Volume 47

August 2001

Edited by James Chong, Cereal Research Centre, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Winnipeg.

Special thanks to Miss Joanne Schiavoni for assistance in word processing and to Drs. Victoria Carollo and Dave Matthews for assistance in posting the Oat Newsletter on the Internet via a link from GrainGenes (http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/oatnewsletter/).

Please obtain the consent of the author(s) prior to citing information in the Oat Newsletter.



            Oat Newsletter Announcement

            Instructions to Contributors for Volume 47

            A Statement of Purpose of the Organization of the American Oat Workers Conference

            American Oat Workers Conference Committees 1998-2002

            Minutes of the American Oat Workers Conference Business Meeting November 13, 2000, Lincoln, New Zealand

            Minutes of the 6th International Oat Conference Business Meeting November 13, 2000, Lincoln, New Zealand

            International Oat Worker's Code of Ethics For Oat Germplasm Exchange

            North Carolina 2002 American Oat Workers Conference



Breeding improved oat varieties for feed, milling, and hay end-use in south eastern Australia - P.K. Zwer, S.D. Hoppo, T.M. Hoppo, D.K. Schaefer, J.E. Emery, P.J. Smith, and D.J. Edwards

Development of doubled haploid technology for oat breeding and gene mapping - P.A Davies, P.K. Sidhu, T. Aung, J.E. Emery, and P.K. Zwer

Identification of molecular markers linked to disease resistance and quality traits for use in marker assisted selection - K. Williams, K. Willsmore, S. Olson, P. Zwer, S. Hoppo, and J. Emery

Items from Australia - C.W. Wellings, R.F. Park, and Melinda Whale


New selection strategies for breeding high quality oats for the food industry - Elizabeth Zechner



                      Spring oat populations for sale - Leslie Shugar


                          Oat breeding at the Cereal Research Centre of Agriculture & Agri-food Canada - Jennifer Mitchell Fetch

                          Oat crown rust in Canada in 2000 - James Chong

                          Genetics of Resistance to Crown Rust in a Partially Resistant Oat Line MN841801 - James Chong

                          Virulence Spectrum of Oat Stem Rust in 2000 - Tom Fetch


Holdings of Avena germplasm at Plant Gene Resources of Canada and status of the collection - A. Diederichsen, E. Timmermans, D.J. Williams, and K.W. Richards

                           Oat Breeding in the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture - Alfredas Kulikauskas and Jurate Sprainaitiene


                ST. PETERSBURG

                           Features of Aluminum Resistance in Oat Wild Species - I.G. Loskutov, I.A. Kosareva and E.V. Semenova



                          Evaluation of National Small Grains Collection Germplasm Progress Report - Oats - H.E. Bockelman and D.M. Wesenberg

                           National Small Grains Collection Activities - H.E. Bockelman


                          Oat Production and Research - D.D. Stuthman, H.W. Rines, D.V., McVey, R. Dill-Macky, R.L. Phillips, and K.J. Leonard

                          Oat Rusts in the United States in 2000 - K.J. Leonard, D.L. Long, M.E. Hughes, G.E. Ochocki, and L.A. Wanschura


Oat Newsletter Announcement

The Oat Newsletter is intended for informal communication among oat workers. Persons involved in any aspect of the oat industry and research, including production and breeding, pathology, biotechnology, and milling and processing, are invited to submit information about their programs in the Oat Newsletter.

All issues of the Oat Newsletter from Volume 44 onward will be published electronically in the Internet via a link from GrainGenes to the Oat Newsletter homepage at http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/oatnewsletter/. Printed paper versions will no longer be available. However, limited printed copies of the Oat Newsletter will be provided to those that do not have access to the Internet, on a cost-recovery basis. Requests should be sent to:

Dr. James Chong, Editor, Oat Newsletter
Cereal Research Center, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada
195 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2M9
Phone: (204) 983-0932 / Fax: (204) 983-4604
e-mail: jchong@em.agr.ca

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Instructions to Contributors for Volume 48

Contributions for Volume 48 may be submitted at any time, but should be submitted no later than May 1, 2001. The editor encourages you to submit your article(s) several weeks earlier than the deadline date, if you can do so. Contributions to the Oat Newsletter must conform to the following guidelines:

a.  Prepare articles in English. Maximum length should not exceed 6 pages, single-spaced.

b.  Articles should be prepared in PC WordPerfect (preferred), PC Microsoft Word, or ASCII file format. Do not number pages. Articles should be titled as follows:

Affiliation and Full Mailing Address
E-mail Address
Please include full mailing address and/or e-mail address for each article, as the Oat Newsletter will no longer be distributed by mail, hence no need of publishing a mailing list in Volume 44 and future issues of the Newsletter.
c.  To facilitate conversion to html formats required for posting on the Internet, please use the "Create Table" feature in the word processor to make tables, as tables created by spaces and tabs do not convert properly.

d.  Photographs or images saved in .jpg or .gif format can be submitted with your articles.

e.  Manuscripts should be carefully proofed. Manuscripts considered unsuitable for inclusion will be returned to the author(s) for revision and resubmission for a future volume.

f.  An electronic version of the article should be submitted by mail or e-mail to:

Dr. Dave Hoffman, Editor, Oat Newsletter
National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility
P.O. Box 307
Aberdeen, ID 83210-0307, United States of America
e-mail: Dhoffman@uidaho.edu

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A Statement of Purpose of the Organization of the American Oat Workers Conference

This statement, approved by the members of the American Oat Workers Conference, Minneapolis, MN on June 22, 1994, shall serve to delineate the purpose and organizational structure of an American Oat Workers Conference. This Conference shall be made up of scientists and other workers actively engaged in the improvement, management, and utilization of oats. These requirements being met, active participation in the Conference constitutes membership, and all attending members at a particular meeting of the Conference shall have voice and vote in all matters properly brought before the Conference during a regular business meeting to be held during each meeting of the Conference. The Conference shall meet at a time, generally every four years, and at a location to be selected by vote of the attending membership at the previous meeting of the Conference. The Executive Committee, described below, shall have the authority to call emergency meetings of the Conference as necessary.

The purpose of the American Oat Workers Conference shall be to advance oat improvement and culture in North America and the world by providing a vehicle for the:
a.  Dissemination of information on current research.
b.  Discussion of regional and continental problems of oat improvement and integration of applicable research.
c.  Encouragement of the exchange and preservation of germplasm.
d.  Standardization of data recording and terminology.
e.  Planning of regional and continental performance nurseries as appropriate.
f.  Preliminary announcement of planned cultivar releases.
g.  Action on other matters that may properly come before the Conference.

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American Oat Workers Conference Committees

The American Oat Workers Conference shall be under the general leadership of an American Oat Workers Conference Committee composed of official representatives of the various regions and countries and of a general Executive Committee. Members of the Executive Committee shall be the Chairman, Chair-Elect, Past Chairman, Secretary of the American Oat Workers Conference, and the Editor of the Oat Newsletter, and they need not be official representatives of the American Oat Workers Conference Committee. The Executive Committee shall appoint a nominating committee for a slate of officers for the offices of Chairman and Secretary of the Conference. The Chairman-elect and Secretary shall be elected by the membership of the Conference during the regular business meeting to be held each time the Conference meets. The term of office shall be four years and the Chairman, Chairman-elect, and Secretary will assume their duties immediately after adjournment of the Conference wherein elected. The Chairman-elect will automatically become the Chairman for the ensuing four year period. These officers may serve consecutive terms if properly elected by the Conference. The Editor of the Oat Newsletter shall be appointed by the Executive Committee. The Editor of the Oat Newsletter may serve consecutive terms. It shall be the responsibility of the Executive Committee to appoint an Acting Editor of the Oat Newsletter should that position be vacated between regular Conference meetings. The Past Chairman, Secretary, and Editor of the Newsletter shall be non-voting members of the American Oat Workers Conference unless they are also serving as representatives on the American Oat Workers Conference Committee. The Chairman shall be a voting member of the latter Committee and shall preside over all business meetings of the Committee and of the American Oat Workers Conference.

The American Oat Workers Conference shall be made up of official representatives from the various countries and regions as follows:

Country and number of representatives
Region or Agency USA Canada Mexico
Northeastern Region 1 1 -
North Central Region 1 - -
Western Region 1 1 -
Southern Region 1 1
Federal Dept. of Agric. Advisor 1 1 -

Where the representative cannot attend an official conference, he may designate an alternate.

In addition to the above minimum representation, three representatives shall be elected at large by the Conference during the regular meeting once every four years. Also, the elected chairman of the Conference shall be a member of the Committee. Thus, the total voting membership of the committee shall not exceed 14. Representatives from the various regions shall be selected by one of the following methods:

a. USA Regional Representatives normally shall be elected by the appropriate Regional Committee. In the event no such committee exists, the Secretary of the Conference shall contact oat workers within the region by mail once every four years and solicit nominations for a representative and subsequently conduct an election by mail ballot. The individual receiving the most votes shall serve as representative.

b. Canadian Regional Representatives shall be elected by: Western - The Barley and Oat Subcommittee of the Prairie Regional Registration Committee for Grain; and Eastern - The Eastern Expert Committee on Cereals and Oilseeds. These groups will have the option of electing the third representative to fill the designated Federal position or of requesting Federal representation; whichever is more appropriate.

c. The representative from the US Department of Agriculture shall be the National Technical Advisor for Oat Improvement.

d. The Mexican representative shall be designated by the appropriate government official or organization.
Alternates may be elected or appointed for each representative on the American Oat Workers Conference Committee.

Standing Committees

There shall be Standing Committees of the American Oat Workers Conference as follows:

a. Committee on Nomenclature and Cataloguing of Oat Genes - This Committee shall consist of three Conference members appointed by the Chairman of the American Oat Workers Conference. It shall serve to assign symbols and catalog new genes governing characters in oats. Such genes will be listed and described in the Oat Newsletter on an annual basis. The Committee will also be responsible for considering periodical updating and revision of the original publication on the subject, which was entitled "A Standardized System of Nomenclature for Genes Governing Characters of Oats". There shall be no limit of office of committee members.

b. Nomination Committee for Distinguished Service to Oat Improvement Award - This Committee shall consist of three Conference members appointed by the Chairman of the American Oat Workers Conference and shall include at least two members who have served on the American Oat Workers Conference Committee. Their term of office shall be from date of appointment until the end of the following Conference meeting.

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Oat Newsletter

The American Oat Workers Conference shall sponsor an Oat Newsletter to be published on an annual basis for the purpose of dissemination of information on current oat research and research needs. Members of the Conference are encouraged to submit information about their current research programs in response to an annual request to be made by the Editor of the Oat Newsletter. The Newsletter shall also serve as a vehicle of publication for the minutes of the business meetings of the Conference and of the American Oat Workers Conference Committee as well as for Committee Reports and other Conference notes. Abstracts of papers presented at meetings of the Conference also shall be published in the appropriate issues of the Newsletter.

Contributions from countries outside the Conference will be accepted for inclusion in the Newsletter, and should be encouraged so as to promote the dissemination of oat research information and news.

The Oat Newsletter shall be distributed to all members of the Conference and upon request, to other interested oat and cereal crops workers outside the American Oat Workers Conference. The American Oat Association in conjunction with the Editor of the Newsletter shall maintain a mailing list for this purpose and publish it in each Oat Newsletter. An Oat Newsletter Editorial Committee of four (three researchers and one industry representative) is to be appointed by the AOWC Chair.

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Distinguished Service to Oat Improvement Award

The American Oat Workers Conference shall confer the "Distinguished Service to Oat Improvement Award" upon persons in recognition of their outstanding research contributions and/or meritorious service toward making oats a successful agricultural species. The recipient(s) of this award shall be nominated by the Committee previously described as having this charge, and they shall be elected for the award by a majority vote of the American Oat Workers Conference Committee. No restriction shall be placed upon whom may receive the award. However, as a general guide, the award should be presented to person or persons who have devoted a significant portion of their professional career and a significant number of years working with oats through research, extension, or other professional activities. The number of recipients should not be limited, but in general, not more than one to three persons would be recognized at one Conference meeting.

The Award shall be conferred at a regular meeting of the American Oat Workers Conference. Manifestation of the award shall be denoted by the presentation of a suitable plaque or certificate to the recipient. A brief (not to exceed two typewritten pages) statement about the recipient and a photograph of the recipient shall be printed in the first volume of the Oat Newsletter after the presentation.

