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GrainGenes Reference Report: FIG-19-91

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Loci and candidate genes controlling root traits in wheat seedlings - a wheat root GWAS
Functional and Integrative Genomics
Beyer S
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Two hundred one hexaploid wheat accessions, representing 200 years of selection and breeding history, were sampled from the National Small Grains Collection in Aberdeen, ID, and evaluated for five root traits at the seedling stage. A paper roll-supported hydroponic system was used for seedling growth. Replicated roots samples were analyzed by WinRHIZO. We observed accessions with nearly no branching and accessions with up to 132 cm of branching. Total seminal root length ranged from 70 to 248 cm, a 3.5-fold difference. Next-generation sequencing was used to produce single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and genomic libraries that were aligned to the wheat reference genome IWGSCv1 and were called single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After filtering and imputation, a total of 20,881 polymorphic sites were used to perform association mapping in TASSEL. Gene annotations were conducted for identified marker-trait associations (MTAs) with -log10P > 3.5 (p value < 0.003). In total, we identified 63 MTAs with seven for seminal axis root length (SAR), 24 for branching (BR), four for total seminal root length (TSR), eight for root dry matter (RDM), and 20 for root diameter (RD). Putative proteins of interest that we identified include chalcone synthase, aquaporin, and chymotrypsin inhibitor for SAR, MYB transcription factor and peroxidase for BR, zinc fingers and amino acid transporters for RDM, and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase for RD. We evaluated the effects of height-reducing Rht alleles and the 1B/1R translocation event on root traits and found presence of the Rht-B1b allele decreased RDM, while presence of the Rht-D1b allele increased TSR and decreased RD.
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