Annual Wheat Newsletter
 
                                   Volume 37
 
 Edited by J. S. Quick, Department of Agronomy, Colorado State University,
 Fort Collins, CO, USA; Financial arrangements made by Ian B. Edwards,
 Treasurer, Pioneer Overseas Corporation, Johnston, IA, USA.
  Carolyn Schultz, Senior Secretary, CSU Department of Agronomy, typed and
 collated the information for the printing of this volume.  Facilities and
 assistance during manuscript editing were kindly provided by Colorado State
 University.
 
                Additional regional editing and manuscript solicitation were
           done by:
           J. S. Noll, Canada Dept. of Agriculture, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
           R. A. Fischer, CIMMYT, Mexico, D. F., Mexico
           K. S. Gill, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
           T. E. Miller, Plant Sci. Res., Cambridge Laboratory, Norwich, England
           H. A. van Niekerk, Small Grain Center, Bethlehem, South Africa
           R. A. McIntosh, University of Sydney, Castle Hill, N.S.W., Australia
 
 This volume was financed by voluntary contributions - list included.  The
 information in this Newsletter is considered as personal contributions.
 Before citing any information herein, obtain the consent of the specific
 author(s).  The Newsletter is sponsored by the National Wheat Improvement
 Committee, USA.
 
                                  1 June 1991
 
                             450 copies printed by 
 
             University Communications,  Colorado State University
   
 -------------------------
 
                               TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 JOHN BINGHAM
 
 EVERETT H. EVERSON
 
 ERNEST ROBERT SEARS
 
 I.  SPECIAL REPORTS
 
        Minutes - National Wheat Improvement Committee
 
        Members - National Wheat Improvement Committee
 
        Minutes - Wheat Crop Advisory Committee
 
 II.  CONTRIBUTIONS
 
    PRIVATE COMPANIES
 
      AGRIPRO BIOSCIENCES
 
         Rob Bruns, John Moffat, Joe Smith, Jim Reeder - Berthoud, CO
         Koy Miskin, Curtis Beazer - Brookston, IN
         Barton Fogleman, Erwin Ridge - Jonesboro, AR
 
      AGROMIX SOFTWARE, INC.
 
         Deiter K. Mulitze
 
      CARGILL, INC.
 
          D. R. Johnston, S. W. Perry, J. E. Handwerk, Sally R. Clayshulte, D.
 P. Shellberg - Fort Collins, CO
 
          Nestor Machado, Pedro Paulucci, Hector Mertinuzzi - Argentina
 
          R. P. Daniel, D. Donaldson M. J. Nowland, C. J. Tyson, D. J. Wilson,
 P. Wilson - Tamworth, Australia
 
       HYBRITECH SEED INTERNATIONAL, INC.
 
      John Erickson, Jerry Wilson, Steve Kuhr, Bud Hardesty, Karolyn Ely -
 Wichita, KS; Gordon Cisar - Lafayette,
    IN
 
           Dennis Dunphy, Sam Wallace, Richard Evans - Lafayette, IN; Leon
 Fischer, Kent Baker - Mt. Hope, KS; Geoff
   Keyes - St. Louis, MO
 
       NORTHRUP KING COMPANY
 
      Fred Collins, June Hancock, Craig Allen - Bay, AR
 
       ORSEM
 
           Ch. Quandalle, S. Sunderwirth, L. Batreau 
 
       TRIO RESEARCH, INC.
 
      J. Wilson - Wichita, KS
 
       WESTERN PLANT BREEDERS
 
      D. Clark, Craig Cook, Amy Baroch - Bozeman, MT; K.  Shantz, J. Bobula -
 Tempe, AZ
 
 ARGENTINA
 
       Enrique Suarez, Laura Bullrich, A. Acevedo, E Antonelli, S. Feingold,
 M. Artega, G.W. Covas, J. Safont Lis, G.  Tranquilli - Castellar
       R.A. Heinz, Mariana Del Vas, L.C. Moratinos, E.A. Favret, H. E. Hopp,
 S.E. Feingold - Castellar
       G. Manera, G. Diaz, E. Yanacon, R. Maich, G. Berrino, O. Pagani, A.
 Benedetti, M. Canovas - Fac. Cs.  Agropecuarias U.N.C.
 
 AUSTRALIA
 
       NEW SOUTH WALES
 
      J. Bell, G. N. Brown, D. Backhouse, N. L. Darvey, L. W. Burgess, R. A.
 McIntosh, J. D. Oates, R. Park, Jake, J.  Sharp, D. The, C.R. Wellings -
 Sydney and Cobbitty
        
           L. O'Brien, F. W. Ellison, D. J. Mares, S. G. Moore, - Narrabri
 
           R.A. Hare - Tamworth
 
           C.W. Wrigley, F. MacRitchie, I.L. Batey, F. Bekes, R. Gupta, S.
 Rahman, P. Reddy, J.H. Skerritt - CSIRO, Sydney
 
       QUEENSLAND
 
           P. S. Brennan, P.J. Keys, L. R. Mason, J. A. Sheppard, R. G.
 Norris, G. C. Smith, R. W. Uebergang, P.J. Agius -Toowoomba
  
           D. J. Martin, B. G. Stewart - Toowoomba
      
      R. G.  Rees, R. L. Eisemann, G. J. Platz, K. C. M. Blaikie - Toowoomba
         
      G. B. Wildermuth, R. B. McNamara - Toowoomba
 
 BRAZIL
 
           J. C. S. Moreira, C. N. A. de Sousa - Passo Fundo
     
           C. N. A. de Souza, E. P. Gomes, J. C. S. Moreira, P.L. Scheeren,
 S.D. dos A. de Silva
 
           C. R. Reide, L. A. C. Campos, D. Brunetta - Londrina, P.R.
 
      O. S. Rosa, O.S. Rosa Filho - Melhoramento de Sementes, LTDA
 
      A. C. P. Goulart, F. de A. Paiva, C.J. Avila, J.S. Sobrinho, P.G. Sousa
 - Dourados, M. S.
 
 CANADA
 
       ALBERTA
 
      R.S. Sadasivaiah, R.L. Conner
 
      K.G. Briggs
 
        MANITOBA
 
      Steve Haber
 
      O. M. Lukow, K.M. Kidd
 
      O. M. Lukow, N.K. Howes
  
      D. Harder, K. Dunsmore
 
      W.J. Turnock, B.H. Timlick
 
           J. A. Kolmer
 
      S.E. German, J.A. Kolmer, P.L. Dyck
 
 
        ONTARIO
  
      W. L. Seaman, E. F. Schneider, D. R. Sampson
 
 
        PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
 
      H.W. Johnston, H.G. Nass
 
        SASKATCHEWAN
 
      R.J. Graf, D. Potts, B.J. Fowler, K. Glatt, C. McLean
 
 CHINA, PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF
 
      Zhaosu Wu, Shirong Yu, Xizhong Wei, Quimei Xia, Youjia Shen, Yong Xu,
 Zhaoxia Chen, Jiming Wu, Guoliang Jiang -
      Nanjing
 
      Zuoji Lin, Shenghui Jie, Xueyi Hu, Z.Q. Wu - Henan
 
           Z.Y. Liu, F.C. Liu, Y.Z. Shen, Z.Q. Li, P.Y. Bai, F.W. Shao, H.M.
 Li - Hebei
 
 CZECHOSLOVAKIA
 
      J. Smocek
 
      Z. Stehno, L. Dotlacil, V. Sip, M. Skorpik, M. Vlasek
 
 ESTONIA
 
           O. Priilinn, T. Enno, H. Peusha, M. Tohver, L. Timofejeva
 
 GERMANY
 
      A. Boerner, C.O. Lehmann, D. Mettin, J. Plaschke, G. Schlegel, R.
 Schlegel, G. Melz, V. Thiele - Gatersleben
 
      V. Vassilev, J. von Kietzell, H. Toben, A. Mavridis, M. Gross, K. Rudolf
 - Gottingen
 
 HUNGARY
 
      L. Balla, Z. Bedo, L. Lang, L. Szunics, Lu. Szunics, I. Karsai -
 Martonvasar
 
           J. Sutka, B. Barnabas, O. Veisz, G. Galiba, M. Molnar-Lang, G.
 Kovacs, E. Szakacs, B. Koszegi, R. Nagy, I.  Takacs, G. Kocsy - Martonvasar
 
 INDIA
 
           S.M.S. Tomar, K.D. Srivastava, D.V. Singh - New Delhi
 
      M. Kochumadhavan, S.M.S. Tomar, P.N.N. Nambisan - Wellington
 
           R. N. Sawhney, D.N. Sharma, H.B. Chowdary, J.B. Sharma - New Delhi
 
           P.C. Pande, S. Nagarajan, D. Singh, H.N. Pande
 
      M. K. Upadhyay, B. Singh
 
      Dalmir Singh
 
      G. S. Sethi, Satish C. Sharma, K.S. Thakur, D. L. Sharma, Ashwani Kumar,
 Shyam Verma, H.K. Chaudhary - Palampur
 
 ISRAEL
 
           Sem Y. Atsmon
 
           A. Blum
 
 ITALY
 
           B. Borghi, M. Perenzin, M. Cattaneo, Y.M. Qiao, R. Castagna, P.
 Gavuzzi, N.E. Pogna, R. Redaelli, A.M.  Beretta, A. Curioni, A. Dal Belin
 Peruffo, F. Raineri - Lodigiano
 
      V. Vallega - Rome
 
 JAPAN
 
      A. Oyanagi, A. Sato, M. Wada
 
           Y. Taniguchi
 
           S. Ito
 
 
 MEXICO
 
      R. A. Fischer, G. Varughese
 
           P.A. Burnett, R. Ranieri, J. Robinson
 
           He Zhong-hu
 
           K.D. Sayre, I. Ortiz-Montasterio, C. Meisner NEPAL
 
      H.J. Dubin, P.R. Hobbs
      
 ROMANIA
 
      N. S. Saulescu, Em. Jinga, I. Hagima, Mariana Ittu, Gh. Ittu, A
 Jilaveanu - Fundulea
 
 SOUTH AFRICA
 
      H. A. Van Niekerk, R. Cilliers, A. Brummer, D. Exley - Bethlehem
      
      H. A. Van Niekerk, T. G. Paxton, R. Britz, M. S. S. Jordan, T. van
 Bredenkamp
 
           I.B.J. Smith, F Groenewald, A. Basson
 
           H. A. Smit, J. L. Purchase, P.A. Visser, H. A. van Tonder, A. H.
 Botha, M. Maritz
      
      C.G. Burbidge, R.C. Lindeque, H.A. van Tonder, H.S.C. van der Merwe, W.
 van der Westhuizen
 
           H. B. Smit, B. L. deVilliers, H.H. Knobel, R. C. Lindeque
 
      H. B. Smit, B. L. deVilliers, H.H. Knobel, R. C. Lindeque, J.P. du Toit
 
      S.C. Drijepondt
           
      J. Smith
 
      B.J. Pieterse, J.T. Steyn, J.P.C. Tolmay
 
      G.J. Prinsloo, V.L. Tolmay, B. Koen, J.L. Hatting
 
      Z.A. Pretorius, F.J. Kloppers, E.G. Brink - Bloemfontein
 
      C.S. van Deventer, M.T. Labuschagne
 
      R. de V. Pienaar, G. F. Marais, G. M. Littlejohn, H. S. Roux, R. Prins,
 C. du Pleissis, J.M. Hay - Stellenbosch
 
      F. du Toit, S.S. Walters - Pioneer Seed Company, Bainsvlei
 
 SYRIA
 
      G. Ortiz-Ferrara, A. Shehadeh, M. Michael, M. Asad Moussa - Aleppo
 
      B.C. Curtis, Haitham Kayyali
 
 UNITED KINGDOM
 
        NORWICH, Cambridge Laboratory, Institute of Plant Science Research
 
      S. M. Reader, T. E. Miller
 
           I.P. King, T. E. Miller, R.M.D. Koebner
 
      I.P. King, R.M.D. Koebner, R. Schlegel, S.M. Reader, T.E. Miller
 
      I.P. King, R.M.D. Koebner, S.M. Reader, T.E. Miller
 
      W.J. Rogers, E.J. Sayers, C.N. Law
 
      A.I. Morgunov, W.J. Rogers, E.J. Sayers, E.V. Metakowsky
 
      M.D. Gale, J.B. Smith, M.D. Atkinson, K.M. Devos, C.N. Chinoy, M.L.
 Wang, R.L. Harcourt, C.J. Liu
 
      A.J. Worland, C.N. Law, S. Petrovic
 
      J. W. Snape, V. Hyne
 
      D.A. Laurie
 
      S.A. Quarrie, A. Steed
 
      R. Johnson, R.N. Sawney, P.N. Minchin
 
      P. Nicholson, H.N. Rezanoor
 
      M.J. Ambrose
 
        NORWICH, John Innes Institute
 
      J.S. Heslop-Harrison, A.R. Leitch, T. Schwarzacher, K.
 Anamthawat-Jonsson
 
        BRISTOL, Institute of Arable Crops Research and University of Bristol
 
      P.A. Sabelli, P.R. Shewry, D. Lafiandra
 
      A.S. Tatham, P.R. Shewry, M.J. Miles, H.H. Wills
 
        CAMBRIDGE, Plant Breeding International
 
      S.J. Brown, P.I. Payne
 
 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
 
        ARKANSAS
 
      R. K. Bacon, B. R. Wells, M.L. May, D. Dombeck
 
        CALIFORNIA
 
      C.A. Curtis, Bahman Ehdaie, A.J. Lukaszewski, M.M. Rafi, S.H. Shah, J.G.
 Waines
 
        COLORADO
 
      J. S. Quick, G. H. Ellis, R. Normann, M. Mergoum, S. Haley, K. Ngongolo,
 A. Saidi, Q.X. Sun
           
        FLORIDA
 
      R.D. Barnett, A.R. Soffes, P.L. Pfahler, H.H. Luke, J.B. Hartman
 
        GEORGIA
 
      J. W. Johnson, B. N. Cunfer, P.L. Bruckner, J.J. Roberts, G.D. Buntin,
 R.E. Wilkinson
 
        IDAHO
 
      R.S. Zemetra, E. Souza, S. Guy, C.M. Smith, J. Johnson, M. Lauver, D.
 Schotzko, J. Tyler, M. Feng, S. Schroeder-Teeter
          
        INDIANA
 
      H. W. Ohm, H. C. Sharma, I.M. Dweikat, S.A. MacKenzie, D. McFatridge, F.
 L. Patterson, G. Shaner, R.M. Lister, D. M.
      Huber, G. Buechley, R.H. Ratcliffe, R.H. Shukle, S. Wellso, G. G.
 Safranski, S. Cambron
          
        KANSAS
 
      T.S. Cox, R.G. Sears, J.P. Shroyer, B. S. Gill, J. Hatchett, G.H. Liang,
 T. Harvey, T.J. Martin, D. Fjell, L.E. Browder, H.S.
      Dhaliwal, T. Endo, B. Freibe, K.S. Gill, L.G. Harrell, D.S. Hassawi, J.
 Jiang, P.D. Chen, J. Werner,, R.S. Kota, E.L. Lubbers,
      Y. Mukai, L.M. Patton, W.J. Raupp, B.R. Tyagi, D.L. Wilson, G.Yue, S.
 Guoping, G.M. Paulsen, S. Muthukrishnan
 
      O. K. Chung, G. L. Lookhart, D. B. Bechtel, D. B. Sauer, L. C. Bolte, D.
 W. Hagstrum, W.S. Kim, L. M. Seitz, J.D. Wilson,
      C. R. Martin, W.H. McGaughey, M.D. Shogren, J.T. Steele, D.L. Brabec,
 R.E. Dempster, W.M. Lamkin, R. Rouser, R.D. Speirs,
      I. Zayas, C. S. Chang, H. H. Converse
 
      T.J. Byram
 
      T. C. Roberts
 
        KENTUCKY
 
      D. A. Van Sanford, C. T. MacKown, L.J. Grabau
 
        LOUISIANA
 
      S.A. Harrison, P. Colyer, C. Hallier
 
        MARYLAND
 
      D. J. Sammons, R. J. Kratochvil
 
        MINNESOTA
 
      R. Busch, B. Delzer
 
           A. P. Roelfs, D. L. Long, D. H. Casper, M. E. Hughes, J. J. Roberts
 
      D.V. McVey, R. H. Busch
 
        MISSOURI
           
      E. R. Sears, G. Kimber, J. P. Gustafson, A.L. McKendry, C.G.D. Chapman,
 H. Aswidinnoor, M. Jlibene, A. Dera, H. Daud,
      M. Feiner, R. Wilman, B. Winberg, K. Ross, D. Bittel, G. Henke, K.
 Houchins, J. Berg, D. Tague, S. Madsen, J.V. Monte,
      M. Wanous, Z. Zhou
 
        MONTANA
 
      E.A. Hockett, T. Kisha
 
        NEBRASKA
 
      P.S. Baenziger, C.J. Peterson, D.R. Shelton, R.A. Graybosch, M.R.
 Morris, L.A. Nelson, R. Simonson, D.J. Lyons, G.L. Hein
 
      P.S. Baenziger, C.J. Peterson, D.R. Shelton, D.D. Baltensperger, D.V.
 McVey, J.H. Hatchett
 
      R.L. Simonson, J. Rybczynski, P.S. Baenziger
 
      T.G. Berke, P.S. Baenziger, M.R. Morris
 
      A. Masrizal, P.S. Baenziger
 
      C.J. Peterson
 
      C.J. Peterson, R.A. Graybosch, P.S. Baenziger, A.W. Grombacher
 
      R. A. Graybosch, C. J. Peterson, D.R. Shelton
 
      Jai-Heon Lee, R.A. Graybosch, C.J. Peterson
 
      R.A. Graybosch
 
      D.R. Shelton
 
      D.J. Lyon, D.D. Baltensperger, G.L. Hein
 
      R. C. French, N.L. Robertson, W. G. Langenberg
 
        NEW YORK
 
      M. E. Sorrells, W. R. Coffman
 
           G. C. Bergstrom, D. W. Kalb, A. M. C. Schilder, D. Shah
 
        NORTH CAROLINA
 
      R. E. Jarrett, S. Leath, J. P. Murphy
 
        NORTH DAKOTA
 
      B.L. D'Appolonia, J.W. Dick, K. Khan, C.E. McDonald, D.R. Shelton, B.
 Donnelly, G. Hareland, L.A. Grant
 
        OHIO
 
      H.N. Lafever, W.A. Berzonsky, R.W. Gooding, L.D. Herald, R.J. Minyo Jr.,
 T.L. Hoover
 
        OKLAHOMA
      
      E. L. Smith, G. H. Morgan, R. J. Sidwell, D.L. Jones
 
      B.F. Carver, D.A. Dougherty, E.L. Smith
 
      R. M. Hunger, F. J. Gough, G. L. Sherwood, E. Williams
 
      L. L. Singleton, C. C. Russell
 
      D.R. Porter, J. A. Webster, C. A. Baker, J.D. Burd, S. D. Kindler, N.C.
 Elliot, G.J. Puterka, D. K. Reed, R.L.  Burton
 
 
        OREGON
      
      R.S. Karow
 
      P. K. Zwer, D.L. Sutherland, K.J. Morrow
 
      W. E. Kronstad, C.S. Love, M. Kolding, S. Rajaram, C. Mundt, M. Das, A.
 Vanavichit
 
        PENNSYLVANIA
 
      M.L. Risius, F.E. Gildow
    
        SOUTH DAKOTA
 
      F.A. Cholick, C.H. Chen, B. Farber, B. Ruden, S. Shin
 
      J.L. Gellner, R.A. Schut, R.W. Kieckhefer
 
      G. Buchenau, D. J. Gallenberg
 
      D.H. Rickerl, J. D. Smolik
 
        TEXAS
 
      L.R. Nelson, Mark Lazar, C.A. Erickson, G.E. Hart, D. Marshall, M.E.
 McDaniel, B. McDonald, Lloyd Rooney, J.E. Slosser,
      B. Shafer, John Sij, N.A. Tuleen, W.D. Worrall, R. Sultan, M.
 Harrington, S.D. Serna-Saldivar
 
        UTAH
      
      R. S. Albrechtsen
 
        VIRGINIA
      
      C.A. Griffey, D.E. Brann, E. Stromberg, M.K. Das
 
        WASHINGTON
 
      R. E. Allan, J. A. Pritchett, L. M. Little
 
      R. F. Line
           
      C.F. Morris, H.C. Jeffers, A.D. Bettge,, D. Engle, M.L. Baldridge, B.S.
 Patterson, R. Ader, J. Raykowski
 
      M.K. Walker-Simmons, J.L. Reid, J. Curry, R. Anderberg
 
      C.J. Peterson Jr., D.F. Moser, V.L. DeMacon, M.L. Mundell Jr.
 
      H. Zhou, S.T. Ball, C.F. Konzak
 
      C.F. Konzak, H. Zhou
 
      S.T. Ball, B.E. Frazier, G.S. Campbell, C.F. Konzak
 
      E. Donaldson, M. Nagamitsu, B. Sauer
 
        WISCONSIN
      
      R. A. Forsberg, E. S. Oplinger, R.D. Duerst, J.B. Stevens
 
 YUGOSLOVIA
 
      B. Koric, S. Tomasovic
 
 III.  CULTIVARS AND GERMPLASM
 
      H.E. Bockelman - Triticum Accessions, National Small Grains Collection
      
      H.E. Bockelman, G.A. White - New Triticum PI Assignments
      
      H.E. Bockelman - Aegilops Accessions, National Small Grains Collection
      
      H.E. Bockelman - Elite Germplasm, Cultivar Name Clearance,
 Exporting/Importing Guidelines
 
      H.E. Bockelman, D.M. Wesenberg, M.A. Bohning, L.W. Briggle - Evaluation
 of National Small Grains Collection
      Germplasm Progress Report
 
      R. E. Allan - CSSA Cultivar and Germplasm Registration
          
      B. Skovmand - Wheat Cultivar Abbreviations
 
 IV.  CATALOGUE OF GENE SYMBOLS, 1991 SUPPLEMENT
 
      R. A. McIntosh, G.E. Hart, M.D. Gale
 
  V.  ANNUAL WHEAT NEWSLETTER FUND
 
 VI.  VOLUME 38 MANUSCRIPT GUIDELINES
 
 VIII.  MAILING LIST
 
 ------------------------------
 I. SPECIAL REPORTS
 
       Minutes of the National Wheat Improvement Committee (NWIC) Meeting
                                          November 8-9, 1990
                                       College Park, Maryland
 
 ATTENDANCE
 
 Committee Members: I.B. Edwards, Chair, R.H. Busch, Secretary, R.S. Zemetra,
 F.A. Cholick, J.A. Smith, R. Bruns, D.R. Shelton, T.S. Cox, W.D. Worrall, D.
 Van Sanford, H.F. Bockleman, R.F. Line, R. Bacon, C.J. Peterson, R.E. Allan,
 D.J. Sammons, C. Qualset, R. Stuckey.  Absent: G. Stadler, C. Haugeberg
 (ex-officio member).
 
      Non-Committee Members: J. Quick, Colorado State University; R. Sears,
 Kansas State University; B. Skovmand, CIMMYT; P. Gustafson, ARS-University of
 Missouri; C.F. Murphy, ARS-NPS Beltsville; D. McVey, ARS-Cereal Rust
 Laboratory, G. Waines, University of California; W. Martinez, ARS-NPS
 Beltsville, V. Krischik, USDA-FGIS, Washington D.C.; D. Shipman, USDA-FGIS,
 Washington D.C.; F. Cooper, USDA-APHIS Hyattsville; E.M. Imai, USDA-APHIS,
 Hyattsville; M.K. Aycock,Jr., University of Maryland; R. Kennedy, University
 of Maryland, R.J. Kratochvil, University of Maryland.
 
 PRELIMINARIES
 
      Chairman Edwards called the meeting to order.  Welcomes were given by
 Dr. Robert Kennedy, Director, Maryland Agic.  Expt. Sta. and Dr. M.K. Aycock,
 Chair, Dept. of Agronomy, Univ. of Maryland.
 
 MINUTES OF THE 1989 MEETING
 
      Since the minutes were published in AWN 36:9-18, Busch asked for a
 motion to waive reading them.  Motion was made and passed.
 
 RESPONSE TO 1989 RESOLUTIONS
 
      Chairman Edwards summarized responses received to the 1989 resolutions
 which were: Importation of Seed from Mexico, International Winter Wheat
 Performance Nursery, Wheat Genetic Stocks Position and Multi-Site Wheat
 Genetic Stock Centers, International Triticeae Mapping Initiative, and Nation
 Wheat Variety Survey.
 
      Under Secretary of Agriculture (Science and Education) Charles E. Hess
 responded to the resolutions as follows:
 
 International Winter Wheat Performance Nursery-- "This program is highly
 beneficial to winter wheat breeding programs in the United States, and it is
 of even greater importance to Eastern Europe and developing countries.  ARS
 would like to see the program retain its viability having contributed with
 personnel and administrative support.  We are looking forward to continuing
 interactions with the Agency for International Development in developing an
 appropriate course of action to retain this program."
 
 
 Preservation and Use of Wheat Genetic Stocks--"We share the NWIC's concern
 and are aware of the proposal for a multi-site wheat genetic stocks center.
 With its current resource base, the ARS will not be able to add a new
 scientist position, dedicated to wheat genetic stocks, at Columbia, as
 originally planned.  However, ARS does plan to create a high-level technician
 position within the wheat genetics project at Columbia, which will be
 dedicated to special genetic stocks.  From this focal point, ARS plans to
 coordinate a multi-site center much like that described in the proposal."
 
 International Triticeae Mapping Initiative--"We support the principles
 embodied in this initiative.  The NWIC's recommendations will receive serious
 consideration as we discuss future program directions, particularly in terms
 of current economic constraints and the need to provide proper balance in our
 science and education programs."
 
 National Wheat Variety Survey--"We agree that the survey is extremely
 important and useful to wheat workers throughout the United States.  We also
 commend the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) for it efforts to
 assume responsibility for the survey.  Since this activity is in accordance
 with the agreement reached several years ago between NASS and ARS, there are
 no plans for ARS to fund the survey."
 
 SOFT WHEAT TEST WEIGHT ISSUE
 
      Dr.'s D. Sammons, R. Stuckey, and W. Martinez reported on a Test Weight
 Workshop sponsored jointly by ARS-NWAG Foundation with growers, exporters,
 millers, bakers and other interested groups represented. More research is
 necessary to determine its usefulness and meaning but it is clearly perceived
 as a measure of quality by many of the represented groups. More research of
 the issue was recommended but test weight as a physical measure will be
 continued.  Further, test weight is an issue in other crops as a measure of
 quality assessment.  Test weight seems to be a major help for grain elevator
 personnel or for loading information for ships, but as a quality predictor it
 is relatively poor.  R. Allen indicated that test weight within a genotype
 across environments is related to flour yield.  This issue relative to NWIC
 participation was summarized as: 1) keep issue alive, 2) support ARS in its
 research effort for multi-quality laboratory involvement, 3) test weight will
 remain a measurement but perhaps not of quality, 4) NWIC needs to maintain an
 active role, 5) main objective is to provide fairness to the farmer, 6) may
 require education of consumer as to utility of test weight, 7) need a quality
 measurement which predicts end-use well.  A resolution will be drafted
 supporting continuing work on the test weight issue.
 
 NWIC LEGISLATIVE VISIT
 
      D. Sammons, F. Cholick and R. Zemetra reported on the visit to Congress,
 March, 1990.  Six members visited Capital Hill (Sammons, Cholick, Sears,
 Shelton, Zemetra and Edwards) to provide information to key committees in the
 Senate and House.  Stuckey met with the group the night before to provide
 orientation on the structure needed to impact the funding process.  Issues in
 the briefing book were: 1) Genetic stocks, 2) International winter wheat
 performance nursery, 3) Pathology position (smut), 4) CSRS for applied
 research Hatch funding, 5) Commented on the Grain Quality Act in the
 Agricultural Bill.  Problems (contribution from Sears, Shelton, Edwards,
 Zemetra, Cholick, Stuckey and Murphy)--Need follow-up for the political
 process perhaps with NWAG, need a `champion' for each specific item, need
 potential economic impact (cost-benefit ratio) statement of estimation, need
 industry support (perhaps contacting Dr. Ev Everson to help with industry
 support) and trips are expensive to take from own funds.
 
      The Standing Legislative Committee remains the same as in 1989 and are
 as follows: Chairman, Dr. D. Sammons (soft red winter wheat); Dr. R. Sears
 (hard red winter wheat region); Dr. F. Cholick (hard red spring wheat); and
 Dr. R. Zemetra (western wheat).
 
 ANNUAL WHEAT NEWSLETTER
 
      The following reports are included by J.S. Quick, Editor, and I.
 Edwards, Treasurer of the Wheat Newsletter:
 
      Editor's Report
      The editing and publishing of Volume 36 of the Annual Wheat Newsletter
 (AWN) closely followed the format of previous newsletters.  There were 400
 copies printed and each copy had 275 pages, the largest volume ever produced.
 No copies of Volume 36, and about 30 of Volume 35 are still available.  A
 summary of information about each volume printed since 1954 (Volume 1) was
 published in the AWN, Volume 32 (1986).  The number of pages has increased by
 100 since 1980, the number of contributors has increased considerably, and
 the cost of publication increased until 1988.  Due to rising costs, an effort
 was made to reduce the number of copies printed by encouraging multiple use.
 Cost of production was reduced from about $4500 in 1987 to about $3900 in
 1988, increased to $5416 in 1989, and decreased to $4290 in 1990 due to
 limited distribution caused by shortage of funds.
 
      In addition to the total cost of production, Colorado State University
 Agronomy Department has contributed part of my time, computer facilities, and
 some occasional letter typing.  An Agronomy Department typist, Carolyn
 Schultz, has done an excellent job of manuscript preparation since 1983.
 
      All AWN address lists are computerized, and mailing and sorting has
 become simple and routine.  We are requesting that all workers provide their
 manuscripts on computer diskettes if possible.  All text will be entered into
 computer files and laser printed with reduced font size to save space.
 Manuscripts can also be provided through the BITNET system.  About 500
 requests for manuscripts and financial assistance are sent to U.S.,
 Australian and Canadian wheat workers each January.  The requests for
 manuscripts and financial contributions from other foreign scientists are
 included as an insert in the Newsletter mailing in June.  Additionally,
 regional manuscript and financial solicitation and coordination are done by
 scientists in other countries.
 
 Treasurer's Report
 
 ITEM                                    DEBIT     CREDIT          BALANCE
 
 1. Balance reported June 1, 1990                                $3963.24
    in AWN
 
 2. Mailing request letter               $67.35                   3895.89
 
 3. Envelopes                             13.30                   3882.59
 
 4. Photocopy                             20.00                   3862.59
 
 5. Mailing, Vol. 36, June 1990          648.65                   3213.94
 
 6. Printing and binding                3013.35                    182.59
 
 7. Misc. Postage and Photocopying        15.25                    167.34
 
 8. Mailing bags and envelopes            51.50                    115.84
 
 9. Typing and editing, Vol. 36          443.00                   (327.16)     
 
 10.New contributions (since June 1)                 $175.00      (152.16)
 
 11.Interest on checking                               81.91      (70.25)
                                                                              
 Comments:
      1.  The total cost of Volume 36 was $4,290.40.  This cost divided by 400
 copies printed is about $10.73 per copy. Volume 36 is 14 pages longer then
 volume 35 (275 vs 261), and 200 fewer copies of Volume 36 were printed.  The
 total printed pages of Volume 36 was 105 percent of Volume 35, and the total
 cost was 20 percent lower.  Volume 36 was larger than any previous volume,
 but distribution decreased from last year due to the reduced funds available.
 
      2.  Current fund balance at the present time is $(70.25) compared with
 $185.03 a year ago.  It must be noted that there is still an outstanding
 balance owing for production costs in the amount of $100.
      
      3.  There has been a slight increase in corporate contributions in
 recent years however, individual contributions remain our primary source of
 income, and due to an increased interest in the AWN information, we would
 encourage higher individual and corporate contributions.
 
 REVIEW OF CROP ADVISORY COMMITTEE MEETING
 
      Chairman P. Gustafson discussed the two key issues at this meeting. One,
 germplasm money of $12000 became available for the 9 genetic centers for
 wheat in the US.  The first is need to increase funding and methods as of how
 to accomplish this goal was discussed.  Two, germplasm development and
 collection were also discussed. Dr. G. Waines spoke to the problem of
 collection, especially the wild relative Ae. speltoides which is not well
 represented in the collection.  A second area suggested was dwarf wheats, but
 not those with known Rht genes. Dr. R. Zemetra commented that funding for
 collection is available, but cooperators in the visited country are needed to
 ensure success. Dr. R. Allan purposed that funding of the multi-site genetic
 stocks be attempted by an add-on in the Agriculture Bill and Dr. C. Qualset
 indicated that funding might help provide incentives for the multi-sites to
 form an organized way for distribution of their stocks.
 
 DEVELOPMENT OF RUST RESISTANT GERMPLASM
 
      Dr. D. Van Sanford indicated that the soft red winter wheat region
 suffers a severe lack of personnel for the development of leaf rust resistant
 germplasm.  Losses have been estimated at approximately $30 million per year
 nationally.  The Cereal Rust Laboratory can supply technical support but can
 not support germplasm development.  The Kansas State effort in this area is
 gratefully acknowledged.  John Roberts in Georgia is inadequately funded even
 for the rust survey, and proposes an increase in funds.  Worrall, Sears, and
 Cox indicated the need for a broader base of resistance since they did not
 feel adequate resistance is present in the hexaploid wheats.  McVey also
 indicated the need for more genes from a broader base, such as the wild
 species.  The committee concluded that a germplasm development position needs
 to be identified to transfer leaf-rust resistance from wild species.  A
 resolution to this effect will be drafted.
 
 PROGRESS REPORT ON CEREAL BIOTECHNOLOGY-UPDATE ON RFLP PROGRAMS
 
      Dr. C. Qualset presented the background for gene transfer from
 relatives.  Specific traits transferred from related species using
 cytogenetics is historical and well developed in wheat.  Private funds have
 been used to develop RFLP markers in wheat, but these are not readily
 available to other wheat workers.  A consortium of public researchers called
 the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI) was formed by eight
 laboratories and 11 researchers from U.S., Australia, and England.  A
 workshop was recently held in California on goals and objectives.  Main goal
 is to develop a public map of the hexaploid, tetraploid, and diploid wheats,
 barley, and rye.  Items discussed were genetic stocks for identification and
 the use of synthetic hexaploids to get polymorphisms. Costs are estimated at
 $500,000 per year for the ITMI proposal.
 
      Dr. S. Cox is working on Ae. squarrosa and determining the location of
 chromosomes bands to identify their location on a map.  About 125 markers on
 7 chromosomes on the D genome are identified. Dr. P. Gustafson indicated that
 a saturated RFLP map in wheat is still not close.  Rice which has received
 more effort and is still far from having a saturated map.  Some arms of
 chromosomes are not mapped.  He also discussed a dot blot procedure they used
 in attempt to identify resistance in the field.
 
      Dr. J. Miske indicated that $3.67 million is available for data base
 management in genome mapping and $11 million for competitive grants for: 1)
 broad map of 25cM, 2) intense map of 1-5cM, and 3) technical improvements in
 procedures.  A team effort would be specified with a breeder-geneticist as a
 leader.  This money is just for economic crops.  Grant is for 5 years with a
 3 year renewal (5-year program with review at 3 years).  NWIC thanks Dr.
 Miske for his contributions in obtaining and administering these funds.  A
 resolution will be drafted supporting the effort of the ITMI as useful for
 wheat.
 
 
 UPDATE ON GERMPLASM EXCHANGE, PLANT VARIETY PROTECTION, PLANT PATENTS
 
      Dr. C. Murphy indicated that obtaining utility patents on plant material
 is becoming more difficult.  PVP has an exemption for research and further
 utilization while utility patents probably do not.  PVP office is slow in
 processing applications.  ARS policy does not protect plants for profit but
 will acknowledge and follow the individual state's policy.  ARS personnel can
 now accept royalty payments also.  A poll of the states which release wheat
 varieties revealed considerable diversity, with six states generally not
 protecting, at least six state using title 5-PVP and other states collecting
 royalties or being evaluated on a case by case basis.  Wheat workers have
 expressed fear of utility patents limiting germplasm exchange because of no
 research exemptions.  Problems are also encountered with entering germplasm
 into the collection system since it becomes public property.  Illinois
 attempted to withdraw material from the National Seed Storage Laboratory
 which was denied by the USDA-ARS.
 
      Dr. R. Busch presented proposed changes to the PVP form as a
 representative from the ASTA wheat Minimum Distance Subcommittee and asked
 for input from the NWIC. A representative from the Plant Variety Protection
 Office was invited as well, but none attended.  Also Busch introduced the
 idea of developing a booklet to help and advise plant breeder to fill in the
 form in an acceptable and standardized method.
 
 WHEAT QUALITY ISSUES
 
      Federal Grain Inspection Service and Wheat Quality Working Committee,
 Dr. R. Sears (NWIC representative to Wheat Quality Working Committee)
 reported that the committee met Feb., 1990.  Progress has been made
 separating hard from soft winter wheat classes.  FGIS is still working on
 machines to determine objectively the class to which a wheat belongs and to
 detect mixed classes. The Norris machine is good and ARS development seems to
 have performed well so far.  Recommendations and guidelines for hardiness
 will be discussed at the next meeting in Dec. 1990. Dr. W. Martinez indicated
 the FGIS must identify single kernels with NIR hardness as a control to
 determine mixtures of classes with a correlation of r2=0.89.  A considerable
 Genotype x environment interaction has been found using the hardness
 machines.  Sears indicated that stability for kernel hardness to environments
 may be heritable, at least in some genetic material. Martinez reported that
 Karl Norris is developing an NIR machine (cheap filter instrument) which can
 be used on whole kernel wheat for protein (r2=0.87) He has also predicted
 spring from winter wheat classes with about 5% error.  Shipman (FGIS)
 indicated that any decision on classification will not be implemented for at
 least 2 years.
 
 -------------------------
 
 Wheat Quality Incentives Act
      Dr. F. Cholick indicated that the Agriculture Bill has the Quality
 Incentive as Title 20.02 written similarly as the NWIC recommended based on
 our testimony.  R. Martin, Campbell Taggert, wanted a national system to
 evaluate varieties before release.  End use and intrinsic quality issues are
 moderated to accept genotype x environment interaction deviations. Stability
 is wanted in the quality end product.  Discussion of problems with the
 quality issue continued with special problems indicated by Dr. Worrall in
 Texas These problems have been caused primarily by R. Martin by his
 statements regarding the low quality of Texas released wheats.  In summary,
 NWIC must be ready to respond to issues as they arise.
 
      
 Grain Quality Workshop
      R. Bruns (NWIC representative) gave some past history indicating this
 workshop was started in 1985.  It's membership is composed of government,
 private and academicians and primarily considers grain and grain handling
 issues. FGIS frequently uses this group as a sounding board for proposed
 changes.  Membership provides the NWIC with representation on legislative
 issues. Bruns is presently involved with quality definitions for this
 workshop.This definition was presented to the NWIC for discussion and
 comment. This workshop is getting more recognition as a forum for change and
 is important for the NWIC to have representation.
 
 FUNDING STATUS OF APPLIED RESEARCH, GERMPLASM AND NURSERIES
 
      Dr. C. Murphy first discussed the International Winter Wheat Performance
 Nursery.  USAID dropped their funding and ARS has funded the program in
 recent years.  Funds have eroded and there was not enough money to continue
 its funding.  Plowman is supportive of the nursery, and approached USAID but
 they still were not interested.  Murphy emphasized that indicating problem
 areas is helpful, but ARS already has too many scientists with too little
 funding.  Unless money can be obtained, little chance for work in these
 problem areas is likely to be accomplished.  As an example of a better
 approach, barley workers were aware a geneticist position would likely close
 with retirement, and worked with Congress and obtained funding for two
 positions, increasing their research base.  This is an add-on to the budget
 specially earmarked for this item.  Influential lawmakers need to be
 convinced to help obtain funding for important positions and to shore-up
 under funded scientists.  Industry participation is important to convince
 legislatures of the importance of issues needed for funding.  Malting Barley
 Improvement Association represents the barley research well and also is
 investing funds in research which makes them credible.  Discussion followed
 of some potential ways to impact the future of funding for wheat research.
 Directed funds for specific positions was questioned as desirable, but Murphy
 indicated that communication with ARS should be maintained to provide maximum
 impact and coordination.  Stuckey indicated that on common interest item NWAG
 could supply some follow-up on resolutions.  Murphy indicated that the Crop
 Quality Council, now dissolved, was an effective force for wheat.  We need
 industry to form another lobby group like this to be effective.  In summary,
 NWIC needs to identify wheat priorities, identify an industrial champion, and
 identify a congressional champion to more effectively influence research
 priorities.
 
 SEED QUARANTINE MEETING AND CURRENT STATUS OF SEED IMPORTATION-FGIS
 
      Dr. R. Line attended a meeting of smut researchers in Fredrick, Maryland
 where the history of the quarantine of flag smut was discussed as well as
 other items.  Countries with flag smut were quarantined two months after it
 was found in the U.S.  Flag smut is now only found in the Northwest.  The
 conclusions were: 1) Not potentially damaging in the U.S. or world wide; 2)
 Has not spread because it requires a special environment; and 3) Can be
 controlled by seed treatment, cultural practices, and resistance.  APHIS was
 present and indicated that the removal of quarantine was almost impossible.
 Canadian workers agreed that flag smut and dwarf bunt restrictions on seed
 entry can not be justified scientifically.  A letter from Plowman to APHIS
 regarding flag smut supported restriction removal.  APHIS responded with a
 number of safeguards.  Several safeguards were challenged, and Plowman
 followed up with another letter.  No official action by APHIS as yet on
 possible changes on the safeguards.
 
      F. Cooper and E. Imai from APHIS attended to clarify where APHIS stands
 on importation of seed from Mexico (CIMMYT).  If seed is grown in an area
 free from Karnal bunt, confirmed by APHIS, the seed may be grown in the field
 in the U.S.  APHIS, at this point, is following ARS recommendations for
 importing seed from countries identified as flag smut countries.  These seed
 may be grown in the field if recommendations are followed on a case by case
 basis.  This is a substantial improvement from past procedures allowed by
 APHIS.
 
      TCK (dwarf bunt) research funding is in the Agriculture Bill ($250,000).
 Dr. J. Peterson is waiting for permission from AZ to grow seed from CIMMYT to
 allow distribution to interested researchers in the U.S.  At this time it is
 not yet approved.  A letter to Dr. Plowman thanking him for his interest and
 aid in this matter is indicated.
 