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American Oat Workers Conference Committees 1998-2002

Executive Committee

    Chair Fred Kolb
    Crop Sciences, University of Illinois
    1102 South Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61821, USA
    e-mail: F-kolb@uiuc.edu

    Past Chair Brian Rossnagel
    Crop Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan
    51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A8
    e-mail: Brian.rossnagel@usask.ca

    Chair-elect Paul Murphy
    Crop Science, North Carolina State University
    Box 7629, 840 Method Road, Unit 3
    Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
    e-mail: Njpm@unity.nscu.edu

    Secretary Howard Rines
    Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics
    University of Minnesota
    411 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Buford Circle
    St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
    e-mail: Rines001@maroon.tc.umn.edu

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Oat Newsletter Editorial Committee (1998 - 2001)

Editor                           James Chong
                                    Cereal Research Centre
                                    Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada
                                    195 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, MB,  Canada  R3T 2M9

Past Editor                   Michael McMullen
                                    Department of Plant Sciences
                                    North Dakota State University
                                    Fargo, ND 58105, United States of America

Editor-elect                  Dave Hoffman
                                    National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility
                                    P.O. Box 307
                                    Aberdeen, ID 83210-0307, USA
                                    E-mail: Dhoffman@uidaho.edu

Member at Large         Sam Weaver
                                    The Quaker Oats Company
                                    617 W. Main Street, Barrington, Illinois 60010
                                    E-mail: Sam_Weaver@quakeroats.com

Industrial Representative

Members at Large         Trevor Pizzey
                                     Portage-la-Prairie, MB, Canada

                                     Dale Reeves
                                     Plant Science Department
                                     South Dakota State University
                                     Brookings, SD, 57006, USA
                                     e-mail: Dale_reeves@sdstate.edu

                                     Darrell Wesenberg
                                     National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility
                                     USDA-ARS, PO Box 307
                                     Aberdeen, ID, 83210, USA
                                     e-mail: Dwesenb@uidaho.edu

Regional Representatives

            Eastern Canada -

            Western Canada - James Chong, Cereal Research Center, Winnipeg, Canada

            AAFC - Ken Campbell, Research Coordination, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada

            North Central USA - Deon Stuthman, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

            Northeastern USA - Mark Sorrells, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA

            Western USA - David Hoffman, University of Idaho, Aberdeen, USA

            USDA-ARS -

            Mexico - Jose Salmeron, APDO, Cuauhtemoc, Chihuahua, Mexico

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Minutes of the American Oat Workers Conference Business Meeting November 13, 2000, Lincoln, New Zealand

The meeting was called to order by Fred Kolb, Chair.

(1)      Minutes of the last meeting of the AOWC, held July 28, 1998, in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
          The minutes were reviewed and approved as printed in the 1998 Oat Newsletter, Vol. 44.

(2)   Oat Newsletter

James Chong reported that Oat Newsletters Volumes 44, 45, and 46 had been published as scheduled and are available at the website:  http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/oatnewsletter/.

Individuals needing hard copies should contact Dr. James Chong.

The editorial board of the Oat Newsletter currently consists of: Editor, James Chong; Past Editor, Michael McMullen; Editor-Elect, David Hoffman; Member-at-Large, Sam Weaver.

(3)    Uniform Regional Nurseries

Howard Rines, coordinator of the Uniform Early and Midseason Oat Performance Nurseries, led a discussion on those nurseries. Sentiment was expressed to maintain separate early and mid-season oat nurseries even though the number of entries in the early oat nursery has decreased. Separate nurseries allow greater flexibility in environments tested and number of lines entered. 'Riser' was suggested to replace 'Dane' as a check in the Early Oat Nursery and 'Assiniboia' to replace 'Jerry' as a check in the Midseason Nursery.

Darrell Wesenberg, coordinator of the Western Regional Oat Performance Nursery, said that plans were developed for the continuation of that program when he retires.

(4)    Executive Committee of the AOWC
Membership slots on the committee have been or need to be changed due to retirements or changes in career positions. Paul Murphy was elected by the Executive Committee to replace Jim Holland as Chair-Elect and Deon Stuthman elected to replace James Holland as North Central Regional Representative. Eastern Canada workers will be asked to elect a new representative to replace Vernon Burrows and USDA-ARS to name a replacement ARS representative for Chuck Murphy.
(5) Summer Field Days
A Summer Field Day will be held at St. Paul, Minnesota, in 2001 on a date to be determined to optimize observations on oat crown rust nurseries. A Summer Field Day is tentatively planned at Madison, Wisconsin, in 2003.
(6)    Update of the Strategic Plan for Oat Research.
Sam Weaver opened the discussion of the need for an updated Strategic Plan for Oat Research because of the critical role it serves in obtaining Federal and State Administrative and Congressional support for oat research. Possible merit of a plan that goes across national borders was discussed. Darrell Wesenberg pointed out that the US National Oat Germplasm Enhancement Plan, under which USDA-ARS funds for germplasm enhancement are subcontracted from the US National Small Grains Germplasm Center in Aberdeen, Idaho, to several cooperators in the US, has been extended for one year. It needs to be looked at and revised as appropriate for future years. A committee was appointed to update the Strategic Plan for Oat Research with the additional charge to start by updating as needed the US National Oat Germplasm Enhancement Plan. The committee appointed includes:
                Deon Stuthman, Chair
                Douglas Doehlert
                Jean-Luc Jannick
                Heidi Kaeppler
                James Kolmer
                Paul Murphy
                Bruce Roskens
                Darrell Wesenberg

(7)    Resolutions Committee

        The following resolutions were presented on behalf of the committee by Howard Rines, chair:

#1   Whereas this has been and promises to be a most successful, innovative, and enjoyable International Oat Workers' Conference, and whereas this success has been largely due to the excellent organization provided by our hosts; therefore be it Resolved that the American Oat Workers' Conference participants express their sincere appreciation to the staff from the oat program at Crop and Food Research, New Zealand, and in particular to Richard Cross, Keith Armstrong, and Howard Bezar with organization support from Helen Shrewsbury and staff of the Professional Development Group, Lincoln, University.

#2 Whereas Crop and Food Research, Crop and Food Research Winter Nurseries, Quaker Oats, General Mills, Goodman Fielder, Bluebird Foods, Wintersteiger GmbH, and the American Oat Workers' Conference have provided generous financial support for this conference; therefore, be it Resolved that the Conference participants gratefully acknowledge these contributions.

#3 Whereas Dr. Brian Rossnagel has faithfully served the International Oat Workers' Conference as chairman for the past four years, be it Resolved that the members of AOWC extend their sincere appreciation for his leadership during that period and to other members of the International Organizing Committee, Deon Stuthman, Robyn McLean, and John Oates.

#4 Whereas Dr. James Chong has worked diligently as Editor of the Oat Newsletter for the past three years, be it Resolved that the AOWC extend their sincere thanks for James for his continued exemplary work.

        The Resolutions passed by unanimous acclaim.

(8)    The meeting was adjourned by Chair Fred Kolb.

        Reported by
        Howard Rines
        AOWC Secretary

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Minutes of the 6th International Oat Conference Business Meeting


Business Meeting - 6th International Oat Conference

Lincoln University, New Zealand

13 November 2000.


Chairman - Brian Rossnagel, Secretary - Richard Cross

1. Welcome and Opening Remarks

2. Minutes of last meeting 15/08/96 Saskatoon Canada

3. Venue and date for 7th International Oat Conference

4. International Oat Nurseries Report

5. Code of Ethics for oat germplasm exchange

6. Election of IOC chair

7. Nomination of new IOC committee members

8. Other business

9. Close

Agenda items 1 - Welcoming remarks.

Chairman Brian Rossnagel opened and welcomed delegates the meeting.

Agenda item 2 - the minutes of the last meeting 15/08/96, Saskatoon, Sask were read, discussed and accepted as reported.

Agenda item 3 - Venue for 7thIOC.

Seppo Koivula presented Finland's bid to host the next (7th) International Oat Conference. The proposed date of 18-22 July 2004 was set to coincide with oat flowering time in the field. Criteria for ease of access to all workers in the oat community, ability to raise financial support, and links with business, industry and research were well satisfied. The proposal was accepted unanimously. Local organizing coordinator is Pirjo Pelton-Sainio (pirjo.peltonen-sainio@mtt.fi ).

Agenda item 4 - International oat nursery.

Deon Stuthman presented the case for an international oat nursery. Based on prior consultation with oat workers, he recommended that the nursery be a uniform performance nursery of no more than 200 accessions, with an initial grow-out at Lincoln (NZL) and secondary grow-outs in South America, Canada, USA and Norway. Some researchers expressed concerns over release of germplasm still under development, without adequate intellectual property protection. It was agreed that if you had germplasm in that situation it should not be included in the nursery but that decision would be up to the breeder entering genotypes so should not be a deterrent.

Agenda item 5 - Oat Workers' Code of Ethics.

A code of ethics for germplasm exchange has been developed to address issues of ownership. Although generally accepted, there were reservations from some delegates over the ability to enforce germplasm security. Based on comments received from oat worker from several countries Rossnagel presented a revised code. It was agreed that if no one sent any further objections or editing suggestions to Rossnagel by 31/01/01 the code would be forwarded for publication in the 2001 Oat Newsletter, and is appended to these minutes. The meeting was reminded that this is a "code" and as such would not be legally binding and that oat workers simply need to make their own "ethical" decision as to whether or not to follow the code.

Agenda item 6&7 - International IOC committee.

Richard Cross, the organizing chairman of the 6th IOC, was nominated and acclaimed as IOC Chair for the 2000 - 2004 period, involving the fostering of germplasm exchange and the provision of assistance with the next (7th)IOC.

Several changes and additions were suggested for the IOC committee with the resulting list of members for the 2000 - 2004 IOC:

Ricard Jonsson (SWE) replacing Bengt Mattsson

Deon Stuthman (USA)

TBA§ (CAN) replacing Doug Brown

Elizabeth Zechner (AUT)

Trond Buraas (NOR) replacing Magne Gullord

Gideon Ladizinsky (ISR)

Igor Loskutov (RUS)

Ilmar Tamm (EST)

John Valentine (UK)

Luis Federizzi (BRA)

Mike McMullen (USA)

Milton McDaniel (USA)

Pirjo Peltonen-Saino (FIN)

Richard Cross (NZL) Chair

Robyn McLean (AUS)

Romulo Trombetta (ARG)

Toshinobu Morikaw (JAP)

Li Chengxiong (CHN)

Brian Rossnagel (CAN) - Immediate Past-Chair replacing Andrew Barr

§ The Canadian group will nominate a Canadian representative to the IOC committee.

The Chair thanked those who had served on the IOC committee for a number of years and who would no longer be so doing - Bengt Mattsson, Fran Webster and Doug Brown.

It was agreed that the incoming Chair, Richard Cross, should determine if there were appropriate persons from the following countries to be nominated as representatives to the IOC - Poland, Germany, Korea and South Africa.

Chair Rossnagel led a brief discussion regarding the numbers of IOC committee members from any one country. It was agreed that the general rule should be that each country should be represented by one person (except for the country from which the immediate past Chair comes). However, rather than asking committee members from countries currently with more than one member to resign, this should be taken care of as various members resign for other reasons by not replacing those members until only a single member from that country remains.

Agenda item 7 - other business.

Four items of general business:

ˇ Richard Cross tabled the 6th IOC chairman's report, which indicated the overall programme structure, special acknowledgements to sponsors, programme committee and attending delegates, and statement of income and expenditure with an overall cost neutral financial position.

ˇ For general information, Rossnagel described a new Plant Gene Resources Centre of Canada (PGRC) project, to be led by Dr. Yong-Bi Fu, to characterize the world oat collection of 27,000 accessions over the next few years, involving molecular analysis and phylogenetic studies with the establishment of a core collection. It was agreed that the IOC committee should attempt to liase with the PGRC re: the development of an oat core collection.

ˇ Solomon Kibite expressed concern that the gene nomenclature for oats had not been updated since the catalogue by Simmons et al. (1978). He indicated that a revision and update is required, with symbols and assignments to be consistent with guidelines with other crops, transgenics, DNA markers etc., and ideally published as yearly updates in (say) the oat newsletter. The chair encouraged those interested in this area to attempt to re-establish the activity of the Oat Gene Nomenclature committee to attempt to resolve these issues.

ˇ Brian Rossnagel and John Valentine responded to concerns raised by John Stevens over restricted access to patent (PVR) oat varieties. The response, confirmed as general practice by delegates, was that patent or PVR did not prevent access, but any restrictive practice of access to release germplasm due to other (not specified) factors.

