regarded as having originated as a single step mutant derived from pathotype 0007-4,6,10 (the "Riel" pathotype), which gained prominence following the release of cultivar Riel (Pc38 and Pc39) in 1993 (Fig. 1). A further presumed single step mutational change was detected in 1998, in which an isolate of pathotype 0007-4,6,8,10 (a derivative of the Riel pathotype) with added virulence for an uncharacterised resistance gene in cultivar Warrego was detected (the "Warrego" pathotype) (Fig. 1).
The apparent ease with which P. coronata has overcome recently
deployed resistance genes is a clear indication of the need to avoid releasing
cultivars with single effective resistance genes. To date, virulence has
not been detected for gene Pc91. It will be important to assess
the value of newly characterised genes such as Pc94 and to try to
deploy the genes identified as useful in combination to reduce the liklihood
of new pathotypes with matching virulences.
Fig. 1. Diagrammatic representation of selected putative pathogenic changes in Puccinia coronata in north eastern Australia. Years of first detection, where known, are given in bold type.
Table of Contents
Oat Crown Rust in Canada in 1998
Cereal Research Centre, Agriculture and
195 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2M9
Oat crown rust was more severe and widespread in Manitoba in 1998 than in recent years. Traces of crown rust infections were first found in commercial oat fields during the last week of June. The disease increased rapidly in the following weeks, particularly in areas where local conditions were conducive for development. By late July up to 80% of crown rust severities were commonly found in cultivars with resistance genes Pc38 and Pc39, i.e. Dumont, Riel, and Robert. Only trace levels of infections were found in the two newly released cultivars, AC Assiniboia and AC Medallion. In 1998, crown rust also was more severe and widespread in eastern Saskatchewan than for many years. Wild oat with crown rust severities ranging from slight to 80% were found west of Regina and Weyburn.
A hexadecimal nomenclature system was used to identify virulence phenotypes of Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae isolates. Virulence and avirulence combinations of the isolates on 16 single-gene differential oat lines, arranged into groups of four (subset 1 = Pc40, Pc45, Pc46, Pc50; subset 2 = Pc38, Pc39, Pc48, Pc68; subset 3 = Pc51, Pc52, Pc58, Pc59; subset 4 = Pc54, Pc56, Pc62, Pc64), were assigned with a four-letter code. Single-gene lines with Pc94 and Pc96 were included in the differential set as supplemental differentials. One hundred and ten virulence phenotypes were identified from 265 single-pustule isolates established from collections from Manitoba and Saskatchewan in 1998, using these 18 differentials. In Ontario, 23 virulence phenotypes were identified from 71 isolates.
Frequency and distribution of P. coronata
f. sp. avenae isolates virulent on the 18 differentials are shown
in Table 1. As in recent years, the rust populations in Ontario and eastern
prairie region (Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan) were predominated by
isolates with virulence to genes
Pc38 and Pc39. The most
common virulence phenotype in Ontario in 1998 was BQBB at 26.8% of the
isolates, followed by BQBG at 23.9% of the isolates. In the eastern Prairie
region, the most common phenotype also was BQBB at 12.8% of the isolates,
followed by BQLB at 7.6% and LQBB at 6.4% of the isolates. The resistance
of the two newly released cultivars, AC Assiniboia and AC Medallion, which
have genes Pc38, Pc39, and Pc68 combined, is effective against
the prevalent isolates, as virulence frequency to Pc68 is still
occurring at low levels in the Canadian prairie region. Genes Pc48,
Pc94, and Pc96 are being used in the breeding program at Cereal
Research Centre to develop oat cultivars with new crown rust resistance
gene combinations. Several isolates were found to have virulence on AC
Assiniboia and AC Medallion in 1998, and on lines with the Pc38, 39,
48 gene combination. Gene Pc94, derived from the diploid
A. strigosa, continues to be highly effective to all P. coronata
f. sp. avenae isolates in Canada as it has since 1992.
Table 1. Frequency and distribution
of Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae isolates virulent on differential
lines of Avena sativa with single genes (Pc) for crown rust
resistance in Canada in 1998
|No. of isolates||%||No. of isolates||%|
Table of Contents
Oat Stem Rust, a Potential Problem for Oat Production in Western Canada
Brent McCallum, Donald Harder, and Ken Dunsmore
Cereal Research Centre, Agriculture and
Agri-Food Canada, 195 Dafoe Road
Winnipeg, MB, Canada, R3T 2M9
The last serious epidemic of oat stem rust in the plains region of North America was in 1977, when about 35% of the crop in Manitoba was lost. Since then most oat varieties grown in the rust area of western Canada have been resistant to the prevalent races of stem rust. The resistance has mainly been provided by gene Pg13, complemented by genes Pg9 and Pg2. Races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae found previously in western Canada with virulence to Pg13 and Pg9 were avirulent to Pg2 and therefore did not attack the commonly grown oat cultivars. Race NA67 of P. graminis f. sp. avenae, found in western Canada for the first time in the 1998 survey, can attack the combination of genes Pg13, Pg9, and Pg2. This race was collected from both cultivated and wild oats and was recovered from 23 of 106 (21.7%) collections made in Manitoba (Table 1). NA67 is virulent to oat differential lines containing genes Pg1, Pg2, Pg3, Pg4, Pg8, Pg9, Pg13, and Pg15 but is avirulent on differential lines containing Pg16 and Pga. In 1987 a similar race, NA75, was found in Minnesota by Dr. Don McVey. NA75 differs from NA67 in being avirulent to Pg3. While the severity of oat stem rust was relatively low in 1998 there is a possibility for significant losses in future years if conditions are conducive for stem rust, because of the presence of race NA67. Resistance genes Pg10, Pga, and Pg16 have been identified as useful sources of resistance against NA67 and other oat stem rust races.
The resistance phenotype of Pga,
however, is due to two recessive complementary genes making breeding more
difficult. Also, virulence to this resistance has been found in Manitoba
over the past few years. Gene Pg16 would be an excellent source
of resistance, but so far the association of some additional chromatin
from Avena barbata has had a yield depressing effect. Gene Pg10,
originally known as PgG, (from 'Illinois' Hulless) has shown a uniform
moderately resistant reaction when tested with 58 different stem rust pathotypes
in seedling tests, and has shown good resistance in field nurseries. Gene
is inherited as a single partially dominant gene, and is independent of
all other known Pg genes. This gene produces a very unique infection
type that can be used to detect it in crosses involving other resistance
genes. Because of its apparent lack of specificity to date and ease of
use, this gene could be utilized to complement other resistance genes in
areas where stem rust is a threat.
Table 1. Isolates of Puccinia graminis
f.sp. avenae collected in Manitoba and Saskatchewan in 1998
|Races||effective/ineffective||Total||Percent||Avena fatua||Avena sativa|
Table of Contents
Oat Breeding Program at Cereal Research Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba
Cereal Research Centre, Agriculture and
Agri-Food Canada, 195 Dafoe Road,
Winnipeg, MB, Canada, R3T 2M9
Reports indicate that the oat acreage in Manitoba for 1998 was one million acres, with 900 000 acres being harvested for grain. This represents a 200 000 acre increase from 1997. Manitoba Crop Insurance reported the insured 1998 oat acreage in Manitoba as 653 714 acres, an increase over the 1997 acreage of 495 432. The variety planted on the largest proportion of the acreage (34%) was Riel, a cultivar developed at the Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada Cereal Research Centre in Winnipeg, Manitoba. This is somewhat surprising due to the fact that Riel carries only Pc38 and Pc39 genes for resistance to oat crown rust. Robert, Dumont, AC Preakness and AC Assiniboia, also lines developed at CRC, were grown on 47% of the oat acreage. Three new lines released in 1997, AC Assiniboia, AC Medallion (developed at CRC) and Triple Crown (developed by Svalof) are gaining acceptance by producers because of their resistance to prevalent races of oat crown rust. There also were five American cultivars grown on about 9% of the total acreage. These cultivars are not registered for sale in Canada.
The yields in 1998 ranged from 33 to105 bushels/acre, with an average yield of 74.8 bu/acre. The 10-year average yield for oat is 60 bu/ac. Oat returns per acre have been competitive with other crops. Also, the disease problems being encountered with wheat and barley, such as Fusarium Head Blight, are making oat a very appealing alternative. On a whole, producers seemed pleased with the oat crop for 1998.
The major research efforts of the oat breeding program at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in Winnipeg is geared toward increasing disease resistance, higher yield, and improved quality to provide producers and end users with an superior product. A cooperative agronomy project is ongoing with two graduate students at the University of Manitoba, which includes a semidwarf line. This will enable the program to include a production package with the semidwarf line which may be proposed for release next February.
Another area on which the CRC has been
working is a Germplasm Release/Material Transfer Agreement for handling
germplasm exchanges. CRC is hoping that this agreement can be utilized
to ensure proper rust resistance gene deployment and thereby protect the
interests of Manitoba producers. The agreement outlines that specific rust
resistance genes developed at CRC should be utilized in breeding programs
only, and should be incorporated into pyramids with additional effective
resistance genes. It is hoped that proper pyramiding will protect the longevity
of the resistance. Other researchers and institutions are encouraged to
make comments regarding this agreement and to utilize it for their own
germplasm transfers if they wish.
Table of Contents
'Quantitative Indoor Assay' (QIAssay) Identifies Quantitative Trait Loci (Qtls) for Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) Tolerance and Related Traits in a Population of Kanota/Ogle Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs)
Steve Haber, Brian O. Gillis, and James Chong
Cereal Research Centre, Agriculture and
Agri-food Canada, 195 Dafoe Rd., Winnipeg MB, Canada R3T 2M9
To identify 'Quantitative Trait Loci' (QTLs) accurately, it is essential the trait in question be assessed reproducibly with little variation within treatments. Linkage maps have been prepared linking QTLs of an array of agronomic, quality and disease-resistance traits in a Kanota/Ogle (K/O) population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs), but identifying QTLs for BYDV tolerance has proved difficult because: a) the parents' tolerance traits do not differ greatly; b) symptoms are affected by environmental interactions; and c) symptom scoring is subjective.