 UPDATE ON RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID RESEARCH
 
      Dr. Worrall indicated that screening of the Small Grains Collection for
 resistance to the Russian wheat aphid has been a success.  Most of the
 resistance appears to be qualitatively inherited.  Triticales possess
 resistance and are being used as a bridge to transfer resistance from rye to
 wheat.  Chemical control does not appear to be effective, especially because
 of the importance of cattle grazing on wheat.  Amigo-Largo material is better
 in the field than in greenhouse screening.  Biological control has released a
 number of insects which attack the aphid.  Dr. Quick reported on the uniform
 regional screening nursery.  Thirteen wheat entries have been identified with
 excellent seedling resistance, as well as one barley.  Very little indication
 has been found of biotype differences or of G X E to different sources of
 resistance.  Best resistance has been identified in Russian triticale.  A
 field test will be conducted next year.  Dr. Zemetra indicated that materials
 that have high resistance in the greenhouse have been resistant in the field.
 Intermediate resistance in the greenhouse has performed more erratically in
 the field. There seems to be an adequate amount of resistance in various
 wheats in the world. Dr. Quick identified the following research needs: 1)
 biotype test, 2) field evaluation, 3) variation in genotypes for resistance,
 4) allelism tests, 5) mechanisms of resistance, and 6) incorporation of the
 sources of resistance into adapted wheats.
 
      A discussion followed about the advisability of releasing a single gene
 for resistance.  R. Bruns suggested that possible gene deployment could be
 useful and cooperation among wheat researchers is needed to develop a
 strategy.  A resolution supporting funding for Russian Wheat Aphid will be
 drafted.
 
 NAWG FOUNDATION REPORT
 
      Dr. R. Stuckey reported that because costs are up for the producer and
 prices are down, most of the concern in NAWG is for the farm program and
 price supports, and support for research is difficult.  NAWG prefers to
 support issues obtained from a science based agenda compared to wishes for
 change in farming from non-science based groups. Food Watch has been
 organized to re-enforce to the public that their food is very economical and
 safe.  The Congress has been given handouts on this issue as well.  NWIC
 resolutions need to be given to the NAWG convention for their inclusion into
 the NAWG national resolutions.
 
      New programs for the NAWG Foundation include:
      1) Input into Wheat Technology,
      2) Pioneer sponsored extension awards at the state, regional and county
         level,
      3) Farm Safety Program,
      4) Rail Transportation of grain.
 
      The Foundation needs and endowment program because it lacks a financial
 base. A symposium sponsored by DuPont is scheduled on March 13-14, 1991 of
 the state wheat commissioners to determine national issues facing wheat.  An
 international conference is planned for 1993.
 
 RESOLUTIONS AND LETTERS
      Chairman Edwards assigned the following members to develop resolutions
 and letters: Cox, Sammons, Cholick, Bruns, Sears, Edwards, Van Sanford,
 Worrall, Bacon, Quick, Qualset, Line, Stuckey, Gustafson and Peterson. The
 resolutions are: Acknowledgement of Hosts, Wheat Molecular Markers and
 Linkage Maps, Russian Wheat Aphid Research, Test Weight Measurement of Wheat,
 and Leaf Rust Resistant Wheat Germplasm.  Letter are: Thanks to Pioneer for
 Wheat Donation, Wheat Research Planning Priorities, U.S. Coordination on
 Germplasm Introduction, and Problems with Plant Variety Protection.
 
      A sub-committee designated `National Wheat Research Priorities' composed
 of Peterson, Sammons, Edwards, Line, Bruns and Qualset will attempt to look
 at a long-range research plan for wheat.
 
 LOCATION OF 1991 NWIC MEETING
 
      Possibilities of attaching the NWIC meeting to the national ASA meeting
 was discussed.  This was thought to be a possible advantage because it allow
 one airfare to cover both trips.  This idea was discarded because of the
 amount of time the NWIC meeting takes and not having an adequate amount of
 time around the annual meeting to accomplish it.  Air costs are excessive
 unless a Saturday night is used in the flight.  It was decided that locations
 with cheap airfare should be considered for annual meetings of the NWIC.
 Reno, Nevada was chosen as the location and Nov. 21-23, 1991 as the meeting
 time.
 
      There being no further business, Dr. Edwards adjourned the meeting at
 12:40 P.M.
 
 RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED AT THE NATIONAL WHEAT IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE MEETING,
 COLLEGE PARK, MARYLAND, NOVEMBER 8-9, 1990
 
               SUBJECT: LEAF RUST RESISTANT GERMPLASM
 
 WHEREAS, average annual losses to leaf rust of wheat in the U.S. have
 exceeded $200 million over the past five years, and,
 
 WHEREAS, there is a need for identification, characterization, and deployment
 of new leaf rust resistance genes in all market classes of wheat, and,
 
 WHEREAS, the availability of effective leaf rust resistance genes in the
 hexaploid wheat gene pool is limited,
 
 THEREFORE, be it resolved that the National Wheat Improvement Committee
 supports increased funding of existing programs for the enhancement of wheat
 germplasm through introgression of new leaf rust genes from wild relatives of
 wheat, and, be it further resolved that the National Wheat Improvement
 Committee urges the USDA-ARS to provide additional funding or redirected
 funding to address the need for development of leaf rust resistant germplasm
 in all wheat classes.
 
           SUBJECT: TEST WEIGHT MEASUREMENT OF WHEAT
 
 The National Wheat Improvement Committee (NWIC) shares the concerns of the
 cereal grain industry in the U.S. about grain quality.  We support the
 efforts of the Federal Grain Inspection Service, the USDA-Agricultural
 Research Service and the National Association of Wheat Growers Foundation for
 their recent efforts to examine the meaning, relevance, and importance of the
 test weight measurement as an indicator of end use grain quality in wheat.
 We also recognize that the quality issue transcends wheat and is a concern to
 other major cereal crops.  With regard to wheat the NWIC endorses the
 following principles:
 
 1) we encourage continued active study to resolve the issue of the utility of
 test weight as an indicator of grain quality and economic value.
 
 2) We support the ARS in its effort to define a strategy to study this issue
 that involves all wheat quality laboratories.
 
 3) We acknowledge that the elimination of test weight as a grain measurement
 in the grain trade is not an appropriate goal, and that downward adjustment
 of test weight standards for grading purposes may sen the wrong signal to our
 international trading partners.
 
 4) We assert our desire as a national committee to play a more active role in
 the resolution of the test weight issue.
 
 5) We believe that a key issue in this national debate is fairness in the way
 farmers are treated when they market their grain.
 
 6) We recognize a need to better educate our customers on the limitations to
 the interpretation of test weight data as an indicator of millability.
 
 7) We urge that one major objective of the study of the test weight issue be
 the development of instrumentation for the use at the level of the local
 elevator that will accurately and rapidly estimate millability and grain end
 use quality.
 
 8) We view the test weight issue as an important component of a broad and
 through re-examination of end use quality concerns in wheat.
 
      SUBJECT: WHEAT MOLECULAR MARKERS AND LINKAGE MAPS
 
 WHEREAS. the security of sustained and improved U.S. wheat production and its
 competitiveness in international trade requires ready access to genes and the
 ability to transfer them efficiently from varieties and related wild species
 to commercially adapted improved wheat varieties, and,
 
 WHEREAS, new technologies for gene identification, location and transfer by
 molecular-assisted methods may be adopted for wheat improvement, the
 advancement of genetics, the science of plant pathology, entomology, weed
 science and end-use quality properties, and,
 
 WHEREAS, financial support for the creation of the new molecular markers and
 a comprehensive linkage map is inadequate,
 
 THEREFORE, be it resolved that the National Wheat Improvement Committee
 strongly supports accelerated research on development of a comprehensive
 genetic map of wheat as planned by the International Triticeae Mapping
 Initiative (ITMI) and recommends that federal, state and private funds be
 made available to accomplish this task.
 
            SUBJECT: RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID RESEARCH
 
 WHEREAS, Russian wheat aphid has caused economic damage to wheat in excess of
 $250 million since 1986, and,
 
 WHEREAS, Russian wheat aphid is a crop pest of national importance, and,
 
 WHEREAS, host plan resistance and biological control agents are the only
 currently available controls which are environmentally sound, and,
 
 WHEREAS, current funding of Russian wheat aphid research is insufficient
 nationally,
 
 THEREFORE, be it resolved that the National Wheat Improvement Committee
 strongly supports the Allocation of federal funds for Russian wheat aphid
 research and encourages increased support for national research efforts.
 
              SUBJECT: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF HOSTS
 
 WHEREAS, the University of Maryland and National Association of Wheat Growers
 Foundation have served as excellent hosts of the 1990 National Wheat
 Improvement Committee and the Wheat Crop Advisory Committee, and,
 
 WHEREAS, our hosts have expended much time and effort to insure that the
 meetings were successful,
 
 THEREFORE, be it resolved that the members of the NWIC sincerely thank Dr. D.
 Sammons and the Agronomy Department of the University of Maryland, and Dr.
 Richard Stuckey, Director of the NAWG Foundation, and management and staff of
 the Comfort Inn, College Park, Maryland.
 
 LETTERS SENT
 
              SUBJECT: RECOGNITION OF PIONEER DONATION
 
 TO: CEO, Pioneer; Directors of Agric. Exp. Stations at Minnesota, North
 Dakota, South Dakota, and Kansas.
 
 The National Wheat Improvement Committee (NWIC) sincerely thanks Pioneer
 HIBred International for their donation of hard red spring wheat germplasm to
 North Dakota State University, South Dakota State University, and University
 of Minnesota and hard red winter wheat germplasm to Kansas State University.
 The gift of this germplasm represents a significant contribution to wheat
 improvement programs throughout the Great Plains.  Although the NWIC
 sincerely regrets the loss of the Pioneer hard wheat breeding programs and
 their contributions to wheat improvement, we want to acknowledge and
 recognize the public spirit that this donation of germplasm demonstrates.
 
 The germplasm gifted to these programs is truly priceless, representing work
 by Pioneer wheat breeders for over 25 years.  The gift of this germplasm not
 only helps the wheat breeding community but ultimately helps wheat producers
 and the general public potentially aiding in increasing farm productivity
 throughout the Great Plains of the U.S.A.
 
            SUBJECT: STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR WHEAT RESEARCH
                 TO: USDA and AES Administrators
 
 An important function of the National Wheat Improvement Committee (NWIC) has
 been to support and council to national and state research agencies to
 identify and meet national wheat research needs.  The NWIC is concerned that
 shrinking budget resources have caused many organizations to re-evaluate
 commitments to wheat research without consideration of national and regional
 needs.  The NWIC has established a National Wheat Research Priorities
 subcommittee with the assignment to develop long term goals and priorities
 for national wheat research.  We believe that this would significantly
 enhance the NWIC's ability to focus national support for critical programs as
 well as to provide support and council to USDA-ARS and CSRS.
 
 In order to develop a strategic planning document, the NWIC requests input
 from USDA-ARS and CSRS on research goals, objectives, and priorities for
 wheat currently in place for the respective organizations.  A breakdown of
 funding and CRIS projects committed to setting these goals also is requested.
 
 We believe this information would significantly enhance the NWIC's strategic
 planning efforts.  We hope that this endeavor by the NWIC will result in
 closer coordination among agencies in meeting future opportunities and needs
 for wheat research and funding.
 
 We thank you for your consideration of this request.
 
                 SUBJECT: PLANT VARIETY PROTECTION
 
 The National Wheat Improvement Committee (NWIC) recognizes that Plant Variety
 Protection was enacted to increase plant breeding research through limited
 legal protection of plant breeding research products.  A research exemption
 incorporated to insure the continuation of free germplasm exchange and
 development.
 
 Plant Variety Protection has stimulated wheat plant breeding research
 resulting in significant benefits to the public.  Wheat germplasm has
 continued to be exchanged freely in the research community.
 
 Unfortunately, the Plant Variety Protection act has not given adequate
 economic protection of the research products to justify continued research
 investment.  The theories behind the limited legal protection granted under
 Plant Variety Protection have not worked in practice.  Interpretation and
 enforcement of the current protection and exemptions are critically flawed
 and in need of repair.
 
 The NWIC recommends a thorough review and revision of the Plant Variety
 Protection act to include the following key issues:
 
 1.  All protection and exemption mechanisms must be clearly defined and
 uniformly enforceable to protect research investment.
 
 2.  Germplasm exchange must not be restricted.  The NWIC has consistently
 been on record supporting germplasm exchange and development via the Wheat
 Workers Code of Ethics.
 
 The basic concept of Plant Variety Protection is preferred over the paten
 process.  Plant Variety Protection has been compatible with wheat germplasm
 exchange and can be modified to promote continued plant breeding research and
 development.
 
     SUBJECT: COORDINATION OF INTRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT
 
 The National Wheat Improvement Committee (NWIC) believes there is a critical
 need for USDA-ARS to take responsibility for U.S. coordination, introduction,
 and distribution of wheat germplasm from international research programs,
 especially germplasm from CIMMYT.  U.S. breeding programs have had serious
 difficulties in accessing international nurseries and germplasm due to
 significant costs and restrictions associated with importation and quarantine
 growout of seed.  It is critical that these valuable materials be made widely
 available to U.S. programs so that advances in varietal development and
 genetics research may continue.  The NWIC requests that USDA-ARS take
 responsibility for importation, increase, and distribution of these seed
 stocks through support programs associated with the National Small Grains
 Germplasm Collection and Research Facility.
 
 The NWIC fully supports a program of importation, increase, and distribution
 of CIMMYT germplasm as proposed by C.J. Peterson to be coordinated with
 involvement of Dr.'s Qualset, Gustafson, and others.  The NWIC requests that
 USDA-ARS provide financial sport for seed increases so that the program may
 be initiated immediately.  This program should be recognized as a short term
 solution for the problem while ARS develops long term strategies and support
 for increase and distribution of international nurseries and seed stocks.
 
 The NWIC also is extremely disappointed with the decision by USDA-ARS to
 close the International Winter Wheat Performance Nursery (IWWPN) program.
 The nursery program has been a highly successful and unique mechanism for
 international germplasm and information exchange, and for evaluation of
 varietal performance and adaptation.  The IWWPN has provided irreplaceable
 information world wide adaptation, performance, and disease resistances for
 very diverse varieties and germplasm.  The germplasm distributed through the
 program has contributed significantly to development of new varieties and
 germplasm in the U.S. as well as many foreign countries.  Four U.S hard red
 winter wheat varieties have recently been released that are derived directly
 from germplasm distributed through the IWWPN.  The variety `Siouxland', a
 joint release from the Univ. of Nebraska and USDA-ARS, is derived from the
 Soviet wheat `Kavkaz', which was distributed through the IWWPN in 1974.
 Siouxland currently occupies 20% of the Nebraska wheat acreage and is
 responsible for and additional 4 to 6 million dollars per year added revenue
 to growers through higher yields and enhanced disease resistance.  Since 1985
 ther have been 27 experimental lines evaluated in the USDA-ARS Hard Red
 Winter Wheat Uniform Regional Nursery as promising release candidates that
 have in their parentage a direct contribution from IWWPN germplasm.  These
 varieties and experimental lines would not exist without the unique
 contribution of the IWWPN program.
 
 The IWWPN joins the ranks of the many USDA-ARS supported cooperative
 international wheat nurseries that have been discontinued.  ARS needs to
 carefully consider the impact of these decisions on international germplasm
 exchange and wheat breeding as it relinquishes its role as an active leader
 in international wheat germplasm research.
 
 -------------------------
 
                MEMBERS OF NATIONAL WHEAT IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE
                                                              January 1991
 
 
 Dr. I.B. Edwards, Chair
 Pioneer Overseas Corp.
 6800 Pioneer Parkway
 Johnston, IA  50131
 (515) 270-4029
 FAX: (515) 270-3156
 
 Dr. R.H. Busch, Secretary
 USDA-ARS
 411 Borlaug Hall
 University of Minnesota
 St. Paul, MN  55108
 (612) 625-1975
 FAX: (612) 625-1268
 
 Eastern Wheat Region
 
 Dr. D.J. Sammons, Chairman
 Eastern Wheat Region
 Department of Agronomy
 University of Maryland
 College Park, MD   20742
 (301) 454-3715
 FAX: (301) 454-5680
 
 Dr. H.E. Bockelman, Secretary
 Eastern Wheat Region, USDA-
 ARS
 Univ. of Idaho Res. & Ext. Ctr.
 P.O. Box AA
 Aberdeen, ID  83210
 (208) 397-4162
 FAX: (208) 397-4162
 
 Dr. D. VanSanford
 Dept. of Agronomy
 University of Kentucky
 Lexington, KY  40506
 (606) 257-5811  
 FAX: (606) 258-5842             
 
 Dr. R. Bacon
 115 Plant Science
 University of Arkansas
 Fayetteville, AR 72701
 (501) 575-5725
 FAX: (501) 575-7465
 
 
 Dr. Richard Stuckey
 Director, NAWG Foundation
 415 Second St. N.E. Suite 300
 Washington, D.C. 20002
 (202) 547-7800
 FAX: (202) 546-2638
 
 
 Great Plains Spring Wheat Region
 
 J. Smith, Chairman
 Spring Wheat Region
 Agripro Bioscience, Inc.
 806 No. Second St., P.O. Box 30
 Berthaud, CO  80513
 (303) 532-3721
 FAX: (303) 532-2035
 
 Dr. Fred A. Cholick, Secretary
 Great Plains Spring Wheat Region
 Department of Plant Science
 South Dakota State University
 Brookings, SD  57007
 (605) 688-4769
 FAX: (605) 688-6065
 
 Dr. Glen Statler
 Dept. of Plant Pathology
 North Dakota State University
 Fargo, ND  58105
 (701) 237-7058
 FAX: (701) 237-7851
 
 
 Election of one representative
 
 
 
 
 Great Plains Winter Wheat
 Region
 
 Dr. W. D. Worrall,
 Chairman
 Great Plains Winter Wheat
 Region
 P.O. Box 1658
 Vernon, TX  76384
 (817) 552-9941
 FAX: (817) 553-4657
 
 Dr. C. J. Peterson,
 Secretary
 Great Plains Winter Wheat
 Region
 USDA-ARS
  Dept. of Agronomy
 University of Nebraska
 
 Lincoln, NE  68583
 (402) 472-5191
 FAX: (402) 437-5254 
 
 Dr. R. Bruns
 Agripro Bioscience, Inc.
 806 No. Second St., P.O.
 Box 30
 Berthaud, CO  80513
 (303) 532-3721
 FAX: (303) 532-2035
 
 Dr. T. S. Cox
 USDA-ARS
 Throckmorton Hall, Rm.
 421
 Kansas State University
 Manhattan, KS  66506
 (913) 532-5692
 
 -------------------------
 
 
 Western Wheat Region
 
 Dr. R. S. Zemetra,
 Chairman
 Dept. of Plant, Soil & Ent. Sci.
 University of Idaho
 Moscow, ID  83843
 (208) 885-7810
 FAX: (208) 885-7760
 
 Dr. R. F. Line, Secretary
 Western Wheat Region
 USDA-ARS
 361 Johnson Hall
 Washington State University
 Pullman, WA  99164
 (509) 335-3755
 FAX: (509) 335-7674
 
 Dr. C.O. Qualset
 Dept. of Agronomy & Range
 Science
 University of California -
 Davis
 Davis, CA  95616
 (916) 752-3265
 
 
 Dr. R.E. Allan
 USDA-ARS
 Johnson Hall
 Washington State University
 Pullman, WA  99164
 (509) 335-3632
 FAX: (509) 335-8674
         
                                        
                     WHEAT CROP ADVISORY COMMITTEE MINUTES
                                College Park, MD
                                November 7, 1990
 By-Laws
 
      The new Wheat CAC by-laws were adopted by voice vote (see attached).
 
 Membership
 
      The new by-laws increase the Wheat CAC membership from 15 to 16 with the
 addition of one position for a wheat worker from Mexico.  Dr. B.  Skovmand
 will ask the national wheat program in Mexico to select a representative.
 Dr. J. P. Gustafson, Wheat CAC Chair, will ask the Canadian Expert Committee
 to select their representative as well.  The only other open position was
 that vacated by Dr. Roy Cantrell.  A list of possible candidates was drawn
 up.  Dr. Gustafson will contact each of them and send out a ballot containing
 names of willing candidates to CAC members.  Dr. Skovmand was elected to a
 second term on the CAC.  Dr. Stan Cox was appointed Vice-Chair to fill the
 office vacated by Dr. Cantrell.
 
      A letter from Dr. R. R. Kalton, Vice Chair of the Public Research
 Advisory Committee of the American Seed Trade Association, suggesting an
 increase in private sector membership on the wheat CAC, was read.  Because
 (1) the Wheat CAC by-laws state that there must be "at least one"
 representative for industry, (2) there was seen to be no inherent difference
 in the interests of public and private wheat workers in the area of
 germplasm, and (3) a broad coverage of scientific disciplines was considered
 the most important membership criterion, it was decided not to alter the
 by-laws or current membership to increase industry involvement.
 
 Wheat Genetic Stocks Collection
 
      Dr. C. F. Murphy reported that Dr. H. L. Shands has made $12,000
 available for maintenance and distribution of wheat genetic stocks.  The
 money will go into Dr. Gustafson's CRIS unit and be distributed in small
 amounts (averaging ca. $2000, not to exceed $4000) to North American programs
 that develop and maintain aneuploid and other genetic stocks.  Acceptance of
 money by wheat workers will imply that they will (1) make annual, public
 reports on the stocks available in their collections and (2) make seed of
 stocks freely available to other wheat workers.  The CAC adopted a resolution
 (attached) supporting the establishment of a system of North American Wheat
 Genetic Stocks Centers and a CAC subcommittee that will make recommendations
 on administering funds and dissemination of information.  Dr. C. O. Qualset
 will get in touch with the various genetic stocks groups in the U.S. and
 Canada to (1) inform them that money is available and (2) tell them that the
 wheat CAC supports the formation of the Centers.
 
 
      Dr. J. G. Waines reported on the need to collect wild relatives of
 wheat, especially Aegilops speltoides, in "islands" of basaltic soils in
 Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Lebanon.  He emphasized A. speltoides, based on
 evidence that it is the female parent of "BBAA" tetraploids.  Dr. Murphy
 encouraged the wheat CAC, as he does others, to initiate ideas on collecting
 to submit to the National Plant Germplasm System and the National Program
 Staff of USDA-ARS.  He further noted that some CAC's have developed
 year-by-year strategic plans.  A subcommittee comprising Drs. Waines and
 Skovmand was appointed to formulate a strategic plan, including an initial
 proposal to collect A. speltoides and other species in the areas noted
 earlier by Dr. Waines.  Dr. Murphy will consult with Dr. Calvin Spurling.
 
 Report from CIMMYT
 
      Dr. Skovmand reported that CIMMYT's entire germplasm collection is now
 karnal bunt-free and that all future seed multiplication will be done in a
 20,000 ft2 screenhouse.  CIMMYT is collecting old Spanish land races in
 Mexico and has a joint mission with the Canadians to collect barley and wheat
 in Tibet.  (Dr. Waines emphasized the importance of collecting more dwarf and
 long-coleoptile land races, many of which apparently aren't in our
 collections.)  CIMMYT will produce an update on the Oregon cultivar
 abbreviation book by next year.  Abbreviation guidelines, will be submitted
 for the next Wheat Newsletter.  There has been little progress on the
 pedigree management system.  Prof. Zeven's "14,000 Pedigrees" book has been
 computerized and will be consolidated with another 6,000 pedigrees in a new,
 expanded list.  The new list will be distributed on diskette.
 
      Dr. Bockelman distributed a list of descriptors for wheat accessions in
 the National Small Grains Collection (see attached), with frequencies of
 accessions having each descriptor value, as had been proposed by the CAC.
 The committee received a progress report from the Germplasm Resources
 Information Network (GRIN) system, with a list of Triticum accessions
 receiving PI numbers in 1990.  The list does not include ca. 200 Aegilops
 accessions collected by Drs. R. J. Metzger and G. Kimber.  Dr. Gustafson
 reported that these are being regenerated in two new greenhouses at Columbia.
 
 Germplasm Importation
 
      Dr. Peterson distributed a proposal (for information purposes) to
 increase karnal bunt-free CIMMYT nurseries (totalling either 500 or 840
 entries, depending on seed availability, at a cost of $7,000 to $14,000) at
 Yuma, AZ in 1990-91 for distribution to all interested workers.
 
      Dr. R. F. Line noted that the situation with respect to flag smut was
 improving considerably due to ARS-APHIS communication.
 
 Core Collections
 
      The CAC concluded that much more research is still needed before the
 value of designating "core collections" can be judged.  Dr. Murphy pointed
 out that for traits that can be screened quickly and cheaply, the entire
 collection should be and is being screened.
 
 Germplasm Enhancement Proposal
 
      Dr. Murphy noted that there is still no pool of money for which to
 submit a wheat germplasm enhancement proposal.  The 1988 wheat CAC proposal
 will be distributed and updated in time for the 1991 meeting.
 
 Future Meetings
 
      The Wheat CAC will continue to meet in conjunction with the National
 Wheat Improvement Committee.
 
 Attachments:
      By-laws
      Genetic Stocks Resolution (to come from Ian Edwards)
      NSGC Report
      GRIN Report
 -------------------------
 
 BY-LAWS FOR THE WHEAT CROP ADVISORY COMMITTEE
 
 NAME:
 
      The official name for the advisory committee concerning all species of
 Triticum shall be the Wheat Crop Advisory Committee.
 
 FUNCTION:
 
      To gather a body of scientists and advisors on wild and cultivated
 species of Triticum and other related genera to provide technical advice on
 germplasm collection, maintenance, enhancement, and evaluation for the
 curator of the wheat collection, scientists of industry and public research
 pro- grams, the National Plant Genetics Resources Board (NPGRB), National
 Plant Germplasm Committee (NPGC), Administrators of the USDA-ARS, the State
 Agricultural Experiment Stations, and other public and private institutions.
 
 
 
 OBJECTIVES:
 
      1.  Provide a strategic overview of the total national effort to study
 and utilize germplasm of Triticum and related genera.  Recommend means for
 organizing activities that would benefit the national program on the
 acquisition, maintenance, evaluation and enhancement of wheat germplasm.
 
      2.  Assess the adequacy of wheat germplasm available to the scientific
 community and make recommendations to the National Plant Germplasm System for
 broadening the present germplasm base by additional acquisition through
 exploration and exchange.
 
      3.  Help develop guidelines for the effective maintenance of wheat
 introductions.
 
      4.  Make recommendations for evaluation of wheat collection for priority
 descriptors and to update the descriptor list as changes occur.
 
      5.  Consider needs for fundamental and applied studies to increase
 genetic variability in wheat and identify promising approaches and
 enhancement opportunities.
 
      6.  Assess current breeding status, progress, and the role germplasm
 resources play in improving levels of pest resistance and other
 characteristics of economic importance.
 
      7.  Assess the impact of biotechnology and genetic engineering on wheat
 germplasm resource needs and utilization.
 
      8.  Provide a means for industry researchers to express needs for wheat
 germplasm resources and their utilization.
 
      9.  Develop reports for the NPGRB, the NPGC, and the National Program
 Staff of ARS on ongoing germplasm activities, resource needs, and status of
 evaluation, enhancement, and exploration plans.
      
     10.  Develop better international wheat germplasm cooperation.
 
     11.  Encourage greater cooperation among industry, federal, state, and
 other scientists for exchange of germplasm and information and for
 disseminating information from scientists to commodity groups.
 
 MEMBERSHIP:
 
      The Wheat Crop Advisory Committee (Wheat CAC) will consist of 16
 members.  The Curator of the Small Grains Collection, the coordinator of
 wheat germplasm evaluation, a representative of the National Program Staff,
 and a representative from the USDA Germplasm Services Laboratory will serve
 as ex officio members.  These ex officio members will have full voting
 privileges but may not hold committee offices.  Representatives from the
 IBPGR, the NPGRB, the Regional Plant Introduction Stations, APHIS, the NWIC,
 and others may serve as consultants for resource purposes.  These
 participants are not voting members of the Wheat CAC.  The remaining 12
 committee members will be elected to the committee to represent various
 geographical and/or scientific disciplines as follows:
 
      1.  Researchers from State Agriculture Experiment Stations and USDA.
 Seven representatives to provide geographical representation of the major
 wheat growing regions and span important scientific disciplines.
 
      2.  Researcher(s) from the wheat industry.  At least one representative.
 
      3.  Representative from CIMMYT wheat program.  One representative.
 
      4.  Researcher from Canada.  One representative.
 
      5.  Researcher from Mexico.  One representative.
 
      6.  One member to represent Rye and Triticale germplasm.
 
      Members of the Wheat CAC will be elected to 3-year terms and may serve
 no more than two consecutive terms.  Members unable to attend 2 consecutive
 meetings will be replaced.  After an absence of at least one year from the
 committee, a former 2-term member is eligible for membership again.  A Chair
 and Vice Chair will be elected for 3-year terms.  Election process will
 consist of nomination after annual meeting followed by ballot in the mail.
 Vice Chair responsible for recording minutes at the annual meetings.  New
 members of the Wheat CAC will be chosen by the existing committee according
 to the prescribed procedures and in consultation with appropriate industry,
 federal or university groups.
 
 -------------------------
 II.  CONTRIBUTIONS
    
      AGRIPRO BIOSCIENCES, INC.
        
      Koy Miskin*, Curtis Beazer - Brookston, IN; Barton Fogleman*, Erwin
 Ridge; Jonesboro, AR.
      Rob Bruns*, John Moffatt*, Joe Smith*, Jim Reeder* - Berthoud, CO
               
      Northern Soft Red Winter Wheat.  An unusually warm late winter followed
 by severe late spring freeze caused severe damage to many soft wheat
 cultivars.  The most severe damage occurred on early and/or vigorously
 growing cultivars and to cultivars that had been over fertilized.  The freeze
 damage also predisposed the plants to severe disease infections.  The most
 severe damage occurred in a band from about Terre Haute, IN to the Missouri
 bootheel While many acres of wheat were lost in this area the more northern
 areas of the eastern soft wheat region had very excellent yields.
        
      AgriPro will release ABI 85-81 in 1991.  It will be named later this
 year.  It offers very high yield with early maturity.  It will provide
 excellent protection against wheat spindle streak mosaic virus and stem rust.
 Very good protection is provided against powdery mildew, Septoria nodorum,
 Rhizoctonia and soil-borne mosaic virus and good protection against barley
 yellow dwarf virus, wheat streak virus, Septoria tritici, leaf rust and scab.
 However, it has no known genes for Hessian fly.  The milling and baking
 quality of ABI 85-81 are very good and good, respectively.
        
      Southern Soft Winter Wheat.  Planting conditions were generally
 favorable in the 1989-90 southern soft wheat region.  Despite a frigid
 December that killed crepe myrtle and other shrubs to the ground, there was
 little differential winter-kill in our plots.  December was followed by a
 mild and wet period that lasted into early spring and interfered with the
 application and uptake of spring fertilizer.  The wet weather provided an
 epidemic of bacterial leaf stripe which left little green tissue for the
 septoria and leaf rust infections that followed.  Head scab was also
 prevalent in the region.  Harvest weather was favorable, but test weights
 were low and some elevators were paying a premium for high test weight wheat.
 Some of the best test weights in the region were from fields of AgriPro
 Magnum and AgriPro Hunter.
        
      ABI 86-5941 will be released in 1991.  It will be named later.  It
 offers very high yield and medium maturity.  Excellent protection is provided
 to stem rust and very good protection to leaf rust, scab, septoria nodorum
 and Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus.  Good protection is provided to
 soil-borne mosaic virus and barley yellow dwarf virus.  ABI 86-5941 carries
 the H6 gene for Hessian fly resistance.  Milling quality is excellent and
 baking quality is very good.
        
      A new cultivar, CHEROKEE, was released in 1990.  It was formerly ABI
 85-1 (or ABI 85*1).  It has excellent stem rust, stripe rust, powdery mildew,
 SBMV and WSSMV resistance, has very strong medium-tall straw and awned heads.
 It is early and has a 5-6 week vernalization requirement which should help it
 resist spring "bolting".  AgriPro Cherokee's primary area of adaptation is
 the mid-south region and it is intended to replace AgriPro Magnum.
      
      Our new mid-south wheat breeding station is "up and running" and M.
 Erwin Ridge has joined ABI as a Research Assistant.  We have purchased a
 building and lot and are currently remodeling the building to add a seed lab,
 additional storage space and a grain dryer.
 
      Hard Red Winter Wheat.  Tom Griess has been added to the hard winter
 wheat staff providing computer and technical support.
        
      The 1989/90 crop year was an excellent wheat year overall.  Seven of
 twelve trial sites were harvested for yield.  We were able to evaluate
 materials for wheat spindle streak mosaic virus complex at Everest, KS and
 soil-borne mosaic virus at Grant, NE (western Nebraska).  Our materials were
 also evaluated for coleoptile length, straw strength, green leaf retention,
 and resistances to leaf rust, stem rust, powdery mildew, speckled leaf
 blotch.  Selected materials were evaluated for tan spot, wheat streak mosaic
 virus and Hessian fly resistance.
        
      No new releases will be made in 1991.
             
      Hard Red Spring Wheat.  The hard red spring wheat project personnel
 consist of Joe A. Smith, Breeder; John Martin, Assistant Breeder; Barb Cook,
 Technician; Linda Sizemore, Technician.
        
      Similar to last season, our 1990 results reflected the drought
 conditions of the past three seasons in our Red River Valley sites.  Low
 subsoil moisture caused more variation and lower yields than past averages.
 Three of the five sites were harvested for yield.  The trial means ranged
 from 4100 kg/ha at St. Thomas, ND to 5100 kg/ha at Stephen, MN.  Our
 discarded nursery at Casselton, ND received 30% hail damage at heading
 followed by severe bacterial infection.  Our other discarded nursery at
 Crookston, MN suffered from tremendous field variation due to drought.
 Overall, disease was minimal except for moderate leaf rust infections on
 early generation materials which were late-planted in mid-May.
        
      We have decided to release the hard red spring wheat 'Dalen' to our
 Associates in 1991.  Certified seed will be available in the Upper Midwest
 for the 1992 season.  This cultivar was previously tested as N86-0903.  It is
 a semidwarf with medium-early maturity.  Its height is similar to Marshall.
 It has very good levels of disease protection to leaf and stem rust.  Its
 protein is slightly below Len.  Dalen appears to be well adapted across the
 spring wheat region.
 
        Hybrid Wheat Development.  The Hybrid Wheat Development Project
 includes Jim Reeder, Manager, Curtis Beazer - Assistant Plant Breeder for
 SRWW based in Brookston, IN, and Steve Askelson - Assistant Plant Breeder for
 hard wheats.
        
      Over 1600 hybrids of HRWW, HRSW and SRWW were made in 1990 at Berthoud,
 CO, Brookston, IN, and Jonesboro, AR.  Chemical hybridizing agent technology
 was used to produce these hybrids.  The high percentage that proved to be
 producible will be yield tested in 1990 throughout each appropriate region.
 Yields of previously made hybrids were encouraging.  The yield stability of
 hybrids over locations and over years continues to be high.  During the 1991
 season, out-location test hybrid production will begin in anticipation of
 full production as CHA's become registered.
 
 -------------------------
 
      AGRONOMIX SOFTWARE, INC.
 
      Dieter K. Mulitze - Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, Canada
 
      Agronomix Software, Inc., is a PC software development and consulting
 firm specializing in the software needs of agronomic research and plant
 breeding.  The major activity of the company has been the on-going software
 development of AGROBASE/4.  A growing number of wheat breeders, and plant
 breeders of many other crops, are now using AGROBASE/4 in their breeding
 programs in well over 20 countries.  The major objective of the company is to
 provide wheat breeders and plant breeders of other crops with powerful and
 state-of-the-art database technology.  The special pedigree data management
 commands of AGROBASE/4 use the USDA nomenclature proposed by Purdy et al.
 (1968, Crop Science 8:405-406) for small grains.
 
      With more wheat breeders using 286- or 386-based microcomputers with
 larger hard drives, and significant improvements in dBASE-compatible database
 technology, we feel that AGROBASE/4 can make an even greater contribution
 towards the software support of wheat research.  AGROBASE/4 1.0 is written in
 dBASE-compatible FoxPro (Fox Software, Inc.), and can process database files
 with up to one billion records and 255 database fields.  With the release of
 FoxPro 2.0 running at around 200 times (and in some instances over 3,000
 times) the speed of dBASE IV (Ashton-Tate, Inc.), a significant amount of
 database processing power will be available to wheat researchers through the
 next forthcoming version of AGROBASE/4.
 
      San Antonio, Texas.  Agronomix Software displayed a commercial booth at
 the Oct. 21-24 ASA meeting in San Antonio, Texas.  A demonstration of
 AGROBASE/4 generated considerable interest, from both the public and private
 sector.  Many researchers expressed interest in the ability to trace data on
 segregating populations through any or all generations in a breeding program.
 Although the COLLECT command and index files can perform that function, the
 next version of AGROBASE/4 will have additional commands to further support
 wheat research in that respect.  Among other features, many researchers
 appreciated the ability to design their own fieldbooks and labels within
 AGROBASE/4.  AGROBASE/4 was also demonstrated during the computer software
 scene in the database management section chaired by Dr. E.J. Dunphy.
 
      Campinas, Brazil.  Dr. Mulitze travelled to Brazil to give lectures and
 practical sessions on "The Use of AGROBASE/4 in Plant Breeding Experiments"
 at the "Second FAO/IAEA Workshop on Improvement of Rice and Other Cereals
 Through Mutation Breeding in Latin America" at Campinas, Brazil, Nov. 19-23,
 1990.  Researchers at this workshop represented Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica,
 Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay.  Reports on wheat
 research were given by scientists from Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Uruguay.
 After working with AGROBASE/4 in the course, most researchers plan to adopt
 it in their research programs.  The course was co-ordinated by Prof.
 Maluszynksi of the Plant Breeding Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division,
 International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.  A more advanced
 AGROBASE/4 course is planned for the next workshop in September 1991 at
 Toluca, Mexico.
 
      FoxPro 2.0 An important development in the world of dBASE-compatible
 database technology is the release of the still faster and more powerful
 FoxPro 2.0 from Fox Software.  With FoxPro 2.0 normally up to 200 times the
 speed of dBASE IV (and in some instances over 3,000 times) due to its
 recently developed Rushmore technology, AGROBASE/4 1.1 will also be faster
 and more powerful.  Under FoxPro 2.0, direct access to Lotus 1-2-3,
 Excel(Version 2), Symphony, and Framework II spreadsheet files will be
 supported.  For wheat researchers using those file formats, it means that
 less time will be spent moving data between software packages.  Also, a
 well-integrated and powerful SQL (Structured Query Language) and RQBE
 (Relational Query by Example) implementation of FoxPro 2.0 will be especially
 useful for germplasm selection and analyses.
 
      Next Version of AGROBASE/4 Under Development.  Additional new features
 for the next version will include an extensive graphics subsystem; more
 statistical functions, including multivariate and additional non-parametric
 procedures; additional options within the GXE command; support for diallel
 analysis; and increased support for multi-trait selection.  Version 1.1 of
 AGROBASE/4 is scheduled for release in October of 1991, and will be
 demonstrated at the 1991 ASA Annual Meeting in Denver, Colorado.
  
 Publications
 
 Mulitze, D.K.  1990. AGROBASE/4: A Microcomputer Database Management and
 Analysis System for Plant Breeding and Agronomy. Agronomy Journal Vol.
 82(5):1016-1021.
 
 -------------------------
      CARGILL HYBRID SEEDS
 
      Sid Perry, Dave Johnston, Jill Handwerk, Sally Clayshulte and Dana
 Shellberg - Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
 
      Hybrid evaluation.  Several hundred hybrids were evaluated in tests
 located in Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri and Texas.  These hybrids
 consisted of both CMS and CHA type.  Conditions were favorable for selection
 for leaf diseases and grain fill.  Of first year hybrids, 65 were selected
 for further evaluation, on the basis of wide adaptation and performance
 superior to the best check.
 
      Inbred Evaluation.  The breeding program is continuing efforts to
 concentrate on early selection for combining ability, partitioning into
 appropriate heterotic groups, and inbred modification.  1990 provided some
 interesting insights.  We are maintaining our levels of restoration and are
 broadening the germplasm base in R-lines.  We have ceased sterile conversion
 of B-lines and use CHA instead.
 
      Germplasm Evaluation.  Several hundred new lines, varieties, and
 landraces were evaluated for adaptation, potential combining ability, and
 heterotic disposition.  New breeding lines developed through this evaluation
 should be observed in hybrid combination in the next two years.
 
      Hybrid Production.  Several thousand hybrids were produced with CHA and
 CMS.  Female production levels averaged 40 bu/A, with a high of 80 bu/A.  CMS
 and CHA production levels were comparable.  Argentina was also utilized to
 produce winter hybrids satisfactorily.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Nestor Machado, Pedro Paulucci and Hector Martinuzzi - Cargill - S. A.
 Argentina
 
      In 1990, Cargill Argentina commercially released its 5th hybrid wheat.
 It is estimated that 80,000 ha were planted with hybrid wheat in our country.
 
      During the season, some cold damage was reported at tillering state in
 different production areas and also some drought periods affected the crops.
 Diseases wee not very important in farmer's fields.  Hybrids in general
 showed very good reaction to these adversities and compared very well with
 the best commercial varieties. An elite group of hybrids were tested in 12
 different locations and data are being analyzed now and will be used next
 March to select new releases for 1991.  The main selection criteria for these
 hybrids are adaptability and stability. Another group of experimental hybrids
 were evaluated in regular yield trials in three nurseries and two planting
 dates and all were harvested.  (250 hybrids, 25 yield trials).  Three hundred
 CMS hybrids were produced in isolated plots with variable results, due to
 some frost damage at heading time. Breeding material was selected under
 fairly good conditions.  Both the Winter and Spring lines grew satisfactorily
 in their respective planting dates from June to August.  The B/A conversion
 program was accomplished in the greenhouse and in the field according to the
 original program.
 
      Gametocide trials: Four isolated plots treated with Monsanto 21200
 gametocide were conducted with good results.  Approximately 2500 combinations
 have been obtained and will be used next season to test combining ability.
 Even though our program has no limitations in the use of CMS system
 originated from T. timopheevi, the use of effective gametocides may enhance
 combining ability studies, speeding up parental lines selection.
 
      Resistance to diseases: One of the main characteristics of good hybrids
 is disease reaction, so it is necessary to have very precise information
 about parental line reaction in order to make the adequate combinations.  A
 disease nursery using artificial inoculations was conducted in Pergamino by
 Cargill Plant Pathology Department.  Fusarium sp, septoria, stem rust and
 leaf rust were present providing good information for the 1990 season.
 
 -------------------------
 
      R. P. Daniel, D. Donaldson, M. J. Nowland, C. J. Tyson, M. Materne, D.
 J. Wilson and P. Wilson - Tamworth, N.S.W., Australia
 
      Hybrid Seed Production.  Hybrid seed yields from a substantially
 increased area in 1990 averaged 3.5 t/ha compared with 3.2 t/ha in 1989.
 Provided this level of production can be maintained, the hybrid wheat seed
 production is an economically viable proposition.
 
      Hybrid Performance.  Several new hybrids with significantly higher
 yields than hybrids, Meteor and Comet, were identified in 1990.  However, the
 interactions between fertility restoration, environmental conditions and
 female genotype are still a major problem in the improvement of hybrids using
 the timopheevi system.
 