Agenda item 8 - close of meeting.

On behalf of all those gathered for the 6th IOC Brian Rossnagel sincerely thanked the organizers and sponsors of the 6th International Oat Conference for putting together an excellent conference. Specific thanks were directed towards Richard Cross and Keith Armstrong.

Brian Rossnagel finally thanked all delegates for attending and participating in the IOC business meeting and expressed best wishes for a successful 7th International Oat Conference in Helsinki, July 2004.


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International Oat Worker's Code of Ethics For Oat Germplasm Exchange

As approved by the members of the 6th International Oat Conference, 13/11/2000 at Lincoln New Zealand.

In past decades, oat workers worldwide have generously shared their oat germplasm with colleagues to enhance oat breeding and research. However, plant variety protection and patent mechanisms focus attention on property rights afforded developers/owners of germplasm materials. The purpose of this code is to encourage the continued exchange of oat germplasm by recognizing these rights and by codifying the obligations of persons receiving unreleased oat germplasm. I, therefore, agree to support the following principles:

The aims of the SARDI Oat Breeding Program are to develop oat varieties with improved agronomic characters, disease resistance, and yield potential in South Australia and Victoria for specific end uses. Quality enhancement for milling and feed grain, grain for non-food uses, and hay is targeted in the research program for specific end uses. Another aim is to communicate information concerning the variety improvement program and new variety releases to growers and industry.

Background and Benefits

Currently available oat varieties are not meeting agronomic and quality characters required to capture emerging and expanding sectors for specific oat end uses in south eastern Australia. For example, the classic milling variety, Mortlock, yields 30% less than the poorer quality, low protein, semi-dwarf, Echidna. Another milling variety, Euro, is susceptible to stem rust, intolerant to cereal cyst nematode (CCN) and also has low protein. The high yielding feed variety, Potoroo, has poor foliar disease resistance and low protein. Marloo, the primary variety used to produce hay for the export hay industry, has poor foliar disease resistance and colour. The aims of the oat breeding program are to release a portfolio of new varieties that combine improved disease resistance with higher yield and quality for growers, food processors, and animal production systems.

An opportunity exists to expand oat exports for both grain and hay. Export of oat grain could increase significantly over the current 210,000 tonnes, due to the opening of the North American market to Australian oats. Although there are still issues to resolve concerning nil tolerance for Avena sterilis in US oat shipments. Most oats exported from Australia are from South Australia and Western Australia. The new export market would result in an increase in the price per tonne to Australian growers.

Despite the flat market outlook for feed oats, there is significant genetic potential to improve feed oat nutritional values. New releases with oil content increased from 7 to 10% and protein content increased from 12 to 14% could impact the feed industry.

Japan currently imports approximately 3.5 m tonnes of fodder each year to feed dairy and beef cattle. Hay exports from Australia to Japan have increased from 170,000 tonnes in 1997 to 360,000 tonnes in 1999. There is potential for further growth in exports of about 10% per year. Over 400,000 tonnes of hay/straw were exported in 2000 and could continue to increase to about 500,000 tonnes in the next few years. Currently about 148,000 tonnes of hay were exported from South Australia and 95,000 tonnes from Victoria. However, market growth is dependent on reliable palatability. In order to provide consistent highly palatable oaten hay, grading systems for fodder are being refined and some hay processors now include minimum water soluble carbohydrate levels and monitor shear energy along with the traditional characters, such as digestibility. With the refined grading system other markets such as Taiwan, Korea, the Middle East, and Pacific Islands may expand. An increase in domestic intensive livestock production will also provide new opportunities for premium fodder domestically.

Benefits from the release of improved oat hay varieties will influence growers, processors, and the customer. Indirect benefits of oat hay production to the grains industry are reflected in the management of soil borne diseases, such as take-all and CCN, and herbicide-resistant rye grass in the rotation.

The Breeding Program

The most advanced yield trials, stage 4, are sown at 17 sites in South Australia. Seven trial sites are sown by the Oat Breeding Group of which two sites are sown to evaluate cereal cyst nematode tolerance and one site to assess stem nematode tolerance. The stage 1 unreplicated yield trial is sown at two locations, whereas the stage 2 (unreplicated) and stage 3 yield trials are sown at all seven sites. The SARDI Field Crop Evaluation group sows 11 stage 4 oat trials in South Australia. Agriculture Victoria sows three trials in Victoria and Glenn Roberts, and Agriculture NSW sows two trials in southern New South Wales.

Several diseases reduce yield and quality in the southern region. Cereal cyst nematode is prevalent in South Australia and stem nematode is found in limited areas of the state. Resistant reactions for CCN and stem nematode are assessed by the SARDI Field Crop Pathology Nematode Group, whereas the oat breeding group evaluates tolerance for both nematodes in field trials. Stem rust has been the most serious disease of oats in the last two years. Hence, breeding for improved levels of stem rust resistance is a high priority for the program. Seedling and adult plant reactions for stem and leaf rust are assessed by the National Cereal Rust Laboratory, the University of Sydney Plant Breeding Institute. Stem rust, leaf rust, barley yellow dwarf virus, septoria, red leather leaf, and bacterial blight are evaluated in field experiments conducted by the oat breeding group when natural field infections occur. Glenn Roberts (Agriculture NSW) also assesses BYDV resistance for stage 2, stage 3, and stage 4 entries using viruliferous aphids in field trials.

Quality assessments for both grain and hay are essential components of the breeding program. Both NIR and digital imaging are used to characterize breeding lines for grain quality. NIR calibrations were developed to predict moisture, protein, oil, and groat percent. NIR assessments begin with grain from F3 headhills and continue as lines progress through the program. Physical quality characters, such as hectolitre weight, screenings percent, and 1000 grain weight, are evaluated for entries in stage1 to stage 4 yield trials. Digital imaging was used in the breeding program for the first time this year. Fourteen seed characters were measured.

Grain harvested from two locations of the stage 4 trial and one location of the stage 3 trials were imaged. Hay quality is also predicted using NIR calibrations for digestibility, crude protein, shear energy, water soluble carbohydrates, acid detergent fibre, and neutral detergent fibre. Samples from the stage 4 hay trial grown at three locations are assessed by Dr. David Henry, CSIRO Animal Production Centre for Mediterranean Agricultural Research, Perth.

Achievements and Outputs

Three new oat varieties were released in 1999. Quoll, OX87080-2, is a high yielding semi-dwarf variety with improved feed quality and foliar disease resistance compared to Echidna. Quoll has PBR and was commercialized by the seed company, SGB Australia. Glider, Q83-140, is a late maturing variety with improved foliar disease resistance for hay production in high rainfall areas. Glider was commercialized by the Australian Field Crop Association. Numbat, OX88045-11, is a naked oat with slightly improved yield potential and grain quality when compared to Bandicoot. It was a public release due to limited production in Australia. Small, but consistent markets exist for the racehorse industry, human consumption, and birdseed.

Two advanced breeding lines SA88083-4 and SA87103-109 were selected for variety release. They will replace Marloo and Wallaroo, varieties used primarily for hay production. SA88083-4 is a mid-season oat line with improved dry matter production in low, medium, and high rainfall areas. SA88083-4 has CCN resistance and tolerance, stem nematode tolerance, and moderate resistance to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and septoria. Although the line is primarily suited to hay production, it yielded from 0.2 to 0.4 tonnes per hectare more grain than Marloo in all rainfall zones. Hectolitre weight, 1000 kernel weight, and screenings percent were also an improvement over Marloo. SA87103-109 is a tall line about three to four days earlier than Marloo. It is moderately resistant to stem and leaf rust, resistant and moderately tolerant to CCN, and intolerant to stem nematode. SA87103-109 has a hay yield advantage over Wallaroo. It is also adapted to low, medium, and high rainfall zones. SA87103-109 represents an improvement in the quality character, digestibility.

The advanced breeding line, SA91024-7, is being considered for release as an improved semi-dwarf milling variety. SA91024-7 has yield potential similar to Echidna, but quality similar to Euro. Euro yields about 10% less than Echidna, but has superior chemical and physical characters for milling. SA91024-7 is moderately susceptible to stem rust, resistant to leaf rust, and moderately resistant to septoria.

Approximately 62 F5 lines were promoted to stage 2 unreplicated trials with stem rust resistance and improved protein, groat percent, and other physical quality characters. These lines are selections from crosses with North Dakota stem rust resistant parents, moderate resistance in adapted lines, and Euro.

Approximately 15 F5 high oil lines were selected from the 31 F4 lines and promoted to stage 2 trials. These lines have the best combination of agronomics, disease resistance, and quality. The high oil character is associated with high screenings percent. Thus an additional 100 lines with poor physical quality, but high oil were selected as parents for the crossing program.

Lines adapted to low rainfall zones were assessed at the Minnipa Research Centre and at Waikerie. Approximately 20 lines in the stage 3 tall grain and hay trials look promising at both locations. The most promising selections will be promoted in stage 4 trials in 2001.

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Doubled haploids (DHs) have become an important tool for the accelerated breeding of wheat and barley. Using DHs, new cultivars can be produced 3 to 5 years earlier than with conventional breeding methods alone because homozygosity is attained in a single generation, eliminating the requirement for self-fertilisation over several generations. Rapid homozygosity also results in a higher proportion of progeny carrying alleles of value to the breeder in early generations than with conventional breeding methods. A further advantage is that homozygosity in early generations allows more accurate and reliable selections to be made, particularly for complex traits such as flour or malt quality.

Methods for the production of oat DHs are still in the early developmental stage in comparison with barley and wheat. However significant advances have been made in recent years which may serve as a basis for efficiency gains (Aung, 1998). Early research on oat DHs focused on microspores as donor tissue (Rines et al. 1996) with the first oat DH reported in 1983 by Rines and subsequent improvements developed by Kiviharju et al. (2000). However, the efficiency DH production from microspores is extremely low. A more promising approach is to use the female gametes as donor tissue by pollinating oat with maize (Rines and Dahleen, 1990; Aung, 1998). The maize chromosomes are eliminated from most embryos to produce haploid embryos which may be rescued in vitro and transferred to soil, after which their chromosome complement may be doubled with colchicine to restore fertility.

We are using the methods described by Aung (1998) as a starting point for developing a more efficient method for oat DH production. To date we have produced DHs from the following cultivars and breeding lines: AK-1, Carrolup, Dumont, 12Zop95, and Mortlock. An average of 50% of pollinated florets produce a caryopsis with 7% of the caryopses containing an embryo. There is significant variability between genotypes for capacity to produce haploid embryos. We are currently investigating the effect of different growth regulator applications on embryo viability and growth. There is also variability for the in vitro germination response of the embryos which ranges between 0 to 92% depending on genotype and growth regulator application.

DHs are also an important tool for the development of molecular genetic maps. We are currently developing mapping populations of the crosses Glider/AK1 and AK5/SA93123-12 to identify markers important for grain and hay quality.

Our future research will focus on manipulating growth regulator application post-pollination and modifying components of the embryo rescue medium to improve the efficiency of DH production.


Aung, T. 1998. Development and use of doubled haploids in oats. Oat Newsletter 44: 19-21. ed. James Chong.

Kiviharju, E., Puolimatka, M., Saastamoinen, M., and Pehu, E. 2000. Extension of anther culture to several genotypes of cultivated oats. Plant Cell Reports 19: 674-679.

Rines, H.W. 1983. Oat anther culture: Genotype effects on callus initiation and the production of a haploid plant. Crop Sci. 23: 268-272.

Rines, H.W. and Dahleen, L.S. 1990. Haploid oat plants produced by application of maize pollen to emasculated oat florets. Crop Sci. 30: 1073-1078.

Rines, H.W., Riera-Lizarazu, O., Nunez, V.M., Davis, D.W., and Phillips, R.L. 1996. Oat haploids from anther culture and from wide hybridizations. In: In vitro haploid production in higher plants, Vol. 4, 205-221. Kluwer, the Netherlands.

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A Mortlock x Potoroo single-seed descent population of 173 F8 lines has been produced. Both parents carry resistance to cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) (CCN) and Potoroo has resistance to stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci) and tolerance to CCN.

As a prelude to mapping, parental screening of RFLP probes was conducted. Forty-five probes revealed polymorphism and have been mapped as anchor loci in the Potoroo x Mortlock population. In addition, 71 AFLP loci have been mapped. It is anticipated that several hundred more AFLP loci will be added to the map.