We developed a 'Quantitative Indoor Assay' (QIAssay) for BYDV tolerance in oat (1) that minimized within-treatment variations caused by environmental interactions; the objective parameters of height loss, heading delay, loss of flag leaf area, and loss of single panicle mass under disease pressure were determined to assess BYDV tolerance. In a QIAssay analysis of 68 K/O RILs, two disease BYDV-tolerance QTLs were identified and mapped to the same positions as those found earlier in a study of symptoms of Clintland64 (susceptible)/IL86-5698 (tolerant) RILs (2). QTLs were also identified for parameters that were components of yield loss under disease pressure: height loss; loss of flag leaf area; and delay of panicle emergence. An additive model of these QTLs combined with those for disease tolerance could account for the indoor performance of K/O RILs under BYD pressure. A strong bimodal QTL (in linkage group 22) was also identified for BYDV-ELISA titres. However, virus titres as determined by ELISA at 14 d post inoculation, were not related to performance under disease pressure.
A selected subset of the RILs will be tested
in a replicated, artificially inoculated field trial in summer 1999. This
subset of 15 RILs encompasses the range of BYDV tolerance as well as the
results from the additive-QTL-model for BYDV tolerance observed in the
Table 1. QTLs indicated by analysis of
QIAssay results from K/O RILs
|Heading Date||ISU1961BRV||24_26_34||same as 'hed_ko24'|
|Height||ISU1961BRV||24_26_34||same as 'hed_ko24'|
|Flag Leaf Area||BC1876||13|
|Height under BYD pressure||ISU1254B||17|
|Relative Loss of Height
under BYD Pressure
|Relative Loss of
Flag Leaf Area
|Delay of Heading
under BYD pressure
|Effect of BYD
|near 'byd-a' (2)
near 'byd-e' (2)
|BYDV titre at
14 d post-inoculation
Germplasm of the genus Avena at Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC)
A. Diederichsen, D. Kessler and D. Williams
Plant Gene Resources of Canada, Agriculture
and Agri-Food Canada,
107 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N OX2, Canada
Phone: (306) 956-2839, Fax: (306) 956-7246
The Canadian National Seed Genebank, which was recently moved from Ottawa to Saskatoon, will put special emphasis on its oat collection over the next four years. The genus Avena L. has been given higher priority for rejuvenation and characterization, because PGRC's oat collection is one of the largest for this genus in the world. There are further reasons for choosing oat as a major project at PGRC: 1) Part of this collection is the world base collection of oat, which is held under an agreement with the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), Rome. 2) Although most cereal seeds can be stored over long periods of time Avena is inclined to loose viability. 3) Oat is of particular agricultural significance in the northern climates of America and Europe. 4) The present lack of any characterization data available for external users limits the use of the PGRC collection. 5) The collection of oat germplasm, in particular the wild species in the genus, has been carried out under the leadership of Canadian scientists and the monograph of B. Baum (1977) is a milestone in oat research. The transfer of several resistance genes from the wild species, some of them with different ploidy levels, to the hexaploid cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.) has been conducted successfully by J. Chong at the Cereal Research Centre Winnipeg, Manitoba. The project initiated at PGRC hopes to further enhance the use, the preservation, and the knowledge about the diversity of this genus.
The rejuvenation and characterization of 4000 accessions of cultivated oat and 1000 accessions of wild oat is planned in each of the next four years at Saskatoon. Rejuvenation will be done in the field or, if necessary, in the greenhouse. A descriptor list for Avena has been generated. This list was circulated to Canadian oat breeders and pathologists and discussed with curators of oat collections at genebanks in the U.S.A., Russian Federation, and Germany. Several morphological and agronomical traits will be recorded and transferred to the Genetic Resources Information Network - Canadian Version (GRIN-CV) database, which will be accessible via Internet. The traits recorded have to serve two main purposes: 1) They should allow the proper taxonomical identification of the accessions; and 2) they should contain information of interest to breeders and other users of the collection at PGRC.
The Cereal Research Centre at Winnipeg (J. Chong) will conduct screening for disease resistance and this data will also be entered into the database. Evaluation of quality characters of the oil will be conducted at the Saskatoon Research Centre (P. Raney). A research proposal to support this work, submitted to the Agricultural Development Fund (ADF), Regina/Saskatchewan, was approved. The Crop Development Centre at the University of Saskatchewan has agreed to participate in rejuvenation and characterization of some of this oat germplasm (B. Rossnagel).
The State of the Avena Germplasm at PGRC
Presently, there are close to 32,000 accessions held by PGRC. The collection covers 29 species of the genus and three hybrids (Table 1). Five species are cultivated plants, the others represent all wild species described for Avena. For breeding purposes the hexaploid species A. sterilis (Fig. 1), a weedy plant of the Mediterranean area, Europe, Ethiopia, and Western Asia has been used as source for several resistance genes in oat breeding. The collection is currently subdivided into a number of sub-collections using different prefixes. For instance, there are Avena accessions with CAV, PGR, CN, CIav, and PI prefixes. In the near future all of these accessions will be issued new numbers under the CN prefix. The old prefixes and numbers however, will be part of the GRIN-CV database and facilitate identification. The availability of the Avena accessions to external users depends on the present seed supply. In several cases rejuvenation and increase of the seed is necessary.
First Increase of Different Avena Species in the Greenhouse During Winter 1998/1999
In November 1998 the rejuvenation of 75 accessions of oat species different from A. sativa was started. The viability of the accessions was variable. Thirty-two seeds from each accession were subjected to optimal conditions for the germination of Avena (Moxon 1993). The seeds, which germinated, were planted in pots and grown in the greenhouse. Only 24 accessions had a viability greater than 85%, which is the minimum standard recognized in many genebanks to reduce the chances of genetic shift and drift. The accessions were characterized and five of them had their recorded species classification corrected. This underlines the necessity of rejuvenation and characterization of the collection to ensure viability and to receive better information on the accessions.
Publication of the Data
The database, which will be used for publication
of the characterization and evaluation data, will be structured following
the Genetic Resources Information Network (GRIN) of the United States Department
of Agriculture (USDA). This database has been modified to meet specific
Canadian needs and is called GRIN-CV.
Table 1. Composition of the Avena
species collection at PGRC
|Diploid species (2n = 2x = 14)||Genom|
|A. atlantica Baum et Fedak||?|
|A. brevis Roth||A|
|A. canariensis Baum, Rajhathy et Sampson||A|
|A. clauda Durieu||C|
|A. damascena Rajhathy et Baum||A|
|A. eriantha Durieu - incl. A. pilosa M. B.||C|
|A. hirtula Lag. - incl. A. prostrata Ladiz.||A|
|A. hispanica Ard. ex Saggi||A|
|A. longiglumis Durieu in Duchartre||A|
|A. lusitanica (Tab. Mor.) Baum||A|
|A. nuda L.*||A|
|A. strigosa Schreb.*||A|
|A. ventricosa Bal. ex Coss.||C|
|A. wiestii Steudel.||A|
|Tetraploid species (2n = 4x = 28)|
|A. abyssinica Hochst.*||AB|
|A. agadiriana Baum et Fedak||?|
|A. barbata Pott ex Link - incl. A. hirsuta Moench.||A B|
|A. macrostachya Bal. ex Coss. et Dur.||?|
|A. magna Murphy et Terell||AC|
|A. maroccana Gandog.||AC|
|A. murphyi Ladiz.||AC|
|A. vaviloviana (Malz.) Mordv.||AB|
|Hexaploid species (2n = 6x = 42)|
|A. byzantina C. Koch*||ACD|
|A. fatua L.||ACD|
|A. fatua L. x A. sativa L.||ACD|
|A. fatua L. x A. sterilis L.||ACD|
|A. hybrida Peterm.||ACD|
|A. ludoviciana Durieu||ACD|
|A. occidentalis Durieu||ACD|
|A. sativa L.*||ACD|
|A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L.||ACD|
|A. sterilis L.||ACD|
|Total: 29 species, 3 hybrids|
* = cultivated species
Taxonomic Treatment of the Genus
The taxonomy of the Avena species needs further clarification in order to create a consistent system for communication. The publication of Baum (1977) will be used for the treatment of wild species. For the cultivated species of the genus, the research conducted at the N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry at St. Petersburg will be taken into consideration (Kobyljanskij and Soldatov 1994). There exists some confusion regarding the names of widespread cultivated species. For example, the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD 1998) lists four cultivars of oat under Avena nuda, but these cultivars obviously do not belong to the diploid species A. nuda L., but are hulless cultivars of the hexaploid species A. sativa, which can be classified as A. sativa subsp. nudisativa (Husnot.) Rod. et Sold. The Canadian list of varieties, therefore, lists some of these varieties under the informal name "Hulless Spring Oat", which is more informal than the OECD, but at least correct. Also, the OECD lists two cultivars of the species A. byzantina C. Koch, a species not acknowledged as such by Baum (1977) nor the USDA-GRIN system, but which is still used by many European taxonomists to distinguish more primitive, but drought-resistant oat types from the more common A. sativa L. These examples show, that the proper species naming is essential and the characterization of the PGRC oat collection will generate better insight into these questions.
The PGRC oat collection is unique in the world and of special interest to Canada. Oat breeding takes place at four Centres across Canada (Lacombe, Ottawa, Saskatoon, and Winnipeg) along with pathology and quality research. At present there are 61 cultivars of oat registered in Canada. The OECD (1998) lists 351 cultivars of oat. However, many of these cultivars are closely related to each other and the PGRC collection is an important source for genetic diversity. The germplasm preserved at PGRC can be more effectively used, if more data about the collection is accessible to the public. The collection needs rejuvenation to prevent loss of valuable genetic resources. Comments of breeders, taxonomists, research scientists, and others on the project outlined are very much welcomed.
Baum, B. R. 1977. Oats: wild and cultivated. A monograph on the genus Avena L. (Poaceae). Biosystematics Research Institute, Department of Agriculture, Research Branch. Monograph No. 14, Ottawa.
Kobyljanskij, V. D. and V. N. Soldatov (eds.). 1994. Flora of Cultivated Plants (Russ.), Oat. Vol. 2, Part 3. Kolos, Moscow.
Moxon, S. (ed.). 1993. Rules for Testing Seeds. Association of Official Seed Analysts. Journal of Seed Technology 16, 1-72.
OECD. 1998. List of cultivars eligible for certification 1998. Internet: http://www.oecd.org/agr/code/index.htm
USDA. 1999. World Economic Plants in GRIN.