      New Appointment.  Michael Materne has been appointed a "B-line Breeder"
 though it is expected he will become more widely involved in the hybrid
 breeding program in the future.  Michael is a graduate of the Waite Institute
 Adelaide.
 
 -------------------------
       HYBRITECH SEED INTERNATIONAL, INC.
                                         
      John Erickson, Karolyn Ely, Bud Hardesty, Steve Kuhr, Jerry Wilson -
 Wichita, KS, Gordon Cisar - Lafayette, IN
 
      1990 was generally a good year for germplasm evaluation.  Over 60,000
 yield plots were harvested from 23 sites in the Great Plains.  Adequate
 infection of leaf rust, stem rust, soil1borne mosaic virus, and wheat streak
 mosaic virus were encountered to permit differential reactions.  Excessive
 heat and dry conditions stressed mid-to-late maturity types.  About 5,000 new
 hybrids were produced utilizing both the CHA and CMS systems.
 
      We are now fully staffed after filling two assistant breeder positions
 in the SRW project and adding a new quality laboratory technician.  We were
 fortunate to be able to hire Karolyn Ely to manage our quality laboratory.
 Karolyn previously had been with Pioneer.
 
      B-Line Project.  Approximately 1450 hand crosses were made in the
 greenhouse in 1990, with emphasis upon the improvement of disease resistance.
 Nearly 1200 F2 or F3 selections were screened in the greenhouse for seedling
 reaction to leaf rust.  Most of the materials which had expressed adult plant
 resistance in the field were rated as susceptible in the seedling screening.
 
      Development of SBMV in our F2 and F4 populations at Mt. Hope, KS was
 quite good, and an excellent outbreak of stem rust occurred at the Hastings,
 NE breeding site.  Although we did not use artificial inoculation in 1990,
 leaf rust development was very good at Wichita and at Mt. Hope, KS.
 
      Lines with Siouxland heritage performed very well in preliminary yield
 trials in 1990.  We look forward to seeing hybrids with these lines in 1991.
 Six advanced A-lines were transferred to our foundation seed division.  Three
 of the lines are adapted to Nebraska and northward, while the other three are
 better suited for Kanas and Oklahoma.
 
      R-Line Project.  R-line breeding nurseries are located in the
 Yellowstone Valley at Bilings, MT, in the Nebraska panhandle at Sidney, in
 western Kansas at Leoti, and in south-central Kansas at Wichita.
 Three-hundred, three-hundred fifty, and five-hundred F4 rows respectively
 from Billings, Leoti, and Wichita were advanced to first-year yield trials
 for 1991.  Yield trials are located in Montana, South Dakota Nebraska,
 Colorado, Kansas, and Oklahoma.
 
      Restoration monitoring in lines and hybrids continues to be necessary.
 We attempt to rate hybrids at each testing site and the following chart
 summarizes several years of information:
 
                                            1985-89        1990
      No. of observations                     7462         2253
      Mean restoration value                  1.99         2.28
      1 = fertile   9 = sterile
 
      The use of CHA technology to enhance restorer line development expanded
 in 1990.  Hand emasculations were eliminated in the greenhouse crossing
 program and some testing emphasis was shifted from lines to hybrids.  Over
 800 R-line CHA hybrids were made in field crossing blocks in 1989 and 625
 were tested in 1990.  Another 257 were produced in 1990 and are being tested
 in 1991.  Emphasis continues on developing lines tolerant to RWA and
 resistant to leaf rust.  We are able to turn 2 generations per year of this
 material in the greenhouse.
 
      Adaptation Project.  Efforts continue to focus on the development of
 Russian Wheat aphid resistant lines.  It has been noticed in our screening
 trials that resistance levels drop when more than one backcross is made with
 the recurrent parent.  Six new sources of resistance have been entered on the
 computer.  This does ot include any of the Hybrid nurseries or any of the
 samples sent from our Billings, Montana, station.  Our total number of
 samples for the year should be considerably above last year's total of
 approximately 8,400 samples.
 
      SRW Breeding.  A total of 1,667 soft red winter wheat hybrids were
 evaluated over five test locations in teh Corn Belt region in 1990.
 Approximately half of these were single-cross hybrids, and half were
 top-cross (F2-3 derived line * inbred male) hybrids.  Average best-parent
 heterosis on 406 single- cross hybrid combinations was 103.8%.  The most
 heterosis (best-parent) for a single hybrid averaged over five test locations
 was 116%.
 
      A total of 536 females and 23 males were used in an attempt to produce
 2,146 unique hybrid combinations.  We successfully produced 2,111 hybrids,
 abandoning only 35 hybrids (1.6%) due to unacceptable nick or poor sterility.
 Average female seed yield was 42.4 bushels per female acre, with a standard
 deviation of 13.0 bu/A.  Average yield of 60 entries in our elite line tests
 on the same farm in 1990 was 64.8 bu/A.  Our average seed yield in 1989 on
 1,582 hybrids was 31.0 bu/A.  Most of this difference of 11.4 bu/A can be
 attributed to more timely planting of the hybrid production (crossing block)
 nursery.  Activity of the chemical hybridizing agent (MON 21200) continues to
 be excellent.  Only two of 536 lines were not sterile in our 1990 crossing
 block nursery.
 
      We continue to select for hybrid production efficiency
 (cross-pollination) traits on both sides of the pedigree (male and female)
 and in all germplasm pools.  This occurs concurrently with selection for
 agronomic and pathologic traits.  A number of specific genes for pathogen
 resistance have been allocated to specific breeding pools, expecting to
 capitalize on the complementation of these different genes in the production
 of the hybrid.  We have also initiated a small scale CMS effort.  Several of
 our better B-lines are nearing conversion to A-lines, and we have begun
 incorporation of fertility restoration genes into one of our male germplasm
 pools.
 
      Personnel.  We are pleased to have added two staff members to the soft
 wheat breeding program.  Jamie Bobula accepted the position of managing our
 hybrid production (crossing block) program and our CMS breeding program.  He
 comes to us with several years of experience from Western Plant Breeders and
 the Peace Corps.  Gene Leach is managing line development on the female side
 of the hybrid pedigree.  He received his M.S. degree in plant breeding from
 North Dakota State University, and is adapting well to the southern climate
 of north central Indiana.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Dennis Dunphy, Sam Wallace, Richard Evans - Lafayette, IN; Leon Fischer,
 Kent Baker - Mt. Hope, KS; Geoff Keyes - St. Louis, MO
 
      Performance of MON 21200 in 1990.  MON 21200 is being developed by
 Monsanto Co. as a chemical hybridizing agent (CHA) for wheat.  MON 21200
 continued to perform very well over a wide range of environments and
 genotypes in 1990.  Excellent sterility was obtained in all regions.  Seed
 yield in the SRW region was variable, but generally lower than average, with
 non-selected check lines in research plots averaging 47-64% outcrossing.
 Lines selected for good outcrossing ability averaged 70-93% at the same
 locations.  Seed set in the western HRW region was again excellent, averaging
 75-99%.
 
      Commercialization.  Registration for MON 21200 is proceeding on
 schedule, and we do not foresee any obstacles at this time to receiving full
 registration for this compound.  We are continuing to provide technical
 support for cooperating breeding programs that license the Monsanto CHA
 Technology, with a goal of being able to place wheat hybrids produced with
 MON 21200 on the market by the mid-1990's.
 
      Personnel.  We are pleased to have Kent Baker and Richard Evans join our
 group to develop the MON 21200 production technology,.
 
      Excellent results were achieved with a fall flood irrigation of the
 Disease Observation Nursery to initiate a soilborne mosaic virus infection.
 Susceptible check varieties scattered throughout the nursery indicate a very
 uniform distribution of the Polymyxa graminis zoospores.  Approximately 5400
 lines were flood irrigated in the D.O.N. again this year.  If adequate and
 uniform infections are observed this spring, we will continue with the
 screening of our hybrids and parental lines in subsequent years.
 
      Quality Lab.  Personnel - Since last year's report there has been a
 complete turnover in the laboratory staff.  Lab Manager, Marcia Gordon, left
 in August, 1990.  She was replaced by Karolyn Ely who began with HybriTech in
 July.  The new laboratory technicians are Joan Saddler who began in June,
 Sharon Pudden who joined us in September and Sylvia Fanning who was hired in
 January, 1991.  Because of so many staff changes, considerable time has been
 spent in training, re-organizing files, etc.
 
      Equipment repairs have continued, with complete overhauls on both
 mixographs and on the Brabender Rapid Moisture Tester.  We are looking
 critically at procedures with the intent of improving efficiency.  The
 sedimentation test has been revised to a two-person procedure.  With this
 method we can run over 300 samples in an eight-hour day vs. less than 200
 samples in a nine-hour day with one person.  We have changed the milling
 operation to collect break flour separately.  Break Flour Yield is an
 important characteristic in soft wheat evaluation.
 
      Testing 1990 Crop - During the critical post-harvest/pre-planting period
 (July, August, September) the Lab processed 642 Observation Nursery samples
 and 5,370 Headrow Nursery samples.  The Observation testing includes Jr.
 Milling, NIR and Mixograph on 100 g. samples. The Headrow testing, or Early
 Generation Screening, includes Udy Grinding, NIR and Sedimentation on 10 g.
 samples.
 
 -------------------------
 
      NORTHRUP KING COMPANY
 
      Fred Collins*, June Hancock*, and Craig Allen* - Bay, AR
 
      Production Season.  Like most years, the 1989-90 wheat growing season in
 the South was challenging.  Conditions in the Southeast were generally
 favorable; the spring was relatively dry which favored wheat production.
 There was a major shift in race(s) of powdery mildew as evidenced by an
 intensive build-up on Coker 9733 which had previously been resistant.
 Actually there were a few reports of powdery mildew on the variety the
 previous season.
 
      The extremely wet spring and early April freeze caused major problems in
 the Mid-South and lower Corn Belt.  Among the problems take-all was severe in
 some areas of S.Louisiana; bacterial leaf and head blight, Septoria tritici,
 S.nodorum, and scab were very severe over wide areas of Arkansas, Tennessee,
 Missouri, Kentucky, and S.Illinois.  As the following data reflects, yield
 and head blight development were related to damage from the April freeze and,
 to a lesser extent, to severity of the soil-borne virus complex.
 
     Association of Spring Freeze Injury in Wheat with Winterhardiness, SBV,
 Heading Date, Head Blight, and Yield.
 
                     FREEZE    WINTER     SOIL-BORNE
 Variety/Line        INJURY   HARDINESS     VIRUS      HEADING    HEAD    YIELD
                               SCORE        SCORE       DATE     BLIGHT    BU/A
 ----------------     ------   ---------   ----------   -------   ------   -----
 AR 26415                5.7       8.0          5         04/18       7       36
 BAYLES                  6.0        -           6         04/15       -       --
 CALDWELL                4.3       9.4          7         04/21       9       32
 CARDINAL                5.0       9.6          4         04/23       7       44
 CHEROKEE                7.0        -           3         04/15       8       22
 CLARK                   3.7       9.2          2         04/15       7       40
 COKER 747               4.7       8.6          4         04/19       4       24
 COKER 833               6.0       8.0          1         04/20       3       45
 COKER 916               5.7       8.0          3         04/14       8       38
 COKER 983               6.7       4.2          4         04/15       8       40
 COKER 9227              6.3       4.4          6         04/06       8       29
 COKER 9323              6.3       6.2          6         04/08       7       32
 COKER 9733              7.3       5.0          6         04/13       3       38
 COKER 9766              6.7       7.4          3         04/16       5       27
 COKER 9877              6.7       5.6          2         04/18       1       47
 COKER 9024              5.0       7.6          2         04/18       1       42
 COKER 9105              6.0       3.8          4         04/15       5       36
 COKER 9803              5.7       8.4          3         04/10       2       55
 C0KER 9835              6.0       6.6          5         04/14       8       37
 COKER 9907              5.7       6.6          6         04/21       3       39
 FFR 568                 6.7        -           2         04/18       9       38
 FLORIDA 302             7.8       5.4          6         04/14       7       34
 FLORIDA 303             8.0       2.4          7         04/02       8       17
 GEORGIA 100             7.7       7.2          4         04/16       9       26
 HANCOCK                 8.0       9.0          3         04/20       8       24
 HART                    9.0       9.2          1         04/20       8       --
 HUNTER                  7.7        -           3         04/04       5       32
 KEISER                  4.7       7.2          3         04/21       3       34
 KY 83-38                6.7        -           3         04/19       8       33
 MADISON                 5.0        -           1         04/10       4       53
 MAGNUM                  7.3       9.2          5         04/14       8       23
 MCNAIR 1003             6.3       6.8          5         04/18       8       34
 MO 10501                5.7       9.4          3         04/21       8       36
 PACER                   8.0       9.4          3         04/20       5       16
 PIKE                    8.7       8.8          5         04/20       8       22
 PIONEER BR. 2548        5.7       7.6          6         04/20       7       42
 PIONEER BR. 2551        7.3       9.4          4         04/21       2       35
 PIONEER BR. 2555        5.0       7.6          1         04/15       6       40
 SALUDA                  6.0       8.0          6         04/15       4       34
 SAVANNAH                6.0       3.8          4         04/14       2       45
 TERRAL NORRIS 101       6.3        -           3         04/20       2       23
 TERRAL NORRIS 812       8.7        -           4         04/14       8       23
 TERRAL NORRIS 817       5.7        -           4         04/10       5       37
 TRAVELER                8.3       3.6          4         04/13       7       20
 TWAIN                   5.7       8.8          2         04/16       8       34
 WAKEFIELD               6.3        -           4         04/18       4       52
 LSD (.05)               1.8       1.1          1           3                  9
   V. (%)                 19        12         15           2                 15
 Freeze Injury, Head Blight, and Yield Data are from 1990 Hopkinsville, KY test.
 Winter hardiness is from 1989 tests in upper Mid-South.
 Soil-borne virus is from 1990 Union City, TN test.
 Heading date is from 1990 Bay, AR test.
       SCORE:  0 = None (no freeze damage, complete winter kill, or no          
                      virus symptoms)
               9 = Most
 
                  CORRELATIONS                              r            P
                  ================================       ======         ===
                  Freeze injury - winter hardiness       -0.222         .19
                  Freeze injury - SBV                     0.201         .52
                  Freeze injury - heading date           -0.158         .29
                  Freeze injury - head blight             0.250         .10
                  Freeze injury - yield                  -0.564         .00
                  Winter hardiness - yield                0.039         .83
                  SBV - Yield                            -0.296         .05
                  Heading date - Yield                    0.069         .65
                  Head blight - Yield                    -0.422         .01
   
     New Releases.  Four new varieties were turned ovder to TGN (Two Great
 Names) dealers who produce and market certified seed of Northrup King
 varieties Coker 9907 and Coker 9835 were positioned primarily in the
 Southeast.  Coker 9024 was sold in the Mid-South and Coker 9803 was placed
 primarily in the upper portion of the Mid-South.  Coker 9105 will be released
 to TGN dealers in the Gulf Coastal region in the fall of 1991.  Coker 9543 is
 the most recent release; it was tested as CL860426 and it should be a
 replacement for Coker 747.
 
    Personnel Changes.  June Hancock, who had spent about 1.5 years on the
 cotton program, was transferred back into the wheat program.  She will be
 responsible for germplasm-varietal development.  Russell Sutton returned to
 his previous position at the Texas A&M research station near Dallas.
 
 -------------------------
 
      ORSEM
 
      Ch. Quandalle - Pouy Roquelaure - 32480 La Romieu; S. Sunderwirth - 56
 rue Th. Havy - 60190 Estrees St Denis; L. Batreau - Ferme
   de St. Germain - 28310 Fresnay L'Eveque
 
      Since our last contribution in 1989, several changes have occurred in
 our Wheat Breeding Program.  Eighteen people are employed and work on three
 stations.  Estrees St Denis is more involved in breeding hybrid and inbred
 wheat for Northern France and Europe.  Pouy-Roquelaure is breeding inbred and
 hybrid wheat for Southern France and Europe.  St. Germain is specialized in
 hybrid wheat development (seed production and agronomy).  Besides these three
 major stations, ten other trial centers allow for a large experimentation
 program across France.
 
      The breeding effort represents 600 hand made crosses, 550,000 F2 plants,
 70,000 head-rows, and 23,000 trial plots.  This program includes 10,000
 doubled haploid lines produced by a team of six people in Pouy-Roquelaure.
 The hybrid wheat program has 1,200 hybrids in trials.  Another 1,600
 combinations will be produced in 1991 with Orsan's C.H.A. SC 2053 in 52
 crossing blocks.  BE 80 ZX 028, a promising early maturing red winter wheat
 pure line cultivar, will finish official trials for Southern France in 1991.
 It should be released this fall.  Entering into the first year of official
 trials in 1991 are two winter wheats cultivars (one red and one white), one
 triticale, and one barley.
 
 -------------------------
      TRIO RESEARCH INC.
 
      James A. Wilson - Wichita, KS
 
      A hybrid blend yield test, involving the blending of R line, B line and
 F2 with single cross hybrid seed on a 50:50 weigh basis, was conducted this
 past year.  Also, the single crosses and each of the R lines, B lines and
 F2's were grown in pure stands as checks for their respective blends.  The
 top ten yielding entries having no significant difference in yield consisted
 of four singlecross hybrids, three blends, and three lines.  The top two
 entries in yield in this forty-entry test were blends with one having a B
 line component and the other an F2 component.  The data suggest that hybrid
 blends could be used in the development of "genetically protected" cultivars.
 
      Powdery mildew and leaf rust were the most damaging diseases encountered
 in our tests this past year.  Mildew was very severe on some new varieties
 having high susceptibility.  The absence of soil borne mosaic symptoms for
 the past three years on wheat grown in known soil borne infected soils is
 difficult to explain; possibly higher than normal early spring temperatures
 and lack of moisture in the fall are the reasons.
 
      The decline in the price of wheat relative to feed grains and parity
 create a difficult situation for the wheat producers.  Though prices may
 eventually recover we believe that more options should be given to the wheat
 growers when the price is on the downside.  Wheats developed with forage or
 graze-out options would be welcomed by many growers having connections with
 beef production.  Others would likely welcome an option to use their crop as
 feed in port and/or beef production. With these concepts in mind we are
 continuing to increase our efforts toward developing wheats having unique
 traits that enable them to be more efficiently utilized as a feed or forage
 crop.
 
      We are maintaining our soft red winter and hard red winter breeding
 objectives but reducing the amount of off-station testing involving our own
 operations.  Our current sequence of testing prior to release will involve
 federal and state yield tests.  Several varieties and a hybrid were entered
 in federal tests in the fall of 1990.
 
 -------------------------
 
      WESTERN PLANT BREEDERS
 
      Dale Clark, Craig Cook, Amy Baroch - Bozeman, MT; Kim Shantz, Michael
 DeVries - Tempe, AZ
 
      Hybrid Wheat.  Western Plant Breeders (WPB) is field testing hard red
 wheat hybrids produced at Davis, CA., using CHA's developed by Sogetal, Inc.,
 Hayward, CA.  These hybrids are primarily semidwarf wheats adapted to
 irrigated production areas of California and Arizona.  Replicated yield
 trials are being conducted at one location in Arizona and three locations in
 California.  WPB is also field testing soft white winter hybrids produced at
 Amity, Oregon by Sogetal, Inc.  These hybrids are in replicated yield trials
 at eight Pacific Northwest nurseries (4 in WA, 2 in ID, 1 in OR, and 1 in
 MT).  New Releases.  Western Plant Breeders has received approval to assign
 the following names to new releases described in AWN Volume 36.  Our PNW
 spring durum (No. BU 884-206) is being named WestBred Pendur.  The high
 yielding, high protein hard red wheat (No. DA 984- 034) targeted for the
 Anza, Yolo growing region is being named WestBred Express.  Experimental No.
 PH 984-75, adapted to the areas of California and Arizona where Yecora Rojo
 is grown, is being named WestBred Accord.
 
      Cultivar Testing.  WPB conducted yield trials in 1990 at 19 locations
 throughout the Western U.S.  Four sites were fall-planted (irrigated) in AZ
 and CA, six sites were winter nurseries in the PNW, and nine sites were
 spring nurseries in the PNW.  Although five of the PNW sites were dryland and
 were stressed for moisture in 1990, all 19 nurseries were harvested.
 
      Southern Nursery.  WPB's primary southern research nursery is now
 located on the Maricopa Demonstration Farm at the University of Arizona,
 Maricopa Agricultural Center, Maricopa, AZ.
 
      Personnel.  Michael DeVries has joined the Western Plant Breeders staff
 in Tempe, AZ, as a research assistant.  Jamie Bobula left WPB to accept a
 position with Hybritech Seed International, Inc., Lafayette, IN.  WPB wishes
 Jamie well in this new endeavor.
 
 -------------------------
 
                              ITEMS FROM ARGENTINA
 
      Institute of Genetics and of Biological Resources, INTA, Castelar
 
      Enrique Y. Suarez and Laura Bullrich
 
      Magnif 41 meiotic behaviour.  Magnif 41 is a bread cultivar with a very
 abnormal microsporogenesis apparently as a consequence of spindle
 disturbances in the first meiotic division.  This abnormal microsporogenesis
 resulted in a chaotic picture at the tetrad stage producing pollen grains of
 different sizes and the presence of micronuclei.  Female meiosis seems also
 to be affected but to a lesser extent.  High aneuploid frequency is observed
 in this cultivar resulting in chromosome number variation and structural
 mutations.  Apparently the mitotic spindles are not affected.  However, in
 the archesporial cells some disturbances were detected.  The origin of this
 behaviour seems to be related to a chromosome mutation inherited as a
 recessive factor.  Chromosome mutation might well be produced in the
 ancestors of Magnif 41, i.e., Sinvalocho M. A. and/or Mediterranean.
 However, the frequency of this mutation is higher in the Mediterranean than
 that in Sinvalocho M.A.
 
 -------------------------
 
      A. Acevedo, E. Antonelli, L. Bullrich, E. Suarez and S. Feingold
 
      Rye introgression effects into Argentinean wheats.  Various genetic
 traits of Argentinean wheats carrying or not 1Rs/1B1 translocation (new
 Argentinean varieties, lines and F3 segregant families) were compared.
 Concerning the lines carrying the rye segment they showed resistance to all
 leaf rust strains but one.  Sedimentation test showed significant differences
 among lines and F3 families with the rye translocation from those without the
 translocation.  In the varieties no relation was found between the appearance
 of the rye translocation and the sedimentation values.  This behavior is
 probably due to low sedimentation values in the new Argentinean varieties.
 
 -------------------------
 
      E. Y. Saurez and M. Arteaga
 
      Influence of meiotic abnormalities on grain condition in a commercial
 hybrid wheat.  The first Argentinean hybrid wheat carries a heterozygous
 reciprocal translocation.  This structural mutation was associated to the
 production of aneuploid plants and wrinkled grains.  Even when the sample
 were composed by normal grains 4.2% of them were aneuploid.  On the other
 hand the sample with wrinkled grains had 19.8% of aneuploid.
 
 -------------------------
 
      G. W. Covas (Jr.), E. Y. Saurez and J. Safont Lis.
 
      Pleiotropic vs. linkage effects for 4D chromosome of wheat.  Using the
 modified "Backcross reciprocal monosomic" method chromosome effects were
 analyzed in several Argentinean cultivars.  Old varieties and semidwarf
 (Rht2) genotypes were included.  Twenty seven reciprocals were evaluated for
 plant height, grain weight, spike length, ear emergence time, spikelet number
 per ear grain number per spikelet, tiller number and yield.  A constant and
 significant association was observed only between Rht2 chromosome with
 reduction in plant height, grain weight and spike length.  Other traits
 showed no association or both positive and negative association indicating
 gene linkage more than a pleiotropic effect.
 
 -------------------------
 
      M. Arteaga and E. Y. Suarez
 
      Comparative performance of Triticum timopheevi and T. peregrinum
 cytoplasm in hybrid combinations.  Four commercial T. timopheevi cytoplasm
 hybrids (CH) were compared with three F1 hybrid genotypes (HG) carrying T.
 peregrinum cytoplasm and 1B-1Rs: 1B nucleus.  Plant height (PH), fertility
 (F), grain weight (GW) and productivity (P) were measured.  (Table 1).  IN CH
 were included heterozygous genotypes with Rht genes, while in the case of HG
 were included only heterozygous genotypes.  Fertility was measured on both of
 the basal flowers of the central spikelets showing that few plants in two out
 of four CH hybrids were completely male sterile while only one HG hybrid
 showed a very reduced fertility in all the plants.  The HG group was produced
 from non-evaluated varieties for combining ability or restorer capacity.
 
      Table 1.  C H and H G Performance
             PH (cm) F (%) GR (mg) P (g) C H 88.7 81-94 90.7 82-97 40.9 38-43
 30.3 24-36 H G 103.4 99-108 81.7 54-99 38.4 38-39 25.4 18-33
                                                                              
 
 -------------------------
 
      E. Y. Suarez and G. Tranquilli
 
      Dosage effect and the concept of dominance and recessiveness.  True
 dominance is not known to occur at the molecular level.  However at a higher
 level of biological organization dominant alleles are "alleles which are
 manifest in all heterozygous heterokaryotic or heterogenotic members of the
 first filial generation (F1) from a cross between two homozygous (pure
 breeding) strains differing with respect to these characters" (Rieger,
 Michaelis and Green, 1976).
 
      When Chinese Spring (CS), susceptible to Argentinean clone 66 of
 Puccinia recondita, was crossed with Sinvalocho M. A. (SV) (resistant to this
 strain), the F1 was susceptible.  Therefore following the definition stated
 above, the Lr 3 alleles from Chinese Spring were dominant.  However a
 susceptible reaction was also observed when the CS allele was absent as it
 happened in SV monosomic 6B or in the F1 produced by crossing CS (monosomic
 6B) with SV (euploid).  In contrast when crossing these varieties with a
 higher dosage of Lr3 gene (6B tetrasomic SV with 6B tetrasomic CS), the F1
 was resistant to clone 66 of Puccinia recondita.  The behaviour of Lr3 allele
 from SV in this case from clearly dominant.
 
      The confusion arises by using the Mendelian misconcept of dominance and
 recessiveness in plant pathogen interaction or in other characters, i.e., the
 response to the gene control of gibberellic acid, etc.  Alleles dosage
 concept is more accurate for understanding these phenomena.  Similar
 conclusion can be reached considering dosage for all other genes, except for
 the presence of co-dominant alleles.  On the other hand over-dominance if it
 exists is not known whether it occurs for most genes.
 
      Miscellaneous.  Monosomic series of Sinvalocho M. A. is available
 (except for a few chromosomes), also the substitution lines of Sinvalocho
 chromosomes into Chinese Spring are available.  Sinvalocho tetrasomic 6B was
 also obtained and a reciprocal translocation 1Bs/6Bs-1B1/6B1 also in
 Sinvalocho background.
                                  Publications
 
 Suarez, E. Y., and Bullrich, L.  1990.  Meiotic spindle disturbances in a
 commercial bread wheat cultivar.  Cytologia 55:79-86.
 
 Acevedo, A., Antonelli, E., Bullrich, L., Suarez, E. and Feingold, S.  Rye
 introgression effects into Argentinean wheats.  (2nd Int. Triticale Sym.
 Passo Fundo, Brazil, 1990 in press).
 
 Covas, G. F., Suarez, E. Y., and Safont Lis, J.  1990.  Pleiotropismo vs
 genes ligados para interpretar el efecto del cromosoma 4D de trigo en
 diferentes componentes de rendimiento. 2do Congreso Nacional de Trigo.
 Pergamino, Argentina, 1990; II:91-100.
 
 Lenscak, M. P., Leon, A. J. and Suarez, E. Y.  1990.  Empleo de lineas de
 sutitucion de trigo para la evaluacion precisa del caracter periodo a
 espigazon. 2do.  congreso Nacional de Trigo. Pergamino, Argentina. 1990.
 II:75-90.
 
 Suarez, E. Y., and Arteaga, M.  1990.  Influence of meiotic abnormalities on
 grain condition in a commercial hybrid wheat.  Cer. Res. Comm.,
 18(1-2):27-31.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Ruth A. Heinz, Mariana Del Vas, Laura C. Moratinos, Ewald A. Favret, H.
 Esteban Hopp
 
      Gene-for-gene specific mRNA activities in wheat leaves infected with
 leaf rust.  It is now well established that the ability of plants to resist
 pathogen attack is dependent on the genotypes of both organisms.  In a
 gene-for-gene or better, allele-for-gene interaction (1-4) a host will be
 resistant or susceptible to a particular pathogen race depending on the
 reaction alleles that interact with virulence genes in the pathogen.  In
 addition, host-pathogen interaction is an active process dependent on RNA and
 protein synthesis which is the result of transcriptional activation of
 specific genes.  The interaction between Triticum aestivum and Puccinia
 recondita tritici provides an excellent model to analyze specific
 relationships due to the well established knowledge on the involved genes in
 the context of genetically related genotypes of both host and pathogen.  A
 criss-cross host-pathogen interaction system has been developed (5-8) in
 which wheat lines with very homogeneous genetic backgrounds carry genes that
 react differentially with closely related clones of P.  recondita tritici.
 Interactions are summarized in the table.
 
      We have previously shown an association between synthesis of
 polypeptides and specific interactions in wheat seedlings infected with these
 characterized pathogenic races of wheat rust (9-10).
 
      Seedlings were grown in hydropoinia following the sandwich method (11).
 Eight-day-old seedlings were inoculated with spores or solely with talc
 (controls) in humid chambers.  RNA was isolated by phenol-chloroform
 extraction followed by LiCl2 and ethanol precipitation.  mRNA activity was
 evidenced by translation using a commercial rabbit 1ysate.
 
      Specific induction of mRNA species was detected towards the third day of
 the infection process in time course "in vitro" translation experiments.
 This observation is in agreement with previous results showing changes in the
 levels of polypeptide bands (10).  At least two specific mRNAs which code for
 polypeptide bands of 34 and 24 kDa could be associated with the compatible
 interaction mediated by genes A1/A2 from Gamma 1R wheat lines and virulence
 gene p1/p2 of rust race FO1.  Comparisons made using mutant clone of rust FO3
 which elicits an inverse criss-cross relationship with the same wheat lines,
 are consistent with the idea of specificity of the detected changes.
 
        Table: Pathogenic relationship between isogenic lines of wheat and
 clones of leaf rust.
                                  Clones of Leaf Rust
                                  FO1     FO2      FO3
 Isogenic wheat lines
 Sinvalocho M.A.                    +       -        -
 Gamma 1R                           -       -        +
                                                                          
 [+]   represents compatible interaction
 [-]   represents incompatible interaction
 
 -------------------------
 
      Laura C. Moratinos, Ruth A. Heinz, Ewald A. Favret, H. Esteban Hopp
 
      Induction of a specific protein of 84 kDa in the host pathogen
 interaction between Triticum aestivum and Erysiphe graminis tritici.
 Similarly to other mildews, wheat mildew exhibits the occurrence of several
 physiological races with extreme specialization with respect to differential
 virulence to genetic variants of the host following gene for-gene, or better
 allele-for-gene, relationships.  Theoretically, any reaction controlled by a
 single gene should involve, initially at least, a single gene function.
 Favret (1) postulated the presence of host genes controlling metabolic
 products that interfere with pathogen development.  A characterization of the
 products synthesized during infection with mildew would enhance our
 understanding of specific host-pathogen interactions from a molecular
 perspective.
 
      To this end a host pathogen interaction system involving the wheat
 cultivar Chul and genetically related mildew clones have been developed (see
 Table).  Pathogenic variants were obtained by mutagenesis with ethylmethane
 sulfonate (EMS) (2,3).
 
      Eight-day-old seedlings grown under controlled conditions (4) were
 inoculated with spores of the two mildew races.  At different times after
 infection leaves were excised for pulse labelling experiments in the presence
 of 356-methionine (4).  Time-course modifications of polypeptide synthesis
 was followed by SDS-PAGE and subsequent fluorography.  Changes in polypeptide
 synthesis rate could roughly be quantitated by densitometry of the
 fluorographic bands.  (Figure).
 
      Fluorograms show that an early induction of an 84 kDa polypeptide band
 was evident in the compatible interaction.  Interestingly a correlative
 decrease in the same band was evident in the incompatible combination (see
 figure), suggesting that it might be related to this particular gene-for-gene
 interaction.
 
      Furthermore, this induction in the compatible system and parallel
 repression in the incompatible one, occurs during a physiological stage
 (between 10 and 27 hours after infection) which is thought to be
 determinative in the establishment of the interaction.
 
      Table 1.  Pathogenic relationship between lines of wheat and genetically related mildew clones.
 ------ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 Wheat Lines                 Interaction                Mildew Clones
 ------ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 Lemhi                       compatible                    wild type
 Chu1                        incompatible                  wild type
 Chu1                        compatible                    mutant
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
 
 
 
 
                 Dr. QUICK:  leave room here for figure 1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                   REFERENCES
 
 Flor, H. H.  1942.  Inheritance of pathogenicity in a cross between
 physiologic races 22 and 24 of Melampsora lini.  Phytopathology 32, 653-669.
 
 Flor, H. H.  1955.  Host-parasite interactions in flax rust, its genetics and
 another implications.  Phytopathology 45, 680-685.
 
 Favret, E. A.  1969.  The host-pathogen system and its genetic relationships.
 In Barley Genetics II.  Proceedings of the 2nd Intern. Barley Genetics
 Symposium.  pp. 457-471.  Pullman, Washington.
 
 Favret, E. A.  1971.  The host-pathogen system and its genetic relationships.
 In Barley Genetics II, Proc. 2nd Intern. Barley Genetics Symposium. pp. 457-
 471.  Pullman, Washington, U.S.A.
 
 Favret, E. A.  1965.  Induced mutations in breeding for disease resistance.
 In Reports of the Meeting of FAO/IAEA: The Use of Induced Mutations in Plant
 Breeding.  pp. 521-5267.  Pergamon Press, London, U.K.
 
 Favret, E. A., Cenoz, H. P., Silvero Sanz, S. I., Solari, R. M. and Mujica,
 F. L.  1969.  Efecto de posicion inducido en trigo para reaccion a las royas.
 In Induced Mutations in Plants. pp. 123-133, IAEA/FAO, Pullman, Washington.
 
 Franzone, P. M. and Favret, E. A.  1982.  Mutations for pathogenicity in
 wheat leaf rust Puccinia recondita var. tritici induced by ethyl-methane
 sulphonate.  Phytopathologishes Zeitschrift 2. 104, 289-298.
 
 Suarez, E. Y. and Favret, E. A.  1984.  Reaction to leaf rust of a
 "Sinvalocho" wheat gene in hemizygous condition.  Zeitschrift fur
 Pflanzenzuchtung 92, 289- 294.
 
 Heinz, R. A. and Hopp, H. E.  1986.  Molecular changes in wheat infected with
 Puccinia recondita tritici.  In Actas del Primer Congreso Nacional de Trigo,
 Vol. IV, pp. 77-81.  Pergamino, Argentina.
 
 Heinz, R. A., Hopp, H. E. and Favret, E. A.  1990.  Proteins associated with
 specific host-pathogen relationships in infections with wheat rust.  Plant
 Cell Physiology 31(8).  In press.
 
 Myhill, R. R. and Konzak, C. F.  1967.  A new technique for culturing and
 measuring barley seedlings.  Crop Sci. 7, 275-276.
 
 Favret, E. A., Franzone, P. M. and Fischbeck, G.  1983.  Differential
 reaction to powdry mildew (Erysiphe graminis) in coleoptile and first leaf of
 wheat seedlings.  Z. Pflanzenzucht 90:339-342.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Sergio E. Feingold and H. Esteban Hopp
 
      Relationship of bread-making quality and HMW glutenin subunit
 composition in two old Argentine varieties.  Knowledge on the molecular basis
 of the bread-making quality increased remarkably in the last ten years (1),
 and stressed the importance of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins.  Some
 of these glutenins were extensively characterized by nucleotide sequencing of
 their genes which are located in the homoeologous chromosome group 1 (1)
 Specific subunits conferred different physical properties to the dough, such
 as elasticity and strength (vg. subunits 5+10 render strong dough, while 2+12
 render weak dough (2)).  Nucleotide sequence analysis further support the
 involvements of these protein subunits in this behavior.  Accordingly, a
 quality score based on HMW glutenin subunit composition was defined.  It was
 named like the loci that contain the HMW glutenin subunit genes, the Glu-1
 quality score (3).
 
      A reevaluation program of old Argentine varieties released between 1912
 and 19890 is underway including the analysis of several physiological and
 quality parameters (4,5,6,7).  Bread-making quality was tested by the
 SDS-sedimentation test as described (8) and Glu-1 quality score by
 identification of HMW glutenin subunit composition after polyacrylamide gel
 electrophoresis in presence of SDS (SDS-PAGE) (9) and comparison to known
 European variety standards.  Surprisingly, screening of varieties for
 bread-making quality revealed that the Glu-1 quality score could not be
 associated to the SDS- sedimentation test values for some genotypes.  This
 was particularly evident for two genetically non-related varieties: the old
 Klein 32 released in 1930, and the more recent Buck Manatial (from 1964),
 both are traditional germplasm varieties, and showed good bread-making
 quality compared with known good bread-making quality European standards (see
 Table).
 
      Among the main distinctive features it was observed that:
 
      1) HMW glutenin subunits extensively reported to be inherited as couples
           were found to occur as single bands.
      2) The 2+12 couple did not diminish SDS-sedimentation value as it occurs
           in modern varieties.
      3) High SDS-sedimentation test values cannot be attributed to the
           presence of enough HMW glutenins subunits known for their positive
           contribution to this value.
      4) These results led to the presumption that some subunits do not
           contribute to dough strength in the same manner that they do in the
           European varieties where they have been defined.
      5) This behavior could be attributed to i) low molecular weight
           glutenins or gliadins affecting bread-making quality (11, 12), or
           ii) the identified HMW glutenin subunits have similar mobility in
           1-D SDS-PAGE but have different biochemical properties.
      6) Genetic cross analysis combined with 2-D electrophoresis to correlate
           segregation of banding patterns to bread making quality are in
           course to elucidate this point.
 
      Table 1.  SDS-sedimentation test values, HMW glutenin subunit
 composition and GLU-1 quality score of two Argentinian wheat varieties.
 
                       SDS-sedimentation     HMW glutenin       Glu-1 quality 
     Varieties          test values (mm)   subunit composition   score        
     Klein 32               12.0              2+12, 7+8           5
     Buck Manantial         11.0           3, 5+10, 7+8           9
 
                                  References
 
 Payne, P. I.  1987.  Genetics of wheat storage proteins and the effect of
 allelic variation on bread-making quality.  Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol.
 38:141-153.
 
 Flavell, R. B., Goldsbrough, A. P., Robert, L. S., Schnick, D. and Thompson,
 R. D.  1989.  Genetic variation in wheat HMW glutenin subunits and the
 molecular basis of bread-making quality.  Biotechnology 7:1281-1285.
 
 Payne, P. I.  1986.  Varietal improvement in the bread-making quality of
 wheat contributions from biochemistry and genetics, and future prospects from
 molecular biology. In: BCPC Mono. No. 34 Biotechnology and crop improvement
 and protection, p. 69-81.
 
 Slafer, G. A. and Andrade, F. H.  1989.  Genetic improvement in bread wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.) yield in Argentina.  Field Crops Res. 21:289-296.
 
 Slafer, G. A., Andrade, F. H. and Satorre, E. H.  1990.  Genetic improvement
 in preanthesis physiological attributes related to wheat grain yield.  Field
 Crops Res. 23(in press).
 
 Slafer, G. A., Andrade, F. H. and Feingold, S. E.  1990.  Genetic improvement
 of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Argentina: relationship between
 nitrogen and dry matter.
 
 Feingold, S. E. and Hopp, H. E. 1990.  Composition de gluteninas de alto peso
 molecular de 7 variedades argentinas de trigo y su relaction con la calidad
 panadera.  Congreso Nacional de Trigo, Cap. III p.1-10.  Pergamino,
 Argentina.
 
 Dick, J. W. and Quick, J. S.  1983.  A modified screening test for rapid
 estimation of gluten strength in early generation durum wheat breeding lines.
 Cereal Chem. 60:315-318.
 
 Payne, P. I., Holt, L. M., Blackman, J. A.  1981.  Correlations between the
 inheritance of certain HMW subunits of glutenin and break-making quality in
 progenies of six crosses of bread wheat.  J. Sci. Food Agric. 32:51-60.
 
 Gupta, R. B., Singh, N. K. and Shepherd, K. W.  1989.  The cumulative effect
 of allelic variation in LMW and HMW glutenin subunits on dough properties in
 the progeny of two bread wheats.  Theor. Appl. Genet. 77:57-64.
 
 Solari, R. and Favret, E. A.  1968.  Genetic control of protein constitution
 in wheat endosperm and its implications on induced mutagenesis.  Mutation in
 plant breeding, II.  Proceedings of a panel, Vienna.  IAEA-FAO pp. 219-231.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Manera, G., Diaz, G., Yanacon, E., Maich, R., Berrino, G., Pagani, O.,
 Benedetti, A., and Canovas, M. - Fac. Cs. Agropecuarias U.N.C.
 
      Effect of Selection Site on the Genetic Progress in Wheat.  The
 objective of the present work was to measure the genetic progress on the
 bases that the selection has been carried out under optimum, intermediate or
 marginal conditions.  Starting from each of the 20 F2 populations of wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.) grown at three sites (Ferreyra, Ordonez and Casilda),
 a plant was selected and a random sample of five was taken.  The 360 F2:F3
 lines (60 selections and 300 random samples) were evaluated in each of the
 sites mentioned above.  The response to selection (R) was obtained by
 comparing the mean value of the selections to the random sample (=100).  For
 grain yield, a mean R of 3.58% was observed; while, between site of
 selection, the response was lightly superior when we selected under optimum
 conditions.  When we compared the mean of the lines selected under different
 sites, no significant differences were found.  These results encourage us
 with respect to the degree of controversy about the "marginal conditions"
 concept.
 
      Early generation testing among crosses selection in wheat.  The among
 crosses selection, carried out during the early generation, implies that
 those F1 and/or F2 superior crosses are the ones to give with high
 probability superior recombinant lines during the next generations.  Starting
 from 153 F1 crosses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which were evaluated in
 1986 and 1987 in a site, two groups of 10 crosses each (Superior and
 Inferior) were selected according to the obtained yield and using a
 disruptive selection of 6.5%.  In 1988 the corresponding F2 populations were
 evaluated in three sites, whereas in 1989 the F2:F3 lines were evaluated in
 two sites.  Significant differences between Superior and Inferior group means
 for yield in both generations (F2 and F2:F3) were observed.  Our results show
 that, from the beginning of the selection programme, the elimination of those
 inferior crosses is possible.
 