Several traits were measured with the limited seed available in 2000, and QTL analysis conducted using MapManager QTX. Several putative QTLs were identified for quality traits. F8 lines were evaluated for CCN resistance using a bioassay, and QTLs for CCN resistance from both parents were identified.

Prior to map construction, bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) was initiated and resistance-linked AFLP markers identified. The BSA-derived AFLP markers were mapped and form part of the major QTL for the CCN resistance contributed by Potoroo, validating the effectiveness of the bulked-segregant technique.

Future work will focus on verifying QTLs with further phenotypic data, and increasing the density of the map with more AFLP markers.

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Oat Stem Rust (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae) - C. R. Wellings (on secondment from NSW Agriculture)
Oat stem rust was widespread in Australian cereal growing districts in 2000, however the number of samples received for pathogenicity analysis was relatively low. The main pathotype identified was 94, especially in Western Australia, with a mixture of pathotypes in the eastern states. Virulence for Pga was rare compared to previous seasons. There were reports of concerning levels of stem rust in oat crops in southern parts of WA, and of severe stem rusting in Euro oats in Victoria.
Oat Crown Rust (caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) - R. F. Park and Melinda Whale, University of Sydney Return to Table of Content 1.    Introduction

Oat quality receive more and more importance in the last few years as a contribution towards a more healthier nutrition for humans. The protein and fat content of oats are specially characterized additionally by its favourable combination of various amino acids and fatty acids, but the crude fibre content contributes also to its high ranked value in human and animal nutriton.

Oat breeders are forced to take all this into consideration, particularly in early generation materials. Thus, non-destructive screening methods are helpful tools to match this goal about grain constituents. Traditional methods require high impact of manpower and grain material, but now Near Infrared Transmission methods (NIT) are an optimal choice to overcome these problems. It needs only whole grains of small samples which can then further be used for the enhancement of the further generations and no specialized personnel are necessary to tackle the job satisfactorily.

With the research project mentioned above, an attempt is being made to introduce special calibration references for oats for the determination of the contents of moisture, protein, fat, crude fibre, husks, and the mycotoxin Nivalenol.

2.    Material and methods

In the year 1997, the Plant Breeding Station Edelhof offered free access for testing breeding material of F4 and F5 generations with this techniques, additionally to the classical screening characters listed below (marked with *):

3. Results

· Based on these new mass screening methods, prospective breeding material for high nutrition value oats was developed which fits the expectations of the food and the feed industry simultaneously

· This improvement in selection strategies used in early generations saved seed and manpower and enhanced the breeding progress considerably. The optically achieved figures correlated nicely with the content figures elaborated with the traditionally wet chemistry methods.

· Thus, direct selections of useful genotypes from crossing populations between Australian genetic oat resources with loose panicles, low husk content, and extremely early maturity and Chilean oat genotypes, characterized by compact panicles, low husk content, and late maturity were possible and successful.

· The hypothesis that oats with loose panicles are less susceptible to fungal infestations and therefore lower mycotoxin contents could not be confirmed.

· Preparations of oat lines with top qualities are on the way now to the National Variety Testing Office for applying the status of registered varieties and Plant Breeding Rights.


HAAS, M. 1999. Kalibrierung eines NIT-Gerätes auf Feuchte, Protein, Fett, Ballaststoffe, Nivalenol und Spelzengehalt von Qualitätshafer. Diplomarbeit am Institut für Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzüchtung an der Universität für Bodenkultur, Wien.

Thanks to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in Austria for the research project L 1080/97 "Neue Selektionsstrategien zur Züchtung von Qualitätshafer speziell für die Nahrungsmittelindustrie" in cooperation with the University for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Breeding Department, Vienna; Saatzucht Edelhof, Verein zur Förderung der Mohn- und Getreidezüchtug, both Zwettl and the Institute for Agrobiotechnology, Plant Breeding Department, Tulln.

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Dr. Harold G. Marshall has operated a private oat breeding program at his farm near University Park, Pennsylvania, USA, since his retirement from ARS-USDA in 1987. I am testing his best naked-seeded and hulled-seeded spring oat lines plus his germplasm populations in Canada, and will represent those materials on a world-wide basis. We presently have limited amounts of seed of several segregating populations for sale to breeders interested in selecting lines from those populations for use in their oat breeding programs. They will be sold only in sets of either 71 naked-seeded or 68 hulled-seeded populations or both sets may be purchased. About 100 g of seed per population will be provided. Future generations of the populations should provide useful genotypic variability for several recurrent cycles of selection if maintained as heterogeneous, bulk populations.

General information

Dr. Marshall crossed numerous parents obtained from various oat breeders in the USA and other countries and also intercrossed some of his best derived lines to produce the various populations. Although many of the parents have effective levels of resistance to certain races of the rust inciting fungi, the populations are not likely to produce genotypes with satisfactory resistance to newer races of (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) in those areas of the USA and Canada where rust diseases may be a problem.

The bulk breeding method was used to advance the populations in generations so they are highly heterogeneous with variable amounts of heterozygosity depending on the generation. All populations were grown in 6-row strips at least 7 m long each year using high levels of nitrogen fertilizer (so as to increase lodging stress). These strips provided sufficient seed to facilitate the use of mass selection pressure for seed size and weight during each generation starting with the F3. After smaller seeds had been eliminated by screening, a small gravity seed grader was used to sort heavy seeds from the remaining seeds. This mass selection was the only controlled selection pressure used on the populations. There were several years when natural selection undoubtedly resulted in desirable changes in the populations gene pools because of various environmental and disease stresses.

Dr. Marshall discarded many entire populations if they had low selection potential because of weaknesses such as low yield, poor lodging resistance, extreme disease, or poor seed characteristics. The various remaining populations have excellent selection potential for superior lodging resistance, high grain test weights, and improved seed characteristics such as large groat size, low trichome density, and high contents of protein and oil.

Naked-seeded populations

The generation range of the 71 naked-seeded populations will be from F6 through F13 when next grown. Many of the naked-seeded populations were developed by intercrossing naked-seeded and hulled-seeded parents. As demonstrated by Lanini and Marshall (1990), gravity grading effectively mass selects for naked-seeded genotypes in such populations because most of the hulled seeds are quickly eliminated into the light seed component. As a result, future generations of these populations will be mostly naked-seeded genotypes and this will facilitate concentrated selection of those types. In addition, the gravity grading procedure provided mass selection pressure that favoured plump, well-filled groats. The populations also have good potential for selection of genotypes with low trichome densities on the groats since Dr. Marshall discarded populations that produced mostly "hairy" groats. In tests grown in the USA, Canada, and Europe, during recent years, Dr. Marshall's naked-seeded lines have had excellent lodging resistance and produced groats with superior combinations of oil and protein contents, low trichome density, large groat size, and high test weight. Based on the diversity of parents used, yield potential also should be good - especially when lines are selected under conditions in the region where they will be grown.

Hulled-seeded Populations

The generation range of these 68 populations will be F5 through F15 when next grown. The major emphasis in developing these populations were placed on outstanding lodging resistance, wide maturity range, wide range in plant height, and production of relatively large, attractive seed size combined with high grain test weight. Parents with exceptional lodging resistance included the 'Pennlo' semi-dwarf and 'Pennuda' naked-seeded cultivars as well as other lodging resistant parental lines from Dr. Marshall's past program while working for ARS-USDA at the Pennsylvania State University.

Based on lines that have been derived to date, these hulled populations have excellent potential to yield genotypes possessing exceptional lodging resistance combined with good seed characteristics and heavy grain test weights. Plant height variability within certain populations ranges down to semi-dwarfs, and several populations include some exceptionally early maturing genotypes. There also is good genetic variability for protein content in certain populations with values of extracted lines ranging up to about 21% on a groat basis. Several derived lines in current tests in the USA and Canada have produced yields similar to the best cultivars now grown in the eastern USA, and they are more lodging resistant with grain 2 to 4 lb/bu (2.6 to 5.2 kg/hl) heavier in test weight.

Additional Information

Interested breeders may request pedigree lists (including Dr. Marshall's field comments on the populations) and price information from the author, or if they prefer to contact Dr. Marshall, he can be reached at the following address:

        Harold G. Marshall Telephone: 814-383-4118
        Marshall Farm
        1422 E. College, Ave. e-mail: hgm2@psu.edu
        Bellefonte, PA 16823


Lanini, Brenda J., and H.G. Marshall. 1990. Selection for high specific gravity seed in oat populations heterogeneous for naked genotypes. Crop Sci. 30: 565-567.

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No lines were proposed for support for registration from the Prairie Oat Breeding Consortium program at the CRC, Winnipeg, Manitoba in February 2001. There were four lines advanced to the second year of cooperative testing, which are well-adapted for the eastern section of the Canadian Prairies. The four lines carry resistance to smut and to most of the prevalent races of oat crown rust due to the presence of Pc68. The lines also carry Pg2 and Pg13, which confers resistance to the prevalent races of oat stem rust except for the newly emerging race NA67. These lines also show moderate resistance to BYDV.

OT296 was given the name AC Ronald, to honour Dr. Ron McKenzie, an oat breeder at the Cereal Research Centre from 1959 to 1985. AC Ronald is a tall semi-dwarf oat with good yielding capacity in the black soil zone of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, compared to the checks in the trial. AC Ronald has excellent lodging resistance. AC Ronald has good resistance to most of the diseases prevalent in the Manitoba growing areas.

OT297 was given the name AC Gwen in honour of Gwen McKenzie, wife of Ron. Gwen has assisted with the harvest at the New Zealand winter nursery for many years. AC Gwen is a hulless oat, with improved quality characteristics over the hulless check AC Belmont. AC Gwen also has good disease resistance to most of the prevalent crown rust and stem rust pathotypes found in Manitoba.

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Crown rust was less severe in southern Manitoba and more severe and widespread in south-eastern Saskatchewan in 2000 than in previous years. Traces of crown rust infections were first observed on wild oat (Avena fatua L.) near Emerson, MB, on July 9. Subsequent conditions were cool with above average rainfall, limiting the development of the rust during most of the growing season in Manitoba. By mid-August, crown rust severities ranging from trace to moderate levels (up to 70%) were found on wild oat, and trace to 20% crown rust severities were observed on late seeded commercial oat fields in southern Manitoba. Early seeded fields of susceptible cultivars (e.g., Robert and Riel) escaped damage. Crown rust infections remained at trace levels in field plots of the cultivar, AC Assiniboia (Pc38, Pc39, Pc68), and ranged from light to 20% in field plots of Triple Crown (Pc48). In various locations across eastern Saskatchewan from Estevan to Assiniboia, crown rust severities ranging from 20% to 80% were commonly found on wild oat, and severities ranging from 5% to 40% were found on late seeded commercial oat fields. This was the most severe and widespread occurrence of crown rust in south-eastern Saskatchewan for many years.

Frequency and distribution of crown rust isolates virulent on differential oat lines with single genes for crown rust resistance in Canada in 2000 is shown in Table 1. Over 63% of isolates were virulent to crown rust resistance genes Pc38 and Pc39 in both eastern and western Canada. Virulence frequency to Pc48 increased slightly from 6% in 1999 to 12% in 2000, whereas virulence to Pc96 remained low at 1%. Gene Pc94, derived from the diploid Avena strigosa, continues to be highly effective to crown rust; none of the isolates were virulent to this gene in 2000.

A four-letter code system (Chong et al. 2000) is being used to designate crown rust races, using 16 single crown rust resistance gene lines as primary differentials (Table 2) and two additional single-gene lines (Pc94, Pc96) as supplemental differentials. One hundred and fifteen virulence phenotypes (races) were identified from 275 single-pustule isolates established from collections from Manitoba and Saskatchewan in 2000. Seventy of the virulence phenotypes were detected only once. From Ontario, 25 virulence phenotypes were identified from 61 isolates, and 15 of the phenotypes were detected once. The most virulence phenotype in Ontario was BQBB (19.7%), followed by BQBG (13.1%) and BLBB (9.8%). The most common virulence phenotype in southern Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan was BBBB (8.0%), followed by BQBB (7.2%) and DQBB (6.2%). Several isolates were identified to have combined virulence to genes Pc38, Pc39 and Pc68, found in AC Assiniboia and AC Medallion, and in more recent cultivars, AC Pinnacle, AC Ronald and AC Gwen. Genes Pc94 and Pc96 are being used in the oat breeding program at the Cereal Research Centre, Winnipeg, to enhance current cultivars that have Pc68 or Pc48.


Chong, J., K.J. Leonard, and J.J. Salmeron. 2000. A North American system of nomenclature for Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae. Plant Dis. 84:580-585.