Table of Contents
Production of Microsatellite Markers for Oat (Avena sativa L.)
Cheng-Dao Li, Brian G. Rossnagel, and Graham J. Scoles
Department of Plant Sciences & Crop
Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan
51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8
Microsatellite DNA, also defined as Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) DNA, is abundant and highly polymorphic in eukaryotic genomes. The large number of alleles that can be identified at a microsatellite locus allows for greater power in comparing molecular maps across crosses. Microsatellite markers should also have greater cross-applicability than other markers. Unfortunately, microsatellite-containing loci are difficult and time-consuming to identify. The major challenge to developing microsatellite markers is to obtain sequence information adjacent to the microsatellite. In a previous study, we constructed several microsatellite-enriched libraries. In this article we report on an improved microsatellite enrichment method; the synthesis of 44 microsatellite primer sets, evaluation of polymorphism of these primers in 12 Avena species and 20 oat cultivars and testing for polymorphism of the 44 oat and 54 barley microsatellite primer sets in the Kanota X Ogle and Marion X Terra mapping populations.
Microsatellite Enrichment Method Improvement
In a previous study (Li CD et al. 1998, Proc. Canadian Plant Molecular Biology Conference, Edmonton, pp. 34) we constructed (GAA/CTT)n, (AG/CT)n, and (AC/TG) enriched libraries. These libraries had several shortcomings, including: 1) 20% of clones were duplicates in the library; 2) 28% were imperfect microsatellite clones; and 3) microsatellites were relatively short (from 6 to 26 repeats with most of them around 15).
To solve these problems, we made several modifications to the original method (R. L. Jarret et al., Genome 40: 433-441) as follows: 1) we increased the starting DNA to 6 g, but eliminated the first round of PCR; 2) we increased the hybridization temperature from 55°C to 75°C, but decreased the hybridization time from 60 to 20 min; and 3) we increased the washing stringency from 6X SSC to 1X SSC. The resulting libraries (AC and AG repeats) contained more than 80% microsatellite clones after prescreening by PCR using the microsatellite oligo as an internal primer. The microsatellite clones contain 15 to 36 repeats. These libraries should provide enough SSR clones for construction of a saturated microsatellite linkage map and subsequent genetic analysis of oat.
Sequencing Microsatellite Clones and Designing Primers
Sixty clones have been sequenced from different
libraries. Fifty-four clones contained microsatellite sequences. However,
seven were repeat clones and three did not have the primer sequence at
one end. In total, 44 primer sets were designed using Lasergene software
(DNAstar, U.S.A.) and subsequently synthesized. The primer sequence, repeat
types and loci amplified in
Avena are summarized in Table 1.
Table 1. Summary of oat microsatellite
|Primer sequence||Repeat type||Loci||Size bp||Tm|
|5'GGA TCC TCC ACG CTG TTG A
5'CTC ATC CGT ATG GGC TTT A
5'TGA ATT CGT GGC ATA GTC ACA AGA
5'AAG GAG GGC ATA GGG AGG TAT TT
5'CTG GTC ATC CTC GCC GTT CA
5'CAT TTA GCC AGG TTG CCA GGT C
5'GGT AAG GTT TCG AAG AGC AAA G
5'GGG CTA TAT CCA TCC CTC AC
5'TTG TCA GCG AAA TAA GCA GAG A
5'GAA TTC GTG ACC AGC AAC AG
5'AAT GAA GAA ACG GGT GAG GAA GTG
5'CCA GCC CAG TAG TTA GCC CAT CT
5'GTG AGC GCC GAA TAC ATA
5'TTG GCT AGC TGC TTG AAA CT
5'CAA GGC ATG GAA AGA AGT AAG AT
5'TCG AAG CAA CAA ATG GTC ACA C
5'CAA AGC ATT GGG CCC TTG T
5'GGC TTT GGG ACC TCC TTT CC
5'AAA ATC GGG GAA GGA AAC C
5'GAA GGC AAA ATA CAT GGA GTC AC
5'TCG TGG CAG AGA ATC AAA GAC AC
5'TGG GTG GAG GCA AAA ACA AAA C
5'TGC TGA AGT GAA CAA TCG C
5'CCT TCT CCA ACA ACT CTA C
5'CGG CGT GAT TTG GGG AAG AAG
5'CTA GTA ACG GCC GCC AGT GTG CTG
5'GTG GTG GGC ACG GTA TCA
5'TGG GTG GCG AAG CGA ATC
5'GTG ACC GTA AAC GAT AAC AAC
5'AAG CAA GAC GCG AGA GTA GG
5'CGG GTT GGC ATC GAC TAT
5'TGA CCA GGC TCT AAC ACA
5'CGA GAT TTC GGT GTA GAC
5'CCG GGA ATT AAC GGA GTC
5'CAA TGT CGT CGG TGT GAG TTT
5'TAC GAG TGT GGC ACG AGC
5'ATA GAA CGG CAT GAT AAC GAA ATA
5'GCG CGA CAA CAG GAC CTT C
5'TGT CGA TTT CTT TAG GGC AGC ACT
5'TCG CGA GAA AGA TGG AAA GGA GA
5'ACG TTGGTC TCG GGT TGG
5'AAA TCC TTG ACT TCG CTC TGA
5'ATT GTA TTT GTA GCCC CCA GTT C
5'AAG AGC GAC CCA GTT GTA TG
5'TCT TTA AGG ATT TGG GTG GAG
5'AAT CTT CGA GGG TGA GTT TCT
5'GTT ATT GAT TTC CTG ATG TAG AGA
5'AGA GCC AAG AAA GCA ACT G
5'AGC CTG GAC ATG TAA TCT GGT
5'AGC CCT GGT CTT CTT CAA CA
5'ATA AAG GGG GCA TTG GAT T
5'AAC ATA TTG GGC ATT CAC AT
5'CAA AGG CCA AAT GGT GAG
5'CCG CAA AGT CAT ATG GAG CAT
5'GAC CTC TTG AGT AAG CAA CG
5'TGG TCT TCC TAT CCA CAA TG
5'TCC CGC AAA ATC ATC ACG A
5'AAG GGA GCA TTG GTT TTG TT
5'TGA AGA TAG CCA TGA GGA AC
5'GTG CAA ATT GAG TTT CAC G
5'GCA AAG GCC ATA TGG TGA GAA
5'CAT AGG TTT GCC ATT CGT GGT
5'AGT GAA GGC GAT GGC GAA
5'GGA TAA TGC ACC CGA GTT GC
5'GCA AAG GTT AAA TGG TGA GA
5'GCC AAC ATA TTG TGC ATA CA
5'GAG TAA GCA AAG GTC AAA TG
5'GTT AGC ACT TCC CAC AAA ATC A
5'CGT GAC CTT TAT ATC ACC ACT
5'GTG GCT CGT GAT ATT GGC AC
5'CTT CCC GCA AAG TTA TCA T
5'AGG GGC ATT GGC TTT GTC
5'CTT CCA CAA GGCAAC GAG TC
5'GGT TAG CAC TTC CCG CAA A
5'TGA TGA CCT CTT GAG TAA GCA
5'TGC CTT TCG TGG ACT TAC TA
5'TTG GGC ATG CCC TTG TT
5'GCC TTG GAG AGT AAA TTC TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM
5'CTC TGG GGG TGG TAG TTC CT
5'GAA AGA CAG GCC TCC ACA AAT
5'CCA AAG GAA ACA AGT CAA TAG
5'TTC CCG CAA AGT CAT CAT
5'GCT TCC CGC AAA TCA TCA T
5'GAG TAA GCA AAG GCC AAA AAG T
5'AGC CCC TAC AAA GCC ATC A
5'CAA GCA AAG GAC GAA CAA TAG
5'CGT TGG CCC CTT TTT TCA GTG
5'AGG GGC ATT GGC TTT GTC C
Note: Loci, S: single locus; D: two loci;
M: multiple loci
Identifying Avena Species and Cultivars Using Microsatellite Markers
Fourty-four oat and 54 barley microsatellite primer sets were used to test for polymorphism across 12 Avena species (A. longiglumis, A. wiestii, A. canariensis, A. strigosa, A. clauda, A. abyssinica, A. barbata, A. maroccana, A. murphyi, A. sterilis, A. fatua, and A. byzantina) and 20 A. sativa cultivars (Brawn, Belle, Triple Crown, Calibre, AC Preakness, CDC Pacer, Jim, Gem, AC Juniper, AC Assiniboia, AC Stewart, 86Ab4582, AC Mustang, Novosadski4226, P8640A-1-31-5-4, CA921019, Ripon, Jerry, CDC Boyer, and Q287178). One to 12 alleles were identified in the different species and cultivars. Twenty-nine of 44 oat primer sets and 14 of 54 barley primer sets showed polymorphism.
A phylogenetic tree of the 12 Avena
species was constructed from the microsatellite polymorphisms using NTSYS
(Fig. 1). The four hexaploid species A. sativa, A. byzantina,
fatua, and A. sterilis were grouped into two subgroups, while
the diploid species A. longiglumis and A. strigosa, and the
tetraploid species A. maroccana and A. abyssinica showed
more divergence. In contrast, various phylogenetic trees of the 20 A.
sativa cultivars could be constructed depending on the parameters used
for NTSYS. One of them is shown in Figure 2.
1 Dendrogram of 12 Avena species constructed from microsatellite
Figure 2. Dendogram of 20 oat cultivars
constructed from the microsatellite polymorphisms.
Polymorphism of Microsatellite Primers in the Mapping Populations
Kanota, Ogle, Marion and Terra were tested for polymorphism of the microsatellite markers in the Kanota X Ogle and Marrion X Terra mapping populations. Twenty-four polymorphic primer sets were identified. Mapping is in progress.
Funding from Quaker Oats and NSERC is gratefully
Table of Contents
Groat Breakage in Milling Oat
B. G. Rossnagel
Crop Development Centre, University of
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A8
A study was conducted to investigate the genetic basis of oat groat breakage during milling and its association with other important milling quality traits. Results were also used to develop standard tests for use in selection and to evaluate an array of germplasm for breakage.
1. To evaluate western Canadian and introduced oat germplasm for genetic differences for groat breakage, determine the heritability of that trait and select for improved genotypes.
