January 2021: Vernalization genes class curated from the Wheat Gene Catalogue

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The following gene class has been added to GrainGenes, based on the information in the Wheat Gene Catalogue (WGC). This includes all genes, along with any associated alleles, references, loci and germplasm sources:

Vernalization is the acceleration of flowering that occurs when sensitive plants are exposed to periods of cold temperatures. The requirement for vernalization is particularly important for winter cereals to avoid cold injury of the sensitive floral organs during the winter (McIntosh et al, 2013). Vernalization genes determine winter/spring growth habit in temperate cereals and play important roles in plant development and environmental adaptation (Chu et al., 2011).

Genetic analyses have identified three genes that control the vernalization requirement in wheat and barley; VRN1, VRN2 and FT (VRN3). VRN1 is induced by vernalization and accelerates the transition to reproductive development at the shoot apex. FT is induced by long days and further accelerates reproductive apex development. VRN2, a floral repressor, integrates vernalization and day-length responses by repressing FT until plants are vernalized (Trevaskis et al., 2007).

In hexaploid wheat, the three homoeologues of the VRN1 gene, VRN-A1, VRN-B1, and VRN-D1 on the long arms of chromosomes 5A, 5B, and 5D, respectively, are major genes determining growth habit (Chu et al., 2011).

Vernalization geneclass at Komugi