       Harvest index and earweight as indirect selection criteria for grain
 yield in wheat.  The objective of the present work was to measure the
 response to indirect selection for grain yield by using the harvest index
 (HI) and earweight (PSP) as selection criteria.  In 1988, 437 F2:F3 lines of
 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were evaluated by means of HI and PSP.  Two
 groups of ten lines each (superior and inferior) from each of the selection
 criteria were selected by using a disruptive selection intensity of 2.3%.
 During 1989, in three sowing dates, 40 F2:F4 lines were evaluated on the
 bases of which the kernel number per head (NSeSP), PSP and grain yield (PT)
 were determined.  Even though within each group, between criteria, no
 differences wee observed; within criteria, the HI, showed a significant
 difference between groups (superior and inferior).
 
       Alternative strategies of recurrent selection for grain yield in wheat.
 It was the objective of this research to compare the efficiency of four
 recurrent selection strategies in wheat.  During 1986, 83 F1 or So were
 evaluated, and 15 of them were recombined to constitute filial population 1
 or P1.  In 1987 the same thing was performed with progenies F2 or S1, product
 of selfing the correspondingly 83 So, and 12 S1 were selected and recombined
 to constitute filial populations 4 or P4.  During 1988 and 1989 (Summer
 crop)lines F2:F3 or S1:S2 were evaluated from which, filial populations 5 and
 6 or P5 and P6, respectively, were originated.  During 1989, 200 progenies So
 were evaluated (a casual sample of 40 per population), measuring the response
 to selection (R) as the difference between the mean of the 10 best So per
 filial and parent population.  After one cycle of recurrent selection the
 largest R resulted from a selection for ear yield in So (49.8%) or for grain
 yield in S1 (49.5%), while the lowest resulted from phenotypic selection in
 S1:S2 (P5).  A recurrent selection program based on the evaluation of SO
 progenies (half or full-sibs), permits to decrease the cycle to two years and
 as a consequence, to obtain larger genotic progress per year.
 
 -------------------------
 
                              ITEMS FROM AUSTRALIA
 
      NEW SOUTH WALES
 
      The University of Sydney, Plant Breeding Institute, Sydney and Cobbitty
 
      J. Bell, G.N. Brown, D. Backhouse, L.W. Burgess, N.L. Darvey, R.A.
 McIntosh, J.D. Oates, R.F. Park, J. Roake, P.J. Sharp, D. The, C.R. Wellings.
 
      The move from Castle Hill to our new Cobbitty site finally took place 15
 January, 1991.  We expect to become fully operational as final fittings are
 made to the laboratories and greenhouses.  Cobbitty is located 70Km south
 west of Sydney.  Drs. N.L. Darvey (triticale, tissue culture) and P.J. Sharp
 (molecular genetics) have transferred from the Sydney campus.
 
      B.D.H. Latter, Professor of Plant Breeding and Director of the PBI,
 retired in July, 1990; the position remains vacant.
 
      Wheat stem rust continues to occur at very low levels, the main
 pathotype being 343-1,2,3,5,6.  During the summer of 1990 there was an
 outbreak of an Sr30-virulent pathotype, 343-1,2,3,5,6,(8),9, at a summer
 nursery site in Victoria; however there was apparently negligible carryover
 of inoculum into the crop season when only one isolation was made from South
 Australia.  This latter pathotype is of particular concern because some
 leading cultivars in N.S.W. carry Sr30.  Field nurseries at Castle Hill and
 Cobbitty confirmed that the cultivars Banks, Lark, Osprey, Vulcan, Rosella
 and Sunfield were susceptible to the Sr30-virulent pathotype.  The main leaf
 rust pathotypes included 104-2,3,6,(7),11 which is virulent for Lr16,
 53-1,(6),(7),10,11 virulent for Lr13, 76-2,3,6 and a new pathotype 64-11
 isolated from two northern collections.  This last pathotype appears to be
 dissimilar to other Australasian pathotypes.  Stripe rust was found
 throughout the eastern wheat areas but there were few reports of concern.
 The most frequent pathotype was 104 E137 A- especially in the north, with
 lower incidence of 104 E137 A+, 108 E141 A+ and two samples of 110 E143 A+.
 One isolate was virulent for Yr5.
 
      The closely linked rust resistance genes in chromosome 2AS of VPM1 were
 designated Sr38, Lr37 and Yr17.  These genes which are closely linked with
 Lr17, are present in the Sydney University wheat, Sunbri, as well as
 Rendezvous, Madsen and Hyak.  Sr38 and Lr37 confer seedling resistance at low
 temperatures (<20C) whereas seedling resistance conferred by Yr17 requires
 relatively high light conditions.  Yr15 is located in chromosome 1BS;
 telocentric mapping is underway; it recombines quite freely of Yr10.
 
      A significant observation during 1990 was that all of several lines
 carrying Lr34 added to Thatcher were significantly more resistant to stripe
 rust (pt.  110 E143 A+, virulent for Yr7) than Thatcher. In addition, certain
 lines with stripe rust resistance derived from Bersee and Chinese Spring
 showed greater than expected levels of resistance to leaf rust.  Dr. P.L.
 Dyck has reported that Chinese Spring carries Lr34.  It is therefore
 postulated that significant components of durable resistance to both leaf
 rust and stripe rust may be genetically associated in chromosome 7D.  The
 wheats with Lr34 showed a degree of slow rusting with some Thatcher
 derivatives reaching terminal rust scores of 30-40MS when Thatcher had been
 defoliated.
 
      The National Wheat Rust Control Program screened 12,500 lines for
 Australian wheat breeders.  Most Australian cultivars and many advanced
 crossbreds used in the national backcrossing program were genotyped for grass
 clumping factors.
 
      Staff: Dr. C.R. Wellings spent 8 months at the Research Institute for
 Plant Protection (IPO), Wageningen and visited several research centers in
 Europe.  Dr. E. Gordon-Werner resigned July 1990.  She was replaced by Dr. M.
 Ratinam.  Dr. M. Prashar from IARI, Shimla, India is spending one year with
 us as visiting scholar supported by the collaborative wheat rust research
 project.
 
 Plant Pathology:
 
      Tan spot breeding program: In 1990, 98 advanced breeding lines and 17
 cultivars were screened for field resistance to tan spot (Pyrenophora
 tritici- repentis).  Lines SUN 206A, SUN 207B and SUN 199B were moderately
 resistant, while most other lines and cultivars were susceptible to
 moderately susceptible.  A program to select and incorporate resistance to
 tan spot in early generation material has begun.  F2, BC1 F2 and CIMMYT lines
 will be screened in the greenhouse.  Conidia for inoculation will be produced
 on a medium of filter paper soaked in 20% V8 agar, devised by Mr. Terry James
 while on leave from the University of Guelph.
 
      Effects of conservation tillage: A study of the effects of tillage
 systems on the vertical distribution of wheat roots in northern New South
 Wales has shown that there is a higher density of roots in the surface layers
 of soil when stubble is retained.  Work in the 1991 season will examine the
 reasons for this, including differences in temperature, moisture and nutrient
 distribution.  It is planned to extend this work to determine the factors
 controlling varietal response to tillage systems.
 
      Other work: Dr. Virgilio Balmas, on leave from the Istituto Sperimentale
 per la Patologia Vegetale, Rome, is studying comparative pathology to wheat
 of foot-rotting Fusarium species with Dr. Burgess.  Ms Adrienne Beddis is
 working on environmental factors influencing infection of wheat by crown rot,
 and interactions between F. graminearum Group 1 and other soil
 microorganisms.
 
 -------------------------
 
      I.A. Watson Wheat Research Centre, Narrabri.
 
      L. O'Brien, F.W. Ellison, D.J. Mares, and S.G. Moore.
 
      New Varieties and Seed Production: Seed production of the new long
 season, prime hard quality variety, Sunbri, was most successful.  Adequate
 quantities of seed will be available for distribution early this year.
 Preliminary response by wheatgrowers was encouraging despite gloomy prospects
 for wheat production in 1991.  A new spring season line, SUN155C (Combination
 III//Lr28/*Cook) will be considered for registration and release in 1991.
 SUN155C is resistant to the current field pathotypes of stem, leaf and stripe
 rusts.  It is a spring season wheat, suitable for planting from mid-May until
 mid-July.  SUN155C has yield potential marginally better than Hartog and
 offers genetic diversity for stem and leaf rust resistances in a high
 yielding, prime hard quality background.  A summer seed increase in progress
 should ensure the possibility of a large seed release early in 1992.
 
      The Breeding Program: Seasonal conditions in 1990 were similar to those
 of 1988 and 1989.  An extended dry period from January to April dictated that
 the areas chosen for long season wheats be irrigated prior to planting.  This
 seemed to act as a signal for rain, thereby delaying planting from the
 preferred time of early April until the last week of April.  Rains continued
 at regular intervals and plantings of midseason material proceeded throughout
 May.  Spring maturity materials were planted as conditions permitted, but
 continued until late July.  The periodic rains experienced throughout the
 winter months ceased late in August and most of the breeding material was
 irrigated at least once to ensure satisfactory expression of plant height and
 straw strength differences.  Irrigation demand was lessened by unseasonally
 cool periods throughout late September and October.  These conditions across
 northern NSW resulted in longer than usual grain filling periods and
 consequent lower protein content.  Prime Hard wheat was a scarce commodity
 throughout the region.  Application of nitrogen to trial areas resulted in a
 greater number of sites achieving Prime Hard protein levels than was normal
 for the respective areas.
 
      Hot weather arrived in November and despite the wide spread of planting
 times, most materials matured within a narrow time period.  Absence of rain
 throughout the harvest period resulted in sound grain from all sites.
 Natural infection of stripe rust enabled effective selection for resistance.
 Differences in varietal rankings were consistent across experiments, with the
 difference between the Sunco and Kite/Sunelg levels of resistance being
 readily observed.  Selection for Septoria tritici blotch resistance at Forbes
 was again successful.  A dry spring slowed down the movement of the disease
 on upper leaves, but susceptible and very susceptible lines had high disease
 incidence on flag leaves.  Evaluation of root lesion nematode tolerance was
 disappointing, with no differences being measured between the + and
 -nematicide treatments.  Promising tolerant lines will be re-tested in 1991.
 
      Breeding for Sprouting Tolerance: Because sprouting tolerance in white
 wheats was either not recognized or neglected for many years, high levels of
 dormancy have been found in a few relatively old genotypes.  These lines lack
 many of the attributes necessary in a commercially acceptable wheat cultivar.
 Consequently an extensive back-crossing program will be necessary before
 sprouting tolerant wheats are a practical reality.  Sprouting tolerant
 segregates were successfully isolated from hybrid populations of adapted
 sprouting tolerant and adapted 2*/sprouting tolerant lines.  The data clearly
 showed it was possible to transfer sprouting tolerance from sources such as
 AUS 1408, Kenya 59 and South African 1186 into adapted commercial lines such
 as Sunco, Hartog and Dollarbird.  The work indicates that the transfer of
 tolerance to commercial cultivars may be more difficult and time consuming
 than previously anticipated.  In view of the mode of inheritance of dormancy
 there is a clear need to continue the work on chromosomal location of
 dormancy genes and then to develop alternative selection techniques based on
 molecular or biochemical markers.  Such techniques could be applied at the F2
 embryo stage and eliminate the uncertainty in selection caused by
 environmental interactions.  Work towards this objective commenced in 1990
 with the appointment of a PhD student funded by the Grains Research and
 Development Corporation. Skilled techniques and an extensive capital input is
 required for large scale regular screening for tolerance.  This
 infrastructure has been developed at Narrabri over the past 15 years and
 includes rain simulators, extensive deep freeze capacity and excellent
 laboratory facilities.  Upgrading of the rain simulators with funding from
 the Wheat Research Committee for N.S.W.  (replacement of the temperature
 humidity control equipment with an automatic externally located integrated
 system, and replacement of the interior carousels with corrosion resistant
 metal framework and trays) was completed in time for the 1990 harvest.  These
 improvements allow more precise control of testing conditions, greater
 reliability and reproducability, and extend testing into periods of the year
 where low ambient temperatures necessitate heating of the rain simulator
 chambers. The studies on the influence of environmental factors on tolerance
 has highlighted the need for protection from rain in the 20 day period prior
 to harvest ripeness if large numbers of samples with different maturity dates
 are to be compared.  Limited capacity exists at Narrabri already and future
 needs were assessed by a firm of consulting engineers via funding provided by
 the Wheat Research Committee for N.S.W.  Potential rain shelter designs
 submitted by the engineering firm proved to be prohibitively expensive.  As a
 consequence, attention has now been directed towards smaller units and
 possible modification of these to reduce erection time and cost and to
 increase mobility.  In the interim an 8m x 50m igloo was purchased to protect
 elite material.
 
 -------------------------
      Agricultural Research Centre, Tamworth
 
      R.A. Hare
 
      Durum Wheat.  The Australian durum wheat industry's growth continues to
 be substantial and sustained with the current (1990) harvest yielding
 approximately 62,000 tonnes compared to 40,000 tonnes in 1989.  Additional
 growth is needed to meet existing domestic demand anticipated to reach 90,000
 tonnes in 1992.  With an export potential for grain, semolina and pasta above
 the expected domestic growth, a crop in excess of 100,000 tonnes within 5
 years is conceivable.
 
      All five major Australian pasta manufacturers have changed or will
 change shortly to 100% durum based products.  Several makers now produce
 their entire range from 100% durum semolina.  Australians eat less pasta per
 capita (about 3 kg/capita/year) than equivalent Western nations however this
 low capita consumption rate means that there is room for substantial growth
 in the Australian market.  The country's economic downturn appears to be
 assisting the pasta manufacturers as more Australians turn to pasta as a
 lower cost, versatile, nutritious meal.  Several manufacturers have secured
 overseas markets in Pacific Southwest Rim countries as exports prove more
 attractive because of a reduced Australian dollar value.
 
      Durum Cultivar Improvement.  Although the average grain yields and
 quality of Australian cultivars are comparable with most grades in the
 developed world, there is scope for improvement in a number of aspects to
 match the best grades.  Consistent and high functional protein content is the
 main quality breeding objective.  This is followed by improved pasta cooking
 performance and surface properties.
 
      It has become apparent that there is limited genetic variability for
 increased protein content in current breeding populations.  Consequently two
 sub- projects are under way to locate and incorporate additional variability.
 
      1.  Ninety-nine old (pre-1900's) durum cultivars were obtained from the
 Australian Winter Cereals Collection and grown out in a very uniform
           irrigated field at Breeza in 1989.  These accessions were then
 tested for protein content and semolina dough strength.  Six lines providing
 grain
           of large size (>45g/1,000 kernels) with a protein content >13% and
 good mixograph dough strength were selected for crossing to current
           advanced lines.
 
      2.  One hundred and thirty recently quarantined accessions of
 T.dicoccoides from Israel are being seed increased for protein evaluation.
 One
           accession known to be a high protein achiever has been crossed to
 Yallaroi durum and F3 lines are now becoming available.  T.dicoccoides is
           the immediate wild progenitor of durum wheat and is fully crossable
 with durum although certain chromosomal configuration differences (i.e.,
           inversions, translocations) cause sterility in some progeny.
 
      Sub-project (1) is expected to offer a measure of grain protein
 improvement in the shorter-term.  Owing to the 'wild' nature of the
 dicoccoides, the removal of the 'wild' features (head shattering, tallness,
 lodging, disease susceptibility and quality defects) from breeding materials
 will necessitate several cycles of backcrossing and intense selection.
 Sub-project (2) should provide a longer-term benefit.
 
      Advanced Breeding Lines.  Kamilaroi and Yallaroi have complimentary
 quality defects, being dough strength and grain protein content,
 respectively.  Recent breeding has been directed at selecting advanced lines
 which overcome these two defects while retaining the good features of present
 cultivars.  Data indicates that this breeding has been successful.  In this
 group of lines, grain proteins are similar or better than Kamilaroi and
 significantly superior to Yallaroi.  All express dough strength comparable to
 Yallaroi or better and significantly superior to the weaker Kamilaroi.  Prior
 to release, several lines will be offered to the domestic industry for
 processing evaluation.  The best performing line from this group should be
 released in 1992.
 
 -------------------------
 
      CSIRO Wheat Research Unit, Division of Plant Industry, Sydney
 
      C.W. Wrigley, F. MacRitchie, I.L. Batey, F. Bekes, R. Gupta, S. Rahman,
 P. Reddy, J.H. Skerritt
 
      Research in the Wheat Research Unit has focused on defining aspects of
 wheat-processing quality (e.g. dough strength, extensibility and mixing time)
 and identifying components of the grain whose presence correlates with these
 aspects, thereby obtaining markers or even identifying causes of quality
 variation.  Such findings in turn provide a basis for devising more efficient
 tests to screen for quality in breeding and at harvest. Gluten composition
 and dough strength.  Worldwide research on polypeptides that relate to dough
 quality has focused on the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin
 as markers (causative factors?) of dough strength.  This relationship is
 poor, however, in Australian wheat varieties suggesting that other factors
 are involved.  These, we have found, are the low-molecular-weight (LMW)
 subunits of glutenin whose presence appears to also relate closely with dough
 strength.  Alleles for the LMW subunits have therefore been ranked according
 to their apparent influence on dough properties.  The structure of the LMW
 subunits has been studied using antibodies specific for component proteins of
 gluten.
 
      RFLP markers of dough quality.  Identification of polypeptides related
 to dough properties provides the opportunity to study the genes directing
 their synthesis and thus better opportunity to manipulate grain quality in
 breeding.  Genomic clones have been isolated for HMW glutenin subunits in all
 three genomes from multi-null lines and RFLP probes for HMW glutenin
 polypeptides have been developed to assist in selection for dough properties.
 HPLC analysis of aggregated gluten proteins.  A size-exclusion HPLC procedure
 has been developed to determine how effectively gluten polypeptides
 polymerise, thus contributing to gluten's cohesive properties.  The method
 involves initial extraction by sonication to provide complete dissolution of
 flour protein without affecting its distribution into the major classes.  The
 resulting ratio of large polymeric protein (mainly glutenin) to monomeric
 protein (gliadins and albumins) provides a good indication of dough strength
 (e.g. as resistance to extension in the Extensograph) according to analyses
 of many wheat samples.
 
       Dough properties of wheat-rye translocation lines.  Examination of both
 polypeptide composition and aggregation behaviour has helped to explain the
 dough-quality problems that have limited the release of agronomically
 valuable rye-translocation lines.  The dough-quality changes relate
 particularly to the combined loss of wheat LMW subunits and the addition of
 monomeric rye secalins.  Remedial measures are thus based on our developing
 knowledge of the ability of other glutenin subunits in the wheat genome to
 compensate, and even the possibility of drawing on potentially beneficial rye
 genes, such as that on chromosome 2RS.
 
      Screening for dough strength with antibodies.  To avoid the expensive
 techniques of electrophoresis or HPLC to determine protein composition, we
 have developed a library of several hundred monoclonal antibodies, some of
 which bind selectively in "sandwich" ELISA tests to D-genome encoded high
 molecular-weight glutenin subunits - the polypeptides most closely associated
 with dough strength.  A simple test has been developed in which colour
 development is proportional to dough strength (Extensograph resistance,
 Farinograph development time).  The method is suited to early generation
 quality screening and several hundred unweighed small wholemeal samples can
 potentially be analysed at the same time.  The reliability of the antibody
 binding-strength correlation has been confirmed in over a dozen sets of
 different varieties and breeding lines grown under a range of environments.
 The breeders' method, along with other antibody tests for quality-correlated
 durum gliadins, rye translocation lines and back-cross parents lacking
 gliadin blocks could be modified for use by milling or baking laboratories or
 even at receival.  Antibody-based test kits are also being developed to
 rapidly screen for various pesticide residues in grain samples.  Kits are
 already in commercial production for the analysis of gluten content in
 processed foods.
 
      NIR analysis of baking quality.  Since lipid composition, as well as
 protein quality, contribute to loaf volume, it is an additional factor that
 must be considered in selection for quality in a wheat breeding program.
 Previous findings about relevant aspects of lipid composition have required
 tedious extraction and fractionation techniques that are too labour-intensive
 for routine use in wheat breeding.  Near infrared reflectance (NIR) has
 therefore been adapted to detecting changes in composition at lipid-related
 wavelengths, thus providing a very good predictive system to quickly indicate
 loaf-volume potential (interpreted with protein content) for screening many
 breeding samples.
 
     The biochemistry of grain hardness.  Grain hardness is an important
 aspect of grain quality, relevant to milling quality and to international
 trade.  A starch-granule protein of 15,000 molecular weight, reported by
 English scientists to be specifically associated with starch of soft wheats,
 has been purified and polyclonal antibodies have been raised to it.  Relevant
 cDNA and genomic clones have been isolated, characterised and used to develop
 an RFLP probe for grain hardness.
 
      Starch structure and wheat-processing quality.  Starch quality appears
 to be particularly important for noodle manufacture, but the specific
 structural aspects required have so far proved elusive.  More recent research
 has demonstrated that starch from wheats with good noodle-making quality has
 a less branched structure than starch from other wheats.  These studies have
 shown that the branches in poor quality wheat such as Egret are closer
 together than in Eradu and Gamenya, two good noodle wheats.  There are also
 significant differences in the amylose/amylopectin ratio with these wheats,
 but a wider study has indicated that there is a complex relationship between
 this characteristic and noodle quality.  The Rapid Visco-Analyser is proving
 effective in characterising starch types suited to noodle processing.
 
       Recording micro-mixer.  A direct-drive dough mixer has been developed
 for the automatic analysis of dough made from only two grams of flour.
  Software, developed to automatically analyse mixing curves has also proved
 valuable in monitoring plant-scale mixers, thereby also providing commercial
 relevance for the small-scale results.  The small Mixograph has been used
 successfully to test breeders' lines for dough properties as single-plant
 samples at very early generation.  The individual contributions to dough
 properties have been tested in the two-gram mixer for a set of lipid-binding
 proteins, opening up a new era in the evaluation of functional properties for
 flour components.  More recently, a prototype suited to 35 g flour has been
 constructed and this will prove to be more suitable for routine lab testing
 where very small-scale operation is not required.  Both 2- and 35-gram models
 are currently being manufactured under licence by the National Manufacturing
 Company of Lincoln, Nebraska, holders of the Mixograph trademark.
 
       Heat stress changes dough quality.  Field, glass-house and
 detached-head experiments have shown that temperature rises over 35oC can
 stimulate the synthesis of gliadin (monomeric) protein, at the expense of
 aggregated glutenin, thereby altering the ratio of aggregating to monomeric
 gluten in the ripe grain in favour of weaker dough properties.  This response
 appears to be due to the presence of heat-shock elements in the genes of
 certain gliadins, making it a part of the general heat shock response common
 to all organisms.  A full range of heat-shock proteins has been identified in
 many parts of the wheat plant.  Their synthesis was found to relate to the
 acquisition of thermotolerance, thereby providing tolerance to a later
 episode of heat stress.
  The identification of a heat-induced peptide, with a gliadin-like sequence,
 may provide a basis for developing wheats with better tolerance to
 Australia's harsh climate.
 
       More efficient variety identification.  To improve the identification
 of wheat varieties, a rapid method of electrophoretic identification has been
 developed involving the use of Gradipore Micrograd gels; electrophoresis time
 is less than 10 minutes.  The use of multiple antibody reactions has also
 proved promising.  A pattern-matching computer program has been written to
 automatically sort and identify the results of identification by HPLC,
 electrophoresis or antibody reaction.  A further program (WhatWheat) records
 results and assists in establishing the most efficient approach to a
 particular identification task.
 
 -------------------------
 
        Queensland Wheat Research Institute, PO Box 2282, Toowoomba, Qld 4350
 
        P.S. Brennan, J.A. Sheppard, L.R. Mason, P.J. Keys, R.G. Norris, G.C.
 Smith, R.W. Uebergang and P.J. Agius, Wheat Breeding Group
 
      1990 Season.  The 1990 wheat growing seasons was preceded by a summer
 drought which minimised nitrogen mineralisation and moisture accumulation.
 The yields in 1988 had been well above average and extensive mineralisation
 was, therefore, necessary for good crop growth in 1989.  Heavy rain was
 experienced in March/April and June which allowed almost a million hectares
 of wheat to be planted.  Some crops were late planted due to the June rain.
 Little or no rain was received from late winter until harvest.  This resulted
 in severe crown rot caused by Fusarium graminearum.  However, yield was
 generally above average and grain protein low.
 
       Release: Cunningham (3Ag3/Condor//Cook) was released in 1990.  This is
 a sib line of Janz, released in 1989.  It is longer season than Janz and
 generally has higher yield and higher protein.  Cunningham was the highest
 yielding variety in pre-release trials conducted in 1991.
 
       QT4097 (Brochis's'/Banks) will be considered for release in March/May
 1991.  This is a longer season, very high yielding, strong strawed cultivar
 with excellent dough properties.
 
       Several lines approaching release have attributes of interest:
 
       QT5635 (3Ag3//5*Potam/Cook) has excellent tolerance to the root lesion
 nematode (Pratylenchus thornei), and resistance to crown rot and common root
 rot (Bipolaris sorokiniana).  This line is also high yielding, good quality
 and has a shorter period from planting to flowering.
 
       QT4636 (QT2338-9/4*Hartog) was developed by genetically removing the
 awns from the most widely grown Queensland variety Hartog.  The object was to
 produce a Hartog type that could be fed to stock without awn damage to the
 inside of the mouth if the crop fails.  This cultivar outyielded Hartog by
 about 6% over 10 trials in our northern wheat growing areas.  This was a
 surprise as we were taught that awns contributed to yield!  In the southern
 growing area QT4636 was identical to Hartog in yield as it had been in small
 plot testing in previous years.
 
       QT5360 (Vicam/4*Hartog) is a yellow (tan) spot Hartog type that gave
 similar yields to Hartog in yellow spot free trials in 1990.
 
       Research.  Several lines that are putative recombinants of the stem
 rust, leaf rust and powdery mildew resistance on the 1BL/1RS wheat/rye
 translocation chromosome have been identified.  These will be retested in the
 near future and seed multiplied for sticky dough testing.
 
       Our group plans to concentrate on RFLP/PCR applications for wheat
 improvement.  Three projects in this area attracted funds for the 1990/91
 financial year.  Additional projects have been submitted for funding in
 1991/92 financial year.
 
       Staff: Bob Eisemann has left the wheat programme and gone to
 administration.  Dave Tapner has been transferred to a heavy vegetable
 programme and his position will not be filled from Department revenues due to
 the severe cutbacks and reallocation of resources now being experienced.
 
 -------------------------
 
      D. J. Martin and B. G. Stewart; Wheat Quality Laboratory
 
      Quality of wheat from the breeding programme.  A major part of our work
 has been devoted again to screening early generation material and testing
 advanced lines from the QWRI breeding programme.  Using data from these
 trials the crossbred QT3826 was registered and released as the variety,
 Cunningham which has received a provisional prime hard quality classification
 in Queensland.
 
      Dough surface properties of selected wheats.  Our interest in studying
 the dough surface properties of new cultivars, particularly those derived
 from rye has been maintained.  In collaboration with Dr. R. Eisemann,
 additional samples from the QWRI breeding programme were evaluated, mostly
 from lines resistant to the disease, yellow spot.  Both parental material and
 adapted breeding lines derived from the Mexican cultivars Genaro, Fink and
 171BWSN 196 were included.  Most of the yellow spot resistant parental
 material displayed intense dough stickiness in our tests.  In addition, all
 the derivatives from these three Mexican cultivars exhibited intense dough
 stickiness even though the cultivars contained either two or three
 backcrosses to Australian wheat cultivars (Hartog or sunstar) with strong
 dough properties.
 
      Wheat quality evaluation for overseas markets.  During the year our
 awareness of the quality requirements and methods for preparing and assessing
 various Asian wheat end products has developed further.  Following an
 invitation form the Australian Wheat Board (AWB), Mr. Martin travelled with
 an AWB sponsored group to visit various cereal processing facilities in
 Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.  The purpose of this trip was to learn of
 the specific quality requirements of these markets in order to ensure that
 our wheat quality testing is more relevant to their needs.  In addition a
 poster paper entitled "Steamed bread research at QWRI Wheat Quality
 Laboratory" was presented at a joint convention of the Australian and New
 Zealand Institute of Food Science and Technology.
 
                                  Publications
 
 Martin, D. J. and Stewart, B. G.  1990.  Dough stickiness in rye-derived
 wheat cultivars, Euphytica 51, 77-86.
 
 Martin, D. J. and Stewart, B. G.  1990.  Steamed bread research at QWRI Wheat
 Quality Laboratory, The Australian and New Zealand Inst. of Food Science and
 Technology 1990 Joint Convention, Broadbeach, May 1990.
 
 Martin, D. J. and Stewart, B. G.  1990.  Quality traits of recent Yugoslav
 and West German wheats, 40th Annual Conference RACI Cereal Chemistry
 Division, Albury, September 1990.
 
 -------------------------
 
        R.G. Rees, R.L. Eisemann, P.S. Brennan, G.J. Platz and K.C.M. Blaikie
 
        Resistance to Pyrenophora tritici-repentis.  Yellow or tan spot
 (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) was conspicuous in many stubble retained
 situations during the wet early part of the 1990 crop season.  Subsequent dry
 conditions largely curtailed further development of the disease.
 
        Good progress continues in developing adapted wheats resistant to
 yellow spot using two generations per year.  During the 1990 autumn-early
 winter, 700 to 1200 F2 or BCF2 seedlings from each of 36 populations were
 screened using a glasshouse/controlled environment system.  The most
 resistant plants from each population were transplanted to the field and
 progeny tested after harvest to validate the initial single plant selection.
 
        Many advanced lines have shown considerable potential in evaluation
 trials.  One Vicam 71/3*Hartog line (QT5360) is undergoing final evaluation
 and seed increase prior to possible release in 1992.
 
 -------------------------
 
      G.B. Wildermuth and R.B. McNamara
 
      Crown rot. Crown rot caused by Fusarium graminearum Group 1 was
 distributed extensively throughout all grain-growing areas in southern
 Queensland during 1990.  Disease severity and yield losses were the highest
 that have ever been recorded in Queensland.  Incidence of deadheads as high
 as 50 per cent were recorded in a number of areas.  The severity of the
 disease is due to high levels of inoculum in the soil and suitable
 environmental conditions over the past few years.  Inoculum levels have
 increased due to the susceptibility of most current cultivars and the trend
 towards retention of stubble and dry summers.  Breakdown of stubble has been
 slow during summer and loss of viability of inoculum also low.
 
      One disturbing aspect of this epidemic has been the high incidence of
 crown rot in areas which have been rotated to non-susceptible crops for 4
 years.  In one case, stubble of a wheat crop grown 4 years previously was
 still present on the soil surface.  In other cases, severe disease occurred
 in areas which were growing their first winter cereal.  The role of native
 grasses as sources of inoculum of F. graminearum in these areasneeds to be
 investigated.
 
      All cultivars were susceptible to the disease to varying degrees.  Sunco
 showed the highest level of resistance.  Some crosses have been made between
 cultivars and a line with high levels of resistance to the disease.
 
      Common root rot.  Common root rot caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana
 occurred throughout the wheat-growing area but its presence was overshadowed
 by crown rot.  Crosses and backcrosses have been made between cultivars and
 four sources of partial resistance.  The most advanced population of these
 crosses was a BC3F3 generation which was grown in an area where the disease
 is endemic and a final selection of resistant families made before testing in
 Preliminary Yield Evaluation Trials.
 
      Dr L. Duczek, Agriculture Canada, Saskatoon, spent study leave at QWRI.
 He conducted research on the relationship between severity of common root rot
 and tolerance to the disease.  Cultivars varied in their reaction to the
 disease.  Some had high levels of disease and high yield loss, others showed
 tolerance despite moderate disease levels and one was highly resistant.
 -------------------------
 
                               ITEMS FROM BRAZIL
 
      Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS
 
      J.C.S. Moreira and C.N.A. de Sousa
 
               1990 Wheat Cultivar Trials at Passo Fundo, Brazil
 
      During 1990 in the National Research Center for wheat 830 wheat
 genotypes were tested in yield trials in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul,
 Brazil.  The proceedings for releasing a new cultivar in this state was
 described in the 1986 Annual Wheat Newsletter, 32:38-39.
 
      The climatic conditions prevailing during the growing season were
 characterized by an excess of rainfall at planting time and specially at the
 heading stage.  The humid weather favored the occurrence of several diseases
 such as leaf spot complex (Septoria nodorum; Cochliobolus sativus;
 Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) and scab (Gibberella zeae).  The average yield
 observed for all the genotypes was lower than that obtained in 1989.  The
 high incidence of diseases is likely to be the cause of lower yields.
 
      Trials were carried out in a rotation area (2 years without wheat) and
 fertilizer applications was 13 kg/ha N, 65 kg/ha P205, 65 Kg/Ha K2O and 45
 Kg/ha N as top-dressing.  No fungicide was used in most trials.
 
      Cultivars having outstanding yield in some trials carried out in Passo
 Fundo - RS are shown below:
                                                                                      
                                                               Yield
 Cultivar                         Cross                                 Kg/ha 
                             South Brazilian Trial
 PF 86238          HLN/CNT 7//AMIGO/CNT7                                 3681
 PF 86236          HLN/CNT 7//AMIGO/CNT 7                                3582
 PF 853031         PF 833007/JACUI                                       3992
 PF 843025         LD*2/ALD SIB*2/3/ALZI10*2/IAS 54*2//F5530             3060
 CEP 21 - Campos   PEL 72380/ATR 71//CEP 75336/3/ALD "S"/PF
                         72707//PAT 19                                   2782
 
                              Cultivar State Trial
 BR 34             ALZ 110/2*IAS 54//F5530                               2944
 BR 37             MAZOE/F 13279//PELADO MARAU                           2470
 BR 32             IAS 60/INDUS//IAS 62/3/ALONDRA SIB/4/IAS 59           2453
 CEP 21 - Campos   PEL 72380/ATR 71//CEP 75336/3/ALD "S"/
                         PF 727007//PAT 19                               2458
 BUTUI             BB/PATO//SON 64/KL. REND.                             2436
 
                           Regional Yield T rial - A
 CEP 8749          CEP 7779/CEP 8058//BR 14                              3254
 PF 87128          TIFTON SEL/PF 79763/3/N BOZU/3*LD//B 7902             2962
 PF 87103          SL 5200/PAT 7219//TIFTON                              2900
 PF 87107          ENC/PF 79768//PF 80284                                2719
 CEP 873           BGS 2/SORT 1213//CEP 75234/4/PAT 7392/3/
                          IAS 63/ALD "S"//GTO/LV                         2718
 SA 8875                         -                                       2638
 SA 8868                         -                                       2548
 CEP 8743          CEP 7775/CEP 8012                                     2546
 SA 8829           B 7517/SB 76130                                       2500
 SA 8851           S 8019/CEP 76147                                      2456
 SA 8856           MR 74044/4/AV//KAL/BB/3/BOM                           2402
 PF 87108          ENC/PF 79768//PF 80284                                2346
 BR 23 (check)     CC/ALD SIB/3/IAS 54-20/COP//CNT 8                     2346
                            Regional Yield Trial - B
 PF 87453          COKER 762/BR 14                                       3139
 PF 87915          PF 83144//IAC 5*6/CI 15243                            2486
 CEP 21 - Campos   PEL 72380/ATR 71//CEP 75336/ 3/ALD "S" /PF
                          72707//PAT 19                                  2486
 
                  Multilocated Preliminar Trials (4 locals - 
                           lines in 2nd year of test)
                        Lines that out yielded the check
 PF 88594          ENC/PF 79763//PF 80284                               4410
 PF 88522          MNO 82/PF 79777//OASIS/JACUI                         4298
 PF 883188         PF 839278/MNO 82//PF 839178/PF 79547                 4214
 PF 88574          TIF/PF 79764                                         4042
 PF 88577          PAT 7392/PF 813                                      4014
 PF 88603          TIF SEL/PF 79763/3/N BOZU/3*LD//B 7902               3906
 PF 88566          AMIGO/JACUI//PF 7673/CDA                             3831
 PF 88709          COKER 762/BR 14                                      3817
 PF 88536          COKER 762/MNO 82                                     3712
 PF 88460          ENC/PF 79768//PF 80284                               3444
 PF 88452          ENC/PF 79768//PF 80284                               3348
 PF 88451          ENC/PF 79768//PF 80284                               3323
 PF 8924           F 16946/3/N BAY*2//LD*2/ALD SIB/4/F 16955/5/BR 14    3294
 PF 87545          BR F14*3//LD*5/FB 6630                               3192
 PF 88501          PF 7815/LAP 689//PF 7815/80278                       3156
 BR 23             CC/ALD SIB/3/IAS 54-20/COP//CNT 8                    3146
 
                       Preliminar Trials (1st year trial)
              Wheat genotypes yielding more than 4,000 kg/ha, out 
            of 420 lines, in prelininar trials in Passo Fundo, 1990
 PF 89278           PF 73782/SULLIVAN                                   4585
 PF 89230           COKER 762/2* PF 79547                               4544
 PF 891             CEP 14/PF 79782//CEP 14                             4387
 PF 89231           COKER 762/2*PF 79547                                4349
 PF 89163           IAS 54*/3/N BAY//PAT 7392                           4228
 PF 89246           CI 14119/2*PF 8237                                  4214
 PF 89295           HLN/CNT 7//AMIGO/CNT 7                              4171
 PF 892             COKER 762/PF 81172//PF 79782                        4169
 PF 89122           PF 839278/MNO 82//PF 839278/PF 79547                4157
 PF 89142           COKER 762/PF 811172//PF 79782                       4155
 PF 89119           CEP 14/PF 79782//CEP 14                             4154
 PF 8978            F 16946/3/N BAY*2//LD*2//ALD SIB/4/F 16955/
                            5/BR 14            
 PF 89107           PF 79583/CEP 14                                     4067
 PF 8986            F 16946/3/N BAY*2//ALD SIB/4/F 16955/5/BR 14        4053
 PF 89144           COKER 762/PF 81172//PF 79782                        4008
 
 
             26th International Spring Wheat Yield Trial  (CIMMYT)
                                              No fungicide   With treatment
                              Origin            treatment    (fungicide)     
 ALUBUC                        Mexico              1786           2015
 PAPAGO                        Mexico              1274           1562
 PIONEER INTA                  Argentina           1244           2018
 FAN*1                         China               1134           1652
 ANZA                          USA                 1129           1542
 PAMPA INTA                    Argentina           1058           1712
 BR 23 (check)                 Brasil              1819           2502
 
                  11th Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trial (CIMMYT)
 BAU "S"                                           1405           1640
 CAR 853/COC//VEE**5 "S"/3/URES                    1190           1730
 JUN "S"/BOW "S"//VEE*5/BUC "S"                    1148           1288
 JCAM/EMU "S"//CHRC "S" /4/IAS 20//                1070           1350
 AGA/4*YR//4*HER = HENNE                           1030           1322
 JCAM/EMU "S"//CHRC "S"/4/IAS 20//                 1020           1360
 BR 23 (check)                                     1735           2132
 
                  South Cone Wheat Variety Trial (16th ERCOS)
 BR 24                        Brasil               3365           3455
 BR 32                        Brasil               2400           2130
 MOIJA                        Bolivia              2185           2360
 VAR 5                        Bolivia              1992           2360
 BR 20 - GUATO                Brasil               1875           2440
 CEP 19 - JATAI               Brasil               1870           2135
 BR 23 (check)                Brasil               1822           2240
                                        
 -------------------------
 
      C.N.A. de Sousa, E.P. Gomes, J.C.S. Moreira, P.L. Scheeren and S. D. dos
 A. de Silva
 
      New Brazilian Wheat Cultivars.  Three new wheat cultivars from lines
 produced at the National Research Center for Wheat (EMBRAPA) in Passo Fundo,
 Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were released for cultivation in 1990.
 
 Cultivar           Line                 Cross                    State
 BR 36 - Ianomani   PF 84588   JUP 73*3/AMIGO   M.G. do Sul
 BR 37              PF 84431   MAZOE/F 13279//PELADO MARAU        Rio G. Sul
 BR 38              PF 83348   IAS 55*4/AGENT//IAS 55*4/CI 14123  Rio G. Sul
                                                                              
 
      All these cultivars have a spring type.  BR37 has a good straw strength
 and it has a good spike size.  BR 36 is short while BR 37 and BR 38 are
 mid-tall.  BR 36 and BR 38 are awned while BR 37 is awnless.  They are
 resistant to Erysiphe graminis tritici (powdery mildew) and to all races of
 Puccinia graminis tritici (stem rust).  They are susceptible to some races of
 Puccinia recondita (leaf rust).  BR 37 is moderately resistant to septoria
 nodorum (glume blotch).  BR 36 is resistant to the botypes B and C of
 Schizaphis graminum (resistance from Amigo).  BR 37 and BR 38 are tolerant to
 soil acidity (aluminum toxicity) while BR 36 is susceptible.
 
 -------------------------
      Instituto Agronomico Do Parana - Iapar, Londrina - PR
 
      C. R. Riede*, L. A. C. Campos and D. Brunetta
 
      Wheat Crop in Brazil - The country production was 3.4 million tons in
 2.6 million ha with a yield of 1.1 ton/ha.  There was a 19% total lost in the
 cultivation area caused by frost at the flowering state of the crops mainly
 in Parana and Mato Grosso do Sul states.  Grain quality was also affected
 shown by the kernel shriveling.  The wheat crop was grown and harvested
 mainly in the states of Parana (44% of the total production) Rio Grande do
 Sul (38%), Mato Grosso do Sul (7%) and Sao Paulo (6%).  The privatization of
 the purchase and storage of the grains is going very slowly.
 
      Wheat Crop in Parana State - The harvested area in 1990 was 1.18 million
 ha with a production of 1.37 million tons giving on yield of 1.160 kg/ha.
 Although the total lost in Parana was around 33% of the planted area, 60% has
 been affected in some degree by the frost at critical state of flowering.
 Some diseases caused by helmintosporium, leaf rust, bacterial streak and
 wheat blast has caused some reduction in yield additionally.  The major
 planted cultivars were: Anahuac, IAPAR 6-Tapejara and IAC 5-Maringa.
 
      Cultivar Release/Recommendation - The new cultivars recommend in Parana
 are described in Table 1.
 
      Table 1.  Description of the new cultivars released and recommended
                for cultivation in the Parana State
                                                                            
 
 Cultivar          Line          Cross            Institution    Type of Soil
                                                                              
 IAPAR 46      PG 86136  MASC/ALD"S"//MRNG              IAPAR       Acid
 Trigo BR 37*  PF 84431  MA206/8/LD*2/./9/Pelado Marau  EMBRAPA     Acid
 IAPAR 47**    IA 7960   KVZ/TI//TITO"S"                IAPAR   Non Acid
                                                                             
 *  Recommended in Parana; released previously in Rio Grande do Sul State
 ** Released in Mato Grosso do Sul State
 
 -------------------------
 
      O. S. Rosa and O. S. Rosa Filho, New Breeding Company - Melhoramento de
 Sementes, LTDA
 
      A private breeding company begun to work in southern Brazil, in February
 1989.  We are working with wheat breeding and small programs for rice and
 oats.  We are selecting soybean lines and corn hybrids of FT Pesquisa e
 Sementes, another Brazilian company, for the state of Rio Grande do Sul.  The
 principal laboratories and experimental fields are located at Passo Fundo,
 Rs.  We are developing activities at Londrina (Pr), Ponta Grossa (Pr), and
 Arroio Grande (Rs).
 