Table 1. Frequency and distribution of Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae isolates virulent on differential lines of Avena sativa with single genes (Pc) for crown rust resistance in Canada in 1999 Return to Table of Content Oat line MN841801, developed by Matt Moore at the University of Minnesota in the 1970's, is known to possess effective partial resistance to crown rust (K.J. Leonard, unpublished). Tests of the line under severe crown rust epidemics in the buckthorn nursery at the Cereal Disease Laboratory, St. Paul, Minnesota, since 1976 have shown no indication of decline in level of field resistance (K.J. Leonard, personal communication). Greenhouse selection experiments also have shown no evidence of adaptation by the crown rust fungus to MN841801 over seven uredinial generations, demonstrating the durability of the resistance in this respect (M. Bardin and K.J. Leonard, unpublished). Given the relatively short-lived nature of hypersensitive resistance, one strategy for achieving more stable resistance to crown rust is to develop oat cultivars having both partial resistance and effective hypersensitive resistance combined. The objectives of this study were to identify the effective resistance components in MN841801 and to determine the feasibility of combining this resistance with the effective seedling resistance gene Pc68. This paper reports the preliminary findings.

Crosses and progeny

AC Assiniboia is an oat cultivar released for production in Canada in 1995 (P.D. Brown, unpublished). It possesses crown rust resistance genes Pc38, Pc39 and Pc68. Of these genes, Pc68 is the only one that is still effective against the prevalent P. coronata f. sp. avenae isolates in Canada. Plants from line MN841801 were used as pollen parents in crosses with AC Assiniboia. A single seed descent (SSD) procedure was used to produce a set of 154 random F7-derived F9 (F7:9) SSD lines, i.e., seed from F7 plants was increased as F8 lines and tested as F9 lines.

Rust isolates

Crown rust races NQBB (CR200), BRBB (CR250), and BRBB (CR251), used in this study, were obtained from annual crown rust surveys in Manitoba. The CR number designations enclosed in brackets are Cereal Research Centre accession numbers for the isolates. Crown rust isolate CR200 is virulent on line MN841801 at the seedling stage and at all growth stages on single-gene lines with Pc38 and Pc39. It is avirulent (0 IT) on AC Assiniboia due to the presence of Pc68. CR250 is virulent on Assiniboia at all growth stages and produces an immune seedling reaction (0 IT) on MN841801. CR251 also is virulent on Assiniboia at all growth stages but virulent on MN841801 only at the seedling stage. This isolate, as well as CR200, typically produces a resistant IT ;1 or IT ;12 on MN841801 at the adult-plant stage.

Rust tests

In growth chamber tests three sets of the 154 F7:9 SSD lines were planted, approximately 20 plants from each line per pot. These sets were inoculated separately with CR200, CR250 and CR251. Infection types (ITs) on seedlings were scored 12 days after inoculation, using a 0-4 scale; ITs of 0, ;, 1 and 2 were considered resistant and ITs of 3 and 4 susceptible. After rust readings were recorded, the lines that had been inoculated with CR200 and CR251 were thinned from 20 plants to four plants per pot. The plants (eight per line in two pots) were then raised to adults, when the flag leaves were inoculated with CR251. The infection types on the flag leaves were determined at 14-16 days after inoculation using the 0-4 scale described above.

In the seedling test of the 154 random F7:9 SSD lines with CR200, 74 were resistant (IT 0 or 0;), 1 was segregating, and 79 lines were susceptible. The ratio of 74 resistant lines to 79 susceptible lines fitted a 1:1 ratio for a single gene (2 = 0.163, P = 0.70-0.50). This gene was Pc68, as CR200 is virulent on MN841801 at the seedling stage and to Pc38 and Pc39 but not Pc68 in AC Assiniboia.

When tested with CR250 at the seedling stage, 142 random F7:9 lines were resistant (IT 0, ; or 12), 3 segregating, and 9 susceptible. The ratio of 142 resistant lines to 9 susceptible lines fitted a 15:1 ratio, which indicated that MN841801 had four genes that conditioned seedling resistance to CR250 (2 = 0.023, P = 0.98-0.95).

All 154 random F7:9 lines were susceptible to CR251 at the seedling stage. However, when tested with this isolate at the flag-leaf stage (Zadoks growth stages 47-51), 37 lines were resistant (ITs ;1 to ;12), 72 had intermediate level of resistance (typically ITs 21 to 22+), 44 were susceptible (ITs 3 to 34), and one line was segregating. The ratio of 37 resistant lines to 72 intermediate resistant lines to 44 susceptible lines fitted a 1:2:1 ratio for segregation of two genes (2 = 1.17, P = 0.70-0.50). The simplest explanation to this segregation data is that the resistance in MN841801 was conditioned by two adult-plant resistance (APR) genes, A and B, with additive effect. The four expected genotypes would be AABB, AAbb, aaBB and aabb, occurring in equal proportion among the 154 random F7:9 lines. The 72 lines that had an intermediate resistant reaction would account for the lines that were expected to have either gene A or gene B (genotypes AAbb and aaBB). Lacking the additive effect, these two genes individually would confer an intermediate reaction difficult to be distinguished among lines carrying either one of these genes. A quarter of the SSD population (38.5 lines) would be expected to have the genotype AABB; indeed, 37 lines were shown to have a resistance reaction similar to that of the parental line MN841801. A contingency chi-square test of the CR200 and CR251 data (Table 1) showed no linkage between the two APR genes and the seedling resistance gene Pc68 (2 = 2.8, P = 0.247), indicating the feasibility of combining these genes with Pc68 in the same background.

Results of the present growth chamber study indicated that MN841801 carries four seedling resistance genes and two APR genes. Seedlings of MN841801 were resistant to 30% to 47% of P. coronata f. sp. avenae isolates collected from annual surveys in Manitoba from 1996 to 1999 (J. Chong, unpublished), but were resistant to only 3% of the isolates in the buckthorn nursery at St. Paul, Minnesota, in 1995 (K.J. Leonard, unpublished). The four seedling resistance genes identified in MN841801 thus do not appear to be a contributing factor to its field resistance in the buckthorn nursery. MN841801 typically had a crown rust severity of TrS-5MSS in field plots grown in Manitoba during 1996 to 1999 (J. Chong, unpublished). Work is ongoing to determine the correlation between this field resistance and the adult-plant resistance observed in growth chamber tests. Additionally, a set of F6-derived F8 SSD lines from a cross between MN841801 and the susceptible cultivar, Makuru, is being developed and will be used to determine if the two APR genes identified in this study were responsible for providing effective field resistance in MN841801.

The financial support of The Quaker Oats Company and the technical assistance of Mr. Taye Zegeye-Gebrehiwot are gratefully acknowledged. Table 1. Reactions of the random F7-derived F9 single seed descent (SSD) lines of the AC Assiniboia x MN841801 cross to Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae isolates CR200 and CR251 Return to Table of Content Oat stem rust (caused by Pucciniagraminis f. sp. avenae) was found only in trace amounts in most commercially grown oat fields in Manitoba and Saskatchewan in 2000. This may have been due to the very early planting dates that most fields were sown, since late-planted fields did have severities reaching up to 20%. Canadian cultivars grown in the eastern prairie region have resistance genes Pg2 and Pg13 (and perhaps Pg9), which confer resistance to most races of oat stem rust. However, with the advent of races NA67 and NA76 in recent years, all Canadian cultivars are now considered susceptible to stem rust.  Serious stem rust epidemics could occur in years where late-planted crops, early arrival of abundant inoculum of NA67 or NA76, and favorable environmental conditions coincide.

The virulence spectrum of oat stem rust in Manitoba and Saskatchewan in 2000 is presented in Table 1. Surveys of commercial fields and trap plots were made from late July to mid-September. Races NA67 and NA76, which are virulent to all Canadian cultivars, continued to increase slightly in virulence frequency in the oat stem rust population. Races NA27 and NA29, which had been the predominant races in recent years, were still prevalent in the population but are slowly declining in frequency (Figure 1). Host resistance genes that are effective for races NA67 and NA76 include Pg10, Pg16, and Pga. Studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate the ability of these three genes for the control of races NA67, NA76, and a composite of historical races that have been found in the eastern prairie region of Canada. Resistance gene Pga (5-10 R-MR) was slightly better than Pg16 (10-15 R-MR) for control of races NA67 and NA76, but both were effective. Pg10 (30 MR-MS) was less effective for races NA67 and NA76. Oat lines from the Winnipeg breeding program with Pg10 and Pg16 also were evaluated for reaction to NA67 and NA76, and of 98 lines with Pg10 in the pedigree none were resistant, while 4 of 16 lines with Pg16 displayed good resistance. Evaluation of 800 Avena landraces and 6000 Avena sterilis lines for novel sources of oat stem rust resistance will be performed in 2001.

Table 1. Isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae collected in Manitoba and Saskatchewan in 2000

Return to Table of Content Introduction

In 2000, Canadian farmers harvested about 1.4 million hectares of oat and the total production was 3.6 million tonnes. Most of Canada's oat production (more than 90%) is located in the Prairie Provinces of Western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta). Forty percent of the total production is exported (Statistics Canada, 2000). Canada is the leading exporter for oat on the world market and 14% of the world's oat production occurs in Canada (Small, 1999). At present, there are six oat-breeding programmes in Canada which are located at Lacombe, Alberta; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; Winnipeg, Manitoba; Guelph, Ontario; Ottawa, Ontario; and Montreal, Quebec. There are currently 59 hulled and 8 hulless oat cultivars registered in Canada (CFIA, 2000). The importance of acquiring additional genetic resources for oat breeding was recognized early by Canadian plant breeders and scientists. In 1964, the first collection mission by Canadian scientists to collect wild and cultivated oat in the Mediterranean area was conducted. These collecting activities continued through the middle of the 1970's, when more than 7000 accessions of oat germplasm were brought back to Canada which now form part of the PGRC oat collection (Baum et al., 1975). The Mediterranean diploid species Avena barbata and, in particular, the hexaploid A. sterilis have frequently been used as donors for resistance genes to help resolve plant disease issues (Diederichsen, 2001). More than 30 crown rust genes have been identified in A. sterilis and used in oat breeding programmes (Fox et al., 1997).

Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) continues to regenerate and characterize oat germplasm as part of a project started in autumn 1998. An outline of this project and a progress report were presented in previous editions of the Oat Newsletter (Diederichsen et al., 1999, 2000). The objective of the project is to characterize and evaluate, using morphologic, agronomic, and disease resistance characters, the genetic variability among available oat accessions in the Plant Genetic Resources of Canada (PGRC) collection of cultivated and wild species of Avena. The information will be placed into the Genetic Resources Information Network-Canadian Version (GRIN-CA) thus making it available for others to use. With about 27,000 accessions, PGRC maintains the world's largest collection of oat germplasm. In particular, the collection of wild species of the genus Avena is unique in the world (Maggioni et al., 1998). Characterization data allows plant breeders and other scientists to make efficient use of the germplasm in the PGRC collection and supports world wide efforts for conservation and understanding of cultivated plants' diversity.

Composition of the PGRC and USDA Avena collections

The PGRC oat collection is housed at the Saskatoon Research Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, while the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) collection is located at the National Small Grain Centre, Aberdeen, Idaho, United States of America. All passport and characterization data of the PGRC Avena collection has been uploaded into the internet accessible Canadian version (GRIN-CA, see PGRC 2001) of the Genetic Resources Information Network (GRIN, see USDA without year) which was developed by the USDA. These internet databases can be searched using different criteria, e.g., cultivar name, country of origin, accession number. From a botanical viewpoint the most evident criterion for organizing the collection is the botanical species. The GRIN-CA taxonomy for the genus Avena basically follows Baum (1977) for defining the species in the Avena genepool. According to this system there are 31 species in the genus Avena (see Table 1, Rodinova et al., 1994). This number excludes the species A. atherantha Presl, because the status of this species needs more clarification. Therefore, PGRC should strengthen this part of its Avena collection.

The representation of the species in the PGRC and USDA collections is shown in Table 1. This table was produced by accessing GRIN and GRIN-CA. The figures presented in this table have to be seen as a very close approximation to the real numbers of accessions for all species. The on-going project at PGRC will result in further changes of the figures presented in Table 1 because misclassification will be corrected and new germplasm integrated in the collection. In addition to the botanical species two categories for interspecific hybrids without formal names and for species not yet identified are listed in Table 1. With the exception of the tetraploid A. matritensis and the hexaploid A. trichophylla all species within the genus Avena are represented in the PGRC oat collection. Six of the Avena species are represented by less than ten accessions. This might be of less concern from a plant breeding viewpoint, but for researching the diversity of the genus it is important to note these species cannot be found in other germplasm collections in the world.

