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GrainGenes Reference Report: CRS-55-1243

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Genetic diversity among wheat accessions from the USDA National Small Grains Collection
Crop Science
Bonman JM
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Accessions of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) from the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) are a resource for wheat scientists worldwide. The genetic diversity of the wheat core subset, representing approximately 10% of the collection's 42,138 T. aestivum accessions, was examined using 390 diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers, 4941 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and descriptor data. The marker profiles revealed duplicates, which were excluded to form an informative core (iCore) of 3230 accessions. The iCore population structure and diversity within various subgroups were examined with analysis of molecular variance, principal coordinate analysis, cluster analysis, and by ranking the contribution of individual accessions to overall diversity. Accession groups based on molecular marker data corresponded well to their geographic origin, and population structure was accounted for primarily by differences between Iranian landrace accessions and the rest of the accessions. Accessions classified as breeding lines were overrepresented among those ranked as most diverse based on SNP data, whereas Iranian landraces were underrepresented. Although less diverse as a group, Iranian landrace accessions had a higher frequency of resistance to bunt diseases and Russian wheat aphid compared with the iCore as a whole. The present study provides support for establishing core subsets based on geographic origin of accessions and will be a basis for further study of diversity among NSGC wheats.
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