      The ecological conditions in our experimental fields are excellent for
 selections for A1 and Mn tolerance and for resistance or tolerance to several
 diseases, especially, Erisiphe graminis tritici, Septoria nodorum,
 Helminthosporium sativum, Helminthosporium tritici-repentis, Fusarium sp
 (scab), Puccinia recondita and soilborn mosaic virus.
 
      At Passo Fundo we have two generations of wheat per year; from June to
 November under field conditions, and from December to April in the screen
 house.
 
      In the last years we received nurseries and segregating material from
 CIMMYT.  This material has good adaptation at North and West of Parana.  We
 have interest to develop cooperative works with breeding programs of other
 countries.
 
          Estimated 1990 Wheat Production in Brazil     
               State                   Production (tons)*
               Parana                      1,410,000
               Rio Grande do Sul           1,200,000
               Mato Grosso do Sul            245,000
               Sao Paulo                     207,000
               Santa Catarina                 87,000
               Minas Gerais                    8,500
               Distrito Federal                  180
                       Total               3,157,680
               * Source:  Bank of Brazil S. A.
 
      The reduction of production in 1990 (less 2,400,000 tons) was caused by
 frosts.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Unidade de Execucao de Pesquisa de Ambito Estadual de Dourados
 EMBRAPA-UEPAE de Dourados. Dourados, MS
 
      A.C.P. Goulart and F. de A. Paiva
 
      The occurrence of wheat scab (Gibberella zeae) was reported for the
 first time in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul in grower's wheat fields of
 Anajuac, BH 1146 and IAPAR 6-Tapejara cultivars and in experimental field
 plots of IAC 5-Maringa, IAC 13-Lorena, BR 17-Caiua, BR 18-Terena, BR 30-
 Cadiueu, BR 31-Miriti, INIA 66 and Jupateco 73 cultivars.  Blanched spikelets
 (whitish or straw colored) was observed.  Observations under of light
 microscope showed the presence of conidia similar to the ones described for
 Fusarium graminearum and perithecia with asci bearing eight hyalne
 ascospores, similar to those of G.zeae.  Wheat plants inoculated with
 inoculum at a concentration of 105 conidia/ml yielded characteristic symptoms
 after 10 days.
 
      Wheat Losses Caused by Pyricularia oryzae Cav.  Losses in wheat yields
 due to Pyricularia oryzae infection, regardless of the occurrence of other
 diseases, under natural conditions and without fungicide sprayings, were
 determined on the 1989 and 1990 growing seasons on an Anahuac cultivar field
 and experimental plots at Rio Brilhante, Dourados and Itapora counties.  In
 1989 at Rio Brilhante, the yield losses were assessed at 270 kg/ha which
 means 10% of the estimated total yield.  The average incidence was 45% of
 blanched heads.  In 1990 at Dourados, the losses were greater than those
 registered in 1989, reaching 892 kg/ha or 40% of the estimated total yield,
 with the average incidence of blanched heads of 93%.  In the same year at
 Itapora, the losses were of 1.034 kg/ha which means 32% of the yield, with
 86% of blanched heads.  In both years, the head weight loss was greater (60%)
 with early than with late infections (33%), regardless of the locality.
 
      Survival and Transmission of Pyricularia oryzae by Wheat Seeds.  The
 survival of Pyricularia oryzae on wheat seeds under three storing conditions
 (lab: T = 20-30oC and RH = 60-80%; dry chamber: T = 10-15oC and RH = 35%;
 refrigerator: T = 5oC and RH = 95%) was evaluated.  Four seed samples of
 Anahuac cultivar with 14, 12, 10 and 6% of natural occurrence of P. oryzae
 were utilized.  Monthly, subsamples were analyzed and the incidence of this
 pathogen was determined by the blotter test.  When the seeds were stored in
 refrigerator or dry chamber, the indices of the fungus were maintained or
 slightly decreased.  Under lab conditions, the incidence decreased sharply
 after six months and reached 0.5% after 12 months.  It is concluded that low
 temperatures exerted beneficial effect on this survival.  The transmission of
 this pathogen was also evaluated.  Wheat seeds, cv.  Anahuac, with nine
 levels of natural contamination of P. oryzae (21, 19, 17, 14, 12, 10, 8, 5
 and 2%), treated or not with iprodione + thiram (50 + 150 g a.i./100 kg of
 seeds) were utilized.  The transmission of the pathogen was demonstrated by
 its establishment on the coleoptiles.  The transmission index was variable,
 with higher values corresponding to higher seed contamination indices.  Seed
 treatment with iprodione + thiram blocked the transmission and seedling
 emergence was unaffected by the pathogen.
 
      Control of Pyricularia oryzae and Helminthosporium sativum by Wheat Seed
 Treatment with Fungicides.  Lab (blotter) and field tests were performed,
 using seeds of the wheat cultivar Anahuac with 11.5% and 19.5% of natural
 contamination with P.oryzae and H. sativum, respectively, for evaluating the
 efficiency of several fungicides on the control of these pathogen.  All
 chemical treatments reduced the incidence of both fungi.  The best results
 were obtained with iprodione + thiram, triflumizole + methyl tiophanate,
 triflumizole, triadimenol + anilazine, triadimenol, guazatine + imazalil,
 iminoctadine, etiltrianol and prochloraz, which eliminated both fungi from
 the seeds.  Transmission of P. oryzae by the wheat seeds was detected in the
 field.  Iminoctadine and etiltrianol, were the best for controlling H.sativum
 in the field.
 
      Incidence of Pyricularia oryzae and Helminthosporium sativum in Wheat
 Seed Produced in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil.  In 1989, 433 samples of
 wheat seeds of several cultivars, from eight counties wee analyzed for the
 presence of Pyricularia oryzae and Helminthosporium sativum.  The most
 prevalent fungus and the most important pathogen associated with the seeds
 was H. sativum, detected in 89% of the analyzed samples.  P.oryzae was
 registered in 25% of the analyzed samples.  Both pathogens were reported in
 relatively low levels.  The IAPAR 6-Tapejara, IAC 5-Maringa, BR 17-Caiua, IAC
 13-Lorena, BR 20-Guato and BR 21-Nhandeva cultivars, showed higher indices of
 H. sativum, while Anahuac, IAPAR 6-Tapejara, Jupateco 73 and BR 17-Caiua
 cultivars, showed higher incidence of P. oryzae.
 
      Evaluation of Fungicides for the Control of Wheat Blast and Rusts.
 Chemical control of wheat blast (Pyricularia oryzae, leaf rust (Puccinia
 recondita f. sp. tritici) and stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) was
 evaluated under field conditions, in 1989.  For blast, the cultivar used was
 Anahuac and for rusts, IAPAR 6-Tapejara.  Best results on the control of
 blast were obtained with mancozeb + tricyclazole, tricyclazole and mancozeb +
 etiltrianol.  In general, treatments with mancozeb showed the lowest indices
 of heads with P. oryzae.  The fungicide propiconazole showed poor control of
 this disease.  The wheat rusts were better controlled with fenethanil,
 prochloraz + fempropemorph, flutriafol, etiltrianol, propiconazole,
 ciproconazole, triadimenol + mancozeb, flusilazole + mancozeb, flusilazole
 and flutriafol + mancozeb.  These fungicides reduced more than 88% of rust
 symptoms.  Higher yields, test weights and seed weights were obtained with
 the fungicide treatments.
 
 -------------------------
      C. J. Avila
 
      Chemical control of Schizaphis graminum (Rondani, 1952) on wheat.  The
 work was done at EMBRAPA-UEPAE de Dourados, MS.  The efficiency of the
 insecticides monocerotophos (80 and 120 g. a.i./ha); chlorpyrifos (95 and 125
 g a.i./ha), pirimicarb (50 and 75 g a.i./ha); metamidophos (120 g a.i./ha);
 beta-cyfluthrin (5 g a.i./ha) and diflubenzuron (20 g a.i./ha) on the control
 of Schizaphis graminum on wheat was evaluated.  The aphid population was
 evaluated before and at three, six and ten days after the chemical spraying.
 The control efficiency was determined by the Henderson and Tilton equation.
 The insecticides monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos, pirimicarb and metamidophos
 achieved control efficiencies above 92% at the three evaluation dates,
 regardless of the dosage.  Diflubenzuron showed low control level (below 38%)
 and beta-cyfluthrin, showed intermediate efficiency.  The low level of
 control achieved by diflubenzuron may be important in breeding programs aimed
 at selection of wheat cultivars resistant to S.  graminum because it gives
 good control of other insect pests, mainly caterpillars, without great harm
 to the aphid population.
 -------------------------
 
      J. Soares Sobrinho, P. G. Sousa and F. de A. Paiva
 
      Evaluation of Triticale.  Mato Grosso do Sul has a large amount of soils
 under savana vegetation ("Cerrados" and "Campo limpo").  These soils have low
 levels of nutrients and high levels of toxic aluminum.  At these conditions,
 triticale is expected to be an alternative winter crop to wheat and oats.  In
 order to select triticale genotypes adapted to the State conditions, 18
 genotypes were tested at Dourados and Ponta Pora.  The results showed that
 yields were higher with the genotypes of longer cycles.  The best yielding
 genotypes were TCEP 863, TCEP 841, TCEP 852, TCEP 851 and TCEP 8536 which out
 yielded the wheat cultivar BH 1146 by 92, 94, 105, 109 and 113%,
 respectively.  IAC 1-Juanillo was susceptible to stem and leaf rusts. IAPAR
 38- Aruana and OCEPAR 3 were susceptible to stem rust.
 
 -------------------------
 
                                  Publications
 
 Goulart, A. C. P., F. M. Fernandes, and A. N. de Mesquita.  1990.  Ocorrencia
 de Gibberella zeae em trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) no estado de Mato Grosso
 do Sul.  Summa Phytopathologica, 16(1):9.  Resumo. Trabalho apresentado no
 XIII Congresso Paulisat de Fitopathologia, Sao Paulo, SP, 1990.
 
 Goulart, A. C. P., and F. de A. Paiva.  1990.  Perdas em trigo (Triticum
 aestivum L.) causadas por Pyricularia oryzae.  Fitopoathol. bras., Brasilia,
 15(2):122.  Resumo. Trabalho apresentado no XXIII Congresso Brasileiro de
 Fitopatologia, Goiania, GO, 1990.
 
 Goulart, A. C. P., and F. de A. Paiva.  1990.  Pyricularia oryzae em trigo
 (Triticum aestivum L.): transmissao atraves das sementes.  Fitopatol. brasl.,
 Brasilia, 15(2):135.  Resumo. Trabalho apresentado no XXIII Congresso
 Brasileiro de Fitopatologia, Goiania, GO, 1990.
 
 Goulart, A. C. P. and F. de A. Paiva.  1990.  Sobrevivencia de Pyricularia
 oryzae em semestes de Trigo (Triticum aestivum L.).  Fitopatol. bras.,
 Brasilia, 15(2):135.  Resumo. Trabalho apresentado no XXIII Congresso
 Brasileiro de Fitopatologia, Goiania, GO, 1990.
 
 Goulart, A. C. P., F. de A. Paiva, and A. G. de Moraes.  1990.  Tratameno
 quimico de sementes de trigo para o controle de Pyricularia oryzae Cav.
 Helminthosporium sativum Pam., King and Bakke.  In: Reuniao da Comissao
 Centro-Sul-Brasileira de Pesquisa de Trigo, 6, Campinas, 1990.  Resultados de
 pesquisa com trigo - 1989.  Dourados, EMBRAPA-UEPAE Dourados.  p. 145-8.
 (EMBRAPA. UEPAE Dourados. Documentos, 45).
 
 Goulart, A. C. P., and F. de A. Paiva.  1990.  Fungos associados as sementes
 de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) produzidas em Mato Grosso do Sul.  Fitopatol.
 bras., Brasilia, 15(2):122.  Resumo. Trabalho apresentado no XXIII Congresso
 Brasileiro de Fitopatologia, Goiania, GO, 1990.
 
 Goulart, A. C. P., de A. Paiva, A. N. de Mesquita, and A. G. de Moraes.
 1990.  Avaliacao de eficiencia de fungicidas no controle da brusone
 (Pyricularia oryzae Cav.) do trigo (Triticum aestivum L.).  In: Reuniao da
 Comissao Centro-Sul-Brasileira de Pesquisa de Trigo, 6, Campinas, 1990.
 Resultados de pessquisa com trigo - 1989.  Dourados, EMBRAPA-UEPAE Dourados.
 p. 135-9.  (EMBRAPA. UEPAE Dourados, Documentos, 45).
 
 Goulart, A. C. P., A. N. de Mesquita, F. de A. Paiva, and A. G. de Moraes.
 1990.  Avaliacao de fungicidas no controle das doencas do trigo. In: Reuniao
 da Comissao Centro-Sul-Brasileira de Pesquisa de Trigo, 6, Campinas, 1990.
 Resultados de pesquisa com trigo - 1989.  Dourados, EMBRAPA-UEPAE Dourados.
 p. 130-4.  (EMBRAPA-UEPAE Dourados. Documentos, 45).
 
 
 -------------------------
 
 ITEMS FROM CANADA
 
      Prairie Wheat Variety Survey and Production
 
      The 1990 Prairie Wheat Variety Survey was conducted jointly by Alberta
 Wheat Pool, Manitoba Pool Elevators and Saskatchewan Wheat Pool.  Percentage
 of area is indicated with the 1989 figures in brackets.
 
      Common - Katepwa 44.3(50.2), Neepawa 13.5(18.6), Columbus 16.1(17.0),
 Conway 4.4(2.3), Park 1.9(2.3), Laura 9.5(1.6), Roblin 4.3(1.3), Leader
 0.9(1.4), Benito 1.0(1.1), Kenyon 0.7(0.8), Biqqar 0.5, Lancer 0.9 (0.5),
 Glenlea 0.3(0.3), Oslo 0.1L(0.2), unlicensed 0.5(0.4), and others 1.0(1.4) of
 11.09(10.3) million hectares.
 
      Durum - Kyle 47.0(42.3), Wakooma 16.3(18.1), Medora 12.3(13.3), Wascana
 9.0(12.1), Sceptre 8.8(7.6), Arcola 2.5(2.2), Pelissier 2.2(2.0), Coulter
 0.9(1.5), and others 1.0(0.9) of 2.26 (2.62) million hectares.
 
      Winter - Norstar 95.0(94.6), Norwin 3.2(3.5), others 1.8 (12.9) of
 0.15(.13) million hectares.
 
      Statistics Canada's November estimates of 1990 wheat production on the
 prairies:
                                            Hectares         Metric Tons
 Manitoba            Spring                 2,044,000        5,443,000
                     Durum                    142,000          395,000
                     Winter                    12,100           27,700
 Saskatchewan        Spring                 6,475,000       13,880,000
                     Durum                  1,740,000        3,348,000
                     Winter                    72,800          108,900
 Alberta             Spring                 2,711,000        6,069,000
                     Durum                    344,000          667,000
                     Winter                    68,800          163,000
 
 -------------------------
 
 ALBERTA
 
      Agriculture Canada Research Station, Lethbridge
 
      R. S. Sadasivaiah and R. L. Conner
 
      Breeding for stripe rust resistance in soft white spring wheat.  Stripe
 rust (Puccinia striiformis) is the major foliar disease of soft white spring
 wheat in the irrigated regions of southern Alberta.  Under conditions.
 favorable for disease development, stripe rust can cause over 40% yield loss
 in susceptible cultivars.  Until recently, stripe rust was thought to have
 been introduced into Alberta early in the spring by airborne spores from the
 U. S. Pacific Northwest, but in early 1986, it was found that the pathogen
 could overwinter and cause a severe outbreak of the disease.  Breeding for
 stripe rust resistance has been intensified at Lethbridge since the major
 outbreak of this disease in 1986.
 
      The soft white spring wheat cultivars thus far grown in western Canada
 originated from breeding programs in the U.S.  Of the two U.S. cultivars
 (Fielder and Owens) currently registered for commercial production in western
 Canada, Fielder is highly susceptible to stripe rust, and until recently,
 Owens showed resistance at both seedling and adult plant stages to races
 prevalent in southern Alberta.  Fielder, despite its susceptibility to stripe
 rust, occupies 85-95% of the soft white acreage seeded in southern Alberta
 because of its good agronomic and end-use quality characteristics.  Despite
 the fact that Owens showed resistance to stripe rust and also yielded about
 7% more than Fielder under our conditions, this cultivar was not well
 accepted by growers because of its susceptibility to lodging and poor grain
 sample.  In addition to yield losses due to stripe rust, soft wheat in
 southern Alberta also suffers grade losses due to kernel black point
 (Alternaria alternata/Helminthosporium sativum) to which both Fielder and
 Owens are susceptible.
 
      In the mid-1980's studies were undertaken to transfer genes for both
 stripe rust and black point resistance into the adapted cultivar Fielder,
 through backcrossing procedures.  The cultivar Owens and a germplasm line
 SWS-15 were selected as donors of genes for resistance to stripe rust and
 black point, respectively.  SWS-15 is susceptible to stripe rust.  Genetic
 studies indicated that stripe rust resistance in Owens is governed by a
 single dominant gene but the genetics of black point resistance in SWS-15 is
 unknown.  Crosses between Owens and SWS-15 were made and the resultant F1
 (Owens/SWS-15) hybrid plants were crossed with Fielder.  The hybrid progenies
 thus obtained from three-way crosses (Owens/SWS-15//Fielder) were
 artificially inoculated and screened for stripe rust resistance under
 controlled environment conditions.  A consistent and reliable level of
 infection and disease development was obtained by using the following
 procedure.  Seedlings in the two-leaf stage grown in rootrainers at cyclic
 temperatures of 10oC (in dark) and 14oC (in light) were inoculatged with P.
 striiformis by atmoizing a suspension of urediospores in mineral oil
 (Dustrol).  Following inoculation, seedlings were placed in a humidity
 chamber (a plastic tent attached to a Solavay Deluxe, Ultra-sonic Coolmist
 Humdifier maintaining 100% relative humidity) for 48 h at 10o and 14oC, with
 10 h dark and 14 h of fluorescent cool white light.  Seedlings were then
 removed from the humidity chamber and held at the same temperature and light
 conditions for about 3 weeks before they were rated for infection type.  The
 resistant seedlings were transplanted to larger pots, and 1-2 heads from each
 plant were inoculated at anthesis with spores of A. alternata using the
 vacuum infiltration technique.  The plants were grown to maturity and seeds
 harvested from inoculated heads were evaluated for black point incidence.
 Owens and SWS-15 were used as checks for stripe rust and black point
 resistance, respectively, in all experiments.  Of the 41 plants screened, not
 a single plant was recovered with resistance to both stripe rust and black
 point suggesting the complexity involved in simultaneous transfer of genes
 for resistance to both traits.  The subsequent backcross and screening
 efforts were therefore concentrated on monitoring the gene for stripe rust
 resistance.  After four backcrosses using Fielder as the recurrent parent,
 the resistant BC4 F1 plants were selfed, and BC4 F2 and BC4 F3 progenies were
 screened to identify lines homozygous for stripe rust resistance.  Two
 hundred resistant lines thus identified were evaluated for agronomic traits
 in single-row unreplicated plots with Fielder as a check at regular
 intervals.  Forty-one selected lines along with Fielder and Owens as checks
 were evaluated in replicated yield trials at two locations.  All lines
 evaluated were resistant to stripe rust with agronomic and kernel
 characteristics of the recurrent parent, Fielder.  However, in 1989, field
 observations at Creston, B. C. indicated the presence of a new race of P.
 striiformis that was virulent on the previously resistant cultivar, Owens.
 This was confirmed by artificial inoculation studies using Fielder, Owens and
 the backcross-derived lines which carried the resistant gene from Ownes.
 These observations are consistent with earlier reports by a number of workers
 that stripe rust resistance conferred by race-specific, major genes is often
 short-lived.  A broad genetic base comprising several known genes for
 resistance, effective at both seedling and adult plant stages, to different
 races of the pathogen is required for maintaining a long-lasting resistance
 to stripe rust in southern Alberta.  A study is currently underway at
 Lethbridge to screen the wheat germplasm collection and to transfer exotic
 resistance genes into locally adapted breeding material.  Development of
 cultivars with multi-factor forms of both seedling and adult platn resistance
 to many races of the pathogen offers the most efficient fand economical way
 of controlling stripe rust.
 
                                  Publications
 
 Conner, R. L., A. D. Kuzyk.  1988.  Effectiveness of fungicides in
 controlling stipe rust, leaf rust, and black point in soft white spring
 wheat.  Can. J. Plant Pathol.  10:321-326.
 
 Sadasivaiah, R. S., J. B. Thomas.  1991.  Registration of `SWS-52' spring
 wheat.  Crop Sci. (in press).
 
 Sadasivaiah, R. S., J. B. Thomas.  1991.  SWS-52 soft white spring wheat.
 Can. J. Plant Sci. (in press).
 
 -------------------------
 
 
      K. G. Briggs, Department of Plant Science, University of Alberta
  
      Spring wheat research.  Aluminum, maganese and acid soil tolerance,
 copper deficiency studies are underway (with M. Sc. students James Owuoche
 and Sergio Moroni).  High levels of Al and Mn tolerance have now sbeen
 established in adapted Canadian spring wheat genotype.  A simple chlorophyll
 content assay using seedlings, suitable for selection of Mn tolerance in
 breeding programs, has been developed.  Near isogenic Al tolerant/intolerant
 sets (with 3,4 or 5 backcrosses) have been established jin the varieties
 Ketepwa, Columbus and Oslo, for further use in agronomic, physiological and
 genetic investigations.
 
      Genetic studies of stripe rust resistance in soft white spring wheat are
 underway (M. Sc. student Joanna Pinto, with local research at Agriculture
 Canada Research Statijon, Lethbridge, supervised by Dr. Bob Conner).
 
      A small breeding program is continuing targeted at producing high
 uielding, early maturing, semidwarf red seeded Canada Prairie Spring
 varieties suited to the high moisture areas of the W. Canadian Parkland
 region.  This program continues to coordinate the Parklands Cooperative Trial
 in this region designed for evaluating early maturing wheats.
 
      The second year of a three year database accumulation field study was
 completed in 1990, to relate phenological developmental stages of 10 spring
 wheat cultivars to climatic parameters at the Edmonton Research Station.
 These data are collected for two seeding dates each year, and will produce a
 source for future crop modelling exercises with spring wheat in the region.
 
      Registration of Cutler Wheat.  The University of Alberta was granted
 registration approval in 1991 for a new Spring wheat variety known as Cutler.
 This registration was granted by Agriculture Canada after Cutler completed 3
 years of evaluation in the Parkland C Cooperative trial and proved itself to
 offer significant agronomic benefits.  Cutler is ideally suited to production
 in the Parkland region of Western Canada where early maturity is important.
 Laboratory tests show that Cutler has a high tolerance to soluble aluminum.
 This suggests that Cutler may be particularly adapted to acidic soil types,
 which occur in significant N Alberta acreages.  Cutler is the earliest
 maturing wheat now registered in Western Canada, maturing three days earlier
 than Park.  Kernel and quality characteristics make it eligible for the
 Canada Prairie Spring (red) grade class.  Cutler significantly outyielded
 Park at 15 of 16 Co-op sites by an average of 11 percent.  As a semi dwarf,
 Cutler features good lodging resistance.  It is however, susceptible to bunt
 and loose smuts.
 
      The variety is named after Dr. G. Cutler, the first Chair of the
 Department of Plant Science at the University of Alberta.  This historic name
 was chosen to recognize the 75th Anniversary of the Faculty of Agriculture
 and Forestry in 1990.
 
      Exclusive marketing rights to Cutler were awarded to United Grain
 Growers Limited as the result of a tender process.  Cutler will be marketed
 as one of the PROVEN line of seed products.  Certified Cutler seed will be
 available from the Proven seed retail network in 1993.  Enquiries about seed
 supplies should be addressed to: Mr. Russell Jeffrey, Manager Production and
 Marketing - PROVEN Seed, United Grain Growers Limited, 7410 120 Avenue, P. O.
 Box 6030, Stn.  C., Edmonton, Alberta, T5B 4K5.
 
      PROVEN Seed is a registered trademark of United Grain Growers Ltd.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Agriculture Canada Research Station, Winnipeg
 
      Steve Haber
 
                 Flame Chlorisis confirmed in wheat in Manitoba
 
      Flame chlorisis (FC), a new, soil-transmitted, virus-like disease was
 first observed in barley in 1985 (1).  The disease is characterized by
 striking symptoms unique among cereal diseases, specific ultrastructural
 alterations to chloroplasts and mitochondria, and a distinct set of
 double-stranded (ds) RNA fragments.  From 1985 to 1990 FC was observed in an
 increasing number of barley fields in western Manitoba, and beginning in 1988
 in the Red River Valley as well (2.3).  A disease of wheat with sumptoms
 resembling FC of barley was first observed in 1988.  Analysis of dsRNA and
 cytopathology confirmed that the disease was indeed very similar to FC of
 barley, but was associated with a pattern of dsRNA fragments distinct from
 that isolated from barley FC tissue.  Labelled probes made from barley FFC
 dsRNA hybridized with high homology to wheat FC dsRNA indicating that the
 disease-specific dsRNAs in the two diseases was closely related but distinct.
 
      An extensive disease survey was carried out in Manitoba in June and July
 of 1989 (3).  fC was found in 57 of the 161 surveyed spring cereal fields.
 Most (49 of 57) of the sites where FC was confirmed were barley fields, and
 the disease was only at trace levels in the 8 wheat fields where FC was
 confirmed.  All except one of these fields was in the area of western
 Manitoba approximately bounded by Brandon, Neepawa and Shoal Lake, an area
 that also has the greatest concentratjion of FC barley sites (3).
 
      Although FC has not caused detectable losses in wheat, it is
 nevertheless a potential concern in western Manitoba for two reasons: a)
 increases in the disease intensity and number of sites with wheat FC may be
 following, with a lag of several years, the pattern observed for barley FC.
 The number of barley FC sites has been increasing consistently since 1985
 (1.3) and the altered dsRNA pattern suggests the FC agent may have mutated in
 becoming a pathogen of wheat (4); b) there appears to be a link between
 frequent cultivation in wheat and barley and increasing incidence of FC (1).
 Growing wheat after barley may predispose to greater future incidence of FC
 in barley even if FC incidence in wheat is much lower than in barley.  In
 western Manitoba where the combined frequency of wheat and barley cultivation
 is often 80% or more, constraint's posed by FC may further limit the
 available cropping options.
 
 
                                  Publications
 
 Haber, S., W. Kim, R. Gillespie and A. Tekauz.  1990.  Flame chlorosis: a
 new, virus-like, soil-transmitted disease of barley in Manitoba.  J.
 Phytopathol. 129:245- 256.
 
 Haber, S.  1990.  Flame chlorosis, a new and damaging virus-like disease of
 cereals in Manitoba: 1989 survey. Can. Pl. Dis. Survey 70(1):50.
 
 Haber, S. and R. G. Platford.  1991.  1990 survey of flame chlorosis in
 Manitoba.  Can. Pl. Dis. Survey 71(1): in press.
 
 Haber, S. and D. J. S. Barr.  1990.  Flame chlorosis: a new,
 soil-transmitted, virus-like disease of cereals in Manitoba, Canada.  pp.
 169-172 In Koenig, R. ed.  Proceedings of the First Symposium of the
 International Working Group on Plant Viruses with Fungal Vectors,
 Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Phytomedizinischen Gesellschaft, Band I.
 
 -------------------------
 
      O. M. Lukow and K. M. Kidd
 
      Rapid SDS-PAGE of HMW glutenin subunits.  A rapid, vertical sodium
 dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) procedure was
 developed for the fractionation of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin
 subunits using a Mini Protean II Electgrophoresis System.  The relatively
 small gel size (70 x 80 x 1mm) permits separations to be completed in 2.5
 hours compared to 20 hours for a conventionally sized (160 x 140 x 1.5 mm)
 vertical gel system while still maintaining comparable resolution.
 Identification of HMW glutenin subunits by rapid SDS-PAGE was possible for
 most commonly occurring subunits although, as with conventionally sized gels,
 subunits 2 and 2* were not resolved.  This new technique is particularly
 useful in wheat breeding programs for the early generation screening of large
 number of lines.
 
      O. M. Lukow and N. K. Howes
 
      Markers for smut resistance.  A total of 438 F2 half-kernels were
 analyzed by SDS-PAGE to determine their HMW glutenin composition.  Embryos
 homozygous for subunit type were grown and seedlings tested for smut
 resistance to race T39.  The F2 families gave a two gene segregation (32%
 resistant, 16% susceptible).  There was no significant association between
 resistance and HMW glutenin subunit composition.  The same source of
 resistance was also tested for possible location on chromosome 1BS, using a
 cross to the susceptible 1BL/1RS wheat/rye translocation.  There was no
 association between smut resistance and the presence or absence of chromosome
 arm 1BS.
 
 -------------------------
 
      D. E. Harder and K. Dunsmore
 
      Occurrence and physiologic specialization of Puccinia graminis f. sp.
 tritici in Canada in 1990.
 
      Wheat stem rust appeared in susceptible nurseries in Manitoba in mid
 July.  Wet weather in June and early July indicated favorable conditions for
 rust development, but very dry and warm weather during the remainder of July
 and August generally limited further spread. In some regions, however, fields
 of barley were heavily infected and severe losses.  Collections of P.
 graminis f. sp. tritici were obtained from nurseries of susceptible wheat
 lines, from cultivated barley (Hordeum sativum) and from wild barley (H.
 jubatum) for virulence analysis.  The results are shown in Tables 1 and 2.
 
 
      In past years TPM has dominated (Ca. 44% in Manitoba in 1989) on wheat,
 but in 1990 was less prominent (27.9% in Manitoba).  In contrast, race QCC
 increased in the same region from 22.9% in 1989 to 32.3% in 1990 (Table 1).
 Another common race, QFC, remained relatively stable.  A possible explanation
 for these results is that although race QCC dominates on barley (Table 2),
 this race is also common on wheat.  The extensive acreage of barley in the
 north central region has likely forced an increase in the inoculum load of
 this reace, causing a greater predominance on wheat.  This result indicates a
 potential danger to the barley crop in North America.
 
 -------------------------
 
      W. J. Turnock and B. H. Timlick
 
      The Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) has been a pest of cereals,
 mainly wheat, in Manitoba since 1899.  The larvae damage wheat plants by
 feeding on the inside of the leaf sheath above a node.  The stem of the plant
 is weakened and subject to breakage.  Infestations may also reduce seed
 yield.  Hessian fly infestations are sporadic and their abundance may be
 dependent on factors such as host plant phenology, weather, overwintering
 success.  Susceptibility to Hessian fly attack and to stem breakage is
 genetically determined and varies among cultivars of wheat.  The objectives
 of this study were: to determine the incidence of Hessian fly on 6 cultivars
 of wheat on the Agriculture Canada experimental farm at glenlea, Manitoba,
 and in commercial fields of Biggar cv.  wheat grown in southern Manitoba.
 
      Materials and Methods.  In 1990, Hessian fly infestation levels and stem
 breakage were examined for 6 cultivars of wheat: Katepwa, Biggar, 89W299,
 CBWA41, Nordic and Guard.  Katepwa is the most widely grown hard red spring
 wheat in Manitoba, Biggar is a recently released semi-dwarf cultivar, 89W299
 and CBWA41 are breeders lines of semi-dwarf wheats and Nordic and Guard are
 semi-dwarf cultivars from the U.S.A.  Guard contains a known genetic
 resistance to Hessian fly.  The experiment used a randomized complete block
 design with three replications per seedling.  The seedling dates were 10, 22,
 and 31 May.  Each plot was 4 m long and made up of seven rows spaces 15 cm
 apart.
 
      Each plot fwas sampled once to determine the level of infestation by
 Hessian fly and the incidence of broken stems.  In row 3 of each plot, every
 plant within a 30 cm length was removed and examined.  Each stem was
 classified as normal or broken.  These stems were dissected and the number of
 Hessian fly larvae and puparia (collectively called "immatures") was
 recorded.  Sampling occurred after the plants headed: on 10 August for the
 first planting, on 27 August for the second planting, and on 7 September for
 the third planting.
 
     Eleven fields of Biggar cv. wheat throughout southern Manitoba from
 Winnipeg west to Souris, were sampled (Table 2).  In every field, the
 percentage of broken stems was determined by examining the plants from 18
 samples.  Each sample indluded a 30 cm sectijon of row.  Samples were taken
 along each of the three lines, about 100 m apart, at right angles to the
 field margin.  One sample was collected at each of the rows: 4, 8, 16, 32,
 64, and 128 of each line.  The incidence of Hessian fly in these fields was
 determined from three samples collected from row four of each line as
 described above.
 
      The data on incidence and stem breakage were analyzed using standard
 ANOVA and Multiple Range tests, and regression techniques.
 
      Results and Discussion.  Hessian fly immaturs were not found in plants
 form the first two seeding dates, indicating that the Hessian fly adults
 selected their host plants based partially on the developmental stage of the
 plants available within the blocks.
 
      Hessian fly infestations occurred in all but one cultivar in the third
 planting (Table 1).  Most of the immatures in the stems were puparia (99%).
 The cultivars differed in stnad density, but the differencs were not related
 to Hessian fly infestation.  The level of infestation and the amount of stem
 breakage varied among cultivars.  Few of the differences were significant
 because intra-cultivar variance was high (Table 1).  Guard cs. was not
 infested and had no stem breakage.  Its genetic resistance is antibiotic in
 nature.  In the other cultivars, all of the broken stems contained Hessian
 fly.  Among these cultivars the percentage of infested stems and the number
 of immatures per stem was lowest in Nordic cv. and highest in Biggar cv.
 (Table 1).  The percentage of broken stems was always lower than the
 percentage of infested stems.  Katepwa cv. and Nordic cv. had an equally low
 percentage of broken stems.  This similarity is surprising since Katepwa cv.
 had a much higher percentage of stems infested by Hessian fly (73.5 vs 45.2),
 and more immatures per stem (6.6 vs 1.2).  This suggests that there may be an
 interaction between feeding by hessian fly larvae and cultivar straw strengt
 that affects the percentage of broken stems.  There was also a positive and
 significant relationship (p<0.05, R2=0.45) between the mean number of
 immatures per stem and the amount of stem breakage.
 
      Table 1.  Incidence of Hessian Fly and the incidence of stem       
               breakage in six wheat cultivars sown at Glenlea, Manitoba 
                 on 31 May 1990.                                         
                                                            Broken Stems
              Immatures/      Stem              Stem         Containing
 Cultivar        Stem      Broken (%)       Infested (%)   Immatures (%)
 Biggar        10.5a         32.2a            93.4a            100
 89W299         8.5a         24.4a            79.1ab           100
 Katepwa        6.6ab        17.3a            73.5ab           100
 CBWA41         4.7ab        26.0a            74.1ab           100
 Nordic         1.2b         17.5a            45.2b            100
 Guard            0b            0b               0c              0     
    *  numbers in columns followed by the same letter represent values   
      that are not statistically different (p<0.05, Duncan's Multiple    
     Range Test).
 
 
      Hessian fly infestations were found in 6 of the 11 fields of the
 commercial fields sampled (Table 2).  There was no geographic trend in the
 proportion of infested stems.  Fields in which no Hessian fly were found
 tended to be less mature at the time of sampling than the infested fields.
 Later planted fields may have developed too late for Hessian fly infestation
 to occur.  There was no significant correlation (R2=0.27,p = 0.1, F = 3.3,
 df=1) between the level of infestation and the percentage of broken stems.
 The percentage of broken stms tended to decrease from fields in the Red River
 Valley (Winnipeg, Starbuck, Fannystelle, Portage) to those sampled from the
 drier Western Uplands (Justice, Brandon, Rapid City, Souris).  The field
 infestations and stem breakage in Biggar cv. were much lower in commercial
 fields (Table 2) than in the experimental plots (Table 1).  In only one of
 these fields (Brandon) were all of the broken stems infested with Hessian
 fly.
 
 
      Table 2.  Infestation rates and proportion of broken stems in      
               commercial Biggar cv. wheat fields from locations in      
              southern Manitoba, from Winnipeg west to Souris, during    
             August 1990.
                                                                         
                                                          Broken Stems
             Immatures/       Stems           Stems          Containing
 Location        Stem       Broken (%)      Infested (%)    Immatures (%)
 Winnipeg        0.14           6.7a             6.7             20.0
 Starbuck           0           8.2a               0                0
 Fannystelle     0.13           3.5b            12.5             33.3
 Portage            0          10.6a               0                0
 Treherne        0.13           4.2b            12.5             50.0
 McGregor           0          10.8a               0                0
 Carberry           0           4.2b               0                0
 Justice         0.07           6.3a             4.3             33.3
 Brandon         0.17           3.0b            10.0              100
 Rapid City         0           4.1b               0                0
 Souris          0.03           4.4b             4.0             50.0
 *  numbers in columns followed by the same letter represent values that 
    are not significantly different (p<0.05, Duncan's Multiple Range     
   Test).
 
      Crop phenology was an important factor in determining the occurrence of
 Hessian fly.  In the experimental plots, earlier plantings (10 and 22 May)
 escaped attack while the latest planting (31 May) was heavily infested.  In
 commercial fields, less mature (later planted?) fields escaped attack.  More
 information is needed on the phenology of the pest development and
 oviposition periods.
 
      The high level of infestation and of stem breakage in experimental plots
 and the widespread occurrence of Hessian fly, with lower levels of breakage,
 in commercial fields of Biggar cv. across southern Manitoba suggests that
 Hessian fly could cause economic losses.  Infestations in the commercial
 fields of Biggar, the most heavily infested cultivar tested, should provide
 an estiamte of the maximum losses attributable to this insect.  Sampling of
 other cultivars is needed to confirm this hypothesis.  In 1990, the level of
 infestatijon of wheat in southern Manitoba is unlikely to have caused heavy
 yield loss.  The occurrence of up to 11% stem breakage is of concern,
 particularly if producers adopt straight combining as a major harvesting
 technique.  The apparent complete resistance of Guard cv. to attack by
 Hessian fly in Manitoba needs to be confirmed; however, the absence of
 infestations in this cultivar indicates that genetic resistance is available
 for use in new cultivars adapted to the eastern Canadian prairies.
 
      This study was partially funded by the Manitoba/Canada Agri-Food
 Agreement.
 
 -------------------------
 
      J.A. Kolmer
 
      WHEAT LEAF RUST IN CANADA IN 1990
 
      Leaf rust of wheat was first observed June 21 in winter wheat in
 southwestern Manitoba.  By the first week in July, leaf rust was present in
 light to trace amounts in spring wheat fields throughout southern Manitoba.
 Leaf rust severities of 20-100% infection on susceptible cultivars were
 observed throughout southern Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan (between
 Regina and Melfort) in the last week of July.  Significant yield losses due
 to leaf rust was expected in winter wheats grown in Manitoba and
 Saskatchewan, as severities of 50-100% were observed on winter wheat at
 Portage, and Minto, Manitoba. The spring wheat and durum cultivars in
 Manitoba and Saskatchewan are all resistant to leaf rust, as only trace to
 light levels of rust were observed in these wheats.
   
 PHYSIOLOGIC SPECIALIZATION OF Puccinia recondita ON WHEAT IN Canada 
 IN  1990. PERCENTAGES OF THE MOST COMMON VIRULENCE PHENOTYPES (>5%) 
 AS IDENTIFIED ON THE Prt DIFFERENTIALS. 
 
 VIRULENCE                             
 PHENOTYPE         VIRULENCES    EAST        PRAIRIES     BRIT. COL.
 
 FBL-B             2c,3,3ka,B     6.20          0.00        0.00
 KBG-14a       2a,2c,3,11,14a     0.60          8.30        0.00
 MBB-14a              1,3,14a     2.50          0.00       18.80
 MBG-14a           1,3,11,14a     7.40          7.30        0.00
 MDB-14a           1,3,24,14a     2.50         16.10        6.30
 MFB-14a        1,3,24,26,14a     1.90         28.80        0.00
 NBB-B,18           1,2c,B,18     1.20          0.00       56.30
 PBL-B           1,2c,3,3ka,B    56.80          0.00        0.00
 TBB-14a        1,2a,2c,3,14a     0.00          7.80        0.00
 TBG-14a     1,2a,2c,3,11,14a     1.90         23.40       28.30     
 
 TOTAL NUMBER OF ISOLATES         162           205          16
 
 EAST - ONTARIO, QUEBEC
 PRAIRIES - MANITOBA,SASKATCHEWAN, ALBERTA
 
 ISOLATES WERE EVALUATED FOR VIRULENCE PHENOTYPE ON DIFFERENTIAL SETS 
 WITH GENES Lr1, 2a, 2c, 3, 9, 16, 24, 26, 3ka, 11, 17, 30, B, 14a, 18.  
 
 -------------------------
      S.E. German, J.A. Kolmer, P.L. Dyck 
 
      THE EFFECT OF RESISTANCE GENES Lr13 and Lr34 IN CONDITIONING ENHANCED
 RESISTANCE TO LEAF RUST OF WHEAT
 
      The adult plant leaf rust resistance genes Lr13 and Lr34 have provided
 durable resistance either singly, together, or in combinations with other
 leaf rust resistance genes.  These genes have also been reported to interact
 with other leaf rust resistance genes to condition enhanced levels of
 resistance (a higher level of resistance than either gene singly) to leaf
 rust.
   
      This study was conducted to systematically determine which resistance
 genes Lr13 and Lr34 interact with to condition enhanced levels of resistance
 to leaf rust.
 
      Methods and Materials.  The Thatcher isogenic lines were crossed with
 TcLr13 and TcLr34.  F2 seedlings from each cross were evaluated for
 resistance with race 1 of Puccinia recondita.  F3 families were derived from
 the most resistant F2 seedlings from each cross, and evaluated for resistance
 and homozygosity of the adult plant genes Lr13 or Lr34 in the rust nursery at
 Winnipeg. F3 families homozygous for the adult plant genes were harvested and
 evaluated for homozygosity of the seedling genes with race 1 in seedling
 tests.  Homozygous F4 lines were also evaluated the next year in the rust
 nursery.
 