From Table 1 it is obvious that a large degree of duplication exists between the Avena collections of the USDA and PGRC: more than 17,000 accessions are duplicated. Most duplication occurs in the cultivated hexaploid A. sativa and the wild hexaploid A. sterilis. In the PGRC collection the most represented species are A. sativa and A. sterilis with more than 11,000 accessions each. These species can be crossed with each other and the wild species is an important genetic resource for oat improvement.

The third major group in both collections with a large degree of duplication is the tetraploid wild species A. barbata. This species is a common weed and wild plant in the Mediterranean area but has also established itself as a weed and wild plant in many parts of the USA. In Canada the common wild oat A. fatua is a well-known and troublesome weed. The USDA collection has more accessions of A. fatua and A. ventricosa than the PGRC collection. However, in general, the PGRC collection has a larger number of accessions and maintains several species not represented in the USDA collection. This clearly demonstrates the significance and uniqueness of the PGRC oat collection.

Acquisition of New Germplasm

During the past three years PGRC has acquired germplasm from Canadian plant breeding programmes which is in the process of being entered into the GRIN-CA database. In 2000 PGRC participated in collection missions to Greece and Italy and more than 100 accessions of cultivated and wild oat were collected during these trips (Laghetti et al., 2001). The germplasm from Greece is currently being increased, characterized and integrated into the PGRC collection. In spring 2001 PGRC also received 75 additional landraces of A. sativa from the N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) at St. Petersburg (cooperator at the VIR: Dr. I. Loskutov). These samples will be screened for rust resistance, agrobotanically characterized, and integrated into the PGRC collection.

Regeneration of the Collection

Regeneration of the collection is essential for ensuring long-term preservation of viable seeds and for having seeds available for on-going disease and quality investigations as well as for distribution. With the exception of the perennial A. macrostachya, all oat species considered here are self-pollinating species. Therefore, no particular means for isolation to avoid cross-pollination are required. Regeneration is completed in the greenhouse if there are very low amounts of seeds. Growing wild Avena species in the field can be problematic due to the short growing season at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The spontaneous seed-shattering which makes bagging the plants necessary. The wild species are planted as early as possible in the year to produce seeds.

The total number of PGRC accessions planted for regeneration during the last three years is 10,251. A summarized overview of the regeneration of Avena accessions since autumn 1998 is given in Table 2. The regeneration of cultivated oat is technically easier since this oat group is well adapted to the Saskatoon growing conditions. In the wild species, the regeneration of a sample is considered to have been successful if it was possible to harvest more than 1000 seeds. This goal was reached for only 44% of the planted accessions in 1999 as a result of the cool and wet growing season. In 2000, the accessions for field regeneration were selected according to our experiences from 1999 and the performance of the samples was much better. Analysis for seed yield and characterization of the 2000 regeneration is nearly completed. The planting of about 3600 accessions of Avena sativa and about 1000 accessions of other Avena species has just been completed.


A detailed descriptor list for the germplasm of cultivated and wild oat was developed in consultation with Canadian oat breeders and international genebanks maintaining oat collections (USA, Russia, Germany). The characters on this list are used for describing the diversity of the PGRC collection using morphological and agronomic characters. This information allows breeders to search the collection for certain traits and to identify infraspecific groups within the collection of cultivated oat. For the wild species such characterization is needed for determination of the botanical species.

The activities regarding characterization are all managed by PGRC at Saskatoon. Special emphasis is given to this activity to ensure the taxonomic correctness of the species information in the collection and to have basic information about each accession's performance available to users of the collection.

Evaluation for Disease Resistance

For evaluation of disease resistance and quality traits, PGRC is cooperating with pathologists at the Winnipeg Cereal Research Centre (CRC) of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (Dr. J. Chong, Dr. T. Fetch, and Dr. J. Menzies). The major disease concerns for Canadian oat growers are crown rust, stem rust, and smuts. During the last two years, 1286 accessions of the PGRC oat collection were screened for crown rust resistance by Dr. J. Chong (CRC). The screening results were returned to PGRC and are presently being entered into the GRIN-CA database. The goal is to receive crown rust resistance data for all hexaploid accessions of oat which are not represented in other Avena collections. Identification of those accessions that are unique to PGRC or have not already been screened for this trait in the USDA (cooperator Dr. H. Bockelman) is on-going in cooperation with the USDA and pathologists at CRC.  So far, Dr. J. Chong has generated information on crown rust resistance for 5550 accessions of the PGRC collection.

For stem rust, the goal is to generate information on all hexaploid accessions unique to the PGRC collection. Recently, a new virulent strain of stem rust was identified and the screening of oat germplasm by Dr. T. Fetch (CRC) for detection of resistance genes to this strain will be intensified.

Stable resistance genes in cultivated oat effectively control smut. Information on smut resistance performance on 1674 accessions of hexaploid oat has been received from the CRC and will be entered in the GRIN-CA database. There is presently little need to screen for additional resistance genes to smuts.

The CRC Avena pathologists expressed the urgent need for continued screening of the PGRC Avena collection and for including genetic resources not previously investigated. Material collected during summer 2000 in Italy and Greece will have priority for investigation. The order of priority for screenings for disease resistance will be: (1) land races of cultivated oat, Avena sativa; (2) Avena sterilis; and, (3) Avena barbata. In close cooperation with the plant pathologists, PGRC will select accessions which need additional screening. Duplication with screening already conducted on the USDA collection will be avoided to make efficient use of the available resources.

Contacts and Cooperation

Cooperation with the University of Saskatchewan (Dr. B. Rossnagel) regarding oat germplasm regeneration and characterization started in 1999. The University planted 500 accessions of oat at its research farm in each year (1999 and 2000).

Recently PGRC responded to a large seed request from the United Kingdom (Dr. M. Legget) for 1200 accessions of wild oat (A. sterilis) germplasm. In 1999, 500 accessions of the same species were sent to Australia. This demonstrates the international recognition of the Avena collection at PGRC.

Dr. Chr. Germeier from Braunschweig/Germany, the database manager of the European Oat Database, which contains passport and characterization data for the relevant European oat collections, visited Saskatoon from July 20 to August 3, 2000. Thus, the activities conducted by PGRC at Saskatoon are linked to this European network.


In 2001 this project was funded in part by:

Agricultural Development Fund, Saskatchewa

Quaker Oats Company of Canada, Ltd.

Can-Oat Milling Products

Matching Investment Initiative Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Additional funds to ensure the projects are being sought.

Conclusions and Outlook

Viable germplasm and sufficient seed amounts for distribution are basic to all future work with the collection. Thus, meeting this objective and having relevant characterization data available are the goals of this project. For the species A. sativa this will be reached for most accessions by the end of the 2001 growing season. For the wild oat species less than 10% of the entire collection have so far been planted. PGRC will have to acquire additional funding to ensure the proper maintenance of this unique world collection.

The characterization data will be summarized and an overview generated of the performance of the accessions in the Avena world collection under the growing conditions of Saskatchewan. This information will contribute to a better understanding of the diversity and taxonomy of the genus Avena. Coordination of activities between PGRC and other relevant world oat collections and research institutes will be increased to enhance the efficiency in preservation of Avena genetic resources.


Baum, B.R. 1977. Oats: wild and cultivated. A monograph on the genus Avena L. (Poaceae). - Biosystematics Research Institute, Department of Agriculture, Research Branch, Monograph No. 14, Ottawa, ON.

Baum, B.R., Rajhaty, T., Martensm J.W., and Thomas, H. 1975. Wild oat genepool, a collection maintained by the Canada Department of Agriculture. Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, ON.

CFIA. 2000. List of varieties which are registered in Canada, October 1, 2000. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Nepean, ON.

Diederichsen, A. 2001. The use of Italian Avena species for plant breeding from a Canadian perspective. In: CNR (ed.). Institute for Germplasm 1970-2000, thirty years of conservation of plant genetic resources: perspectives and future developments. Proceedings of a conference at Bari, Italy, 11th of September 2000. (In press).

Diederichsen, A., Kessler, D., and Williams, D. 1999. Germplasm of the genus Avena at Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC). Oat Newsletter 45: 22-26. (http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/oatnewsletter/v45/#PGR).

Diederichsen, A. and Williams, D. 2000. Germplasm of wild and cultivated oat species at Plant Gene Resources of Canada. Oat Newsletter 46: 28-31. (http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/oatnewsletter/v46/#PGRC).

Fox, S.L., Brown, P.D., and Chong, J. 1997. Inheritance of crown rust resistance in four accessions of Avena sterilis L. Crop Science 37: 342-345.

Laghetti, G., Hammer, K., Cifarelli, S., Branca, F., Diederichsen, A., and Perrino, P. 2001. Collection of crop genetic resources in Egadi archipelago and southern Sicily. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter (in press).

Maggioni, L., Legget, M., Bcken, S., and Lipman, E. (eds.). 1998. Report of a working group on Avena. Fifth meeting, Vilnius, Lithuania, 7-9 May 1988. IPGRI, Rome.

PGRC. 2001. GRIN-CA on the Internet: PGRC-Website: http://www.agr.gc.ca/pgrc-rpc.

Rodinova, N.A., Soldatov, V.N., Mereshko, V.E., Jarosh, N.P., and Kobyljanskij, V.D. 1994. Flora of Cultivated Plants (Russ.), Oat. Vol. 2, Part 3. Kolos, Moscow.

Small, E. 1999. New crops for Canadian agriculture. In: J. Janick (ed.). Perspectives on new crops and new uses. Pp. 15-52. ASH Press, Alexandria, VA, USA.

Statistics Canada. 2000. Cereal and Oilseeds Review August 2000, Vol. 23, no.8. Statistics Canada, Ottawa, ON.

USDA. no year. World Economic Plants in GRIN. Internet: http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/tax/taxecon.html.

Return to Table of Content Introduction

Oats in Lithuania is one of most important forage crops. Not only oat grains are used for forage, but also oats is grown for green forage and silage in different mixtures. Oats is grown in mixtures with legumes. They belong to the best fallow occupying plants. Oats are used for human consumption too. They are produced as rolled oats, oatmeal, and biscuits. There is at present a considerable interest in the protein content and quality of different crops. Oat protein has a favourable composition with regard to the proportions of the different amino acids. At present considerable efforts are made to increase the protein content. In this connection, attention must be paid to seed size and oil content as well as other characters influencing quality. The aim of oat breeding is not only to breed new productive varieties resistant to lodging and diseases, but also to improve grain quality.

In Lithuania oats have been cultivated since the first year A.D. In XIII century they became widespread. In 1913 oats in Lithuania made up 20.2% of the total area under crops and in 1939 - 15.6%. After World War II the area under oats decreased in Lithuania (4). Over 1975-1980 the area under oats was from 90 to 100 thousand ha (8-9% of the total area under crops). In 1996, area under oats made up only 51.6 thousand ha (2.1% from all area under crops) (1), and in 2000 it was 45.5 thousand ha (1.9% from all area under crops) (3).

Oat breeding in Lithuania was started by Prof. D. Rudzinskas in 1922. The first oat varieties spread in Lithuania were "Stipruoles" and "Dotnuvos Baltosios" (2). In 1942 multiplication of the "Gyrunes" variety was started in Lithuania. In 1949 the varieties "Gyrunes" and "Stipruoles" were registered in Lithuania. In 1958, the new oat variety "Skaistunes" was given to official trials and it was registered in 1963 (4). The variety "Sidabres" was registered in the Pskov region in 1974. In 1989, the variety "Jaugila" was given to official trials and it was registered in 1995. Now it is widely spread in Lithuania. In 2001 the new variety "Migla" was registered in Lithuania.

Materials and Methods

Oat breeding was carried out on sandy loam with neutral reaction. The soil was fertilized with 60 kg/ha K and P in autumn and 60 kg/ha N in spring. It soil was dry, it was rolled after sowing. Cross-breeding is the main method for variety development. The varieties used for crossing were brought from St. Petersburg from the Vavilov Institute. In the meantime, we have 970 varieties in our collection. Now our collection is supplemented with the varieties received from Svalof-Weibull (Sweden), BOREAL (Finland), IHAR (Poland), and Lochov- Petkus (Germany). Very productive disease and lodging resistant varieties are selected for crosses. We make about 50 crossings every year. Competitive variety testing plot is 20 m² in 4 replications. Competitive variety testing means the final cultivars estimate stage, so better cultivars are tested there for 3 and more years.