2. To evaluate different methodology to test groat breakage on a laboratory scale using laboratory dehullers to determine best laboratory method.
Results and Discussion
Samples were obtained from four different sets of trials grown at from 1-14 sites in Saskatchewan during 1995-1998. These included Oat Groat Breakage Project trials and Single Seed Descent Groat Breakage trials specifically designed for the project; the Saskatchewan Regional Variety Testing Project Oat trials and the Quaker Quality Oat Project trials. Samples were evaluated for percent groat breakage by hand separation of broken from whole groats within dehulled samples produced by one or both of the Quaker Lab Impact or Codema Lab dehullers. Samples were also evaluated for other important milling quality traits: test weight, grain weight, plumpness, percent groat (determined by hand dehulling and by Codema dehulling), percent protein, percent fat, and percent beta-glucan.
It was clearly demonstrated that genetic differences are a major factor in differences in groat breakage. This finding is new in that oat millers previously consistently identified environment as the major factor influencing the degree of breakage at their mills. This project confirmed that while growing environment has an influence, genotype is more significant. Groat breakage is moderately heritable and effective selection for low groat breakage is possible.
Among registered varieties tested, Derby was identified as most susceptible to breakage. While other registered varieties did not vary greatly, Elvy and AC Mustang were generally less susceptible. The recently interim registered genotype OA971-2 was identified as consistently less susceptible and that is a definite contributor to its high milling yield. Many different germplasm sources from a wide array of locations were also evaluated. Plenty of variation for groat breakage is available in the germplasm available to western Canadian breeding programs and much low breakage material is fortunately in locally adapted material. Some of the best breeding lines identified were OT367, OT368, and SA96314 from the CDC program; OA971-2 and OA971-7 from the AAFC, Ottawa program; OT283 from the AAFC Winnipeg program; 86Ab4582 from the USDA-ARS Aberdeen program; and Triple Crown, Elvy, and OT546 from the Svalov-Weibull, Sweden program.
Analysis of milling quality trait relationships revealed that breakage was not associated with test weight, percent groat, or percent protein. One positive relationship for which the project had limited data, and which was not strong was the indication that low breakage may be associated with higher beta-glucan.
On the negative side was the consistent strong relationship of low breakage with high fat and with smaller, thin grain. These relationships are undesirable for milling quality and for producers, since larger seeded, plump grain is superior for other reasons. Fortunately the project demonstrated diligent selection will allow breeders to develop large seeded, plump, high milling yield genotypes with acceptable low groat breakage. Very large grain size and plumpness may have to be slightly compromised to achieve very low breakage, however, genotypes such as the CDC breeding line OT373 have very acceptable levels of breakage, yet has the largest, plumpest grain and highest milling yield of current Western Canadian Oat Coop test candidate entries.
In terms of millers' desires for relatively low fat content the negative correlation of fat with breakage is a concern. However, the information garnered and applied within the project and elsewhere in the CDC oat breeding program, demonstrates that diligent selection can produce high milling quality genotypes with low breakage and relatively low fat. The CDC breeding lines OT373, OT377, OT382, and SA97559 are all examples where acceptable to superior levels of breakage are combined with fat levels similar to that of Derby, the level preferred by millers. On the other hand, the information collected within the project and elsewhere in the CDC program as a result of the project, suggests that combining low breakage with fat levels lower than Derby may be difficult. Thus, if millers, specifically wish to drop to those very low fat levels, the results suggest the need to adjust milling processes to deal with greater breakage.
Throughout the analysis both the Quaker Lab Impact dehuller and the Codema Lab dehuller were used to produce groat samples for evaluation of percent breakage. Either unit was competent in producing samples for breakage testing and the relationship between samples dehulled by the two units was positive and strong. Data from the Impact unit samples was somewhat less variable, however the consistency of results over sites and years was very good for both. Given the smaller sample size required by the Codema, and its relative ease and efficiency of operation, we recommend that the Codema be used for breakage evaluation in the CDC program.
Hand separation of broken from whole groats is time consuming and laborious. Attempts were made to use sieves and screens to assist. However, due to confounding with genetic and environmental effects of groat size and plumpness, it was shown that hand separation was the only effective evaluation method. Despite this, it was noted that subjective visual evaluation/rating of groat samples for breakage might be effectively used to separate samples based on the degree of breakage. Experiments were conducted to test this concept and it was shown that a simple visual rating of degree of breakage on a 1-9 scale was effective and dramatically more efficient for breeding and selection purposes. Groat samples from the Codema dehuller were superior for this type of evaluation as there was a tendency for overestimation of breakage in samples from the Impact dehuller. The results strongly suggest this subjective evaluation must be conducted on samples from repeated sites and years in experiments containing sufficient numbers of check varieties with known breakage differential. Visual selection is best suited for the discarding of high breakage types. Final selections in a breeding program and any genetic studies should still utilize actual separation of broken from non-broken groats.
1. Consistent heritable differences exist between oat genotypes for degree of groat breakage.
2. While growing environment can influence breakage genotype is more important.
3. Inheritance of groat breakage is quantitative.
4. Heritability of groat breakage is moderate thus selection should be practiced at later generations in a breeding program, however, it is sufficient that progress can be made.
5. Of currently available varieties tested in this project Derby was most susceptible to groat breakage. Triple Crown, Calibre, Jasper, and AC Juniper demonstrated lower breakage.
6. Genotypes with consistently very low groat breakage included: OA971-2, OA971-2, and OT368. Those with consistently low breakage included: Triple Crown, Jasper, OT546, Calibre, OT283, AC Juniper, and SA96314. Those with consistently high breakage included: Derby, OT362, and AC Francis. Those with very high breakage included: OA961-1 and OA970-10, both of which are exceptionally low in percent fat.
7. Higher groat breakage is consistently associated with lower fat content, although diligent selection will allow for the development of relatively low fat (similar to Derby) genotypes with lower and acceptable levels of breakage. It will likely be difficult to select genotypes with very low fat content (significantly less than Derby) and low susceptibility to breakage.
8. Higher groat breakage is associated with larger, plumper grain. This relationship with grain mass is not unexpected, however, diligent selection will allow for selection of high milling yield, plump, large seeded genotypes with acceptable levels of breakage.
9. Breakage was not associated with test weight, groat percent or protein content.
10. For purposes of genetic study, groat breakage should be estimated based on hand separation of broken vs. unbroken groats in dehulled oat samples.
11. Visual rating of dehulled samples for degree of breakage should be satisfactory for selection purposes in oat breeding programs, however, such measurements should be repeated over several years and locations.
12. Dehulled samples from either the Quaker
Lab Impact Dehuller or the Codema Lab Dehuller can provide appropriate
samples for determination of the degree of groat breakage by hand separation.
Table of Contents
Oat in Saskatchewan 1998
B. G. Rossnagel and G. J. Scoles
Crop Development Centre, University of
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A8
Saskatchewan remained the number one province in Canada in terms of oat acreage and production in 1998 with over 2,000,000 acres planted. The growing season was generally good with the major oat growing regions receiving adequate precipitation, although late season drought negatively affected grain quality, especially in later seeded crops. The 1998 harvest season was early and excellent with an extended warm-dry period from mid-August through early October. The bulk of the crop was harvested dry and was in storage before the end of September. Low oat prices will mean 1999 acreage will drop, however it is expected that nearly 2,000,000 acres will again be planted. Major varieties continue to be Calibre and Derby, although newer varieties CDC Boyer, AC Medallion, and AC Assiniboia are occupying increasing acreage. New varieties which are likely to have an impact over the next few years include CDC Pacer and Triple Crown. Also new on the scene will be the CDC forage varieties CDC Bell and CDC Baler, although certified seed of these will not be widely available until 2001 and 2002.
Oat R&D activity at the CDC continues to emphasize the development of high quality milling oat varieties. Recent special activities include a major project evaluating the genetics of groat breakage and involvement in the Quaker Quality Oat Project. The latter has led to a major addition of rust resistance as an objective in the CDC program with the first resistant lines moving to advanced yield trials in 1999. In addition to annual screening nurseries at the University of Guelph and Palmertson North, New Zealand, the CDC is attempting to utilize molecular marker assisted selection for crown rust resistance. With matching support for a portion of our QQOP funds from a NSERCC Collaborative Research and Development grant we have also initiated a project aimed at the development and application of DNA markers (in particular SSR's) for marker assisted oat breeding. A post doc, Dr. Cheng Dao Li, has joined the program for this activity.
A final major change for the CDC oat R&D project in 1998 was the retirement on June 30, 1998 of our grain quality colleague Dr. Ron Bhatty. While the bulk of Ron's work over his 28 year career at the CDC was on barley, he collaborated directly with oat breeding aspects related to quality measurement of traits such as fat, protein, and beta-glucan. In his stead the CDC has reorganized grain quality screening activities associated with all plant breeding programs and has employed two research officers for that activity. Dr. Gene Arganosa has joined the group and is responsible for grain quality screening activities associated with our oat, barley, and pulse crop programs.
The CDC oat project is funded by a Strategic
Grant from the Saskatchewan Department of Agriculture & Food Agriculture
Development Fund and by the University of Saskatchewan. The project receives
additional funding support from the Quaker Oats Company of Canada, the
Quaker Oats Company, Cargill, General Mills, CanOat Milling, and NSERCC.
We wish to gratefully acknowledge that support.
Table of Contents
Oat breeders Seek Southern Advantage
Nursery & Production Manager, Crop
& Food Research Ltd.,
Private Bag 4704, Christchurch, New Zealand
Ph 64 3 3256 400; fax 64 3 3252 074
Oat breeders wanting to slash the time needed to produce finished cultivars have been taking advantage of New Zealand's southern hemisphere summer to keep their lines growing year-round.
Out-of-season production work has been increasing steadily for cereals and pulses at Crop & Food Research's nurseries which are located in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. The winter nurseries have been in business for 25 years with work spanning single-seed through to large scale multiplication.
Northern hemisphere breeders have found the New Zealand location a major advantage. Apart from a favourable exchange rate, stable social and political environment, the country lies between 40.2 and 43.3 degrees South - ideal mid-latitude growing conditions.
Quality is the key to Crop & Food Research's operation with nurseries' staff having a clear understanding of the needs of clients - especially for seed purity and high quality information and confidentiality. For disease identification or other problems nursery staff can call on the company's pool of internationally recognized scientists.