      Results. Resistance genes Lr13 and Lr34 conditioned enhanced levels of
 resistance when paired with genes that conditioned some degree of effective
 resistance (compared to the susceptible Thatcher) when present singly (Table
 1). Genes Lr13 and Lr34 did not condition enhanced resistance when paired
 with genes that did not condition effective resistance when present singly.
 Combinations of genes Lr13 and Lr16, and Lr13 and Lr34, were as resistant as
 the highly resistant cultivars Columbus (Lr13,Lr16), and Era and Chris
 (Lr13,Lr34)
 
 TABLE 1.  LEAF RUST FIELD SEVERITY AND RESPONSE OF THATCHER ISOGENIC LINES AND        
    HOMOZYGOUS LINES OF TcLr13 and TcLr34 PAIRED WITH SEEDLING RESISTANCE GENES 
                   ISOGENIC
 GENE                LINE           Lr13/          Lr34/  
   
 Lr1                80S           20MR-30MS        T-30M            
 Lr2a               90S           10R-20RMR        T-20M
 Lr2c               90S           10R              T-30M   
 Lr3                70S           10RMR            T-30M
 Lr3ka              10-20R         TR                5R              
 Lr11               90S           20R-40MR         T-20M
 Lr16               50MR           5R                5VR   
 Lr17               60MRMS         5R-20MR           5VR
 Lr18                TR            TR                5VR
 Lr21               10R            TR                5VR
 Lr24               80S           20RMR               *
 Lr26               70MS          30RMR             T-20M 
 Lr30               20MRMS         TR                 *
 Lr33               30MRMS        10RMR               *
 LrB                50MR           5R               T-5M
 Lr13               10R-40MS        *                5VR
 Lr34               T-20M           *                 *
 Columbus(Lr13,Lr16) TR             *                5VR 
 Era(Lr10,Lr13,Lr34) 5VR            *                 *
 Chris(Lr13,Lr34)    5VR            *                 * 
 Thatcher           90S             *                 *    
 
 TR = TRACE RESISTANT REACTION       VR = VERY RESISTANT
 MR = MODERATELY RESISTANT           MS = MODERATELY SUSCEPTIBLE
 S  = SUSCEPTIBLE 
 
 SEVERITY WAS ASSESSED USING THE MODIFIED COBB SCALE
 
 -------------------------
      ONTARIO
 
      Plant Research Centre, Ottawa
      
      W.L. Seaman, E.F. Schneider, and D.R. Sampson
 
      Diseases.  Survival of soft white winter wheat was high in most areas of
 southern Ontario, despite very cold temperatures in December.  Damage from
 snow molds generally was light and scattered, but with 5-50% losses and
 reseeding in some fields.  Winter kill from icing and heaving was scattered
 and moderate in heavier soils in the main growing area.  However, in eastern
 counties winter damage was more severe, and in the Ottawa Valley abiotic
 factors, including cold desiccation in March, caused severe damage, with
 losses of 30-100% in commercial fields, and almost total loss of breeding
 plots at Ottawa.  Cool conditions in April were favorable for development of
 wheat spindle streak mosaic in infested soils.  Powdery mildew developed
 rapidly early in the season and fields in the west-central areas were sprayed
 with propiconazole or triadimefon.  Problems with low pH were common, and
 manganese deficiency was prevalent in both sandy and organic soils in western
 Ontario.  Take-all, leaf rust, septoria tritici blotch, tan spot, and
 septoria nodorum glume blotch were widespread, at light to moderate levels.
 A sudden yellowing of flag leaves at heading in many fields in the Niagara
 region appeared to be typical of late infection by barley yellow dwarf virus,
 but ELISA tests of affected plants were negative.  An influx of aphids from
 the USA during a warm period in early May resulted in more serious losses
 than usual in spring crops, with severe damage in northern Ontario and in the
 southeast, where many late-seeded BYD-affected fields were cut for forage.
 In white winter wheat, fusarium head blight was much less prevalent and
 severe than in 1989, and there were no problems with deoxynivalenol levels in
 harvested wheat; however, corn in the same areas was much more severely
 affected by fusarium ear rot later in the season.  In soft white wheat, the
 major downgrading factors, from No.1 CE to No. 2 CE, were sprouting and
 "mildew."  In the Canadian grading system, mildew is a term applied to
 darkening of kernels caused by the superficial accumulation of spores of
 field fungi, chiefly Alternaria, Epiccocum, and Cladosporium spp., at the
 brush end of the kernels.
 
 
       New cultivar.  Harmil, a soft white winter wheat, was registered in
 1990.  Harmil (O-90-4-1) is a high yielding, strong strawed pastry wheat with
 desirable characteristics of low protein in grain and flour; it is well
 adapted to most of the growing area (corn heat units 2700-2900), where its
 yield is similar to that of the most widely grown cultivar Harus .  It is
 resistant to loose smut but moderately susceptible to the prevalent leaf and
 head diseases, as are most of the registered cultivars, except Annette, which
 is resistant to powdery mildew.  Unlike the other registered check cultivars,
 Harmil is resistant to races T2 and T10 of Ustilago tritici.
 
 -------------------------
       PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
 
        Research Station, Agriculture Canada, Charlottetown
 
        H. W. Johnston and H. G. Nass
 
      Determining components of resistance to Septoria nodorum.  Components of
 resistance to Septoria leaf blotch were determined using a test of 25 spring
 wheats.  Severity and rate of symptom development, sporulation of the
 pathogen on leaves, tolerance, and agronomic characteristics were determined.
 Susceptible lines were characterized by rapid symptom development and greater
 pathogen sporulation.  Lines with known resistance had delayed symptom
 development, less sporulation, and fewer lesions.  Tolerance to disease also
 followed a similar pattern.  Correlations between various recorded disease
 and agronomic characteristics illustrated that yield was negatively
 associated with symptom severity and positively related in days to lesion
 formation, height, and maturity (Tables 1 and 2).  Controlling Septoria
 nodorum with foliar applications of Tilt (or other fungicides) compared to
 check plots (Table 2) showed that this can be an effective method in
 identifying resistant and susceptible wheats.
 
    Table l.  Correlation coefficients for Septoria nodorum on 25 spring               
             wheats.
                                                                                       
                                                        Days     Spores
                         Spores/    Plot     Days to      to        on       
               Height     head     rating    disease    heading   leaves   Yield
                                                                                
 Spores/head   -0.173       --
 
 Plot rating
   (0-9)       -0.217*     0.236*    --
 
 Days to
 disease
 development   -0.049     -0.0153  -0.301**      --
 
 Days to
 heading        0.349**   -0.298** -0.609**    0.190       --
 
 Spores on
 leaves        -0.148      0.931**  0.215*    -0.171     -0.292**     --
 
 Yield          0.205*    -0.152   -0.570**    0.116      0.286**   -0.120   
                                                                             
 *,**Significant at 0.05 and 0.01 levels of probability, respectively.
 
              Table 2.  Effect of Septoria nodorum on several traits of
                                    selected spring wheats.
                                                                  Yield gain due       
               Spores/        Spores/        Days to           to control of
 Entry           head          leaves         heading           Septoria nodorum
                                                                                       
              (10-7)          (10-7)         (days)               g/plot)
 R AW 102        5.95           5.72            70.8                  91
 R W 7           6.30           3.75            70.0                 816
 R JO 8058       8.10          12.50            70.0                 344
 AW 153          8.18          10.42            70.0                 684
   COLUMBUS      9.04           7.78            67.0                 798
   QW500.35     12.15          13.00            65.0                 443
 R SN 1         14.60          15.00            67.0                 633
   AW 170       19.80          24.75            68.8                 691
   ALGOT        20.00          21.69            66.0                 825
   KATEPWA      21.42          21.69            64.0                 741
   MAX          24.15          27.25            67.8                 945
   BELVEDERE    27.75          31.25            67.3                 942
 S CAL. 15      31.15          40.35            65.3                1430
   SH 85-1578   33.10          33.50            67.8                1067
 S WISC.271     35.22          38.44            66.8                1366
                                                                              
 R = Resistant check.
 S = Susceptible check.             
 
 -------------------------
      SASKATCHEWAN
 
      Saskatchewan Wheat Pool - Agricultural Research & Development
 
      R.J. Graf, D. Potts - Saskatoon; B.J Fowler, K. Glatt, C. McLean -
 Watrous
 
      About fifteen years ago, Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, along with Alberta
 Wheat Pool, Manitoba Pool Elevators and CSP Foods Ltd., initiated a program
 of developing new crop varieties.  A body called the Co-operative Crop
 Development Group (CCDG) was established to provide direction to the crop
 development program.  The objective of this group is to acquire or develop
 new crops or crop varieties that will benefit western Canadian producers.
 These new varieties are marketed under the Ultrabred trademark.
 
      The Saskatchewan Wheat Pool (SWP) Agricultural Research and Development
 (ARD) branch (formerly Product Development) is responsible for the
 coordination of wheat development out of offices in Saskatoon and an
 experimental farm located at Watrous, 120 km south of Saskatoon.
 
      A substantial number of changes have occurred since SWP's last
 submission to AWN in 1986.  Early that year, Federal-Provincial grant (ERDA)
 money was accessed to hire a second wheat breeder responsible for CPS and
 Soft White wheat development.  Dr. Pierre Hucl was hired to the position but
 within a year became the the program leader, with the departure of Dr.
 Leonard Song.  Dr. Robert Graf became the CPS and durum breeder, with Dr.
 Hucl retaining the responsibilities of CWRS and Soft White wheat development.
 
      1987 was also important year in that additional funds (IRAP) were made
 available to initiate a three year, wheat biotechnology project.  The major
 objectives of this research were to develop improved techniques of
 doubled-haploid production for use in hastening the breeding cycle.  To this
 end, Dr. Brian Orshinsky and Linda McGregor were hired to work in cooperation
 with the National Research Council's Plant Biotechnology Institute in
 Saskatoon.  Grace Johnson was later added to the group for additional
 technical support.  Funding of these efforts has recently been extended to
 develop lines with specific herbicide resistance.
 
      With the addition of the second wheat breeder, a more stringent early
 generation quality and disease screening program was initiated, to cope with
 the increased number of lines being developed.  Part and parcel with this new
 thrust was the enhancement of the quality testing capabilities at the farm.
 With this program now in place, the number of lines under yield test has not
 increased dramatically, remaining at approximately 11,000 plots per year.
 
      In 1990, the wheat development program consists of the following people.
 Dr. Robert Graf is Senior Wheat Breeder responsible for purpose wheat
 development.  Dr. Derek Potts, who joined the group in April, has the
 responsibility of durum and CPS breeding, as well as a coordinating role in
 our disease screening efforts.  Technical support is provided by three
 technicians at Watrous, Barbara Fowler, Kathy Glatt and Claire McLean.  Up to
 four summer students are hired every year to help out during the hectic
 growing season.
 
      In concert to the breeding work, ARD's team of scientists includes a
 team of agronomists who, in addition to doing research in the areas of
 fertility, biopesticides and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR's),
 determine area of adaptation, herbicide tolerance and fertilizer response of
 advanced breeding lines.  Recently added livestock and secondary processing
 positions give us a unique, integrated approach to crop development and
 provide valuable feedback to our more specialized crop development thrusts.
 
      Watrous remains the centre of operations, with the majority of yield
 plots grown at the farm.  Off station sites include North Battleford, Lake
 Lenore and Outlook.  Through the CCDG, additional sites across western Canada
 are accessed.  An additional irrigated site, to be set up near Saskatoon in
 1991, will be used for the selection and screening of loose smut, Septoria,
 and possibly root rot resistant lines.  Field facilities in Watrous include a
 well equipped lab for yield trial set-up and processing, as well as quality
 screening equipment for preliminary assessment of early generation (F3 - F6)
 experimental lines.  A summer greenhouse and winter growth room provide
 controlled growth facilities year-round.  Winter nursery increases are
 located in Chile, for photo-period sensitive material (CWRS, durum) and
 southern California for insensitive material (CPS).  Quality assessment of
 advanced lines is done under contract by CSP Foods and the University of
 Manitoba.
 
      To date, 72 lines have been entered into the Cooperative wheat trials,
 the official pre-registration yield tests.  In 1990, six lines were in the
 second year of co-op evaluation (5 CWRS, 1 CPS), with another 12 lines (11
 CWRS, 1 CPS) being evaluated for the first time.
 
 
 -------------------------
 
                                 ITEMS FROM CHINA
 
      Wheat Breeding Institute, Nanjing Agricultural University
 
      Zhaosu Wu, Shirong Yu, Xizhong Wei, Youjia Shen, Qimei Xia, Guoliang
 Jiang, Jiming Wu, Yong Xu, Zhaoxia Chen
 
      Evolutionary changes in yield and source-sink characters of wheat
 cultivars grown in the North Huai region of Jiangsu province.  Twelve
 representative wheat cultivars since 1960 were studied on evolutionary
 changes of wheat yield and its components, and on genetic improvement of
 source-sink characters in two fertility levels.  The results showed that
 yield of wheat cultivars in this region has risen about 7.1 - 11.0% on
 average every ten years.  The number of grains per spike very significantly
 increased with increasing yield, while the ears per unit area tended to
 decrease.  There were no difference between the sixties and current cultivars
 in grain weight, while the seventies cultivars were higher.  The positive
 effect of grains per spike on yield compensated for the negative effects of
 ears per unit area and grain weight, especially in lower fertility.  The
 plant height significantly decreased from early cultivars to current ones,
 and was highly correlated with yield.  There was a upward tendency in leaf
 area (LA) per shoot at anthesis, and in leaf area duration (LAD) during the
 period of anthesis and maturity, while the net assimilation rate (NAR) had a
 downward tendency, and only slight changes were found in LA, LAD and NAR
 between the seventies cultivars and current ones.  New and old cultivars had
 similar total dry mater production; however, the stem weight of new cultivars
 was somewhat less than that of old ones.  The enhancement of harvest index
 resulted in yield increases.  In addition, current cultivars had a higher
 percentage of assimilate produced before anthesis.  With the evolutionary
 changes of wheat cultivars, the sink capacity per square meter had large
 increases, but no significant difference in sink capacity per spike, filling
 dry matter index (FI) and shrivelling index (SI) was found.  The number of
 grains per unit stem weight was highly positive correlated with yield. The
 sixties cultivars had highest spike weight - leaf area ratio and spike grain
 number-leaf area ratio, and these were lowest in seventies cultivars.
 
      Grain weight and plumpness in relation to sink activity and sink
 capacity and genetic analysis of some related characters in wheat.  Nine
 genotypes with different grain filling characteristics were used to
 investigate the physiological mechanism of grain filling from 1987 to 1990.
 The results showed that the filling rate during the linear period of grain
 weight increase was significantly related to grain weight and crease ratio.
 This means that the filling rate was one of the important factors which
 influenced grain weight and plumpness.  The invert rate of developing grain
 imposed a strong influence not only on grain filling rate but also on
 transport rate of assimilates.  During the linear period the invert rate of
 grain reached its top value.  At the same time the content of soluble sugar
 in developing grains decreased to the lowest value.  Nevertheless, soluble
 sugar content in developing grains was not significantly related to invert
 rate, which indicated that grain yields at present production level were not
 seriously limited by lack of assimilates.
 
      Different filling rate and invert rate of developing grain among
 genotypes were mainly caused by grain size.  There were no significant
 differences in special filling rate and special invert rate among most of the
 genotypes.  The duration of active filling period was significantly related
 to grain weight and raphe index.  It seems that prolonging the effective
 filling period could be of advantage to the increase of grain weight and
 plumpness.  IAA content in developing grain of genotypes with large kernels
 was remarkably higher than in the grains of those genotypes with small ones,
 especially in the late phase of grain development.  It suggested that IAA may
 be one of the important factors regulating sink activity.  ABA also had some
 effects on grain filling rate, but its primary role appeared in controlling
 grain mutations.  It was found that the alkaline invertase activity was not
 lower than the acid invertase during grain development in wheat.  When enzyme
 activity was accounted according to unit fresh weight the differences between
 genotypes were declined.  But there were remarkable differences in duration
 of higher enzyme activity between genotypes.  Apparent parallel correlation
 was found between the time of sucrose synthase activity started to decrease
 fast and end of active filling period. So did between decreasing rate of
 sucrose synthase activity during fast-decreasing period and grain filling
 rate during the mature period.  These meant that maintaining higher metabolic
 activity in the late phase of grain development was of advantage to the
 accumulation of dry matter in kernels.
 
      Effects of leaf senescence and assimilates remobilization on grain yield
 of wheat varieties.  Nine genotypes with different appearance at maturity
 were used to investigate the effect of leaf senescence and photo-assimilates
 remobilization from three top nodes on wheat grain yield in 1988 and 1990.
 The amount of photo- assimilates remobilized from culms and leaves was not
 significantly related to the maximum sink capacity of the ear, but
 significantly related to the grain weight formed after the chlorophyll
 content of the flag leaf began to quickly decrease.  This means that sink
 activity is the key factor influencing the export of assimilates from culms
 and leaves.  the appearance of the plant at maturity is not necessarily
 related to the export efficiency of assimilates and nitrogen from culms and
 leaves.  During the process of flag leaf senescence, the chlorophyll and
 nitrogen content began to rapidly decrease nearly at the same time.  Export
 efficiency of nitrogen from flag blades was significantly related to
 temperature during the fast-decreasing period of nitrogen content.  The
 export rate increased about 0.05% with 1oC increase of temperature.  Although
 the degrading rate of chlorophyll was remarkably faster than chlorophyll b,
 there was no significant difference between their relative decrease rates.
 The ratio of chlorophyll a and b continued to increase during the
 fast-decreasing period of chlorophyll content and the relative decrease rate
 of chlorophyll b was increasing that phase.  It is concluded that the process
 of leaf senescence could sensibly be reflected by the ratio of chlorophyll a
 and b.
 
      Studies on the biochemical basis of scab resistance and genetic analysis
 of some relevant traits in wheat.  Field tests of scab resistance and the
 biochemical analysis of pot inoculation tests in the greenhouse were included
 in the experiment.  Eight cultivars with different levels of resistance to
 scab were used, F1 and F2 from (7X8)/2 diallel crosses of the eight
 cultivars, F1, F2, P1, P2, B1, and B2 from five-pair reciprocal crosses, and
 P1, P2, F1, F2, F3 and F4 from three-pair reciprocal crosses were
 artificially inoculated by injecting a Gibberrella zeae spore suspension into
 a single floret in the field.  The number of infected spikelets were used to
 measure resistance to scab.  At the same time, inoculated and uninoculated
 plants of wheat cultivars and their corresponding F1 individuals including
 various inoculating time treatments were collected to study the correlations
 between isoenzyme patterns of peroxidase (POD), superodide dismutase (SOD),
 polyphenul oxidase (PPO), activities of SOD and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
 (PAL), and contents of cholin total phenol, flavone, lignin and soluble
 protein with the resistance to scab.  The following results were obtained.
 
      1.  Among the biochemical traits examined, isoenzyme patterns of SOD and
 POD could be used for detecting genotypic differences of wheat varieties with
 various degrees of scab resistance, and for determining whether different
 resistant varieties possessed the same resistance gene(s) or not. They might
 be also of value in selecting resistant individuals in segregating
 generations, and in examining the transfer of alien gene(s) into a given
 variety.
 
      2.  Heritability (narrow sense) of the biochemical traits examined falls
 into the following order: PAL activity > choline content > SOD activity >
 flavone content > lignin content.  Different genotypes could be reflected by
 their corresponding choline contents and SOD activities of the uninoculated
 plant.  Thus in the studies of scab heredity and breeding, these two
 biochemical traits can be used as markers; whereas PAL activity, flavone
 content and lignin content would be more appropriate as manifestation of the
 biochemical basis for scab resistance.
 
      3.  General combining ability of the number of diseased florets, choline
 content, SOD activity, PAL activity, flavone content and lignin content were
 significantly different among various genotypes.  There was a tendency that
 the higher the genotype resistance to scab, the better it behaved in the
 crosses.
 
      4.  Heritability of the number of diseased florets among different
 crosses is higher than that among various generations.  Therefore, in the
 selecting generations of scab resistance breeding programs, by discarding
 unpromising combinations in the earlier generations, and only focusing on
 selecting elite individuals in the promising combinations, the breeding
 efficiency might be greatly raised.
 
      5.  The heritability of scab resistance is mainly controlled by additive
 gene effects.  Resistance is partially dominant.  Of the genotypes employed
 in the experiment, there is not much difference in the number of resistance
 genes between resistant and susceptible genotypes.  However, even among
 resistant genotypes, the number of resistance genes is also not the same.
 The scab resistance is likely controlled by major genes and modified by minor
 genes.  The number of genes involved is complex, thus difficult to define.
 It seems likely to obtain both higher resistance and reasonable yield
 individuals in the segregating population derived from crosses between
 resistant and susceptible parents.
 
      6.  In the genetic study of scab resistance and in the investigation of
 its biochemical basis, the single floret infection inoculation method in
 combination with the number of diseased florets as a morphological marker
 appeared to be a reliable research method.  In the scab resistance breeding
 program, the frequency of diseased florets may be more appropriately employed
 as an index to select required individuals.
 
      7.  There were remarkable correlations between the scab resistance and
 the indices of polyphenyl oxidase, total phenol and soluble protein, which
 played a nonsignificant role in the biochemical mechanism of the resistance
 to scab.
 
                                   PUBLICATIONS
 
 Wu, Zhaosu.  1990.  Breeding for high yielding wheat varieties. CROPS 1990,
 1:4-5.
 
 Wu, Zhaosu.  1990.  Studies on dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in Chinese
 wheat cultivars.  p. 144-147.  In: M. Huidong et al. (ed).  Advances in
 Genetic Research of Quality Characters in Cereals.  Jiangsu
 Science-Technology Publishing House, Nanjing.
 
 Sun Zhiliang, Shen Youjia and Wu Zhaosu.  1990.  Genetic variation and
 expected genetic advances of quality traits in wheat varieties of the
 Mid-Lower Yangtze Valley.  p. 123-125.  In the same book as indicated above.
 
 Chen, Shaojun, Liu Shufen and Wu Zhaosu.  1990.  Genetic analysis of quality
 traits, steamed bread volume and score in wheat varieties.  p. 126-130.  In
 the same book as indicated above.
 
 Xu Chengbin and Wu Zhaosu.  1990.  Genetic analysis for physiological and
 biochemical characteristics of pre-harvest sprouting in wheat. p. 148-153.
 In the same book as indicated above.
 
 Ma Chuanxi and Wu Zhaosu.  1990.  Genetic variation of HMW glutenin subunits
 in Chinese wheat varieties and inheritance in F1. p. 158-161.  In the same
 book as indicated above.
 
 Wu, Zhaosu.  (Editor).  1990.  WHEAT BREEDING (monograph).  Agriculture
 Publishing House, Beijing.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Wheat Institute, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences,
 
      No. 1 Nongye Road, Zhengzhou, Henan
 
      Zuoji Lin, Shenghui Jie, Xueyi Hu, Z. Q. Wu
 
      The 1989-1990 season.  This past season was a contrast to the previous
 season in Henan Province; precipitation in the wheat growing season was 50%
 more than average, especially in the spring.  Stripe rust and powdery mildew
 were severe in most sites of Henan, most cultivated varieties possessing Yr9
 were susceptible to stripe rust (new race no. 29).  The total yield was lower
 than last year due to the decrease of grain weight although the spike number
 per mu increased.
 
      Recurrent selection for resistance to powdery mildew by using the
 dominant male-sterile gene Tal.  The initial population was established in
 1986 by varieties possessing different resistant genes and the dominant
 male-sterile gene Tal.  Selection focused on both powdery mildew resistance
 and agronomic characters improvement.  After two cycles of selection, C2
 showed significant progress both on resistant plant frequency and decreasing
 plant height.  Other main agronomic characters such as maturity date and
 yield potential have been improved as well.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Hebei Hybrid Wheat Research INstitute, P R China
 
      Z. Y. Liu, F. C. Liu, Y. Z. Shen, Z. Q. Li, P. Y. Bai, F. W. Shao, H. M.
 Li
 
                      Hybrid Wheat Research Progress in Hebei Province
 
      The hybrids wheat research programme is sponsored by the Committee of
 Science and Technology in Hebei Province, China.  Since 1972 we have been
 working on it for 18 years.  A special research organization, Hebei Hybrid
 Wheat Research Institute, is renamed which used to be called Hebei Cooperated
 Research Team for Hybrid Wheat first, then Hebei Hybrid Wheat Research
 Centre.  Now there are 18 research staff in this programme who are from 8
 units including university, research institute, agricultural technical
 extension centre and state farm, etc.  In recent years the main research
 progress of hybrid wheat in Hebei province are:
 
      1.  New CHA Research.  New chemical hybridizing agents (CHA) with high
 efficiency and no-remnant poison have been successfully developed.  In 1987
 we undertook the new CHA to get a higher emasculation rate but no-remnant
 poison agent.  The new CHA research unit and its testing was done at the same
 time so that its utilization value could be identified in time as well as it
 could be used in the hybrid seed production as early as possible.  In 1988
 the first new CHA, No. 1 JIAHUA, was successfully developed whose
 emasculation rate was 95%.  In 1989 it was sprayed in a large area in
 Gaocheng county, the seed set rate on the female lines was 80% and hybrid
 seeds yield was 3.863 kg/ha in the hybrid seeds production field.  In 1990
 the second CHA, NO. 2 JIHUA was developed whose emasculation rate was 96.6%
 by which the yield of hybrid seeds was 3.083 kg/ha.
 
      2.  CHA Hybrid Wheat Breeding.  CHA hybrid wheat breeding has gotten
 good results.  Four good combinations, No. 1 HUAYOU, No. 2 HUAYOU, NO. 4
 HUAYOU and No.  6 HUAYOU, have been selected through 1500 crossing
 combinations with those two CHA's mentioned above, which all gave a superior
 heterosis.  For example, in 1989, 0.13 has was measured in the field on the
 hybrid what of No. 1 HUAYOU whose yield was 8.603 kg/ha.  In the harvesting
 time in 1990, the expert group entrusted by the Agricultural Bureau of Hebei
 Province confirmed the actual yield of No. 1 HUAYOU as 8.904 kg/ha in 0.21 ha
 after they measured the area and weighed the grain.  This yield is 26% over
 the check variety, No. 26 JIMAI.  It is not only the highest wheat yield
 record in Hebei province but also the highest yield record of hybrid wheat in
 China, which has been reported by the People's Daily, Guangming Daily,
 Farmer's Daily, Hebei Daily, CCTV and Hebei TV, etc.  Many farmers hope to
 plant hybrid seeds.  Now there are 10 hybrids with short stalk, long head,
 and big grain which are all in the testing and demonstrating phases.
 
      3.  T-CMS Line Hybrid Wheat Breeding.  Some good hybrids with Triticum
 timopheevii cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines have been selected.  From
 1976 to 1982, two hybrids, No. 4 SHIZA and No. 6 SHIZA, were released to
 Gaocheng county and Haixing county.  The yields were 26 to 43% over check
 varieties in the lower irrigated area.  In recent years we used the
 semi-dominant short stalk gene materials and get a number of high yield
 hybrids with middle height stalk.  Among them, No. 1 T-SHIZA is the best one
 whose yield was 7,500 kg/ha according to several years results.  In 1990 its
 yield was 7,899 kg/ha in the yield test of Hebei Crops Institute, Hebei
 Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences. Also in a large plot yield
 test it was 7,761 kg/ha which is 19.3% over the check variety No. 24 JIMAI.
 
      4.  New CMS Line Hybrid Wheat Breeding.  Five new CMS lines with
 Triticum aestivum cytoplasm have been developed through cobalt 60 radiation
 spontaneous and crossing which enriched the CMS resources.  Two hybrids have
 been selected for the lower irrigated area.  For example, the yield of
 JINGFENG A/80T3495 was 7,538 kg/ha in the yield test of the Hebei Crops
 Inst., in 1990.
 
      5.  R-Line Breeding.  In the process of selecting restorer lines, a
 number of new advanced lines have been developed which not only are good
 quality and good combining ability but also can be used as normal varieties.
 For example the restorer lines, C-609 and C-4102-5, have been released and
 planted on 13,333 ha in 1990.  The utilization of this kind of material in
 the production provides a good condition to help and promote the hybrids
 application as well as its extension.
 
      6.  Theoretical Research.  A lot of theoretical researches have been
 done on the male sterile lines and heterosis in morphology, cytology,
 physiology, biochemistry and genetics.  Forty research papers have been
 published in scientific journals both at home and abroad.  The Journal of
 Hebei Normal University Natural Sciences Edition edited a special one for
 hybrid wheat research in 1989.
 
 -------------------------
 
                           ITEMS FROM CZECHOSLOVAKIA
 
 Oseva - Cereal Research Institute, Kromeriz
 
 J. Smocek
 
      Gene resources with increased spike sink capacity.  The collection of
 gene resources (SFG - winter types) has been classified into three biological
 groups: multispikelet, multigrain (per rachis node), and heavy grain.  Mean
 values of the five most valuable gene resources selected according to the
 magnitude of the factor score are given below.  The stand density was 213
 plants per m2.
 
                Multispikelet     Multigrain   Grain #     Heavy grain
 SFG          Fertile spikelet     Grain #     per spike    One grain
 resources      # per spike       per spike    rachis node  weight (mg)
                                                                        
 VSS gene complex      38            154        6.45          54.2
 TSS gene complex      46            163        6.25          43.3
 NS gene complex       30            144        5.68          55.4
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 Standard cultivars:
 Hana (CS)             21             61        3.05          40.6
 SAVA (YU)             21             77        3.85          29.2
                                                                         
      Screwedness of the rachis.  The screwed spike can be an other access for
 improving the spike morphotype.  Spike screwedness has a genetic background
 Scr and causes the screwed spike rachis.  Scr 1 factor causes the screwedness
 of the spike rachis and peduncle.  Scr 2 factor causes only the screwedness
 of the spike rachis.  The screwedness can be either right- or left-handed.
 The expression of Scr 1 factor is influenced by environment less than that of
 Scr 2 factor. Gene resources of Scr 1 have been obtained by repeated spikes
 selection among the initial donor ZGK 242-82 (YU) and those of Scr 2 -
 Chiarano (I) plants.
 
      Values of spike sink capacity traits in the best Scr donors are
 presented for comparison.
 Gene      Fertile spikelet   Grain number    Grain number    One grain
 resources  # per spikelet     per spike       per spike      weight (mg)
                                               rachis node              
 Scr 1             34                120           5.57              51
 Scr 2             25                 92           3.52              46
                                                                         
      Research objectives.  New SFG gene resources are created, and at the
 same time, resources with spikes of normal morphotype NS and gigas types are
 preferred.  The main target for the near future is to incorporate SFG, gigas
 and Scr into one genotype.  The basic problem will be a more efficient use of
 available environmental sources.
 
      Another objective is to improve grain quality in gene resources and
 mainly by means of hybridization with Czechoslovac top-quality Hana cultivar.
 Standard cultivars used in 1991: Hana (SC) and Sava (YU) for European
 conditions. Caldwell and Cardinal (USA) are added.  We are interested in
 involving our working capacity in some foreign project and we would like to
 offer our gene resources for use in wheat breeding.  All information on
 possible collaboration will be greatly appreciated.
                                  PUBLICATIONS
 
 Smocek, J.  l991.  Gigas spikes in wheat with multiple sessile spikelets.
 Rostlinna Vyroba, 37, in press - Czech.
 
 Smocek, J. 1991.  High-productive gigas spikes of standard morphotype in
 wheat.  Rostlinna Vyroba, 37, in press - Czech.
 
 Smocek, J. 1991.  Screwedness of the spike rachis a new phenomenon in wheat
 spike morphology.  Rostlinna Vyroba, 37 in press - English.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague - Ruzyne
 
      L. Dotlacil, Z. Stehno, V. Sip, M. Skorpik, M. Vlasak
 
      Performance of European Winter Wheat Cultivars in Czechoslovak
 Conditions.  During the 1984 -1990 period, 107 productive winter wheat
 cultivars of European origin (including Czechoslovak ones) were tested at two
 sites (Prague, Klatovy) in two years.  Yield, its main components, stem
 length, leaf area and grain quality were estimated.  The results from
 different environments were compared as a relative value of check cultivars
 (mean of three Czechoslovak well adapted cultivars Regina, Zdar and Viginta).
 Yield stability was estimated as variance (s2) of yields in 4 environments.
 
      The German cultivar Apollo was best yielding (8.67 t ha-1) with good
 yield stability and lower to medium grain quality.  Grain yield was formed by
 a relatively dense canopy (500-650 spikes per m2) and higher grain weight
 (43-48 mg).  High productivity was also proved by cultivars Area (FRA),
 Ikarus (AUT) and Citadel (NLD).  Citadel also showed very low variability of
 yields.  Yields were formed by high grain weight (over 42 mg) and medium
 (Ikarus) or dense canopy (Ares, Citadel).  Medium grain quality was in Ares
 and Ikarus, low in Citadel.
 
      Among others, high yielding cultivars Kristall showed good yield
 stability, Kosack and especially Vlada and Markant had high grain quality.
 
 
 Table goes here
 
 
 
      Performance trials with near-isogenic lines for Rht genes.
 Near-isogenic lines carrying reduced height genes in the genetic backgrounds
 of the spring wheat varieties Nainari 60 (Mexico), and Maringa (Brazil) were
 obtained from CIMMYT, Mexico (we thank Dr. S. Rajaram) and tested in Central
 European conditions.  Performance trials with the Rht/rht lines (Table 1) and
 the check varieties Jara and Sandra (Czechoslovakia) were established in 1990
 at Prague- Ruzyne (altitude 350 m) with five replications (sowing rate: 250
 grains/m2).  The harvested area of the experimental units was 2.5 m2.
 
      The respective plant height reductions for Rht8, Rht1 or Rht2, Rht1Rht2
 and Rht3 were 4%, 18%, 44% and 55%. Date of heading has not been affected.
 Lines with Rht genes had in comparison with tall, rht, lines more ears and
 grains per m2 but reduced grain weight (proportionally to the shortening of
 stem length).  Grain yield per m2 averaged over all Maringa and Nainari 60
 lines (568 g) was 25% less than that of the top yielding Czechoslovak spring
 wheat varieties ara and Sandra (760 g).  Yield differences between
 near-isogenic lines were not statistically significant, except the Nainari 60
 Rht3 line which yielded less than the Nainari 60 lines with Rht1 and Rht2
 (LSD 5%=122).  The effect of Rht genes on SDS sedimentation volumes was not
 evident.  Due to the reduction of grain weight, the protein content per grain
 was lower in short genotypes.  Reductions of about 1% protein were found for
 the Rht1 and Rht2 lines.
 
 Table 1.  Characters of tall and dwarf near-isogenic lines                            
         Plant                  Grain              Plot          Protein/
          height  Ears  Grains/  weight  Grains/   yield  Protein  grain
 Genotype  (cm)    m2     ear     (mg)     m2      (g/m2)    %      (mg)
                                                                           
 Maringa
 Rht1      103    328     45      37.4    14759     552     13.1    4.90
 Rht2      104    343     45      38.4    15417     592     13.7    5.26
 Rht1Rht2   70    387     47      34.6    18179     629     13.7    4.74
 Rht3       55    397     42      32.4    16667     540     14.4    4.67
 Rht8      120    408     35      40.2    14279     574     15.0    6.03
    (Mara20)
 rht       125    325     42      41.8    13636     570     14.3    5.90
 Nainari 60
 Rht1       80    416     31      46.8    12885     603     14.2    6.65
 Rht2       79    354     35      49.4    12389     612     14.3    7.06
 Rht3       44    346     32      41.6    11058     460     15.1    6.28
 rht        97    276     38      52.6    10494     552     15.3    8.05
                                                                              
 
      Wheat Genetic Resources Evaluation in Czechoslovak Gene Bank.
 Preparation of the Czechoslovak wheat data base continued in 1990.  The main
 passport data have been completed and incorporated into international/East
 Europe/data base.  During 1989 - 90 vegetation period 430 winter and 226
 spring wheat genetic resources have been evaluated.
 
      An exceptionally mild winter season gave cause for good wintering of
 West/European cultivars with low winterhardiness and conditioned very early
 sowing of spring wheats.  High productivity of spikes was caused by a longer
 period of ripening during a colder July (see Table below).  Among winter
 cultivars, the Polish Oda and Jawa were the best yielding ones.  Six
 cultivars from the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, France and Austria surpassed
 the check cultivar Regina.  Only 3 spring cultivars and advanced lines from
 Mexico and Great Britain outyielded the Czech spring wheat cultivar Sandra.
 
 
 INSERT 3 HERE
 
 
 -------------------------
 
                               ITEMS FROM ESTONIA
 
      Institute of Experimental Biology of the Estonian Academy of Sciences,
 Department of Plant Genetics
 
      O. Priilinn, T. Enno, H. Peusha, M. Tohver, L. Timofejeva
 
      Mutants of economic value induced in Triticum aestivum.  In this short
 communication we report the results of the work of many years on production,
 screening and studying spring and winter wheat mutants from cultivars
 Norrona, Sappo, Leningradka, Mironovskaya Yubileinaya, Mironovskaya 808 and
 Starke.  The mutants were induced mainly by nitrosoalkylureas as NMU, NEU,
 NDMU and NDEU in various concentrations.  After treatment we separated mutant
 lines revealing morphological, biochemical and physiological changes as early
 and late ripening, short-statured, speltoid, awned, compactoid, squarehead
 forms, with rust and lodging resistance, increased productivity, high protein
 and lysine content and improved quality.  Now the number of mutants in our
 collection is about 1000 entries.  Some of these mutants possess a complex of
 agronomically important characters, and they may abe used as prospective and
 valuable material in the breeding program.
 
      The mutants L 3-24, S 7-4, and St 6-11-32 isolated after treatment with
 NMU and DAB have shown increased grain yield when compared with the parents
 Leningradka, Sappo and Starke over a long period.  Early maturity
 characterizes a winter wheat mutant ST 2-91; it ripens about 10 days earlier
 as compared to the parental cultivar Starke.  In the mutant, the earliness is
 linked with low productivity.
 
      Considerable efforts have been made in our breeding program to select
 wheat with excellent quality.  The grain protein content of mutant lines was
 unstable and depended on environmental conditions.  Some mutants with compact
 and awned ears (K-46, T-203, 0-496 from Norrona, 5-9 from Sappo, 44, 78 from
 Mironovskaya Yubileinaya) store a higher protein content compared with the
 parental varieties from year to year.  Many mutants with a high protein
 content have a low yielding capacity (K-46), sensitivity to frost (L 3-24)
 and other negative qualities, but in some mutants (0-495) the high protein
 content is combined with other valuable properties for selection, such as
 disease resistance and yielding capacity.
 
      The technological properties of wheat in our region are low on the whole
 (especially those of summer wheat), but the winter wheat varieties or mutants
 ometimes have good baking properties.  The changes in technological
 properties were connected with protein and its fractional content in the
 kernel as well as with the growing conditions of wheat.
 
       69 mutant lines of the variety Norrona and 31 of the variety
 Mironovskaya Yubileinaya were compared by the method of electrophoresis of
 the gliadins on polyacrylamide gel.  The gliadin patterns were characteristic
 for many mutants and were not connected with morphological changes in mutant
 lines, or with the structure of mutagens and their concentrations.
 
      Indirect utilization of induced mutations has also been started by means
 of crosses between mutants and between mutants and good cultivars.  The
 general purpose is to transfer the mutated characteristics into a better
 genetic background.
 
      Eleven mutant lines of spring wheat have been handed over to the world
 wheat collection at the N.I. Vavilov All-Union Institute of Plant Industry in
 Leningrad (catalogue N k58811-58824).  The data of these mutants are given in
 the table.
 
                                                                                       
                                     Plant                 Lysine
 Mutant         Mutagen     Plant     Kernel     Kernel    Protein     content
 parent          conc.,     height    weight     weight    content     in pro-
                   %          cm        mg          g         %        tein % 
 0-516 Norrona  NEU, 0.025     99       32.5       3.63      12-15       2.3
 0-495   "      NEU, 0.025     92       39.6       4.72      15-17       2.1
 S-82    "      NEU, 0.025     96       37.9       4.21      12-16       2.8
 T-13    "      NMU, 0.01      85       42.2       4.16      12-14       2.7
 146-155 "      NMU, 0.006    100       40.5       4.78      10-14       2.3
 T-36    "      NMU, 0.01     105       45.3       7.96      10-12       2.6
 T-203   "      NMU, 0.01      92       37.4       4.41      16-19       2.1
 K-46    "      NMU, 0.006     54       30.2       3.03      15-20       3.1
 L 3-24,        NMU, 0.01      88       43.9       3.48      11-13       2.3
     Leningradka
 S 7-4, Sappo   DAB, 0.05      92       43.9       4.04      10-11       2.2
 S 5-9, Sappo   NMU, 0.01      92       41.7       3.19      13-15       2.3  
 
      The inheritance of leaf rust resistance in some common wheat varieties.
 The genotypes of 13 common wheat varieties and selections from the World
 collection of the all-Union Research Institute of Plant Industry in Leningrad
 were screened for leaf rust resistance reaction in the growth chamber
 conditions.  The results of genetical hybridological analysis of F2-F3
 populations indicate that in 10 varieties resistance to leaf rust is
 conditioned by the Lr 23 gene.
 
 
      Segregation tests indicate that resistance of variety Harichicari is
 controlled by a single effective resistance gene of the Thatcher isogenic
 set. The results of this study indicate that breeding selection U-321627
 possesses two effective dominant genes conferring resistance to the leaf rust
 strain.  The results of hybridological analysis were supported by the data of
 phytopathological tests.
 
      The common wheat specimen K-45420 has one gene for leaf rust resistance,
 either allelic or closely linked with Lr 23 gene from Gabo or from Rocta and
 Crime, related to it.  The clones of the pathogen virulent to K-45420 are
 more often avirulent to Rocta and Crim, whereas the clones virulent to Rocta
 and Crim are always virulent also to the K-45420.  This pattern of reactions
 may be explained by the fact that Rocta and Crim actually possess at least
 two closely linked with Lr 23 genes for resistance, and the K-45420 has one
 of these.
 
      The gene of K-45420 differs from Lr 23 gene also by temperature
 sensitivity.  Lr 23 is more expressive at high temperature (27oC) at the
 period previous to infection, whereas the gene of eh K-45420, on the
 contrary, is not revealed at high temperatures.  The locus Lr 23, in spite of
 its composite structure, usually overcomes by the parasite in 5 to 6 years
 after the beginning of commercial cultivation of varieties protected by this
 gene.  Therefore the donors of the gene Lr 23 should be used with great care
 in wheat breeding.
 
      The isogenic lines of the wheat variety Thatcher possess an advantage
 for pathogen differentiation over the standard sets of
 differentiator-varieties.  It is ascertained that the Estonian population of
 Puccinia recondita represents a part of the European population.  The genes
 of resistance Lr 9, Lr 19, Lr 23 and Lr 24 are effective in Estonia as well
 as in Europe.
 
      Aneuploid studies.  The Chinese Spring monosomic set has been used for
 identification and localization of genes governing resistance to leaf rust in
 a mutant line T-13 induced by chemical mutagen's treatment of spring wheat
 variety Norrona.  Analysis of segregation patterns in F2 populations of
 monosomic plants and disomic controls indicated that resistance of mutant
 T-13 to Puccinia recondita clones is controlled by recessive genes located on
 7A and 4B chromosomes.
 
      Analysis of MI of meiosis in monosomic hybrids F1 permitted us to reveal
 the structural differences and reciprocal translocations between chromosomes
 of Chinese Spring and both Norrona and mutant T-13.  On the basis of
 trivalent configuration's frequency at MI of meiosis we assumed that the
 chromosomal interchanges between Norrona and Chinese Spring involve 4A/4D,
 1B/1D and 2B/6D, whereas mutant T-13 has translocations 3A/4B, 1B/3D and
 6B/7D in relation to Chinese Spring.
 