Germination, heading and maturation are dated in the field. According this data duration of growth period is established. In summer appearance of crops is estimated after germination, after panicle emergence and in harvest ripening. Evaluation is carried out in a 9-point system. Resistance to lodging is estimated after panicle emergence and in harvest ripeness. Plant height is measured in the stage before ripening. Occurrence of fungi diseases is evaluated too. After thrashing the seeds are dried, cleaned, and weighed as well as moisture content is established. According to the data of seed bulk weight and moisture content indices of productivity and data reliability are calculated. Later grain quality analyses, such as determination of volume weight, 1000 grain weight, and husk content are conducted. Percentages of crude protein, crude fat, and starch are determined in the laboratory.

Results and Discussion

From 1998 to 2000 54 lines were tested in the competitive variety testing. The main quality indicator for the variety or line was grain yield (Table 1). In competitive variety testing 28 hybrid lines of oat were tested in 1998. The yield data differences among lines were not big. Fifteen lines in competition nursery provided the best results compared with standard variety "Jaugila".

From 28 lines tested in competitive variety testing in 1999, 16 lines out-yielded the standard variety "Jaugila". The main reason influencing low oat productivity in this year was meteorological conditions. In 2000 only 13 lines exceed the standard variety "Jaugila" from 32 lines tested in competition nursery. Meteorological conditions were very favorable for oat development in 2000. All lines and varieties produced by more than 4 t/ha yield. LIA 1401-22 produced the highest average yield according to the data over 1998-2000 and exceed the standard variety "Jaugila" by 0.47 t/ha.

According to the data of grain quality (Table 2) the best line is LIA 1401-22. The line LIA 1313-100 is second according to quality indices. It distinguishes itself in 1000 grain weight and crude fat percentage. Line LIA 1152-192 hangs back best lines a little according to grain quality.


In 2001 LIA 1401-22 and LIA 1152-192 were sown for multiplication. When the final decision concerning the best number of two, is made, it will be transmitted to official trials.


Return to Table of Content Increasing abiotic resistance of the released cultivars, to a great extent, provides for conservation of the biodiversity of major agricultural crops. In view of this, specific priority should be attributed to the research aimed at seeking new sources of edaphic resistance among wild relatives of cereal crops, since cultivated species in the process of evolution have in most cases lost the characters that initially belonged to their wild ancestors. It is well known that, in addition to edaphic resistance characters, wild forms often possess resistance against other abiotic and biotic stress factors (insufficient water supply, low and high temperatures, diseases, and pests).

The Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) harbors the worldwide collection of cultivated and wild oat species representing the whole global diversity of genus Avena L. The accessions of wild oat species has been studied in order to cast light on a series of commercially valuable traits. Of special interest are the data on the resistance to unfavourable soil factors. Cultivated oat, on the whole, is traditionally recognized as relatively resistant to edaphic stresses; according to the existing classification systems, its level of acid resistance occupies intermediate position between rye and wheat. At the same time, the degree of negative reaction of cultivars to alum-induced toxicity of soil has demonstrated wide variance depending on their eco-geographic origin (Kossareva et al., 1998).

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the collection of wild oat species for their alum tolerance in order to identify the degree of intra- and interspecific variation of this character and search for plant forms with resistance to the effect thus induced. The studied materials included approximately 180 accessions of diploid (A. clauda Dur., A. pilosa M.B., A. ventricosa Bal., A. longiglumis Dur., A. canariensis Baum, A. wiestii Steud., A. hirtula Lagas., A. atlantica Baum), tetraploid (A. barbata Pott., A. vaviloviana Mordv., A. agadiriana Baum et Fed., A. magna Mur. et Terr., A. murphyi Ladiz.), and hexaploid (A. ludoviciana Dur., A. sterilis L., A. fatua L., A. occidentalis Dur.) oat species.

Screening was made by using the method of water culture (Aniol, 1991). The accessions were classified into different groups of alum tolerance depending on the extent of root growth increment after a 24-hour alum stress.

The results of our research have shown considerable interspecific variation of the character of alum tolerance: the average value of root increment (RI) varied from 0.07 to 2.39 cm.

Examination of alum resistance variability between the species and within them helped to conclude that the diploid wild species (Table 1) are characterized by a resistance (scales 1-2) to the effect of this factor. Considering individual species, it should be mentioned that the majority of accessions belonging to species A. longiglumis, A. wiestii, and A. hirtula had the same level of resistance. Among this group of species, A. longiglumis manifested the highest degree of alum resistance: its RI was 2.39 cm. The other studied species occupied intermediate positions on the resistance scale. Completely non-resistant appeared the most primitive species with the Cv (A. ventricosa) and Cp (A. clauda and A. pilosa) genomes. A. canariensis showed wide variation of this character, but the most part of the accessions were either weakly resistant or susceptible. In A. atlantica, on the contrary, one half of the accessions were resistant, while the other half had intermediate resistance to the effect of aluminum. Worth mentioning are highly resistant accessions of diploid species: A. longiglumis from Morocco (k-1810 (RI=4.78)), k-1811 (3.58), A. wiestii from Egypt (k-94 (2.16)). Resistance to this effect was found in the forms of A. longiglumis from Morocco and Israel, A. wiestii from Azerbaijan, A. hirtula from Spain, Italy, and Tunisia, A. canariensis from the Canaries (Spain) and A. atlantica from Morocco.

Tetraploid wild species, on the whole, were characterized by good resistance (scales 1-2). Avena barbata may be regarded as the most resistant, while A. vaviloviana has medium level of resistance. Susceptibility or weak resistance (scales 4-5) was typical for the species bearing AC genomes, i.e., A. magna, A. murphyi, and A. agadiriana. High resistance was identified in the accessions of tetraploid sp. A. vaviloviana from Ethiopia (k-755) (2.22). Resistant forms belonged to spp. A. barbata from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Syria, Israel, and Ethiopia, and A. vaviloviana from Ethiopia.

Hexaploid species were not distinguished for high variance of the studied character, and generally had medium resistance (scale 3) to the effect of aluminum. Clearly resistant species were not traced among them. Medium level (scale 3) of resistance was detected in A. fatua and A. ludoviciana. The forms of A. occidentalis had parity between good resistance and medium resistance. Low resistance (scales 4-5) was characteristic of A. sterilis. Within this group of species, only one highly resistant form was identified in sp. A. ludoviciana from Afghanistan (k-90) (RI=2.18). Resistance accessions were found in species A. fatua from Georgia, Bulgaria, Poland, and Mongolia, A. ludoviciana from Iraq, Algeria, and Lebanon, A. occidentalis from the Canaries (Spain), and A. sterilis from Turkey, Iran, and Algeria.

Preliminary results have shown that the species (diploid and tetraploid ones) carrying a C genome had low level of resistance to the excessive content of aluminum and hydrogen ions in the nutrient media, while the carriers of A and B genomes were more frequently characterized as having high alum resistance. The analysis has made it clear that some accessions that we have identified as resistant originated in the environments with excessive moisture or in mountainous areas. It seems very likely that the long-term life of plant forms under soil and climate environmental stress has led to the development of efficient protective mechanisms against unfavourable edaphic factors in these genotypes. All the forms of cultivated oats identified in the process of this study may be recommended for utilization in breeding practice.

Return to Table of Content Systematic evaluation of accessions in the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) is coordinated by the National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility (NSGGRF) staff at Aberdeen, Idaho. Descriptors appropriate for each of the principal small grains crop species - wheat, barley, oats, and rice - have been established in collaboration with the appropriate Crop Germplasm Committees. Field evaluation data are recorded on such descriptors as growth habit, number of days from planting to anthesis (heading), plant height, panicle density, lodging, straw breakage, shattering, and awn characteristics. Panicles are collected from each evaluation or nursery plot at maturity to facilitate detailed laboratory analysis for seed characters and for more precise determination of panicle descriptors than can be obtained under field conditions. Cooperative oat evaluations continued for reaction to crown rust and smut as well as beta-glucan, protein, and oil content.

Crown rust and smut evaluations are conducted at St. Paul, Minnesota under the direction of Dr. Howard W. Rines and colleagues at the University of Minnesota. Evaluations of oat accessions for beta-glucan, protein, and oil are conducted by Dr. David M. Peterson and staff at the USDA-ARS Cereal Crops Research Unit, Madison, Wisconsin. These important quality evaluations focus on a diversity of NSGC and other oat germplasm. Beta-glucan and protein data have been obtained for over 5000 NSGC oat accessions to date. In addition, oat entries grown in the Uniform Midseason Oat Nursery, the Uniform Early Oat Nursery, the Uniform Northwestern States Oat Nursery, and other cultivars or advanced lines grown in various trials at Aberdeen and Tetonia, Idaho since 1988 have been submitted for beta-glucan and protein evaluations. Evaluations of oil content have also been conducted in recent years.

Oat descriptors with data entered in the GRIN system are summarized below. No evaluations have been conducted to date for descriptors such as awn type, panicles per row, groat percent, winterhardiness, Helminthosporium avenae, leaf Septoria, stem Septoria, powdery mildew, and stem rust.

In related efforts, cooperative funding for the project entitled "Comprehensive Oat Improvement Through National Germplasm Enhancement" is established annually through Specific Cooperative Agreements or direct fund transfers in cooperation with the Oat Crop Germplasm Committee. Annual progress reports for this project are available in the CRIS system.

*The authors wish to acknowledge the important contributions of the NSGGRF staff in this effort, with special thanks to Glenda B. Rutger, Dave E. Burrup, Kay B. Calzada, Karla Reynolds, Charles A. Erickson, Santos Nieto, Kathy E. Burrup, Judy Bradley, and Carol S. Truman.

Return to Table of Content Cultivar Name Clearance. Breeders in the United States are encouraged to have proposed names for new cultivars checked for duplication. The National Small Grains Collection will be glad to assist you. Send the proposed name to: Harold E. Bockelman, USDA-ARS-NSGC, P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210, Fax 208-397-4165, nsgchb@ars-grin.gov. If desired, more than one name may be submitted, listed in order of preference. This will save considerable time if a conflict is found with the first name. Available records (GRIN, CI/PI cards, variety files, etc.) here at Aberdeen are checked for conflicts with the proposed name. If a conflict is found (previous use of the name for that crop), the breeder is requested to submit a different name. If no conflicts are found, the requested name is forwarded to the Federal Seed Lab, Agricultural Marketing Service where the proposed name is checked against the databases they maintain. The Agricultural Marketing Service does not guarantee that its findings are the final word since their is no single, complete name database. This clearance procedure generally requires about four weeks. Trademark searches should be done by the breeder online at http://www.uspto.gov.

Elite Germplasm Requested. Breeders are encouraged to consider submitting their elite lines for inclusion in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC). Of special interest are lines that have been in uniform nurseries, but are not to be released as cultivars. Historically, uniform nurseries been the testing-grounds for the most advanced, elite germplasm from the various public and private breeding programs. Entries in uniform nurseries and other breeding materials that are never released as cultivars are still of potential value to breeders, pathologists, entomologists, and other researchers. Breeders should submit 200-500 g of untreated seed to the NSGC (address: P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210). Seed from outside of the United States should be sent to the USDA Plant Germplasm Quarantine Center (address: Bldg. 580, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705) with enclosed forwarding directions. Provide a description of the germplasm, including: donor (breeder, institution); botanical and common name; cultivar name and/or other identifiers (breeder line or selection number, etc.); pedigree; descriptive information (of important traits and special characteristics); and growth habit. Assignment of a PI number and inclusion in the NSGC makes the germplasm available for research purposes to bona fide scientists in the US and worldwide. Please note that a different procedure applies if you are obtaining Crop Science registration. Follow directions provided by the crop registration committee.

Guidelines for Exporting Seed. All seed sent to a foreign country should be inspected and receive a phytosanitary certificate. In most cases a fee payable to APHIS (Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service) is required to cover the cost of the pc. You may wish to work with APHIS personnel in your state or your State Department of Agriculture to obtain a phytosanitary certificate. Also, please be aware of any import permits and additional declarations that certain importing countries may require to accompany the shipment.

Guidelines for Importing Seed. Scientists importing seed should be aware of any restrictions that apply. USDA-APHIS personnel can provide current information on applicable restrictions. Oat scientists should be aware that Avena sterilis is classified as a Noxious Weed in the US and, thus, requires a permit from USDA-APHIS for receiving seed and grow-outs.