Oat-breeder clients can select for resistence to crown rust, BYDV, stem rust, and bacterial blight. On the other hand, a full fungicide programme can be used to ensure maximum yield. The nursery programme uses both Hege and Wintersteiger drilling and harvest equipment.
Crop & Food Research is able to import cereals directly into New Zealand for growing on its research stations. Return shipment is also quick with daily flights to most northern hemisphere countries from Christchurch, close by Crop & Food Research's research farm.
More information is available from our
Table of Contents
New Catalogue of Avena World VIR Collection*
I. G. Loskutov
N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry,
44, Bolshaya Morskaya St., St. Petersburg, 190000, Russia
For plant breeders very important to use proper material in their work. For such purposes we compiled catalogue of oat gene stock collection.
This catalogue consists of reference information about more than 250 accessions and cultivars of oat with more than 530 different identified alleles of genes. It includes more important agronomical characters (genes) Avenin content (Av), Ditylenchus dispaci reaction (Dd), Dwarfness (Dw), Erysiphe graminis reaction (Eg), Heterodera avenae reaction (Ha), Helminthosporium victorae reaction (Hv), Naked seed (N), Puccinia coronata reaction (Pc), Puccinia graminis reaction (Pg), Pseudomonas coronafaciens reaction (Psc), Ustilago kolleri and avenae reaction (U), etc.
The genes, or loci, recognized are listed alphabetically by symbol. The data given after each symbol of loci (together with synonym of this genes) is usually. They are descriptions of genes symbols, specific characters this loci (race, etc.), heritability of loci, name of cultivar or line included this loci, number of VIR catalogue and name of species of this accessions and reference of this gene.
It contains Introduction, List of gene stock collection, Alphabetic list of accessions of gene stock collection and Reference.
Unfortunately our catalogue is in Russian, but we can distribute it with English remarks in written or electronic form or we ready to translate it all for finance support.
*I. G. Loskutov and V. E. Merezhko. 1997. Catalogue of world VIR collection. Oat. Fasc.686. (Gene stock collection with genes controlled biological, morphological, biochemical, and agricultural characters). St-P. 83 pp. (russ.)
Fax: (7-812) 311 87 62
Table of Contents
Response of Oat Species on Gibberellic Acid
I. G. Loskutov
N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry,
44, Bolshaya Morskaya St., St. Petersburg, 190000, Russia
Genetic resources of oat species are characterized by wide diversity in their morphological and commercial characters. Genes controlling these characters have been used to improve cultivated forms of oats. At present a number of wild and cultivated species with different levels of ploidy are used as donors of valuable characters, which is determined by an increasing genetic erosion. Some of them possess such priceless agricultural traits as dwarfness (Federizzi and Qualset 1989).
We continue to find new sources of dwarfing genes (Dw-4, Dw-6, and Dw-7) among adapted and exotic cultivars and wild species. In continuation of the study of the genetic collection with reference to plant height, we have started examination of wild species of oat for reaction to gibberellic acid. For the present study we have used rapid method for seedling response on exogenous gibberellin supply (Gale and Gregory 1977).
We evaluate for this response more than 100 semi-dwarf accessions of wild and cultivated of 11 oat species with different ploidy levels and with plant height less than 60-70 cm. The accessions belong to wild diploids - A. ventricosa, A. pilosa, A. clauda, A. longiglumis, A. wiestii, A. canariensis; tetraploids - A. vaviloviana, and hexaploids - A. occidentalis; cultivated tetraploids - A. abyssinica and hexaploids - A. sativa and A. byzantina (with Dw-4, Dw-6, and Dw-7 genes).
Preliminary results witness to the availability of identified accessions with all ploidy levels which show sensitivity to gibberellic acid. Worth mentioned accession of diploid wild species A. ventricosa it was insensitive to this treatment only. We will test this result once more and continue this evaluation further.
Fax: (7-812) 311 87 62
Table of Contents
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
National Small Grains Collection Activities
H. E. Bockelman
USDA-ARS National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility, Aberdeen
PI Assignments in oats, January 1998
- May 1999
All accessions are Avena sativa
|PI||606293||HAKEA||Australia||New South Wales|
|PI||602968||BLAZE||United States||Illinois||CSR, PVP|
|PI||603843||RISER||United States||South Dakota||PVP|
|PI||604239||TAMO 397||United States||Texas||PVP|
|PI||604674||SECRETARIAT LA 495||United States||Louisiana||CSR|
|PI||605697||X451-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605698||X451-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605629||X440-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605637||X455-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605645||X466-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605651||X487-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605659||X434-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605667||X446-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605675||X453-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605683||X443-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605691||X405-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605555||X396-1-B5-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605563||X408-1-B3-7||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605571||X407-1-B3-8||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605577||X403-1-B3-7||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605585||X482-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605593||X486-1-B||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605601||X491-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605609||X445-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605617||X452-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605481||X352-1-B3-1-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605489||X290-1-B3-4-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605497||X397-1-B3-9||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605505||X386-1-B5-11||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605513||X384-1-B4-4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605521||X342-1-B-2-2-1-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605529||X311-1-B3-2-3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605537||X305-1-B5-2-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605545||X397-1-B5-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605623||X434-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605624||X435-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605625||X435-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605626||X437-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605627||X438-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605628||X438-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605630||X446-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605631||X446-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605632||X446-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605633||X444-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605634||X444-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605635||X447-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605636||X449-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605638||X457-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605639||X457-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605640||X459-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605641||X464-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605642||X464-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605643||X464-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605644||X464-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605646||X475-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605647||X476-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605695||X408-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605696||X487-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605648||X477-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605649||X479-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605650||X485-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605652||X478-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605653||X481-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605654||X483-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605655||X483-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605656||X484-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605657||X486-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605658||X434-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605660||X434-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605661||X434-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605662||X437-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605663||X440-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605664||X444-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605665||X444-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605666||X446-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605668||X449-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605669||X450-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605670||X450-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605671||X452-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605672||X452-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605673||X453-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605674||X453-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605676||X454-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605677||X454-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605678||X454-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605679||X456-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605680||X437-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605681||X438-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605682||X440-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605684||X447-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605685||X456-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605686||X459-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605687||X459-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605688||X464-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605689||X405-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605690||X405-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605692||X406-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605693||X407-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605694||X407-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605549||X397-1-B5-5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605550||X397-1-B5-8||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605551||X397-1-B5-8||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605552||X397-1-B4-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605553||X299-1-B3-12-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605554||X299-1-B3-12-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605556||X402-1-B4-14||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605557||X402-1-B5-6||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605558||X403-1-B5-4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605559||X403-1-B4-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605560||X403-1-B4-3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605561||X403-1-B3-4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605562||X408-1-B3-7||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605564||X408-1-B3-8||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605565||X408-1-B4-4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605566||X347-1-B4-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605567||X383-1-B4-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605568||X394-1-B4-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605569||X407-1-B3-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605570||X407-1-B3-6||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605572||X407-1-B3-9||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605573||X432-1-B2-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605621||X459-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605622||X473-1-B5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605574||X407-1-B3-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605575||X403-1-B3-7||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605576||X403-1-B3-7||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605578||X212-1-B7-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605579||X383-1-B3-4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605580||X352-1-B3-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605581||X476-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605582||X477-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605583||X479-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605584||X480-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605586||X485-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605587||X487-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605588||X483-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605589||X484-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605590||X487-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605591||X484-1-B||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605592||X484-1-B||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605594||X453-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605595||X453-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605596||X453-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605597||X453-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605598||X453-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605599||X488-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605600||X490-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605602||X492-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605603||X494-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605604||X495-1-B2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605605||X497-1-B3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605606||X439-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605607||X440-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605608||X441-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605610||X447-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605611||X447-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605612||X448-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605613||X448-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605614||X449-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605615||X451-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605616||X451-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605618||X452-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605619||X455-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605620||X458-1-B4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605548||X397-1-B5-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605475||X350-1-B4-1-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605476||X361-1-B3-6-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605477||X384-1-B3-4-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605478||X402-1-B5-7||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605479||X403-1-B5-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605480||X408-1-B4-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605482||X386-1-B3-6||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605483||X386-1-B3-6||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605484||X325-1-B5-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605485||X342-1-B-2-2-1-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605486||X345-1-B3-18-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605487||X290-1-B3-4-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605488||X290-1-B3-4-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605490||X299-1-B5-2-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605491||X299-1-B5-2-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605492||X299-1-B5-2-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605493||X305-1-B5-7||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605494||X397-1-B3-9||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605495||X311-1-B3-2-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605496||X311-1-B3-2-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605498||X344-1-B5-6-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605499||X344-1-B5-6-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605500||X344-1-B5-6-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605501||X344-1-B5-6-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605502||X348-1-B3-10-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605503||X349-1-B4-2-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605504||X352-1-B3-1-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605506||X386-1-B5-14||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605507||X361-1-B3-4-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605508||X361-1-B5-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605509||X361-1-B5-4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605510||X363-1-B5-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605511||X387-1-B5-7||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605512||X384-1-B4-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605514||X384-1-B4-5||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605515||X392-1-B5-4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605516||X392-1-B5-4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605517||X383-1-B||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605518||X401-1-B4-4||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605519||X325-1-B5-4-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605520||X331-1-B-4-1-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605522||X269-1-B3-17-2-1-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605523||X468-1-B-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605524||X472-1-B-3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605525||X216-1-B2-11-B3-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605526||X216-1-B2-11-B3-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605527||X516-1-B2-4-B3-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605528||X311-1-B3-2-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605530||X345-1-B4-15-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605531||X345-1-B4-20-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605532||X345-1-B6-3||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605533||X290-1-B4-3-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605534||X305-1-B3-2-2||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605535||X305-1-B3-2-2-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605536||X305-1-B3-2-2-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605538||X305-1-B5-2-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605539||X305-1-B5-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605540||X305-1-B5-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605541||X305-1-B5-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605542||X305-1-B5-15-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605543||X305-1-B5-5-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605544||X397-1-B3-9-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605546||X397-1-B5-1||United States||South Carolina|
|PI||605547||X397-1-B5-2||United States||South Carolina|
CSR = Crop Science registration;
PVP = U.S. Plant Variety Protection
Cultivar Name Clearance
Breeders in the United States are encouraged to have proposed names for new cultivars checked for duplication. The National Small Grains Collection will be glad to assist you. Send the proposed name to: Harold E. Bockelman, USDA-ARS-NSGC, P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210, Fax: 208-397-4165, email@example.com. If desired, more than one name may be submitted, listed in order of preference. This will save considerable time if a conflict is found with the first name. Available records (GRIN, CI/PI cards, variety files, etc.) here at Aberdeen are checked for conflicts with the proposed name. If a conflict is found (previous use of the name for that crop), the breeder is requested to submit a different name. If no conflicts are found, the requested name is forwarded to the Federal Seed Lab, Agricultural Marketing Service where the proposed name is checked against the databases they maintain. The Agricultural Marketing Service does not guarantee that its findings are the final word since there is no single, complete name database. This clearance procedure generally requires about four weeks. Trademark searches should be done by the breeder online at http://www.uspto.gov.