      Induction of homoeologous pairing in a wheat x rye and interspecific
 hybrids using ph1b mutant.  It is known that homoeologous pairing in wide f1
 hybrids is limited by the Ph gene located on long-arm of 5B chromosome in
 bread wheat.  The use of mutant ph1b with deletion of this locus gives a
 possibility for transferring of genetic materials from alien species to
 wheats.
 
      In our cytological studies all combinations of wheat x rye F1 hybrids
 showed practically no pairing among the 28 univalent chromosomes in MI of
 meiosis.  Analysis of meiosis in wheat x rye hybrids obtained with the use of
 ph1b mutant of Chinese Spring revealed relatively high rate of homoeologous
 pairing with the mean chromosome associations of 5.7 bivalents and 0.94
 multivalents per PMC in cross CS ph1b x self-fertile line of rye (Kc-517/8),
 and 5.0 bivalents and 0.54 multivalents in cross CS ph1b x rye Pamirskaya.
 Undoubtedly the rye genotype plays an important role in the intergeneric
 hybrids formation and effects on the behavior of meiosis.
 
      In our experiments on wide hybridization with bread wheat and its
 relatives, we used tetraploid wheat species well known as donors of disease
 resistance -
  Triticum timopheevii and T. militinae (genome AAGG).
 
      The data obtained from cytological analysis of meiosis in hybrids F1
 showed that in control crosses Chinese Spring x T. timopheevii and Chinese
 Spring x T. militinae the mean number of bivalents at PMC was 7.2 and 6.4
 respectively.  It is supposed that chromosomes of the A genome both of
 Chinese Spring and tetraploid species take part in bivalent formation whereas
 chromosomes of the B and D genomes of T. aestivum and the G genome of T.
 timopheevii and T. militinae remained in univalent condition or partially
 included in multivalent associations.  In hybrids CS ph1b x T. timopheevii
 and CS ph1b x T. militinae the mean amount of bivalents per PMC were 8.3 and
 8.7, respectively, and the number of PMC with multivalents was significantly
 increased - to 71%.  In hybrid plants F1 CS nulli-5B-tetra-5A x T. militinae
 the mean number of bivalents was equal 8.4.
 
      From present data, the conclusion may be drawn that the use of
 nulli-5B-tetra-5A line and mutant ph1b of Chinese Spring is an effective way
 for increasing the rate of recombinations of genetic materials and the
 inducing of homoeologous pairing of chromosomes.
 
      An electron microscope study of microsporocyte nuclei in wheat and
 wheat-rye hybrids F1.  The electron microscopic analysis of the meiotic
 prophase in the nulli-5B-tetra-5D compensated line of Chinese Spring has
 revealed an increased activity of nuclear membranes resulting in the
 formation of different kinds of membraneous structures.  The results of the
 present investigation indicate a possible connection between the absence of
 the 5B-chromosome and the nuclear membrane behavior in the meiotic prophase
 of wheat.
 
      A microspreading technique was used to allow ultrastructural analysis of
 synaptonemal complexes formation in euploid and haploid wheat, wheat-rye
 hybrids with or without 5B-chromosome and wheat-rye hybrids carrying either
 the Ph or the ph1b allele.  The euploid wheat, ph1b mutant and
 nulli-5B-tetra- 5D compensated line of Chinese Spring were crossed as female
 parent with Secale cereale cv. Pamirskaya.
 
 
      It is revealed that the ends of lateral elements in the PMC of wheat are
 attached to the nuclear envelope and that synapsis as initiated at the
 telomeric ends of chromosomes close to the nuclear envelope.  It is concluded
 that a misalignment of normally homologous regions at the nuclear envelope
 causes synaptic failure observed in 5B-deficient wheat.
 
      The absence of homologous chromosomes in haploid wheat's and wheat-rye
 hybrid's genomes does not affect the formation of synaptonemal complexes.
 Normal synaptonemal complexes form between homoeologous chromosomes.  the Ph
 gene does not act on the ability to form synaptonemal complexes.  In the
 nullisomic 5B hybrids and in the ph1b hybrids more lateral elements of
 synaptonemal complexes involve to multiple associations and pairing partners
 exchange more often than in euploid hybrids.  It is assumed that in common
 wheat ph1b gene may act on the rate of pairing stringency at meiosis.
 
                                  Publications
 
 Odintsova, I., Peusha, H.  1982.  Inheritance of resistance to brown rust in
 bread wheat specimens.  Bull. of Appl. Botany, Genetics and Plant Breeding,
 71:41-47.
 
 Odintsova, I., Peusha, H.  1984.  Regarding composite structure of the locus
 Lr 23 controlling resistance to brown rust in wheat. Bull. of Appl. Botany,
 Genetics and Plant Breeding, 85:13-19.
 
 Peusha, H., Odintsova, I.  1981.  A genetic differentiation of the Estonian
 population of leaf rust.  Proceed. of the Estonian Academy of Sciences,
 Biology, 30:44- 49.
 
 Priilinn, O., Shnaider, T., Peusha, T., Tohver, M.  1988.  Genetical
 peculiarities in the varieties and induced mutants of common wheat.  Tallinn,
 "Valgus", 299 p.  (In Russian).
 
 Timofejeva, L.  1986.  The activity of nuclear membranes during the meiotic
 prophase in the nulli-tetrasomic line of bread wheat.  Proceed. of the
 Estonian Academy of Sciences, Biology, 35:91-98.
 
 Timofejeva, L., Kolomyets, O., Vorontsova, N., Bogdanov, Yu.  1988.  An
 electron microscopic study of the synaptonemal complex in common wheat.  I.
 Initiation of synapsis.  Cytology (USSR), 30:390-394.
 
 Tohver, M.  1987.  Wheat mutants induced by chemical mutagens.  Proceed. of
 the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Biology, 36:301-305.
 
 Tohver, M.  1988.  Economically valuable forms of soft spring and winter
 wheat obtained by chemical mutagenesis in Nechernozemje.  Selskohozjaistv.
 Biology, 4:78-82.
 
 Shnaider, T. M.  1986.  Meiosis in interspecies pentaploid and tetraploid F1
 hybrids of wheat species.  Cytology and Genetics (USSR) 20:327-330.
 
 Shnaider, T., Priilinn, O.  1987.  Aneuploid studies at the Estonian SSR.
 EWAC Newsletter, Martonvasar-Cambridge. p. 51-54.
 
 Shnaider, T. M.  1988.  Meiotic behavior in wide hybrids of wheat species,
 obtained with the use of ph mutant.  Cytology and Genetics (USSR), 22:18-22.
 -------------------------
 
                               ITEMS FROM GERMANY
 
      Institute of Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben
 
      A. Boerner*, C. O. Lehmann, D. Mettin*, J. Plaschke, G. Schlegel, R.
 Schlegel*, G. Melz, V. Thiele
 
      GA-insensitivity of `Ai-bian' 1a'.  A subline, showing a plant height
 twice as long compared to Ai-bian1 (Rht10) but definitely shorter than Rht2
 carriers, was selected from the original seed stock of Ai-bian1, (kindly
 supplied by the Crop Germplasm Resources Institute, Bejing, China).  A
 GA-test has shown, that the subline, Ai-bian 1a was also insensitive to
 exogenous GA application, but characterized by a different level of reaction.
 The absolute seedling length of Ai-bian 1a was found to be intermediate
 between the length of Ai-bian 1 (Rht10) and Fakon (Rht2) used as controls.
 
      For studying the inheritance of the GA-insensitivity of Ai-bian 1a the
 line was crossed with Poros (rht), Lerma Rojo (Rht1, 4B-new nomenclature) and
 Fakon (Rht2, 4D).  The F2 populations gave a clear evidence for a monogenic
 segregation for GA-response and for the fact that the locus of the
 GA-insensitive Rht gene of Ai-bian 1a is the same as it was found for the
 Rht2 gene. This result supports the hypothesis of an analogous series of
 multiple alleles for GA- insensitivity on chromosome 4D, suggested for the
 corresponding Rht locus on chromosome 4B.
 
      Pleiotropic effects of isogenic Rht-lines.  Four sets of near isogenic
 lines carrying the genes/alleles rht (tall), Rht1, Rht2, Rht3, Rht1+2 or
 Rht2+3 in the genetical backgrounds of April Bearded, Bersee, Maris Huntsman
 and Maris Widgeon (developed in the Cambridge Laboratory, Norwich) were grown
 in field plots at one site in Germany and several sites in the UK during
 1990, for estimating the effects on plant height and yield.
 
      In the field trial of Germany (drilled plots, six replications) it was
 shown that the height reducing effects of the different Rht alleles and their
 combinations had the same sequence rht < Rht2 < Rht1+2 < Rht3 < Rht2+3 over
 all varieties.  Within the backgrounds of Bersee, Maris Huntsman and Maris
 Widgeon always the Rht1 and Rht2 lines gave the highest yield per plot (in
 Maris Widgeon together with the Rht1+2 line), whereas within the April
 Bearded series the lines Rht3 and Rht1+2 were the best.  The yield advantage
 was mainly due to a higher number of grains per ear. Overall the five
 isogenic Rht lines had significant more grains/ear than the tall controls.
 
      Instability of the blue grain colour.  The blue-grained wheat accession
 TRI 2401 (T. aestivum var. tschermakianum Mansf.) from the gene bank
 Gatersleben has been used for a further cytogenetic analysis of the aleurone
 colour aberrations which have been described earlier for members of the
 European group of blue-grained wheats with an obscure origin but not so for
 the blue-grained chromosomal introgression lines from Elytrigia pontica.
 Strain TRI 2401 was confirmed to be an alien substitution for chromosome 4A
 (new nomenclature) which confers the blue aleurone.  Reciprocal hybrids with
 Chinese Spring had non-blue (red) grains in F1, and segregated 3 non-blue
 (red) vs. 1 blue in F2.  This means that the gene(s) for blue pigmentation is
 fully expressed in three doses only.  In lower dosage the genetic information
 seems to be hypostatic.  The blue grain pigmentation of TRI 2401 reverted
 spontaneously to non-blue (red) with a frequency of about 1.4% in selfed
 progenies.  Most of these aberrations were monosomic for the alien
 chromosome.  The seed progenies of the monosomic segregated after selfing in
 a ratio of 67% non-blue (2n=41) and 33% blue (2n=42).  It is very likely that
 the revertants are due to aneuploid gametes which arise preferentially during
 macrosporogenesis due to nondisjunction.  In addition, blue aleurone spotting
 has been observed with a low frequency.  The decolourization of the aleurone
 cells is supposed to arise by alien chromosome loss during endosperm
 development.  The gene(s) for blue aleurone in the present European accession
 TRI 2401 seems thus not to be identical with the corresponding gene Ba in the
 derivates of the wheat-Elytrigia pontica crosses.
 
      Effect of Ph1 gene of wheat in diploid rye.  Experimental results
 demonstrated clearly that the dominant Ph allele of chromosome 5B of wheat
 affect the homologous pairing of rye.  A monotelosomic rye-wheat addition
 line 5BL was produced and used for meiotic studies.  Compared to
 14-chromosome control plants the 5BL addition to rye causes an increase of
 univalent (0.15 I/PMC) and rod bivalent formation (2.65 II rod/PMC), i.e., a
 significant reduction of chiasma frequency (111.21 Xta/PMC), while the 5BL
 telosome itself does not associate with any of the rye chromosomes.  Thus,
 the double dosage of 5BL, present in hexaploid or octoploid triticale, can be
 one of the main source of pairing failure of the rye genome.
 
                                  PUBLICATIONS
 
 Houben, A., Schlegel, R., Ahne, R., and Huhn, P.  1990.  C-Banding and
 computer-aided chromosome analysis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv.
 `Chinese Spring').  Arch. Zuchtungsforsch. 20:133-142.
 
 Melz, G. and Schlegel, R.  1990.  Genetic linkage map of rye (Secale cereale
 L., 2n=14).  In: S. J. O'Brien, ed. Genetic maps - Locus Maps of Complex
 Genomes, Cold Spring Harbor Lab. Press: 6137-6147.
 
 Pohler, W. and Schlegel, R.  1990.  A rye plant with frequent A-B chromosome
 pairing.  Hereditas 112:217-220.
 
 Schlegel, R.  1990.  Effectivity and stability of interspecific chromosome
 and gene transfer in hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum L. Kulturpflanze
 38:67-78.
 
 Schubert, V., Bluthner, W.-D., Metzlaff, M., Junghans, H. and Schlegel, R.
 1990.  The presence of four cloned highly repeated DNA sequences from rye in
 Poaceae species and various chromosomal manipulated wheat lines analyzed by
 sqash dot hybridization.  Physiol. Biochem. Pflanzen 186:125-133.
                          
 -------------------------
 
      Institut fur Pflanzenpathologie und Pflanzenschutz der Universitat, 3400
 Gottingen, Germany
 
      V. Vassilev*, J. von Kietzell, H. Toben, A. Mavridis, M. Gross and K.
 Rudolph
 
      Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens (PSA), the incitant of basal glume
 rot of cereals, causes losses of grain yield and deteriorates wheat and
 barley grain quality in the Soviet Union and Bulgaria.  The damage differs
 from year to year, depending on the weather conditions.  In West Germany
 basal glume rot of wheat and barley is widespread.  It seems possible that
 basal glume rot is more prevalent than recognized at present, because the
 symptoms are inconspicuous or are being confused with Septoria glume blotch
 (Leptosphaeria nodorum) or other diseases.  Symptoms on the wheat cv. Star,
 inoculated by spraying of heads at the milky ripe stage with PSA (P.a.13, 107
 cell/ml), were similar to those caused by Fusarium culmorum, Leptosphaeria
 nodorum or Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens, in addition to typical
 symptoms for basal glume rot.  Inoculation of adult wheat, barley and rye
 plants by spraying of heads resulted in typical basal glume rot symptoms and
 tip or full glume rot of Avena sativa (cv. Flamingsterm) and Avena fatua.
 PSA inoculation of young leaves of tobacco, sugar beet, maize and millet by
 Hagborg's device or pressure inoculation with a sprayer caused a
 hypersensitive response in all of the tested plants.  Old maize and millet
 leaves were immune to PSA.  Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata (PSApt) caused
 disease symptoms similar to PSA on adult barley leaves and heads, whereas
 wheat glume tissues were immune or highly resistant to PSApt.  Only PSApt
 caused a susceptible response in sugarbeet leaves.
 
      Acetone and butanol extractions, as well as certain ion exchange
 fractions from PSA, PSApt and P. syringae pv. syringae (PSS) showed high
 antibiotic activity against Geotrichum candidum, and Rhodotorula sp., and a
 lower effect against Escherichia coli K 12.  These preparations probably
 contained syringomycin (SR) and were highly toxic to plant tissue.
 Nevertheless, preliminary data revealed different bands from SR preparations
 of PSA, PSApt and PSS after electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).  SR was not specific
 for a particular host plant but appeared to be a major virulence factor since
 SR-strains showed low or no virulence on plants.
 
 * Present address: Institute of Introduction and Plant Genetic Resources,
 4122 Sadovo, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
 
 -------------------------
 
                               ITEMS FROM HUNGARY
 
      Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
 Martonvasar
 
      L. Balla, Z. Bedo, L. Szunics, L. Lang, Lu. Szunics, I. Karsai
 
      The 1989-90 crop year started well for wheat.  There was sufficient
 precipitation in October for good germination and emergence and wheat went
 into winter strong.  Winter was very mild, without snow and dry.  The drought
 lasted a long time and there was hardly any rain in spring either.  There was
 only 170 mm precipitation from October to the end of April.  Despite this the
 average yield was surprisingly good, 5.04 t/ha.  The leading wheat varieties
 were Mv 14, Mv 15, GK Othalom, GK Zombor and Jubilejnaja 50.
 
      Breeding.  Three new varieties have been registered recently.
 Montonvasar 19 was selected from the cross of GT 5239-2//Bezostaya dwarf/Zg
 1477-69.  The early ripening wheat has good breadmaking quality, high kernel
 weight, and outstanding frost resistance.  Martonvasar 20 is a selection from
 the Kavkaz/Mironovskaya 808//Kavkaz/Zlatna Dolina cross.  The midseason
 ripening variety has a 1B/1R translocation from Kavkaz.  The breadmaking
 quality is medium, it has a partial resistance to stem rust and sit is
 resistant to BYDV.  Martonvasari 21 is the highest yielding midseason variety
 in Hungary.  Its pedigree is So 1415/Iljitsovka//Posavka2.  Its breadmaking
 quality is medium.  Both new midseason Mv wheats have a high level of frost
 resistance.  We have 10 registered winter wheat varieties in commercial
 production and have a 42% market share in Hungary.
 
      Anther culture.  An experiment was carried out with the aim to study
 different genetic possibilities for improving anther culture response in
 winter wheat.  Two wheat varieties were involved. One of them was Mv 16 which
 possesses a high callus induction frequency and a high plant regeneration
 ability, the majority of plants being albinos.  The other was Fatima with low
 callus induction ability, high plant regeneration frequency and a relatively
 high green plant ratio.
 
      The results show that it is possible to carry out selection within a
 variety but the improvement is rather low due to the complexity of this
 trait.  The anther culture itself has no positive selection effect as the
 reaction dihaploid lines was similar or worse compared to their original
 genotype.  The highest result was achieved with the cross between the two
 varieties as their F1 possessed a callus induction ability as high as Mv16
 and much higher plant regeneration frequency than its parents, with
 appropriate green plant ratio.
 
      Disease resistance.  Due to the effect of a milder autumn, winter and
 spring powdery mildew spread fast on the weak plants, the warm, dry weather,
 however, arrested its spread and only a moderate infection developed.  The
 weather was not favorable either for leaf or stem rust infection.
 Practically no ear Fusarium or foot-rot was observed.  On some susceptible
 varieties Helminthosporium leaf blotch appeared in early spring.
 
      There was a strong virus infection hardly ever seen before in our
 breeding nursery.  In addition to barley yellow dwarf virus, brome-grass
 mosaic virus and wheat dwarf virus caused damage.  The plants infected in
 autumn or early spring were completely killed by the time of heading.  Among
 the registered Martonvasar varieties Mv 14, Mv 15, Mv 17, Mv 20 and Mv 21
 have satisfactory resistance.  The damage caused by leaf aphids is
 significant, too, decreasing grain yields by 39.3%, the grain weight by
 30.8%, and the harvest index by 10%.
 
      The physiological specialization of wheat powdery mildew was studied in
 detail.  The prevalent races and their frequencies were: 51 (20.5%), 75
 (19.1%), 46 (13.8%), 85 (8.6%), 67 (7.6%).  The ratio of races with virulence
 genes 5 (31.9%), 6 (24.3%) 7 (20.5%) was especially high.  The quantity of
 races virulent to genotypes with genes Pm 4a and Pm 4b is low.
 
      The resistance genes effective against common bunt are: Bt 1, Bt 2, Bt
 5, Bt 6, Bt 8, Bt 9, Bt 19.  Among the registered varieties only Martonvasari
 17 was resistant.
 -------------------------
 
      J. Sutka, B. Barnabas, O. Veisz, G. Galiba, M. Molnar Lang, G. Kovacs,
 E. Szakacs, B. Koszegi, R. Nagy, I. Takacs, G. Kocsy
 
      Genetic and cell biology studies.  A total of 41 regenerant plants were
 raised from two consecutive in vitro propagation cycles from a barley
 (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Martonvasari 50) x wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv.
 Chinese Spring) hybrid.  The second cycle regenerants exhibited great
 variability for the majority of morphological traits.  The female fertility
 of certain regenerant hybrids considerably exceeded that of the initial
 hybrid, giving substantially higher seed set when pollinated with wheat.
 This character was transferred to the BC1 and BC2 progeny produced from these
 regenerants.  The cytological analysis of the second cycle regenerants
 indicated that these had a higher degree of meiotic instability than the
 initial hybrid.  The proportion of cells with 28 chromosomes (21 wheat + 7
 barley) dropped to one- half of that in the initial hybrid, with a rise in
 the number of hypo- and hyperploid cells.  The number of chiasmata per cell
 increased from 1.7 in the initial hybrid to 4.7 in the regenerants, and there
 was also an increase in the number of misdivisions.
 
      Callus cultures of four varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were
 maintained on media containing 0.05 and 0.7 M mannitol as osmotic condition,
 and six varieties were grown on media containing 0.01, 0.2 and 0.34 M NaCl as
 saline condition.  To reveal genotype-dependent adaptive responses, growth,
 total N, total P, and changes in the internal Na and K concentrations were
 determined.  Under osmotic stress, the calli derived from the drought
 tolerant varieties.  Plainsman and Saberbeg showed less reduced growth as
 compared to the sensitive varieties, Cappelle Desprez, and Chinese Spring.
 Furthermore, low levels of total N and P, and high initial intracellular K
 concentration were recorded in the calli of the resistant varieties.  In
 contrast, the sensitive varieties elicited increased N and P levels, as well
 as low initial intracellular K concentrations.  Under salinity at 0.1 M NaCl,
 Plainsman, Caribo and the salt tolerant Sakha-8 maintained their growth rate,
 while an inhibition was observed in Cappelle Desprez, Chinese Spring and
 Regina.  Total N and P levels were similar to that under osmotic stress.
 Plainsman maintained low and constant levels, while a slight increase was
 recorded in the drought and the salt sensitive Regina.  Cappelle Desprez and
 Regina excluded Na, whereas the rest of the varieties accumulated it.  Only
 Sakha-8 and Caribo elicited enhanced intracellular K concentration with
 increasing salinity, while in the other varieties it remained unchanged or
 decreased.  Patterns of changes in water status, as shown by the fresh weight
 to dry weight ratio, were also characteristic for the genotypes.  It is
 concluded that the growth parameters, total N, P, and changes in Na and K
 concentrations can be considered as factors of adaptive value under osmotic
 and/or salt stress conditions.  Results suggest that callus cultures may give
 genotype dependent responses under osmotic and salt stress conditions.
 
      The brief consideration of some aspects of pollen biology indicates that
 the progress made so far in the field of structural and functional aspects of
 pollen is just the beginning.  The new discoveries have brought about the
 realization that pollen has potential application in practical biotechnology.
 
      The method for wheat anther culture has already been incorporated into
 the wheat breeding strategies in our institute.  At the present time
 different chromosome reduplication techniques were elaborated and compared to
 the conventionally applied methods.  As an experimental treatment, different
 concentrations of colchicine were added directly to the induction media.
 Colchicine did not affect the anther response and plant regeneration
 capacity.  The success and stability of genome redoubling was estimated on
 the basis of fertility of the regenerated plants and their progeny.
 Chromosome doubling produced by colchicine before the first microspore
 mitosis, was significantly more efficient than the conventionally-used
 techniques.
 
      Increasing the efficiency of the haploid induction from anther cultures
 we have developed a new liquid culture system where the regenerative haploid
 embryo production is very high, and from them we could make a long time cell
 suspension with good regeneration frequencies.
 
      Pollen biological investigations have verified lately that approximately
 65% of the analyzed genes in plant genomes are expressed both in sporophytic
 and gametophytic generations.  This genetic overlap gives the possibility of
 in vitro and in vitro pollen selection.  According to research results, the
 expression of genes responsible for adaptation are to be expected from the
 tetrad stage onwards, thus selection can principally be carried out already
 in microspores.  In vitro and in vitro pollen selection can be applied
 successfully to those species, in which pollen grains are viable and fertile
 for a relatively long period, thus giving an opportunity for treatment, while
 it is practically impossible in those species, where pollen live for a very
 short time (e.g., wheat).  In order to extend generative selection to these
 respective species, such in vitro selection systems are to be designed, in
 which maturation processes follow in vitro trends, yet the circumstances of
 these processes can be influenced.  This requirement is apparently met by
 floret culture.
 
      The in vitro pollen maturation methods elaborated in our institute in
 the last few years seems to be useful for gamete selection in wheat, too.
 Incubated florets started flowering 7-9 days after inoculation.  During this
 period the process of pollen maturation completely finished.  In in vitro
 circumstances, the pollen population in all genotypes was homogeneous, and
 consisted of trinucleate, 99% ripe pollen grains.  On the other hand, in
 vitro ripened pollen populations were more heterogeneous, and the results
 were genotype dependent.  For instance, in vitro ripened pollen grains from
 the variety Chinese Spring were in 66.8% normal trinucleate ones, in 19.5%
 juveniles, in 6.1% sterile ones, and in 1.7% multicellular forms.  In the
 case of the variety Orofen, the amount of normal pollen grains is lower
 (37.5%), and the amount of juvenile forms was considerably higher (51.8%).
 As a matter of interest, according to our results, the occurrence of
 abnormities was not influenced by the genotype.  In all cases, we experienced
 significantly lower fertilization rates for in vitro ripened pollen grains,
 dependent on the genotype.  This has not influenced the fertilization and
 phenotypical traits of the offspring generation, however.
 
      In the ultrastructural analysis of pollen, the most characteristic
 difference for in vitro ripened trinucleate pollen grains is the considerable
 thickening of the intine.
 
      In our selection analysis, we concluded that the pollen grains of the
 varieties Mv 8 and Dioszegi 200 show different cold tolerance, Mv 8
 tolerating cold stress relatively well, while the pollen of Dioszegi 200
 practically did not survive cold treatment during flowering.  The results
 refer also to the fact that this technology is applicable not only to the
 selection of male gametes, but to the selection of the female gamete
 population as well.  Thus, this method can be suitable for double selection,
 which helps progress in selection.  On the basis of these results, this
 method may be useful in breeding practices, while the determination of
 possible selection agents needs further investigations.
 
      In the scientific literature only a few articles have been dealing with
 sperm cell isolation from wheat pollen.  Probably it is due to the fact, that
 even wheat pollen grains themselves have short lifespan after shedding, which
 makes the isolation procedure difficult.  In our laboratory we have
 elaborated a relatively rapid technique for living sperm cell isolation from
 pollen grains in small quantities.  According to the FDA viability test the
 isolated gametes kept their viability for 15 minutes after the isolation
 procedure.
 
 
                                  PUBLICATIONS
 
 Barnabas, B., and Kovacs, G.  1990.  Pollen maturation in floret culture of
 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  In Barnabas, B. and Liszt, K.  (eds).
 Characterization of Male Transmission Units in Higher Plants.  Martonvasar,
 p. 59-61.
 
 Barnabas, B. and Kovacs, G.  1990.  Pollen biotechnology and its utilization
 for crop improvement.  Biotechnology, (Sophia), 1:14-16.
 
 Barnabas, B. and Kovacs, G.  1990.  Comparison of different methods for
 production of dihaploid plants from Triticum aestivum L. anther cultures.
 Abstracts of the VIIth International Congress on Plant Tissue and Cell
 Cultures. IAPTC, Amsterdam, p. 194.
 
 Nagy, R., Kristof, Z., and Barnabas, B.  1990.  Cytology of wheat (Triticum
 aestivum L.) pollen developed in vitro.  In Barnabas, B. and Liszt, K. (eds.)
 Characterization of Male Transmission Units of Higher Plants.  Martonvasar,
 p. 63-68.
 
 Szakacs, E. and Barnabas, B.  1990.  Sperm cell isolation from wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.) pollen.  In Barnabas, B., Liszt, K. (eds.):
 Characterization of Male Transmission Units in Higher Plants.  Martonvasar,
 p. 37-40.
 
 Molnar-Lang, M., and Sutka, J.  1989.  Magyarorszagon termesztett buzafajtak
 keresztezhetosege rozzsal.  (Crossability of wheat varieties grown in Hungary
 with rye.  Abstract in English). Novenytermeles, 38:479-484.
 
 Koszegi, B. and Sutka, J.  1990.  Aegilops cylindrica L. em. Thell. x
 Triticum aestivum L. F1 hibridek elemzese.  (Analysis in F1 hybrids of
 Aegilops cylindrica L. em Thell. x Triticum aestivum L. Abstract in English).
 Novenytermeles, 39:289-295.
 
 Jolankai M., Szunics, L., Szunics, Lu. and Lovei, I.  1990.  A szarrozsda
 fertozottseg hatasa a buza termesere es vetomag ertekere.  Novenytermeles
 39:(5) 393- 399.
 
 Szunics, L. and Szunics, Lu.  1990.  Rezisztencia genek felhasznalasa a
 buzalisztharmat elleni novenyvedelemben.  Noveytermeles 39:(1)1-9.
 
 Szunics, Lu. and Szunics, L.  1990.  Adatok a buzafajtak kouszog
 fertozottsegerol. Novenytermeles 39:(4)297-304.
 
 -------------------------
 
                                ITEMS FROM INDIA
 
      Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi
 
      S. M. S. Tomar*, K. D. Srivastava and D. V. Singh
 
      Screening of wheat species and few amphidiploids for Karnal Bunt (KB)
 resistance: Alien species of wheat provide a unique source of genetic
 variability for wheat improvement with respect to biotic and abiotic
 stresses.  Recently, in India Karnal Bunt (Neovossia indica) is appearing in
 severe forms in major wheat growing areas of north west and tarai regions,
 although the disease was first identified long back in 1939.  In certain
 years the natural incidence has been observed as high as 25 per cent.  This
 problem assumed serious proportion in mid seventies when commercial cultivars
 WL711 and HD2009 got severe infection.  Most of the present day Indian wheat
 cultivars show susceptibility to KB under artificially inoculated conditions.
 To identify the diverse sources for KB resistance, some wheat species and a
 few amphidiploids (Table 1) were screened against the culture of Neovossia
 indica under artificial inoculated conditions for over two years.  The viable
 sporidial inoculum was put into the plant with a hypodermic syringe at the
 boot leaf stage.  Too high humidity was maintained by perfo-spray in the
 greenhouse.  Screening of related wheat species against Neovossia indica may
 provide an effective source of resistance which should be manipulated in
 breeding programmes to control the pathogen.
 
      Table 1.  Per cent infection of wheat species and some amphidiploids             
               against Karnal Bunt under artificially inoculated conditions
                                                                              
 Per cent infection             Wheat species and amphidiploids
                                                                              
       0               Triticum tauschii, T. dicoccoides (accession Nos. 
                       G1456, G1458, G1460, G2067, SWAN238, SWAN248, 
                       SWAQN251, TTDO8 and TTD13)
                       T. aestivum cv Chinese Spring, T. spelta album,
                       T. spelta grey, Amphidiploids: Chinese Spring/
                       Agropyron elongatum (2n=56), Chinese Spring/A. 
                       junceum (2n=56),
     0 - 5             T. aegilopoides
     5 - 10            T. dicoccoides TTD23, T. timopheevi (PBI) 
                       T. durum var. Nordum/A. elongatum, 2n=42
    10 - 15            T. araraticum 
    15 - 20            T. zhukovskyi
 More than 20          T. aestivum cv. WL711                                  
 
 -------------------------
 
      Regional Station, Wellington and Division of Genetics
 
      M. Kochumadhavan, S. M. S. Tomar* and P. N. N. Nambisan
 
      Improvement of wheat cultivars through backcross breeding: Wheat is
 attacked by many foliar diseases, among which rusts are more prominent.
 Alien species of wheat have been exploited for imparting resistance against
 more than one pathogen.  There are many examples to cite.  Usually resistance
 derived from alien sources causes depression in yield (The et al., 1988).
 Stem and leaf rust resistance (Sr24 Lr24) derived from Agropyron elongatum
 has been introgressed into Indian cultivars Sonalika and Kalyansona (AWN Vol.
 34).  The improved cultivars along with the checks have been tested at
 multilocation for yield.  Results given in Table 1 indicate that the genes
 Sr24 Lr24 which have origin in alien species A. elongatum do not have any
 deteriorating effect on yield.  It may not be true that alien genes are
 always associated with reduced yield.  The cultivars have also been assessed
 for adult plant resistance at different locations under artificial and
 natural epiphytotic conditions.  Results of seedling tests show that the leaf
 rust resistance gene is effective against virulent races 12-1, 12-2, 77A,
 77-1, 104 and 107 of Puccinia recondita.
 
      Genes Sr24 Lr24 have also been incorporated in other Indian cultivars:
 C306, HD2329, Lok 1 and WH147 which are occupying a large area under
 cultivation in different wheat zones of the country.  These cultivars
 improved for stem and leaf rust resistance have been constituted after seven
 backcrosses.  The resistance source used was an Australian line TR 380-14 #
 7/3 developed by R. A. McIntosh.  The backcross breeding programme was
 carried out at Wellington where rust perpetuate throughout the year.  This
 station provides the facility of raising an off-season crop hence the time
 taken in completing 6-7 backcrosses is reduced to half.
 
      Table 1.  Yield performance of improved cultivars in comparison to checks.
                                                                    
      Cultivars                          Mean Yield Q/ha            
      HW 2001A (Sr24 Lr24)                     31.1*
      HW 2001 + (Sr24 Lr24)                    30.6*
      Sonalika                                 30.5*
      HW 2002 (SR24 Lr24)                      44.5**
      Kalyansona                               41.6**
                                                                     
      * mean yield over 20 locations; ** mean yield over 8 locations
      + 6 backcrosses
 
 -------------------------
 
      Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute - New Delhi
 
      R. N. Sawhney, H. B. Chowdary, J. B. Sharma and D. N. Sharma
 
      Durable Resistance to Leaf Rust.  Cultivars with durable resistance to
 stem and stripe rusts either due to combination of specific genes as in the
 case of stem rust or due to an indefinite number of adult plant resistance
 genes, apparently of non-specific type, as in the case of stripe rust, are
 known from different parts of the world.  Resistance to leaf rust in many
 improved cultivars, however, has usually been based on major specific genes
 which generally succumb to the appearance of new virulent races in a short
 span of time.  Identification of sources and understanding of the mechanism
 of durable resistance to leaf rust, the most widespread disease of wheat,
 have therefore, special significance for resistance breeding to rusts.
 
      Tests for resistance to leaf rust in wheat lines carrying complementary
 genes Lr27 and Lr31 and these genes in Chinese Spring substitution lines
 which contains Lr34, have shown that Lr34 interacts with the complementary
 genes to give enhanced levels of adult plant resistance in field conditions.
 The complementary genes Lr27 and Lr31 in a stock `Shortim' were observed to
 be complementary ineffective.  Combination of Lr34 and complementary genes
 Lr27 and Lr31 have, however, produced field resistance of very high level in
 contrast to the field resistance of moderate level produced by Lr34 when
 present alone.
 
      Lr34 seems to play an important role in imparting durability to leaf
 rust resistance because most of the durable resistance to leaf rust is
 associated with a few adult plant gene combinations such as Lr13 and/or Lr12
 and Lr34.  Thatcher lines with Lr12 and Lr13 are completely ineffective in
 Indian conditions whereas Lr34 has shown moderate level of field resistance.
 Furthermore, a Brazilian wheat `Frontana' and `Chinese Spring' maintaining
 leaf rust resistance for several decades have Lr34 in common.  Lr34 has also
 close analogy with Sr2, an adult plant stem rust resistance gene which is
 also known to interact with other genes for durable resistance to stem rust
 and is seldom present alone.
 
 
      Study of adult plant resistance to leaf rust.  Tests of isogenic lines
 of wheat carrying known specific genes for resistance to leaf rust have shown
 that a gene controlling only adult plant resistance in contrast to a seedling
 gene for resistance that is generally effective in all stages of plant
 growth, could be race specific.
 
      Isogenic lines carrying genes for leaf rust resistance when tested with
 Indian population of leaf rust pathogen over years have shown that Thatcher
 lines with Lr14b, Lr14ab, Lr30 and Lr34 have moderate level of leaf rust
 resistance in field conditions (Table 1).
 
                                   Table 1                            
                     
                                              Field Response          
         Genotype                    1987      1988      1989      1990
         Tc + Lr14b                  1OR       20MR      10MS      30MR
         Tc + Lr14ab                 10R       30MR       -        60MS
         Tc + Lr30                   20MR      20MS    30MR-MS   10MR-MS
         Tc + Lr34                    -        20MS      30MS    30MR-MS
         Thatcher (Tc)               80S       80S       80S        90S
                                                                         
 
      In seedling tests, all these lines were reported to be susceptible to
 almost all important races of leaf rust.  In addition, Thatcher lines
 carrying Lr21 and Lr22a derived from Aegilops squarrosa continue to confer
 high degree of adult plant resistance.
 
      These studies would suggest that field resistance in these lines is due
 either to enhanced resistance of known specific genes or that different
 associated unidentified genes have provided the adult plant resistance.
 
      Genetic diversity for adult plant resistance to leaf rust in lndian
 wheat cultivars.  Sixty-one wheats released for cultivation in different
 parts of the country were tested with four leaf rust races, selected for the
 identification of additional resistance operative only at the adult plant
 stage, in four isolated nurseries.  The results enabled the recognition of
 six distinctive response groups suggesting the operation of six adult plant
 resistance genes on the basis of gene-for-gene model.
 
      Breeding for resistance to multiple diseases: (a) Introgression of alien
 genes in Kalyansona and Sonalika for resistance to rusts.  In a backcross
 breeding programme, many effective genes of alien origin conferring
 resistance to one or two or even three rusts have been successfully
 introgressed in popular wheat varieties Kalyansona and Sonalika.  A
 Kalyansona derivative, DL 896-2, deriving resistance of Agropyron elongatum
 (Lr24/Sr24) has been selected for extensive testing in minikit trials in the
 Peninsular zone by the Special Committee of Varietal Identification in the
 All India Wheat Workers' Workshop held in 1990.  Many other lines have been
 recognized as improved stocks without depression in yield and resistance to
 two or even all the three rusts.  A few of them have also been found to be
 resistant to Karnal bunt.  (b) Kundan, a dwarf bread wheat developed from a
 simple Cross, Tonari 71 X NP 890 and released for water stress environment in
 the North West Plain Zone, the major wheat growing part of India, has
 recently become extremely popular with the farmers including those from
 Punjab where major areas of wheat are grown with optimum levels of input
 producing highest average yield in the country.
 
      The popularity of this wheat is possibly due to its consistent
 performance under rainfed to limited water input and optimum irrigation.  A
 fairly large irrigated area under wheat in Punjab is rotated with paddy or
 cotton or potato as summer crop where late planting of wheat is practiced.
 Kundan is reported to perform the best in comparison to other wheats under
 late planting and this is another attractive feature of this cultivar which
 possibly has made Kundan very popular with the farmers of Punjab.
 
      Kundan combines the two major criteria of a good cultivar i.e., stable
 yield in water limiting environment and high average yield in favourable
 environment, the most important attributes in subsistence agriculture.  The
 character of plump grain filling with high kernel weight under water limiting
 environment and even under short duration could be due to water use
 efficiency of the genotype.  This would suggest that selection for plump
 grain character in water stress environment may be one of the important
 selection criteria for stable performance of a genotype from water stress to
 optimum level of irrigation.  The high yield up to a level of other best
 wheats in cultivation for high input technology, besides its suitability to
 water stress conditions, support the concept that yield potential and drought
 resistance are controlled by the same genetic systems in contrast to the view
 that drought resistance and high yield potential are controlled by separate
 and distinct genetic systems.
 
      The level of leaf rust resistance attained in Kundan is being maintained
 for 10 years (Table 2), in spite of the fact that many new pathotypes have
 appeared during this decade.
 
 Table 2.         Leaf rust resistance of Kundan (DL 153-2) over ten years
                            carrying genes Lr14a, Lr23 + APR
                                     Field Response
                                      Av. Coefficient
 Crop Season      Max. Infection        of infection           Source
 1979-80              30S                   6.2        Report on Plant Patho-
                                                       logical Screening               
                                                      Nursery, AICWIP 1980
 
 1980-81              20S                   6.6                " 1981
 
 1988-89              10S                   6.0                " 1989
 
 1989-90   North      40S                   8.3                " 1990
           India
           South      30S                   7.7                " 1990
 
      These results indicate that Kundan has durable resistance to leaf rust.
 In addition, Kundan has been reported to be resistant to race `K' of stripe
 rust which attacks many of the improved wheats.  Its tolerance to Alternaria
 triticina and Helminthosporium sativum is another outstanding feature of
 Kundan because no other wheat in cultivation has been found to possess
 combined tolerance for these pathogens.
 
      The strategic breeding programme aimed at consistent performance for
 high yield potential from water stress to limited water and optimum
 irrigation including suitability for extended dates of planting and
 introduction of diverse genes for resistance to multiple diseases including
 use of durable sources for resistance to rusts has led to the development of
 a large number of promising lines.  Some of the strains such as DL 377, DL
 788, DL 802 and DL 803 have already established operation of several of these
 attributes which should serve either in the production of successful
 cultivars or as improved stocks to be used in further breeding programmes.
 
 -------------------------
 
      P. C. Pande1, Shantha Nagarajan1, D. Singh2 and H. N. Pande2
 
      Nuclear Research Laboratory1 and Division of Genetics2
      Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012
 
      Number of Vascular bundles and their relationship to lodging resistance
 in hexaploid wheat.  Increase in number of vascular bundles of large size per
 unit area is associated with improved lodging resistance in the stem.
 Lodging of wheat crop is induced as a result of the interplay of number of
 factors adversely affecting either the capacity of the root system which
 supports the shoot, strength of stem to support the shoot or both.  The
 strength of stem, particularly that of peduncle region which support the
 weight of spike, assumes special importance in the light of the attempts to
 increase grain yield by increasing the partitioning of dry matter to the
 grain.  From the studies in which lodging was induced in the same genotype by
 changing an environmental factor, it was concluded that the number of
 vascular bundles remained unchanged but the lignification of cell walls of
 the hypoderm was reduced and was mainly responsible for lodging.  However, it
 is not known if the same is true for genetic characters in the stem providing
 lodging resistance to the stem.
 
      In the present study three extensively studied wheat genotypes under
 field conditions in IARI and New Delhi were used since they differ widely in
 their resistance to lodging.  Wheat genotype IWP-5308 is highly prone to
 lodging and requires support for the shoot, genotype Kalyan Sona is more
 resistant to lodging and genotype Selection III is most resistant out of the
 three.  The three wheat genotypes were grown in pots under identical normal
 growth conditions to ensure uniform environment for growth.  The mid-region
 of the peduncle was studied at 25 days after anthesis for characters like
 external diameter, wall thickness, number of vascular bundles per unit area
 nd the size of vascular bundles.
 
      It may be noted from the table that the most positively associated
 morphological stem character with lodging resistance is the number of
 vascular bundles per unit area, being highest in Selection III.  This
 character seems to provide more strength to the stem of Selection III since
 trachieds provide structural support for the plant and their rigidity is
 increased by the secondary thickening that is laid down.  The next important
 parameter which seems to be of some consequence is the external diameter of
 stem.  Thus, attempts should be made to incorporate these character in wheat
 through breeding to improve lodging resistance and consequently seed yield.
 
 Table - Relationship between relative lodging resistance and number of vascular  
        bundles per unit area and diameter of peduncle in three wheat genotypes.  
                       