Return to Table of Content

                                                D.D. Stuthman1, H.W. Rines1,2, D.V. McVey2,3, R. Dill-Macky3, R.L. Phillips1, and K.J. Leonard2,3

1Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota
411 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108
2U.S. Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Service
3Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota
e-mail: stuth001@umn.edu

Minnesota Acreage and Production

The oat acreage harvested for grain in Minnesota in 2000 was estimated to be 310,000 acres, up about 3% from 1999. The estimated yield of 72 bushels/acre was up 13 bushels/acre from 1999 and is an all time record for the state. The total production in 2000 is the most since 1994. The growing season was favorable and the impact of diseases was minimal, thus the record yield.

Estimated early intentions for 2001 were 375,000 acres, down 6% from 2000, but actual plantings were only 300,000 because of delayed planting conditions. The early season was wet and cool, but after mid-June the weather turned very hot and became quite dry; perhaps the biggest contrast ever between the first and last halves of the oat growing season. Fortunately, disease development was also reduced by the hot, dry weather.

New Varieties

Richard was released in 1999 to seed growers and had an excellent season in 2000. Richard is early midseason in maturity with good yield potential and outstanding lodging resistance. It also has good resistance to smut, crown rust, and barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). Richard's pedigree is Newdak x MN 86209. Richard was tested in the 1998-2000 USDA Uniform Early Oat Nursery as MN 94112 and is now a check in that nursery.

Wabasha was released to seed growers in 2000. Wabasha is early to midseason maturity with good yield and lodging resistance. Wabasha has good disease resistance and kernel quality with a white hull. The pedigree of Wabasha is a cross between a Purdue and a Michigan breeding line. It was in the 1999-2000 USDA Early Nursery as MN 97166, ranking 7 and 6 overall for yield in those two years.

Sesqui is a sister of Wabasha and late midseason in maturity. It has excellent yield potential and a high level of partial crown rust resistance. It is also resistant to smut and has some tolerance to BYDV. It was in the USDA Midseason Nursery in 1999-2000 as MN 97201, ranking 1 and 7 over all locations for yield in the two years.


Dr. K.J. Leonard retired on April 30 as research leader of the Cereal Disease Laboratory. Kurt enjoyed a long career focusing mainly on oat rusts.

A month earlier, Dr. Jose A. Martinelli from Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (URGS) in Porto Alegre, Brazil arrived to spend a year-long sabbatical in the Cereal Disease Lab. Jose's main research interest is crown rust of oats.

In February 2001, Dr. Cristine Handel completed her Ph.D. requirements and returned to Brazil to work for McKenzie, an international consulting firm. Details of her research efforts can be found in last year's Oat Newsletter.

Juan Diaz is in Uruguay at La Estanzuela finishing his Ph.D. thesis and intends to finish at the end of this summer. Details of his research can also be found in last year's Oat Newsletter.

Marcelo Pacheco, a Ph.D. student from Porto Alegre continues on his Ph.D. program. His research has two main emphases: 1) comparison of selection for slow rusting in Minnesota and parallel in Brazil, and 2) to identify molecular markers associated with slow rusting loci accumulated with recurrent selection.

Dr. Vladimir Portyanko, postdoctorate from Kiev, Ukraine, came to Minnesota in Sept. 1999 following two years at Iowa State in the lab of Jim Holland and Michael Lee. Vlad's research here includes generation of PCR-based markers for crown rust partial resistance QTLs identified in the cross MN 841801 x Noble and testing them in other populations having MN 841801 as a rust resistance donor parent.

In June, Jennifer Folstad, a General Mills employee, completed her M.S. Her thesis title was "Genetic and Environmental Effects on Physical Properties of Oats."

At the end of August, Don McVey will conclude a long and productive career with the USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory. Don has been the key player in launching and continuing our recent search for slow rusting which we expect to be more durable than major gene resistance. He developed the protocol for field evaluation of this rate-reducing type of crown rust resistance, and during the last six years since our original selections, we have accumulated a large group of slow rusting genotypes.

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Oat Stem Rust. In late March, stem rust was found in oat plots in a southern Louisiana nursery. Oat stem rust was light in southern Louisiana nurseries by mid-April. The rust increased slowly because of the cooler than normal temperatures during the first half of April. Rust developed to a lesser extent than in 1999, when rust killed many of the lines in the Baton Rouge nursery by mid-April. During the first week in May in central Louisiana plots, oat stem rust developed to moderate levels on susceptible cultivars that were not severely infected with crown rust.

In early April, oat stem rust was severe in southern Texas plots and moderate in central Texas plots.

During the first week in May, oat stem rust overwintering foci were found in plots in southern Georgia and southern Alabama. The rust killed the oats in these plots and moved outward onto oat growing around the infected foci.

Traces of oat stem rust were observed on some cultivars in a south central Kansas plot in late May. Trace to 40% stem rust severities were observed in oat plots at the berry growth stage in northeastern Missouri in mid-June. Oat acreage is limited in the central Plains states, which limits the rust inoculum for the northern plains oat crop.

During late June, 1% oat stem rust severities were found in commercial fields in south central Wisconsin and trace-5% severities were reported in plots in south central Minnesota and east central South Dakota. By late July, trace to 5% severities were observed in oat plots from central Minnesota to central North Dakota. In general, oat stem rust was less widespread than on the same date in 1999, throughout the northern oat-growing area. Losses to oat stem rust were minimal in 2000 in the upper Midwest (Table 1).

During the last week in April, traces of oat stem rust were found on wild oat (Avena fatua) in a plot in Butte, California. On May 22, limited oat stem rust was found on wild oats in Sonoma County, California.

Trace amounts of oat stem rust were found on susceptible trap plots and wild oat in southeastern and south central areas of Manitoba in late July. Many oat fields were sprayed with fungicide, so losses due to rust infection were light in 2000.

Race NA-29 (virulent to Pg-1, -2 , -3, -4, -8, and -15) was the predominant race identified in 2000, comprising 64% of the total isolates (Table 2.) NA-27 (virulent to Pg-1, -2, -3, -4, and -8) comprised 15% of the isolates identified as compared to 96% in 1999. Three isolates from California appear to be new NA races (Table 2). One isolate (virulent to Pg-2, and -3) is from a nursery collection, while the two others (one isolate virulent to Pg-1, and -4; the other virulent to Pg-1, -4, -16, and -a) are from A. fatua collections. These isolates will be retested and new NA designations will be assigned if they are indeed unique.

Oat Crown Rust. In early March, in south Texas plots, crown rust infections were severe in susceptible plots and increased at a rapid rate wherever moisture was present.

In early March, traces of oat crown rust were found in southern Louisiana. Crown rust increased in oat plots and some lines had severities as high as 60% by late March, in southern Louisiana. Light amounts of crown rust were found in oat plots along the Gulf Coast and some overwintering sites were observed in locations such as Headland, Alabama.

Oat crown rust increased rapidly during April from south central Texas through southern Louisiana to southern Alabama. During mid-April, crown rust was severe in these areas as in 1999, but there was less crown rust further east. During mid-April, 50-75% crown rust severities were observed on susceptible oat plots in the Baton Rouge, Louisiana nursery. By late April, crown rust was severe in plots of susceptible cultivars and light in commercial fields in the southern US. In much of this area, the drier and cooler than normal weather during April was not conducive to rust development. These southern areas provided some inoculum for areas farther north.

In late May, traces of crown rust were found in oat plots in south central Kansas and a collection of crown rust was made from A. fatua in Sonoma County, California.

In early May, pycnial infection was noted on buckthorn bushes at St. Paul, Minnesota. Most of the pycnia were found along the edge of the nursery rather than where the oat telial straw was located. Therefore, the first pycnia observed may be from f. sp. of Puccinia coronata that infect grasses other than oat. The timing of this pycnial development, in early May, is near normal. By the fourth week in May a few uredinia were found on the oat spreader rows in the buckthorn nursery. The main flush of new pycnia did not appear in the buckthorn nursery at St. Paul until early May. Cool weather delayed development of aecia. By mid-June, oat in the buckthorn nursery in St. Paul, Minnesota, had high levels (80% severities) of crown rust infection on lower leaves and 5% severities on the upper leaves in the spreader row. Traces of crown rust were found on oat in the other St. Paul nurseries.

During late May, crown rust aecial infections were found on buckthorn bushes in east central North Dakota. In mid-June, trace levels of oat crown rust were detected in south central Wisconsin fields. In early July, 40% crown rust severities were observed on flag leaves of oat in south central Minnesota plots, while in fields 1-5% severities were found on the lower leaves. Crown rust developed very slowly in east central South Dakota and west central Minnesota nurseries with trace to 20% severities on lower leaves of cultivars at the milk growth stage. By late July, trace to 50% crown rust severities were observed in varietal plots in eastern and central North Dakota. In western North Dakota plots rust was not found. Crown rust was lighter than in previous years except on a few highly susceptible cultivars in nurseries. On wild oat (A. fatua) plants in west central Minnesota, 80% severities were common while in northwestern North Dakota only traces of crown rust were present. Crown rust losses in the northern oat-growing area were similar to those of 1999 and 1998, but less than the average for 1995-1999 (Table 1).

During the third week in May, aecia were observed on buckthorn on the Cornell University campus in New York. In mid-July, severe rust was reported in field of a susceptible cultivar, but in general losses to crown rust were light in the eastern US.

In late June, crown rust severities were more severe and infections earlier than normal on susceptible oat yield plots at Guelph, Canada. By late July, trace to 5% levels of crown rust were found on wild oat (A. fatua) and susceptible trap plots in the southeastern and south central areas of Manitoba. Aecial infections on buckthorn were heavier in July than has been found in recent years. Crown rust was severe with up to 70% severities on wild oat in experimental plots at the University of Manitoba, which is adjacent to the Boyne River where buckthorn is found. The cultivar Triple Crown with Pc48 had trace to 10% crown rust severities in plots adjacent to the wild oat plots.

In general, the frequencies of virulence of P. coronata isolates to the oat crown rust standard and supplemental differentials were quite similar from Texas to the Midwest and from the Southeast to the Northeast in 2000 (Table 3). Differences that were found include: 1) frequencies of virulence to Pc35, Pc53, Pc59, and Pc60 were greater in Texas than in the other regions; 2) frequencies of virulence to Pc38, Pc39, Pc63, and Pc71 were greater in the Midwest; 3) frequency of virulence to Pc54 was greater in the Southeast; and 4) frequency of virulence to 67 was high in both the Southeast and Northeast but intermediate in Texas and the Midwest. Pc38 and Pc39 have been used extensively in midwestern oat cultivars, which accounts for the greater virulence to these resistances in the Midwest. Virulence to Pc63 tends to be associated with virulence to Pc38, so it also was more frequent in the Midwest than in the rest of the United States. Frequencies of virulence to Pc58, Pc59, Pc60, and Pc61 were lower in the Midwest than in other parts of the US. These genes have been used mainly in winter oat cultivars grown in Texas and the Southeast. Why frequencies of virulence to these resistance are also high in the Northeast is not known. Pc68 remains effective against all but a few isolates collected in 2000, but at least one Pc68-virulent isolate was found in 2000 in the Southeast, Texas, and the Midwest. Pc48 and Pc52 also have been highly effective for many years. Fewer than 10 isolates, all from the Midwest, were found with virulence to Pc48 or Pc52. Resistance in the line B604Xsel was still highly effective in the Midwest and Northeast but was less effective in Texas or the Southeast in 2000.

Letter codes for designation of oat crown rust races based on the North American standard set of 16 differential oat lines are shown in Table 4 (Chong et al., 2000). A total of 110 races were identified among the 164 isolates from the US tested in 2000. The most common races were LQLG, LQBG, and LQBB, each of which was found six times; NQBB, which was found five times; and LBLB, which was found four times (Table 5). The LB-- race group (virulent on Pc40; avirulent on Pc45, Pc46, Pc50, Pc38, Pc39, Pc48, and Pc68) was the most common race group in all regions of the United States except the Midwest in 2000. LQ-- races (virulent on Pc40, Pc38, and Pc39; avirulent on Pc45, Pc46, Pc50, Pc48, and Pc68) were most common in the Midwest, where Pc38 and Pc39 have been used extensively, and also were relatively common in the Southeast and Texas in 2000. NQ-- races (virulent on Pc40, Pc46, Pc38, and Pc39; avirulent on Pc45, Pc50, Pc48, and Pc68) were relatively common in the Midwest.


Chong, J., Leonard, K.J., and Salmeron, J.J. 2000. A North American system of nomenclature for Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae. Plant Disease 84: 580-585.

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