Elite Germplasm Requested
Breeders are encouraged to consider submitting their elite lines for inclusion in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC). Of special interest are lines that have been in uniform nurseries, but are not to be released as cultivars. Historically, uniform nurseries been the testing-grounds for the most advanced, elite germplasm from the various public and private breeding programs. Entries in uniform nurseries and other breeding materials that are never released as cultivars are still of potential value to breeders, pathologists, entomologists, and other researchers. Breeders should submit 200-500 g of untreated seed to the NSGC (address: P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210). Seed from outside of the United States should be sent to the USDA Plant Germplasm Quarantine Center (address: Bldg. 580, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705) with enclosed forwarding directions. Provide a description of the germplasm, including: donor (breeder, institution); botanical and common name; cultivar name and/or other identifiers (breeder line or selection number, etc.); pedigree; descriptive information (of important traits and special characteristics); and growth habit. Assignment of a PI number and inclusion in the NSGC makes the germplasm available for research purposes to bona fide scientists in the U.S. and worldwide. Please note that a different procedure applies if you are obtaining Crop Science registration. Follow directions provided by the crop registration committee.
Guidelines for Exporting Seed
All seed sent to a foreign country should be inspected and receive a phytosanitary certificate. In most cases a fee payable to APHIS (Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service) is required to cover the cost of the Pc. You may wish to work with APHIS personnel in your state or your State Department of Agriculture to obtain a phytosanitary certificate. Also, please be aware of any import permits and additional declarations that certain importing countries may require to accompany the shipment.
Guidelines for Importing Seed
Scientists importing seed should be aware
of any restrictions that apply. USDA-APHIS personnel can provide current
information on applicable restrictions. Oat scientists should be aware
that Avena sterilis is classified as a Noxious Weed in the U.S.
and, thus, requires a permit from USDA-APHIS for receiving seed and grow-outs.
Table of Contents
Evaluation of National Small Grains Collection Germplasm
Progress Report - Oats
H. E. Bockelman and D. M. Wesenberg*
National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility, Aberdeen
Systematic evaluation of accessions in the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) is coordinated by National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility (NSGGRF) staff at Aberdeen, Idaho. Descriptors appropriate for each of the principal small grains crop species - wheat, barley, oats, and rice - have been established in collaboration with the appropriate Crop Germplasm Committees. Field evaluation data are recorded on such descriptors as growth habit, number of days from planting to anthesis (heading), plant height, panicle density, lodging, straw breakage, shattering, and awn characteristics. Panicles are collected from each evaluation or nursery plot at maturity to facilitate detailed laboratory analysis for seed characters and for more precise determination of panicle descriptors than can be obtained under field conditions. Cooperative oat evaluations continued for reaction to crown rust and smut as well as beta-glucan, protein, and oil content.
Crown rust and smut evaluations are conducted at St. Paul, Minnesota under the direction of Dr. Howard W. Rines and colleagues at the University of Minnesota. Evaluations of oat accessions for beta-glucan, protein, and oil are conducted by Dr. David M. Peterson and staff at the USDA-ARS Cereal Crops Research Unit, Madison, Wisconsin. These important quality evaluations focus on a diversity of NSGC and other oat germplasm. Beta-glucan and protein data have been obtained for over 5000 NSGC oat accessions to date. In addition, oat entries grown in the Uniform Midseason Oat Nursery, the Uniform Early Oat Nursery, the Uniform Northwestern States Oat Nursery, and other cultivars or advanced lines grown in various trials at Aberdeen and Tetonia, Idaho since 1988 have been submitted for beta-glucan and protein evaluations. Evaluations of oil content have also been conducted in recent years.
Oat descriptors with data entered in the GRIN system are summarized below. No evaluations have been conducted to date for descriptors such as awn type, panicles per row, groat percent, winterhardiness, Helminthosporium avenae, leaf Septoria, stem Septoria, powdery mildew, and stem rust.
In related efforts, cooperative funding for the project entitled "Comprehensive Oat Improvement Through National Germplasm Enhancement" is established annually through Specific Cooperative Agreements or direct fund transfers in cooperation with the Oat Crop Germplasm Committee. Annual progress reports for this project are available in the CRIS system.
*The authors wish to acknowledge the important
contributions of the NSGGRF staff in this effort, with special thanks to
Glenda B. Rutger, Dave E. Burrup, Kay B. Calzada, Charles A. Erickson,
Santos Nieto, Kathy E. Burrup, Judy Bradley, and Carol S. Truman.
NATIONAL SMALL GRAINS COLLECTION
EVALUATION DATA ON GRIN - OATS
|Awn Frequency||Aberdeen, ID; Mesa & Maricopa, AZ||8,377|
|Beta-Glucan||Madison, WI & Aberdeen, ID||5,382|
|Bundle Weight||Aberdeen, ID||4,064|
|Cereal Leaf Beetle||Michigan, Indiana||7,684|
|Chromosome Number||Columbia, MO||4,410|
|Crown Rust (264A)||Ames, IA||10,391|
|Crown Rust (264B)||Ames, IA||10,397|
|Crown Rust (202)||Ames, IA||1,650|
|Crown Rust (Pc59)||Ames, IA||1,859|
|Crown Rust (Mult. A)||Ames, IA||2,082|
|Crown Rust (Mult. B)||Ames, IA||2,122|
|Crown Rust (Mult. C)||Ames, IA||4,237|
|Crown Rust (Mult. D)||Ames, IA||1,975|
|Crown Rust (Mult. E)||St. Paul, MN||2,590|
|Growth Habit||Aberdeen, ID||10,856|
|Heading Date||Aberdeen, ID||8,380|
|Hull Cover||Aberdeen, ID||6,818|
|Kernel Weight||Aberdeen, ID||4,811|
|Lemma Color||Aberdeen, ID||8,292|
|Panicle Density||Aberdeen, ID||8,396|
|Panicle Length||Aberdeen, ID||4,512|
|Panicle Type||Aberdeen, ID||8,383|
|Plant Height||Aberdeen, ID; Mesa & Maricopa, AZ||8,280|
|Protein||Madison, WI & Aberdeen, ID||5,381|
|Red Oat Classification||Aberdeen, ID||1,115|
|Shattering||Aberdeen, ID; Mesa & Maricopa, AZ||4,194|
|Spikelets Per Panicle||Aberdeen, ID||6,341|
|Straw Breakage||Aberdeen, ID; Mesa & Maricopa, AZ||6,569|
|Straw Color||Aberdeen, ID; Mesa & Maricopa, AZ||6,623|
|Straw Lodging||Aberdeen, ID; Mesa & Maricopa, AZ||8,372|
|Smut||St. Paul, MN||4,233|
|Test Weight||Aberdeen, ID||6,504|
Updated May 1999
Table of Contents
Oat Rusts in the United States in 1998
K.J. Leonard, D.L. Long, M.E. Hughes, D.H. Casper, and G.E. Ochocki
Cereal Disease Laboratory,
USDA-ARS, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org
Oat Stem Rust
On March 31, severe oat stem rust was observed in a 250-acre field of Harrison oats, 10 miles north of Uvalde, TX. In part of this field, stem rust had destroyed the oat plants and within two weeks the crop was totally lost to rust. The farmer had noticed the rust 6 weeks earlier and sprayed with a fungicide, but it didn't stop the rust development. The farmer said that when the winds were strong from the south, he could see the dust (spores) heading north. This oat field provided inoculum for areas farther north, but the lack of oat acreage in the central Great Plains tends to interrupt potential epidemics. In oat fields within a 20-mile radius of this field, no rust was observed on March 31.
In late March, traces of oat stem rust were observed in plots at Beeville and Beaumont, TX and Fairhope, AL. During the last week in April, oat stem rust was severe and overwintering centers of rust were found in oat varietal plots in northwestern Florida, southwestern Alabama, and central and northwestern Louisiana. Traces of oat stem rust were found in varietal plots in north central Texas, northeastern Louisiana, west central Mississippi, and southeastern and east central Alabama. This is the most widespread distribution of oat stem rust in the last 5 years in the southern U.S. This increase in oat stem rust may be partially due to increases in the acreage of stem rust-susceptible cultivars such as Harrison and Chapman. These cultivars are widely adapted and moderately resistant to crown rust but super susceptible to stem rust. Stem rust from these southern areas provided rust inoculum for susceptible oats growing further north.
In late May, stem rust severities ranging from 5 to 30% were reported on some elite oat lines at the Plains Experiment Station in southwestern Georgia. The stem rust appeared very late and did not affect the yield.
In early July, the next report of oat stem rust in the U.S. was in plots in eastern South Dakota and in a southwestern Minnesota field at trace to 5% severities. In late July, traces of oat stem rust were found in plots and fields in northwestern Minnesota and east central North Dakota. Losses to oat stem rust were minimal in the northern oat-growing area (Table 1).
Race NA-27, virulent to Pg-1, -2, -3,
-4, and -8, continued to be the predominant race in the U.S.
population (Table 2). Race NA-16, virulent to Pg-1, -3, and
identified from a collection made in an Alabama field. A new race, virulent
to Pg-1, -2, -3, -4, -8, -13, and likely -9 (avirulent to
-16, and -10), was identified from an isolate of a collection
made on spring oat in a South Dakota nursery. Further testing is underway
to verify virulence to Pg-9.
