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GrainGenes Reference Report: TAG-90-372

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Genetic variation at storage protein-coding loci of common wheat (cv 'Chinese Spring') induced by nitrosoethylurea and by the cultivation of immature embryos in vitro
Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Upelniek V
Novoselskaya A
Sutka J
Galiba G
Metakovsky E
Electrophoretic patterns of seed storage proteins, the high-molecular-weight glutenins and gliadins, were studied in 468 plants of the common wheat cultivar 'Chinese Spring' regenerated from callus culture of immature embryos, in 115 plants grown from seeds treated with nitrosoethylurea and in 260 control plants From 5 to 21 single grains were analysed from each plant In these three groups, the frequency of inherited mutations causing the loss of all proteins controlled by a locus (null-mutations, probably caused by a chromosomal deficiency) was 0.69%, 2.07%, and 0.05% per locus (the differences were statistically significant), respectively, while that of mutations causing the loss of a single protein band was 0.11%, 0.33%, and 0.05%, respectively. The loss of all of the gliadins controlled by Gli-B1 or Gli-B2 (mutations were probably caused by a deletion of satellites of the corresponding chromosomes), was significantly higher than the loss of gliadins controlled by genomes A and D. Gene mutations altering the electrophoretic mobility of a single protein band in the pattern were found only in the second group of plants (0.44%). Therefore, chemical mutagenesis which produced not only more mutations than cultivation of immature wheat embryos in vitro, but also a higher ratio of mutations that altered DNA sequences, can be considered as an easier and comparatively more promising way for obtaining new improved variants of loci controlling biochemical characteristics in wheat. Somaclonal variation, on the other hand, was probably mainly caused by chromosomal abnormalities and could therefore hardly be considered as a useful tool in wheat breeding.
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