Oat Crown Rust
During the last week in March, crown rust was severe in southern Texas plots and fields. Sixty-percent severities were common on the most susceptible cultivars in nursery plots. In southern Texas fields, rust severities ranged from 1 to 20%, but on average, rust development was less than in 1997.
In late March, crown rust was light in varietal plots in southern Louisiana. Throughout the region from Georgia to Louisiana, rust development was much less than normal for late March, probably because heavy rains limited the spread of rust spores. In mid-April, crown rust was light in southeastern U.S. fields, where normally by this date it is severe. During mid-April, crown rust severities were less than 30% in susceptible oat plots in Baton Rouge, LA and Fairhope, AL.
In late April, crown rust was light and less widespread than normal from southeastern U.S. to central Texas. In southeastern U.S. and central Texas varietal plots, crown rust ranged from trace to 20%, while in oat fields severities were light (trace to 2%). This crown rust development is the least in the southern U.S. in the last 5 years. These southern areas provided little inoculum for areas further north in 1998.
Abundant well-developed pycnia were observed in the St. Paul, MN buckthorn nursery on April 23. Many of the infected leaves were just 1.0 to 1.5 cm long, which means that they were infected just as the buds were opening. This suggested that the release of basidiospores peaked early in 1998, relative to the development of the buckthorn leaves. In late April, well-developed aecia were found in the St. Paul buckthorn nursery, but dry weather limited development of new infection. Well-developed pycnia were found on buckthorn at the Fargo, ND buckthorn nursery during the last week in April.
The first uredinial infections on oat in the St. Paul, MN buckthorn nursery were found on May 14. This was 2-3 weeks earlier than normal. In east central South Dakota, pycnia on buckthorn were observed on May 7, and mature aecia were observed on May 13. These infections were very early in 1998 (nearly 2-4 weeks earlier than the last few years). Throughout the northern oat-growing area, aeciospores were a significant source of local inoculum in 1998.
Traces of crown rust were found on oat growing in the St. Paul, MN buckthorn nursery on June 2. Moderate crown rust infection (pycnia and aecia) was observed on buckthorn at the Casselton Station, Cass County, North Dakota on May 29. The majority of the aecia were releasing aeciospores. In early June, moderate aecial infections were found on buckthorn bushes in south central and southeastern Wisconsin. During the second week in June, traces of crown rust were found in southern Wisconsin fields. By June 15, crown rust was severe on the lower leaves of oat growing near the buckthorn bushes in the nursery on the University of Minnesota, St. Paul campus, but little rust had spread to the upper leaves. Cool weather in early June limited crown rust development.
By the fourth week in June, oat crown rust severities of 5% were reported in fields in northeastern Nebraska and northwestern Iowa and traces of rust were observed in fields in central South Dakota and southwestern Nebraska. Rust severities on flag leaves in oat plots ranged from traces in west central Minnesota to 15% in southeastern South Dakota. Crown rust severities of 30-40% were found on flag-1 leaves on susceptible oat cultivars in the buckthorn nursery in St. Paul. By late June, crown rust was severe on susceptible oat cultivars in the central Ohio nursery at Wooster.
During early July, crown rust severities ranged from trace to 5% in oat fields and trace to 20% on flag leaves in plots in eastern South Dakota, west central Minnesota and southern Wisconsin. By mid-July, 40-60% severities were observed in plots in east central South Dakota.
Although crown rust development started early in 1998 in the Midwest, the final severity was much less than in 1997. Buckthorns throughout eastern Minnesota were heavily infected, but the aecia were probably of forms of crown rust that infect wild grasses but not oat. Cool weather in June limited the increase of oat crown rust. When the weather turned hot in July, crown rust began to develop, but the oat plants matured rapidly before crown rust became severe. In 1998, most of the crown rust losses in the northern oat-growing areas were limited to oat cultivars that were planted late.
Heavy crown rust infections were found on smooth brome grass at several sites in 1998, near St. Paul, MN, which was unusual.
By the second week in June, crown rust had shown up on susceptible spreader strips adjacent to buckthorn hedges, but did not spread to later planted plots in southern Ontario, Canada because of extreme dry conditions. The buckthorn was not heavily infected, but adequate to initiate a good epiphytotic in the spreader strips.
In early April, light amounts of crown rust were found on wild oats in Sonoma County, CA. In early May, crown rust severities of 100% were reported in Yolo County oat plots in California. By mid-May, severities of 100% were found in plots of susceptible cultivars in regional plots in the central valley of California.
Frequencies of virulence to oat crown rust
differential lines with individual Pc genes in 1998 were generally
similar to those seen in recent years for collections from Texas, the southeast,
and the midwest. Relatively few collections were obtained from California
or Mexico in 1998, but the characteristic lower virulence to Pc14
and greater virulence to Pc45 and Pc54 noted in previous
years continued to distinguish these isolates from those of other regions
of North America. The disappearance of virulence to Pc58 from collections
from the southeast and the midwest in 1998 is notable. Virulence to Pc58
in the midwest dropped from 19% in 1994 to 11% in 1996, and O% in 1997
and 1998 (Table 3). However, virulence to Pc58 was still relatively
high in Texas in 1998. Another interesting change was the increase in frequency
of virulence to Pc52 to 20% in the midwest 1998 from less than 4%
in previous years. No virulence to Pc52 was found in Texas in 1998.
Surprisingly, the resistance of TAM-O-393 was not very effective against
crown rust isolates from California, although TAM-O-393 is still highly
resistant to crown rust in the midwest and southeast.
Table 1. Estimated losses in oat due to
rust in 1998
|Losses due to|
|Stem rust||Leaf rust|
|Total of above||2,777||61.4||167,847||71.0||2,179.1|
|U.S. % Loss||0.04||1.28|
*T = Trace
**NA = Not Available, therefore not included
in loss totals
Table 2. Races of Puccinia graminis
f. sp. avenae identified from oat in 1998
|Number of||Percentage of isolates of NA race1|
1See Martens et al., Phytopathology 69:293-294.
2A new race, virulent to
-2, -3, -4, -8, -13, and likely -9 (avirulent to Pg-15, -16,
was identified from an isolate of a collection made on spring oat in a
South Dakota nursery. Further testing is underway to verify virulence to
Table 3. Frequency of virulence to specific
genes in oat among isolates of Puccinia coronata collected
|Percentage of isolates virulent|
Table of Contents
Oat Production and Research in
D.D. Stuthman1, H.W. Rines1,2, R.L. Phillips1, K.J. Leonard2,3, D.V. McVey2,3, and R. Dill-Macky3
1Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of
411 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108;
2U.S. Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Service;
3Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota
Minnesota Acreage and Production in Recent Years
The oat acreage harvested in Minnesota in 1998 was estimated to be 310 000 acres producing a total of 19.5 million bushels of grain. The season was favorable resulting in an estimated average yield of 63 bu/A. These figures represent a slight increase in acreage over the last several years, perhaps in response to the latest Farm Bill which moves away from crop subsidies and thus reduces the disincentive to raise oats.
Major Research Efforts
Over the last several years, with the excellent cooperation and skills of Dr. Don McVey, we have accumulated a large group of oat genotypes which have given repeated observations of reduced crown rust infection. Fortunately, many of these lines come from our replicated yield nurseries so are also well adapted.
Briefly, the screening mechanism consists of inoculation of the oat plants in field plots, just as they are flowering, using a composite inoculum. The inoculation is repeated over four to five evenings. Upon infection, lines with few and small pustules are preferentially selected.
Some of these lines have been added to the Quaker International Nursery and many show similar or better reactions (compared to those in Minnesota) over all of the locations with crown rust infections. We are now intercrossing these lines with the expectation of increasing the rate- reducing resistance and that it will be more durable than that from major genes.
International Germplasm Exchange
The International Germplasm Exchange is now underway. Several regional uniform performance nurseries from the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Brazil comprise the first exchange. It is now being grown in Canada, South America, and Norway. This fall another group of lines will be accumulated from these same nurseries (new entries) and we also hope to add several more nurseries. All of the material will be available for review during the next International Oat Conference in New Zealand. The Oat Workers' Code of Ethics governs the exchange of the germplasm materials.
Oat × Maize Crosses
Ron Phillips and Howard Rines received a 3-year National Science Foundation Plant Genome grant for $1 800 000 to develop and characterize maize chromosome addition lines of oat and oat-maize radiation hybrids. The primary objective is to develop these materials, derived from oat × maize crosses, as tools for high resolution physical mapping and cloning of maize genes. However, the project should also benefit oat research in improved methods for oat doubled haploid production, identification of many new molecular markers in oat, and as a potential means of transferring valuable genes such as ones for disease resistance from maize to oat. The project involves two recently added postdocs, Ralph Kynast and Ron Okagaki, and two technicians, Suzanne Livingston and Charles Russell. Two postdocs previously with this project, Oscar Riera-Lizarazu and Evgueni Ananiev, now have positions at Oregon State University and at Pioneer Hi-Bred, Intl., respectively. Oscar is an Assistant Professor in the Crops and Soil Science Department at Oregon State, and Evgueni is a lab manager responsible for mapping maize genes at Pioneer.
Other Projects and Personnel
Vincent Robert completed his Ph.D. requirements in September of 1998 and is now a postdoc at UC-Davis. Vincent's thesis research utilized pairs of isolines generated from genotypes from the K × O mapping population heterozygous for markers thought to be adjacent to loci governing beta-glucan content. By comparing these pairs of isolines, he was able to verify markers closely linked to beta glucan loci and to estimate the gene size effect using allele substitution.
Claudia Castell completed her M.S. requirements in March of 1999. Claudia's thesis research involved completing several cycles of recurrent selection for slower crown rust development in our closed system population which had undergone seven cycles of selection for grain yield. Ultimately she compared the original 12 parents, C0, the 21 first cycle rust selections, C1R, and the 21 second cycle rust selections, C2R, for rust development under natural infection at Rosemount. Both cycles of selection reduced rust development compared to the previous one. She also noted reduced pustule number and size when the same materials were inoculated as adult plants in the greenhouse.
Claudia is now pursuing a Ph.D. in Plant Pathology under the direction of Deborah Samac.
Mary Ann Start is nearing completion on her M.S. research using a nearly complete oat monosomic set (20 of 21 possible) to assign linkage groups and unlinked RFLP markers to physical chromosome.
Gang Chen has collected two years of field and greenhouse data on adult plant crown rust resistance on a population of 154 F6-derived recombinant inbred lines of a cross of MN841801 (partial resistance) × Noble (susceptible). He is currently collecting marker data on this population to identify QTLs and associated markers for use in marker-assisted-selection for slow rusting.
Susanne Groh, a postdoctorate on the Quaker Quality Oat project
from September 1997 through 1999, has taken a corn breeding position with
Pioneer Hi-Bred, Intl. in her home country of Germany. At Minnesota she
carried out projects associating QTLs for oil content with polymorphisms
in candidate genes encoding the enzyme AC Case, and developing AFLP markers
for the Kanota × Ogle and Kanota × Marion linkage maps.
Table of Contents
Oat Breeding and Research in Ohio
R. W. Gooding*, L. D. Herald, K. G. Campbell, and B. Franchino 1998-1999
The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural
Research & Development Center
214A Williams Hall, OARDC, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, Ohio 44691-4096, U.S.A.
E-mail: email@example.com, Phone: 330-263-3885, Fax: 330-263-3887
1998 Ohio Oat Growing Conditions and Production
In Ohio, spring oat is normally planted in early April. In 1998, the month of April was warmer and wetter than normal. Because of wet soils, planting dates were a bit later than in the previous year but due to warmer conditions, emergence of the crop was ahead of the 5-year average. Warmer than average temperatures and average precipitation throughout the State continued to promote above normal development of the crop so that oat heading was about 15% ahead of the 5-year average. During the last week of May, 76% of the oat crop was rated as good or excellent by the Ohio Agricultural Statistics Service (OASS). For most of the State, the month of June had near normal temperatures with above average precipitation. During this period, the condition of the oat crop deteriorated somewhat so that by the end of June, only 68% of the crop was rated by the OASS as either good or excellent. Harvest of the crop was essentially completed by the second week of August, eight days ahead of the previous year and five days ahead of the 5-year average. Diseases during the growing season generally did not reach economic thresholds but lodging caused by severe thunderstorms was a problem throughout the State.
Average yield per acre in Ohio was down compared to 1997 by over 15% at 66 bu/a. Harvested acres were down as well by 10% at 90,000 acres. Overall production in 1998 was therefore 24% lower than 1997 levels at just over 5.9 million bushels.
Oat Breeding in Ohio, 1998
Due to a lack of support and funding, the Ohio oat breeding effort has been substantially diminished over the last several years. While we have abandoned our crossing program for the time being and are no longer conducting evaluations of early generation material, there are still some advanced lines with potential for release being evaluated.
As of the 1999 growing season, three experimental lines: OH1128 (PA8398-17361/'Ogle'); OH1065 (IL75-5743/X4041-5); and OH1149 (IL80-3072/P786901-5-3-4) are being grown for Breeder Seed. Of the three, OH1149 appears to be the most promising at this time. A decision on its potential for release will be made following the 1999 season.
In 1998, elite breeding lines and cultivars were evaluated in a State-wide performance evaluation test conducted at four locations in Ohio. Results were published as: OARDC Horticulture & Crop Science Series 200: Ohio Performance Trials of Spring Oat Cultivars. Results are also available by visiting our web site (http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/smgrain).
Additional nurseries in the program included:
the Uniform Early Oat Performance Nursery, the Uniform Midseason Oat Performance
Nursery, the Cooperative Naked Oat Test, and five additional breeding nurseries
grown at Wooster for the evaluation of elite germplasm in the Ohio breeding
Table of Contents
Oat Research in South Dakota
Dale L. Reeves
Plant Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings,SD
Oat acreage recovered slightly in 1998 to 420,000 acres, however this was our third lowest planted. The good news was the statewide record yield of 67 bushel/acre. This was almost 22% above the yield of the previous year. Rusts were spotty as some localities had considerable stem rust while crown rust was prevalent in others.
Due to the continuous field losses to crown rust, our breeding program emphasizes crown rust resistance. Dawn Gustafson is looking at the effects of pyramiding past crown rust genes and is working with Yue Jin. She now has 8-parent crosses with different rust genes in each parent. Progeny will be tested to determine the effectiveness of pyramiding these single genes. Austin Magnuson is working jointly with Ron Gelderman on a fertility question. He added 0-20-40 and 80 lbs phosphorous (P)/acre to Jerry oats grown under long term no-till conditions on a soil low in P. Yields increased slightly with increasing rates of broadcast P, but only had a two bushes increase at the high rate. When P was placed with the seed, there was a four bushel/acre increase over broadcasting. Test weight was not affected. Micorrhizae were examined on oat roots at one location, but no significant differences were found. The test will be repeated in 1999. In addition, the residual effects of the same rates of P applied in 1998 to no-till soybeans will be examined.
Grain characteristics that we emphasize in the breeding program include
large uniform white kernels with high test weight and thin hulls.
Return to Table of Contents
Oat Breeding, Genetics and Molecular Genetics Research
H.F. Kaeppler and R.D. Duerst
Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, U.S.A.
Wisconsin farmers planted 430,000 acres of oats in 1998. Total oat production was 18.3 million bushels, accounting for about 11% of U.S. oat production. Approximately 300,000 acres were harvested for grain and straw in 1998. The majority of the remaining oat acreage was harvested for forage. Planted oat acreage was down 15% from 1997, while total production was approximately 9% lower than in 1997. Planted oat acreage is projected to increase 5% in 1999. The average oat yield was 61 bushels per acre, similar to average yields in 1997. Cool temperatures and adequate rainfall were generally prevalent across the growing area in 1998. High temperatures during panicle formation may have contributed to higher incidence of blast observed in 1998. Crown rust was prevalent throughout the majority of Wisconsin, contributing to lower yield in susceptible oat varieties. Stem rust was detected at a low level of incidence, resulting in low overall impact on yield.
Acreage of oats grown by Certified Seed producers indicates that Wisconsin varieties Gem, Dane, and Belle will be the leading varieties grown in 1999. The new Wisconsin oat variety "Vista" was released to Certified Seed growers for planting in 1999. Vista is high yielding, mid-late maturing, and highly resistant to crown rust under Wisconsin growing conditions.
Members of the UW SmallGrains Breeding,
Genetics and Molecular Genetics Project are conducting research in the
following areas: Breeding for high yielding, disease resistant, milling
quality oat varieties; breeding for high yielding, disease resistant, high
quality forage oats; genetic mapping of agronomic, grain quality, and disease
resistance traits in oat using molecular markers; collaborative development
of SSR markers for oat; genetic engineering of oat with transgenes affecting
disease resistance and grain quality; isolation of tissue specific promoters;
and development of improved transformation protocols for efficient production
of transgenic cereals including oat. Members of the project conducting
the research described above are: H.F. Kaeppler (P.I), R.D. Duerst (Research
Program Manager), K. Canada (Research Specialist), M. Mendoza (Postdoctoral
Research Associate), A. Carlson (Graduate Student), M. Federico (Graduate
Student), S. Zhu (Graduate Student), and E.B. Buyukanal (Visiting Scientist).
Table of Contents
Crop Development Centre, University of
CDC Baler, a new forage oat cultivar developed at the Crop Development Centre (CDC) as part of a collaborative project with the Agricore and the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, was released in 1999.
CDC Baler, a sister selection of CDC Bell, comes from the cross Av2401/2 × SO86044 made at the CDC in 1989. Av2401/2 is an Avena sativa breeding line supplied to the CDC by the oat R&D project at Aberystwyth, Wales and is an A.magna derivative. SO86044 is a CDC breeding line from the cross W79478 × Calibre, where W79478 is a breeding line from the AAFC, Winnipeg program. CDC Baler was selected using a modified pedigree process with emphasis on forage yield and quality and was first selected for its notably larger than normal leaf area and long stay-green features. It was retained for additional testing as it demonstrated consistently superior greenfeed quality.
Like CDC Bell, CDC Baler has been developed primarily for use by producers in western Canada as an annual cereal crop for "greenfeed" (oat hay) purposes. Each year some 300 000 acres of the western Canadian oat crop is destined for that end use. CDC Baler is characterized by a long stay green period and very wide, long and thick leaves. It is tall, relatively late maturing and extremely "growthy". It has good forage yield and better quality than standard grain oat cultivars and than CDC Bell. Over several years of testing CDC Baler consistently had lower levels of ADF and NDF and higher levels of TDN than CDC Bell and regular grain oat checks such as Derby and AC Mustang. CDC Baler was also higher in total dry weight yield. It is very susceptible to both stem and leaf rust, thus should be grown only in non-rust areas.
CDC Baler was developed a part of a joint effort funded by the Agricore and the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, and has been exclusively released to those two agencies for Pedigreed seed production and marketing. Certified seed should be available for the spring of 2002.
CDC Baler is the sixth variety released
by the CDC program since 1983, and is the second released specifically
for forage purposes. Other varieties released include Calibre (1983), Derby
(1988), CDC Boyer (1994), CDC Pacer (1996), and CDC Bell (1998).
Table of Contents
H.F Kaeppler, R.D. Duerst, R.A. Forsberg
Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, U.S.A.
Vista is a new, high yielding, mid-late
season oat tested as Wisconsin selection X6165-6. The pedigree of Vista
is: Ogle/MO 07468/2/Centennial with the final cross having been made at
Madison in the summer of 1984. It has been tested statewide since 1994
and in the drill plot nursery since 1995. Vista has also been an entry
in the Uniform Midseason Oat Performance Nursery (UMOPN) in 1996, 1997,
and 1998. In statewide tests, Vista has had consistently high grain yields,
ranking 1st in 1998, 1997-98, and 1996-98. Vista has performed
well in the UMOPN, ranking in the top group (of 36) in each of the three
years. Test weight of Vista is similar to Belle, while heading date is
about 2 days later than Ogle and 2 days earlier than Belle. Plant height
is about the same as Troy, while lodging is similar to Gem and Ogle. BYDV
tolerance is slightly poorer than Belle, but better than Dane. Crown rust
resistance is excellent. Three classes of seed will be allowed, Breeder,
Foundation and Certified. Additionally, Vista will be a licensed variety,
therefore only licensed growers can produce Certified Seed of Vista. Vista
is also being tested in Canada by Cargill Seed Co. for application of Plant
Breeders Rights and potential registration.
Return to Table of Contents