      External diameter of           Number of vascular bundles 
      peduncle at the middle              at the middle of 
      Wheat genotype              of peduncle ( m)        peduncle per mm2)    
      Selection III               2635 + 0.0                   89 + 0.2
      (Relatively more 
       lodging resistance)
 
      Kalyan Sona                 2759 + 4.0                  79 + 0.2
      (Relatively less
       lodging resistance)
 
      IWP - 5308                  2480 + 3.5                  78 + 0.2
      (Relatively least
       lodging resistance)
                                                                         
                                        
 -------------------------
      M. K. Upadhyay and B. Singh
 
      Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
 - 110012
 
      DT 18 - a promising triticale for the northern hills.  The northern
 hills of India are the foci of infection for stripe and leaf rusts of wheat.
 It is estimated that about 10% of wheat crop is lost every year due to rusts.
 To avert this huge loss, cultivation of rust resistant varieties in the hills
 is recommended.  Triticale by virtue of its high degree of resistance to
 wheat disease, particularly rusts, adaptability to cooler temperatures,
 moisture deficient and light soils of the hills is an ideal crop by this
 region.  DT 18, a recently developed triticale, has given promising results
 in the multilocation trials conducted during the last three years in the
 northern hills.
 
      Triticale DT 18, developed from the cross TL68/DTS940, is medium tall in
 height and medium early in maturity with good tillering potential.  Spikes of
 DT18 are fully bearded and fusiform with white glumes.  Leaf sheath, leaf
 blade and glumes are waxy and the peduncle is hairy.
 
      The yield performance of DT18 as compared to semidwarf, high yielding
 wheat cultivars Sonalika and CPAN 1796 in three years of trials conducted in
 the Northern Hills Zone under rainfed, timely sown conditions under the All
 India Coordinated Wheat Improvement Programme is presented below:
                                                                         
                Number                    Zonal Yield (g/ha)     
 Year          of Trials          DT18      Sonalika     CPAN 1796     C.D.  
 1987-88            4               17.1       15.7          17.7       2.6
 1988-89            6               26.7       23.5          22.2       2.3
 1989-90            4               29.1       16.2          22.7       3.0
 Mean                               24.3       18.5          20.9
 Percent increase over wheat                   31.3          16.3
                                                                                
 
      DT 18 gave significantly higher yields over wheat cultivars Sonalika and
 CPAN 1796, which are under extensive cultivation in the northern hills,
 during 1988-89 and 1989-90.
 
      In three years of multilocation disease screening under artificial rust
 infection in the Plant Pathological Nursery, DT 18 showed no infection to
 leaf and stripe rusts while maximum reaction up to 100S was recorded on
 Sonalika and 65S on CPAn 1796.  DT 18 was also free of both powdery mildew
 and loose smut while the wheat cultivars showed a high degree of
 susceptibility to these diseases. DT 18 was also resistant to races of stripe
 and leaf rusts in seedling stage, which is very desirable feature in this
 triticale as the northern hills is the foci of infection for these two rusts
 and the inoculum is present throughout the year.
 
      The grains of DT 18 are red, semi hard to hard in texture, medium bold
 with protein content of 11.7% and a 77 min. pelshenke value.  DT 18 is
 comparable to wheat
 
 in grain size, protein and grain texture.  It's pelshenke value and a chapati
 score is slightly lower than wheat.
 
      DT 18 clearly established its superior performance over wheat cultivars
 Sonalika and CPAN 1796 with regard to its yield potential and disease
 resistance.  In view of its superior performance DT 18 was recommended for
 farmers' field demonstrations in the northern hills by the 29th All India
 Wheat Research Workers' Workshop held at Kumarganj, Faizabad in August, 1990,
 in order to get farmers response to this new crop.
                                        
 -------------------------
      Dalmir Singh
 
      Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi
 
      Location of genes and induction of homoeologous recombinants between
 wheat and rye
 
       Wheat-rye recombinants resistant to all three rusts of wheat.  Material
 having rust resistance from strains of Secale cereale was evaluated in the
 Bc1 F6 generation.  It was observed that the recombinant lines were resistant
 to all three rusts of wheat.  Plants possessing aestivum type of features
 were also observed.  These aestivum type of plants were also evaluated for
 rust resistance at the Wellington (IARI, Regional Station in the Nilgirl
 Hills of Tamil Nadu State of India) station, where all the rust pathogens
 propagate in natural conditions.  It was observed that these aestivum types
 of recombinants are also resistant to all the rusts of wheat.  These lines
 having rust resistance from rye, probably will be very useful in transferring
 these genes to protect the newly developed cultivars from the rust pathogen
 for a longer duration.
 
      Self compatible rye mutants.  Single spike progenies of selfed rye were
 planted in the field for M3 generation.  About 250 spikes from different
 plants were again selfed and seeds were harvested separately.  The spike
 fertility was determined.  Observations made on the spike fertility revealed
 the range of fertility from 0.0 to 89.0%.  Spikes possessing self fertility
 over 20.0% have been retained and planted in the field for further
 evaluation.  Among these spike progenies, variation has been observed for
 grain color and hairy peduncle.  The effect of self fertility is being
 studied on the feasibility of the gene(s) transfer from rye to wheat.
 
      Genes involved in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll content in a hexaploid
 wheat selection III.  Using monosomic line 3A of variety Pb. C591 as female
 parent and sel. III (a strain possessing very high grain weight and protein
 content) as male parent, crossed seeds were obtained.  In the F1, hybrids
 were identified cytologically and seeds were taken from disomic and monosomic
 hybrids separately.  The seeds were germinated in the petridishes.  The data
 obtained from the segregation of the seedlings of these hybrids suggested
 that there is only one gene in selection III which is involved in the
 biosynthesis of chlorophyll contents in this culture.  The detailed studies
 of these data have indicated that the gene in question is located on
 chromosome 3A.  Crosses involving ditelocentrics 3AL, 3BL, and 3DL of variety
 Chinese Spring have revealed its being located on the long arm of chromosome
 3A.
 
      Chlorophyll content biosynthetic gene(s) in variety Mara.  A study was
 undertaken to identify and locate the gene(s) involved in the biosynthesis of
 chlorophyll contents in variety Mara.  For identification of these gene(s)
 variety Mara was crossed with monosomic line 3A of variety Pb. C591.  F2
 segregation of green and albina seedlings of disomic and monosomic F1 hybrids
 revealed there are at least two genes present in variety Mara which are
 involved in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll contents.  The crosses involving
 ditelocentrics 3AL, 3BL, and 3DL of variety Chinese Spring and variety Mara
 produced only green seedlings in their F2 population which made things
 difficult to determine the genes on the specific chromosomes and chromosome
 arms.
 
      The effects of storage on the seeds of aneuploid lines of wheat.  A
 detailed study was undertaken to study the effect of storage on the seeds of
 monosomic lines of variety Pb. C591 except monosomic line 5B. The seeds were
 stored for 3 years under uniform conditions and were compared with the 4th
 year seeds (freshly harvested seeds).  The observations were taken on the
 seed germination, coleoptile length, seedling height, root length and root
 number.  Based on the observations made on these traits the following
 conclusions were drawn:
 
      1. For seed germination there were at least 8 chromosomes (1A, 1B, 1D,
 3D, 4A, 4D, 5A and 6B) found to be involved in normal seed germination.  Out
 of these, chromosomes 1A, 4A and 6B possessed major genes for seed
 germination.
 
      2.  Coleoptile length was affected by at least 9 chromosomes (1B, 2B,
 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 6B, 7A and 7D) found to promote the length of coleoptile
 while chromosomes 7B was found to inhibit coleoptile length.  Chromosomes 1B,
 4A and 5A were found to carry genes with major effect.
 
      3.  Chromosomes 1B, 4A 5A and 6A were found to promote seedling height.
 Chromosome 7B on the other hand was found to carry gene(s) for inhibiting the
 height of the seedlings.
 
      4.  The root length trait was affected by at least 4 chromosomes (1B,
 4A, 5A and 6D).
 
      5.  Root number was found to be very stable.  Only one chromosome (4A)
 was found to be associated with the development of root number.
 
 
 
                                  PUBLICATION
 
 Singh, D.  1989.  Chlorophyll synthetic genes in Triticum sphaerococcum.
 Photosynthetica, 23(1).
 
 -------------------------
 
      Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya - Department of Plant Breeding
 and Genetics, Palampur, H.P.
 
      G. S. Sethi, Satish C. Sharma, K. S. Thakur, Ashwani Kumar, D. L.
 Sharma, Shyam Verma and H. K. Chaudhary
 
               Advances in wheat improvement in Himachal Pradesh
 
      Shuttling of wheat breeding material under diverse agro-climatic
 conditions.  The wheat breeding material generated was shuttled at different
 altitudes during winter 1989-90 at Dhaulakuan (456m), Bajaura (1098m) and
 Palampur/Malan (1300m) which are the hot spots of stripe rust, leaf rust and
 powdery mildew, respectively, and in summer 1990 at Kukumseri (2300m) which
 is the hot spot for stripe rust and powdery mildew.  The segregating
 materials shuttled, evaluated and selections made at these locations in the
 State are given below:
                                                                                       
                                              Cultures        
 Generation     Location              Evaluated          Selected        
 F1          Palampur           136 populations       136   
 F2          Bajaura            209 populations       382 single plants
 F3          Palampur, Dhaula  1038 progenies         325 single plants
             Kuan, Malan and Kukumseri
 F4          Palampur, Dhaula   605 progenies         215 single plants
             kuan and Kukumseri
 F5          Palampur and       206 progenies         110 single plants 
             Kukumseri
 F6          Palampur and       103 progenies          30 progenies
             Kukumseri           60 bulks              19 bulks
 F7          Palampur, Malan     47 bulks              42 bulks
             and Kukumseri
 F8          Malan               30 bulks              19 bulks
                                                                         
 
      Also, 136 new crosses were made at Palampur involving agronomic bases
 and the donor parents with resistance to leaf and stripe rusts (Veery's CPAN
 3004, CPAN 2099, HUW 258, CPAN 1990, HW 971, CPAN 1992, HS 207), loose-smut
 resistance (PBW 65, VL 646), powdery mildew resistance (HS 207, HS 240, CPAN
 1922) and grain quality (CPAN 2016, CPAN1946 and CPAN 2019.
 
      Evaluation and utilization of National and International wheat
 germplasm.  A total of 693 genetic stocks of wheat selected at the National
 Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, IARI, New Delhi, were evaluated at
 Palampur, Bajaura and Malan for their growth habit, plant type, maturity,
 grain characters and resistance to stripe and leaf rust (under artificial
 epiphytotic conditions at Bajaura and Malan).  Based upon these characters,
 290 genetic stocks were selected for use in our wheat breeding programme.  In
 addition, 450 stocks were also screened in the seedling stage against a
 mixture of leaf rust races in the glasshouse and immune and resistant lines
 have been selected.
 
      Development of new cultivars.  Two new wheat cultivars, HPW 49 and HPW
 42, have been developed for early sown rainfed conditions and for high
 altitude areas of the State, respectively.  These cultivars possess high
 degree of resistance to stripe and leaf rusts.  The performance of these
 cultivars in the Northern Hill Zone during the last 3 years under the
 All-India Wheat Coordinated Trials is given in Table 1.
 
 Table 1.  Performance of promising wheat cultivars in the Northern Hill Zone,
           with maximum severity of rusts at adult-plant stage under artificial        
          epiphytotic conditions.
                                                                                       
                                    
 Mean      Reaction to   Cultivar/Production           Grain yield q/ha      
        grain   Stripe             Leaf
          condition           1987-88   1988-89   1989-90  yield   rust    rust
                                                                              
 Early Sown, Rainfed
 HPW 49                      34.2      23.6      47.2     35.0    0       10MS
 VL 616 (check)              35.2      23.5      37.3     32.0    10S     80S
 Timely Sown, High Altitude
 Rainfed
 HPW 42                     30.8      20.0      19.9     23.6    0       10S
 Sonalika(C)                22.4      22.5      17.3     20.7    20S     80S
                                                                         
 
      Identification of wheat genetic stocks for resistance to stripe rust,
 leaf rust and powdery mildew.  A total of 860 genetic stocks of wheat were
 screened under artificial epiphytotic conditions of stripe and leaf rust
 created by spraying 4-5 times a mixture of races viz. 12, 77, 77A, 104, 108
 and 162 of leaf rust and 20, 31, and K of stripe rust at 7-day intervals
 starting from second fortnight of February.  The data were recorded on
 terminal disease severity, during the last week of April when Sonalika and
 some other susceptible checks viz. Agralocal, WL 711, Kalyansona and Lehmi)
 showed 100S severity of both the rusts, based on modified Manner's (for
 stripe rust) and Cobb's (for leaf rust) scale.  The powdery mildew studies
 were undertaken in the laboratory by inoculating 10-day old seedlings raised
 in enamelled trays, by uniformly dusting conidia of an isolate, collected
 from Palampur, with avirulence/virulence formulae of P Pm1, Pm2, Pm3a, Pm4,
 Pm6, Pm8/p pm 3b, pm 3c, pm5, pm7, pmMA.  The data were recorded 10 days
 thereafter using 0-4 scale as suggested by Smith and Blair (1950).  Out of
 all the stocks so screened, only 14 agronomically superior wheat genetic
 stocks, having resistance to both the rusts were selected.  These stocks are:
 7DSN-55, EIGSN-51, EIGSN-138, EIGSN-141, EIGSN-170, EIGSN-195, 2-HEWSN 11,
 2-HEWSN 58, 2-HEWSN 150, 2-HEWSN 86, 2-HEWSN 194, 5KBSN-141, RWYT (LR)-12 and
 WAW SN-23.  Of these EIGSN-51,EIGSN-141, EIGSN-170, 2HEWSN-86 and 2HEWSN-194
 were resistant to powdery mildew also.
 
      The work is also in progress to workout pathogenic variation in Erysiphe
 graminis f. sp. tritici Em Marshal populations prevalent in the State.  Out
 of 8 acrosporic and 10 conidial cultures collected from Lahaul-Spiti and
 Palampur, 13 different pathotypes have been identified using the
 near-isogenic lines having known single powdery mildew resistance genes (Pm1
 through pm8 and an unidentified gene in Michigan Amber).  Gene Pm1 continued
 to be effective against powdery mildew populations form both locations.
 
      Potential of winter wheats in dry-temperature areas.  Although winter
 wheat is not grown in India, it has potential as a grain and fodder crop in
 the snow- bound areas (such as Lahaul-Spiti and Kinnaur Districts) of
 Himachal Pradesh and other hilly areas of the country.
 
      Eighteen winter wheat cultivars were supplied by the wheat project
 Directorate, New Delhi and were evaluated at the Regional Research Station,
 Kukumseri (2300m a.m.s.1.).  Based upon high yield potential and resistance
 to rusts and powdery mildew, 7 of these winter wheats, Atou, Bounty,
 Amargas-2, J.).3057, Flendess, Funddin and Envoy were selected and further
 tested along with one semiwinter (VL 616) and one spring wheat (CPAN 1922) as
 checks for grain yield (without fodder cutting), grain yield after one fodder
 cut and fodder yield (of one cut).  The results (Table 2) indicate that
 cultivars Atou and Bounty were the highest grain yielders with yields of 55.2
 and 53.6 q/ha, when no fodder cutting was taken.  However, when one fodder
 cut was taken the cultivar `Bounty' gave the highest grain yield of 49.6 q/ha
 in addition to 76.7 q of green fodder.  It was closely followed by the
 cultivar J.O. 3057 with an advantage.  The cultivar Atou was found to be
 resistant to stripe and leaf rusts as well as powdery mildew.  The seed of
 these promising cultivars has been distributed for their evaluation at
 farmer's fields during 1990-1991.
 
 Table 2.    Performance of winter wheat cultivars with regard to grain                
              yield, fodder yield and reaction to stripe and leaf rust.                
              Grain yield (q/ha)     Fodder yield (q/ha)    Reaction to  
               Without     After one       (of one cut)      Stripe   Leaf
 Cultivar     fodder cut   fodder cut                        rust     rust  
 Atou              55.3        33.4              66.0           F        F
 Bounty            53.6        49.6              76.7           F        F
 Amargas-2         30.2        38.8              63.3           F        F
 J.O. 3057         44.3        44.1              54.8          TS        F
 Flendess          39.2        39.6              82.5           F        F
 Funddin           49.5        33.4              82.0           F        F
 Envoy             41.2        32.8             104.3           F        F
 VL 616(check)     42.9        28.1               -           10S      20S
    (semi-winter
 CPAN 1922 (check) 35.6        18.7               -           10S        F
    (spring wheat)
                                                                              
   C.D. (0.05)      3.9         4.8                                          
    F = Free; S = Susceptible
 
 -------------------------
 
                               ITEMS FROM ISRAEL
 
      Hazera (1939) Breeding Department, Farm Mivhor, Post Sde Gat 79570
 
      Sem Y. Atsmon
 
      National production 1989/90.  The total area planted to wheat and
 harvested for grain amounts to about 70,000 ha.  An addition 15,000 ha have
 been planted to wheat for silage, almost all of them to the cultivar DARIEL.
 
                The following table specifies the cultivars:
                       Released          % of     Heading  Height
      Cultivar            by      Year   Area       (1)     (2)      
      MIRIAM           ARO        1968   0.4      midlate   high
      LACHISH          ARO        1969   0.6      late      high
      SHAFIR           HAZERA     1976  10.7      early     semidwarf
      INBAR(durum)     ARO        1976   1.1      late      high
      BETH LEHEM       ARO        1982  12.1      early     semidwarf
      DEGANITH         WEIZMANN   1983   4.3      midlate   dwarf
      BETH HASHITA     ARO        1984  32.9      midlate   dwarf
      DARIEL           HAZERA     1986  17.2      late      high
      ATIR             HAZERA     1987  20.7      midlate   semidwarf
  
      (1)  emergence mid Nov./mid. Dec.: early = 85 days, midlate = 88-91    
           days, late = 96-107 days
      (2)  dwarf: 75 cm; semidwarf: 85-90 cm; high: 95 cm.
 
      According to this table 87% of the wheat area has been planted to 5
 cultivars released during the eighties.  SHAFIR is the most important one
 among the older cultivars.  BETH LEHEM replaces MIRIAM in lower rainfall
 areas.  BETH HASHITA is the most widely adapted cultivar, but is very
 susceptible to Septoria leaf blotch, leaf- and stemrust.  The newest
 cultivars DARIEL and ATIR suffer less from Septoria and are resistant to
 stripe- and leafrust.  INBAR is going to be replaced by the new ARO-cultivar.
 
      Generally rainfall was above average in the South, and average or
 somewhat less in the Northern wheat growing regions.  10-15,000 ha received
 additional irrigation.  December was the driest month.  Spring was moist,
 securing slow ripening and consequently high hectoliter-weight (81 kg).
 
      Total production was 257,000 tons, covering about 40% of consumption.
 Average yield was about 3.8 ton/ha.
 
                      Hazera's Breeding Programs
 
      Bread wheat.  Our recent releases are DARIEL and ATIR.  The former is a
 selection from CIMMYT-cross 38212 (PFAU).  It has a very good yield
 potential, expressing itself especially under good spring-moisture
 conditions.  Demand is much greater than expected, first of all for silage,
 but for grain as well.
 
      ATIR has been selected in HAZERA-cross H76.1245 between 2 lines
 developed in the early seventies from F2 CIMMYT-crosses.  It is higher
 yielding and considerably more resistant to all rusts than SHAFIR, which it
 will replace.
 
      After summarizing results of 12 trials over 4 years we decided to submit
 to official regional testing 2 new lines, as from 1990/91.
 
      The Septoria-resistance program continues to enjoy a strong support of
 Prof. Z. Eyal at Tel Aviv University.  It still is difficult to combine good
 resistance with desired agronomic characters.  Progress is steady, but slow.
 
      Much of our material is resistant to stripe- and leafrust.  We neglect
 stemrust at the moment, but we have to be prepared for eventual troubles in
 the future.
 
      In view of growing emphasis on bread making quality we are assessing all
 our material on protein-content, Zeleny sedimentation and mixograms.  We
 detect of course negative effect of 1B/1R in many lines, but many others give
 promise of acceptability.
 
      Durum.  The size of this program is 1/5 of that for bread wheat; if
 successful we hope to be able to expand our activity beyond the country's
 boundaries.  The most severe obstacle to progress at this moment seems to be
 the combination of earliness with quality and resistance.  We may have to
 concentrate our efforts on maximum exploitation of the few early, high
 yielding lines, detected recently in some of our crosses.
 
      Personnel.  The author of this contribution is retiring after 38 years
 of service in HAZERA.  Mr. Ze'ev Hittin will replace him.
 
 -------------------------
      The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan
 
      A. Blum
 
 
      Variation among wheat cultivars in the response of leaf gas exchange to
 light.
 
      Research was done in order to explore genetic variations in carbon
 exchange rate (CER) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves in response
 to variable photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and to compare old and
 new Israeli cultivars in this respect. Leaf gas exchange was measured in
 detached turgid leaves of 17 cultivars in an open system at 25o C when PAR
 was reduced from ca. 1200 to 200 mol/m2.  Linear regressions of CER, stomatal
 conductance, transpiration and leaf internal CO2 concentration (Ci) on log
 PAR were fitted for each leaf (regression R2 was never <0.79) and the
 regressions were compared among cultivars by analysis of variance.
 
      Genotypes differed significantly for the slope (b) but not the intercept
 (a) of the regression of CER on log PAR, indicating that genotypic
 differences for CER increased with increasing PAR. Photosynthetic capacity,
 as expressed by the ratio of CER to Ci, differed significantly among
 cultivars only at high PAR.  Stomatal conductance and transpiration increased
 in a linear or a nonlinear fashion with log PAR and differences among
 cultivars for both were the greatest at medium to low PAR.  Photosynthetic
 water-use efficiency (WUE) and its variation among cultivars were greatest at
 the highest PAR.  Genotypic variation in CER at high PAR was confirmed by
 repeated results for 11 cultivars over two independent experiments.
 
      The recently developed high-yielding cultivar V652 had a higher maximum
 CER, higher photosynthetic capacity and greater WUE at high PAR than older
 and lower yielding cultivars.  The results suggest an upward genetic shift in
 photosynthetic capacity and in CER at high PAR when selection for yield in
 spring wheat was performed under the high-irradiation conditions of Israel.
 On the other hand, the results of others show that when selection was
 performed under lower irradiance environment and/or in winter wheat, no such
 genetic shift was observed in modern cultivars as compared with older ones.
 
      It is therefore suggested that the measurement of carbon exchange rate
 at saturating irradiance (Pmax) in detached wheat leaves may have some
 predictive value in selection work for high yield under relatively high
 irradiation conditions.  This conclusion is in contrast to the general
 feeling among crop physiologists that single-leaf measurements of
 photosynthesis have no value for the prediction of plant production of yield.
 It seems, however, that in the selection for high yield under high irradiance
 in spring wheat materials of high potential yield, there may be some value to
 such measurements.  In our continued work along this line, we keep getting
 very supportive results, as displayed in the example presented in Fig 1.
 
 
                                 INSERT #4 HERE
 
 
                                  PUBLICATIONS
 
 Blum, A., Golan, G., Mayer, J., Sinmena, B. and Burra, J.  1989.  The drought
 response of landraces of wheat from the Northern Negev desert in Israel.
 Euphytica 43:87-96.
 
 Blum, A.  1989.  Osmotic adjustment and growth of barley genotypes under
 drought stress.  Crop Sci. 29:230-231.
 
 Martiniello, P. and Blum, A.  1989.  An association between chlorophyll
 fluorescence and carbon exchange rate in water-stressed wheat leaf disks in
 vitro.  J. Genet. & Breed. 43:7-9.
 
 Blum, A., Ramaiah, S., Kanemasu, E. T. and Paulsen, G. M.  1990.  Recovery of
 wheat from drought stress at the tillering developmental stage.  Field Crops
 Res.  24:67-85.
 
 Blum, A., Shpiler, L., Golan, G. and Mayer, J. 1990.  Yield stability and
 canopy temperature of wheat genotypes under drought stress.  Field Crops Res.
 22:289-296.
 
 Blum, A. and Pnuel, Y.  1990.  Physiological attributes associated with
 drought resistance of wheat cultivars in a mediterranean environment.  Aust.
 Jour. Agric.  Res. 41:799-810.
 -------------------------
 
                                ITEMS FROM ITALY
 
      Experimental Institute for Cereal Research - Section of St. Angelo
 Lodigiano, Italy
 
      B. Borghi and M. Perenzin
 
      Hybrids wheats.  Combining ability estimates in bread wheat for quality
 traits.  Seventy-five F1 hybrids obtained by crossing 15 female cultivars of
 bread wheat with 3 males were grown at normal seed density in replicated plot
 trials at two locations in Northern Italy together with their parental
 cultivars.
 
      Estimates of general combining ability (GCA) indicate that several
 cultivars contributed moderate genetic effect to all the main qualitative
 traits.  In particular the cultivars Salmone, Saliente, Pandas and Irnerio
 showed positive and significative values for alveograph W, while Salmone,
 Salgemma and Gallo showed positive effects for alveograph P/L.  Moreover,
 some cultivars showed positive estimates of GCA for protein content and for
 Zeleny test.  Specific combining ability (SCA) effects never resulted
 statistically significatives.
 
      In conclusion the hybrids appeared on average to be of inferior bread
 making quality (Alveograph W) when compared with the best parental cultivar
 (Salmone).  However, using the few available high quality cultivars, it
 appears possible to produce a wide array of hybrids, some of them combining a
 satisfactory quality with a high level of productivity.
 
 -------------------------
 
      M. Cattaneo and Y. M. Qiao
 
      In Vitro anthers culture.  A new program on wheat aimed at producing
 double haploid androenetic lines started in 1989 to support and speed up
 traditional breeding.  A second anthers culture cycle was carried on in 1990:
 46 Italian cultivars, 10 F1 hybrids and 2 French Diplo-Haploid lines were
 tested on two media.  The first one was a completely synthetic filtered
 medium (W5, mf), the second was supplemented with potato extract (P2).
 farneto and Oderzo, two largely grown Italian cultivars, confirmed the
 positive results of the previous year, some other cultivars like Dardo,
 Fabiola, Gladio and Tivoli, gave satisfactory results (more than 10% in calli
 production).  About 200 double haploid lines are under evaluation in the
 field.
 
      Up to how more than 43900 anthers have been cultured with an average
 yield of 4.8% calli production.
 
 -------------------------
      R. Castagna
 
      Selection of mutants in Triticum monococcum L.  Seeds from a population
 of Triticum monococcum L., called Winterform, were treated with different
 doses of x-rays.  In the following generations were selected several
 chlorophyll mutants detected at the plantlet stage and other mutants
 affecting life cycle and the plant morphology.  In the M4 generation we have
 identified 24 albina, 8 viridis, 10 virescent, 1 viridoalbina, 3 xanta, 1
 striata, 1 tigrina.  Among the putative mutants some affect growth habitus
 (uniculm, oligoculm), plant height, head shape (laxa, compact, coiled, weak
 rachis, curled branched, accordeon), spikelet morphology (with one or two
 flowers, awness lemma in the second flower, breviaristatum), flower
 morphology (branched or multiflorus rachilla, flower organs with scant
 development, basal, central, apical, alternate sterility).  The mutants will
 be used as genetic markers or for physiologycal studies with special regards
 to homeotic genes.
                                                                                                                  
                                                   Dose (rad)                
                                     3000     6000     9000       Control     
 M2    Grown progenies               1397     1115       51          550
       Checked head-rows             6210     4336      134         2554
       Segregating head-rows          195      315       12            3
 M3    Grown progenies                 28       81        0            0
       Checked head-rows              282     1773        0            0
       Segregating head-rows           12       34        0            0
 M4    Grown progenies                  5       55        0            0
       Checked plants                  70      988        0            0
       Segregating plants              39      460        0            0
                                                                            
 -------------------------
 
      P. Gavuzzi, B. Borghi
 
      Evaluation of genetic variability for grain yield in winter cereals
 grown in mediterranean environments.  Individuation of genetic variability
 for tolerance to drought and heat stress typical of the mediterranean
 environments represents the first step in order to start physiological
 studies or to conduct breeding programs.
 
      The first step of this year work was to find genetic variability for
 adaptability to stress conditions among the most cultivated cultivars of
 bread wheat, durum wheat and barley.
 
      The characterization was based on the results of the national network of
 variety trails carried out in the last five years and regarding those
 locations where heat and drought stress severely reduced grain yield.  The
 objective parameters adopted were grain yield and the susceptibility index of
 Fisher.  We could observe that the yield under stress and the Fisher index
 resulted highly correlated and we could classify the varieties in relations
 to their degree of adaptability to the Mediterranean stress conditions by
 using both parameters.
 
 -------------------------
 
      N. E. Pogna, R. Redaelli, A. M. Brretta, A. Curioni, A. Dal Belin
 Peruffo
                                                                                      
      Biochemical and immunological studies of wheat albumins.  Water-soluble
 protein frraction (albumins) from bread wheat and durum wheat flour was
 extracted and purified by electroendosmotic preparative electrophoresis
 (EPE).  Antibodies were raised against a major albumin component (protein A)
 and used in immunoblot analyses to test the reaction with total proteins from
 bread wheat, durum wheat and pasta essicated at low (60oC) or high
 temperature (90oC).  Antiserum to protein A reacted with proteins in the
 molecular weight range 14-16 kDa and was found to be useful in detecting
 adulteration of durum wheat semolina with flour from common wheat.
 
      By using nulli tetrasomic lines derived from Chines Spring in
 immiunoblot assay, protein A was shown to be encoded by the short arm of
 chromosome 3D.  Antiserum to protein A and preparative free-flow IEF were
 employed to characterize some components of the CM-proteins.
 
 -------------------------
 
      N. E. Pogna, R. Redaelli, A. M. Beretta, F. Raineri
 
 
      A "Selfing" gene coding for omega-gliadin on chromosome 1B of bread
 wheat cultivar Salmone.  Analysis of F2 and BC1 grains from crosses between
 Salmone and six bread wheat cultivars showed that chromosome 1B of Salmone
 contains a clust of 4-5 linked genes (Gli-B1 locus) coding for omega- and
 gamma-gliadins along with an additional locus (Gli-B4) coding for one gliadin
 at a distance of 1.6 recombination units from (Gli-B1).  The recombination
 values were calculated to be 0.7% between Rg1 ("Red glume" locus) and Gli-B4,
 and 2.0% between Rg1 and Gli-B1.  The gene order on chromosome 1B was deduced
 to be centromere, Glu-B3, Gli-B1, Gli-B4, Rg1.
 
                                  PUBLICATIONS
 
 Avato, P., Bianchi, G., Pogna, N. E. 1990.  Chemosystematics of surface
 lipids from maize and some related species.  Phytochemistry 29(5):1571-1576.
 
 Borghi, B., Corbellini, M., Gavuzzi, P., Boggini, G., Ouassou, A.  1990.
 Breeding for heat and drought tolerance in bread wheat by means of field and
 laboratory screening procedures.  Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 137, Actual Bot.
 1:37-46.
 
 Borghi, B., Perenzin, M.  1990.  Yield and yield stability of conventional
 varieties and F1 bread wheat hybrids.  J. Genet. & Breeding. 44:307-310.
 
 Curioni, A., Dal Belin Peruffo, A., Pogna, N. E.  1990.  Preparative
 isoelectric focusing of reduced wheat gluten proteins.  Electrophoresis
 11:462-467.
 
 Pogna, N. E., Autran, J. C., Mellini, F., Lafiandra, D., Feillet, P.  1990.
 Chromosome 1B-encoded gliadins and glutenin subunits in durum wheat: genetics
 and relationship to gluten strength.  J. Cereal Sci. 11:15-34.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Instituto Sperimentale per la Cerealicoltura, Via Cassia 176, 00191 Rome
 
      V. Vallega
 
      Triticum monococcum.  Diploid wheat, often viewed merely as a source of
 genes to be used in durum and bread wheat breeding programs, might still play
 a role in modern agriculture as a crop in itself.  Most of the T. monococcum
 landraces maintained in germplasm banks furnish relatively high grain yields,
 and still higher yielding free-threshing types could be obtained with little
 effort using traditional breeding methods.  The diploid nature of T.
 monococcum renders this species genetically much more flexible than polyploid
 wheats in relation to the myriad of rapidly changing needs and requirements
 of consumers and agricultural industries.  Indeed, some of the favourable
 mutants known to exist in other diploid cereals but as yet unidentified in
 polyploid wheats are probably present in wild strains of diploid wheat, or
 could be induced through mutagenic treatments with relative ease.  Moreover,
 T. monococcum offers - in perspective - greater possibilities than durum and
 bread wheats also in relation to hybrid seed production.  In fact, it seems
 quite reasonable to expect a markedly higher hybrid vigor in crosses between
 diploid wheats than amongst polyploid genotypes, in which two or more diploid
 genomes already coexist.  The data presented below were collected on
 materials grown during the 1989/90 season; previous results have been
 published elsewhere (Vallega 1979).
 
      Fourteen T. monococcum landraces of various origins as well as a
 free-threshing diploid strain and several Italian durum and bread wheats were
 grown in field experiments situated near Rome and Bologna (Central and
 Northern Italy, respectively).  Plots of 10 sq. m each, replicated either 3
 or 4 times for each cv., were sown at different seeding rates.  Some of the
 results obtained are summarized in Table 1.  Grain yields (dehulled seed) of
 diploid wheats ranged from 1050 to 3240 kg/ha (Bologna) and from 320 to 2800
 kg/ha (Rome).  Protein yields (kg/ha) of monococcum landraces were, at the
 latter site, higher than those of the durum wheat controls, but lower than
 those of some high protein durum wheat lines developed recently (Vallega
 1985).  Further analysis indicated that the yield of diploid wheats would
 have been markedly greater if higher seeding rates had been adopted.  A few
 T. monococcum lines, derived from a very small breeding program initiated in
 1979 and interrupted various times, were included as unreplicated plots in
 the trial sown near Rome.  Grain yield of these lines was higher than that of
 any of the durum and bread wheat cvs, included as controls.  Small seed
 samples of these lines as well as of free-threshing diploid wheat segregating
 populations are available on request.
 
 Table 1.                                                                        
              Grain yield     1000-kernel    Heading   Lodging     Test weight
               (kg/ha)        weight (g)     (days)     (%)          (kg/hl)  
 diploid wheats  2660              21          218        70             -
                 2650              29          203        25            79
                 2550              19          216        40            77
                 2540              29          203         2            80
                 2480              20          219        54            77
                 2410              24          214        54            78
                 2360              22          219        45            77
                 2280              22          219        50            77
                 2260              21          216        85            77
                 2180              20          219        30            78
                 2150              23          212        62            78
                 2130              19          222        35            77
                 1840              20          216        67             -
                 1340              24          222        25            76
                  690              30          190         0             -
 tetrapl.        5220              45          196         0            79
 wheats (2)
 hexapl.         5380              34          198        13            78
 wheats (3)                                                                   
 
      Experiments by a group of Argentinean researchers indicate that T.
 monococcum flours are nontoxic in celiac disease.  Assays have been initiated
 in collaboration with a medical group to verify these findings.  Samples of
 T. monococcum seed as well as progress reports on this line of research are
 available to specialists on request.
 
      Resistance of T. monococcum with regards to Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic
 Virus (SBWMV) and to Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus (WSSMV) was evaluated
 in collaboration with Dr. Rubies Autonell (College of Agriculture, University
 of Bologna).  Particles of SBWMV were found in the leaf tissues of some of
 the diploid wheat assayed, but titer counts were similar to those recorded on
 durum cvs. known to be resistant to this virus.  Although WSSMV particles
 were numerous in leaf tissues of susceptible durum wheat controls, none were
 observed in any of the T. monococcum landraces tested.
 
      Moderately severe epidemics of yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis) and
 mildew (Erysiphe graminis) occurred in the trials grown near Rome and
 Bologna, respectively.  Several of the diploid wheats tested showed to be
 susceptible to both pathogens, especially to yellow rust.
 
      A long series of chemical and technological assays on T. monococcum is
 being performed in collaboration with Drs. M. G. D'Egidio and S. Nardi
 (I.S.C.  Technology Section, Rome).  The results of the first analysis' are
 summarized in Tables 2 and 3.
 
 Table 2.                                                                              
                        Protein         Ash          SDSS
                            (%)          (%)          (cc)                    
 diploid wheats            23.8           -             -
                           18.5          2.21          20
                           18.3          2.05          16
                           17.7           -             -
                           16.6          2.23          25
                           16.2          2.16          42
                           15.1          2.52          15
                           15.1          2.22          25
                           13.7           -             -
                           13.6          2.14          15
                           13.5          2.28          20
                           13.3          2.05          25
                           12.9          2.05          26
                           12.6          2.12          29
                           12.5          2.10          24
 Tetraploid wheats (2)     13.0          1.98          31
 Hexaploid wheats (2)      13.3          1.84          62                     
 
 Table 3.                                                                        
                              Albumins +        Gliadins   Glutenins   Residue 
                              globulins (%)        (%)        (%)        (%)  
 diploid wheats (12)              27                32         6          30
 tetraploid wheats (2)            26                33         5          31
 hexaploid wheats (3)             25                30         5          37  
 
      Awnless durums.  Awns have been often claimed to have appreciable
 positive effects on grain yield and drought resistance, yet many successful
 awnless common wheat cvs. continue to be launched every year.  On the
 contrary, all modern durum wheat cvs., including those grown in humid areas,
 are awned.  In both wheat species, the length, number and position of the
 spike of awns have been found to be controlled by polygenic systems.
 Interestingly, crosses between an awnless T. dicoccum of Italian origin and
 various fully awned wheat cvs. originated F2 populations in which 25% of the
 plants was awnless. Genetic analysis will be continued in F3.  The awn
 inhibitor is being transferred to adapted durums.
 
     Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus and wheat spindle streak mosaic virus.
 Investigations on the resistance of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats
 with regards to SBWMV and WSSMV are being continued in collaboration with Dr.
 Rubies Autonell (College of Agriculture, University of Bologna).  All the
 diploid wheats tested so far showed to be resistant to SBWMV and immune to
 WSSMV.  Eight further durum wheat cvs. resistant to both SBWMV and WSSMV were
 identified.  As noted also in previous years, SBWMV particles continued to be
 present in the tissues of susceptible cvs. well beyond flowering time, even
 in the external layers of developing seeds.  Particle counts of SBWMV and
 WSSMV made on the parental cvs. of various (hexaploid) chromosome
 substitution series indicated that resistance differences between these cvs.
 are probably not large enough to allow the chromosomal location of major
 genes conferring resistance to these viral diseases.
 
      HMW glutenin subunits.  Segregating populations carrying either 0, 1, 2
 or 3 `null' alleles at the Glu-1 loci are being examined in collaboration
 with Drs.  M. G. D'Egidio and S. Nardi (I.S.C. Technology Section, Rome) in
 order to investigate possible HMW glutenin dosage effects on quality,
 especially on pasta products.  The number of genotypes analyzed so far is too
 small to draw any conclusions.
 
                                  PUBLICATIONS
 
 Rubies, Autonell C. and V. Vallega.  1991.  Studies on the development and
 interaction of SBWMV and WSSMV.  In "Biotic interactions and soil-borne
 diseases" Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, p. 107-112.
 
 Rubies, Autonell C. and V. Vallega.  1990.  Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic Virus and
 Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus in Italy.  Proc. Symp. Plant Viruses with
 fungal vectors. Braaunschweig 1990, p. 135-138.
 
 Rubies Autonell C. and V. Vallega.  1987.  Observations on a mixed SBWMV and
 WSSMV infection in durum wheat.  J. Phytopathology 119:111-121.
 
 Vallega, V. and C. Rubies Autonell.  1985.  Reactions of Italian Triticum
 durum cultivars to SBWMV.  Pl. Disease 69:64-66.
 
 Vallega, V. and C. Rubies Autonell.  1990.  Studies on a complex viral
 syndrome caused by SBWMV and WSSMV. Proc. Eight Cong. Medit. Phytopath.
 Union, Agadir 1990, p. 341-342.
 
 Vallega, V., S. Nardi and M. G. D'Egidio.  1990.  Breeding value of durum
 wheat cv. Trinakria as a spaghetti cooking quality donor parent.  Cereal.
 Res. Comm.  18:75-80.
 
 Vallega, V. 1985.  Identification of a major protein gene compatible with
 high grain yields in semidwarf Triticum durum genotypes.  Cereal Res. Comm.
 13:201- 207.
 
 Vallega, V. 1988.  Comparative analysis of HMW glutenin subunit composition
 in various Triticum species.  Plant Breeding 100:241-246.
 
 Vallega, V.  1988.  HMW glutenin subunit composition of 115 cvs. of Triticum
 turgidum var durum of various origins.  Genet. Agr. 42:235-240.
 
 Vallega, V.  1978.  Search of useful genetic characters in diploid Triticum
 spp. Proc. Fifth Intern. Wheat Genet. Symp., New Delhi 1978, p. 156-162.
 
 Vallega, V.  1979.  Field performance of varieties of Triticum monococcum, T.
 durum and Hordeum vulgare grown at two locations.  Genet. Agr. 33:363-370.
 
 -------------------------
 
                                ITEMS FROM JAPAN
 
      National Agriculture Research Center, Department of Winter Crop Science,
 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305
 
      A. Oyanagi, A. Sato and M. Wada
 
      Differences of root gravitropic responses in Japanese wheat cultivars.
 Using the methods of measuring the exudation rate from the cut ends of the
 wheat stems, we found differences in the estimated values for root activity
 among cultivars.  The differences were thought to depend on the root
 distribution patterns in the soil, i.e., the cultivars which have deep root
 systems had great water absorbing abilities.
 
      It seems that root distribution patterns are determined by the
 gravitropic responses of the roots.  We observed the gravitropic responses of
 the primary seminal roots in 133 Japanese wheat cultivars on the agar medium.
 The root growth angle from the horizontal of the cultivars varied from 4o in
 the Minaminokomugi to 64o in Norin 58.  Significant differences in the
 gravitropic responses of the roots were observed.
 
      An ecological differentiation in the gravitropic responses of the roots
 was found, i.e., the cultivars which were bred in the northern part of Japan
 have large root growth angles from the horizontal and cultivars which were
 bred in the southern part of Japan have small root angles.  It is considered
 that the ecological differentiation of the gravitropic responses in the roots
 is related to the soil water condition and temperature in each region.  We
 will continue to study the genetic and physiological background of the
 differences.
 
 
                                  PUBLICATIONS
 
 Oyanagi, A., A. Sato and M. Wada.  1990.  Growth angles of the seminal roots
 in Japanese wheat varieties. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 59 (Extra issue
 1):250-251.
 
 Oyanagi, A., A. Sato, M. Wada and T. Yamada.  1991.  Inheritance of geotropic
 responses in wheat seminal roots.  Japanese Journal of Breeding 41 (in
 press).
 
                               Insert Figure 1
 
 Insert 6 - Table 1                              
 -------------------------
 
      Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Shimokuriyagawa,
 Morioka 010-01
 
      Y. Taniguchi
 
      Quality test of foreign wheat cultivars in east-northern Japan.  We have
 utilized foreign cultivars as crossing materials to introduce the
 characteristics high protein and high quality (high flour yield and high
 brightness of flour) into Japanese cultivars.
 
      Forty foreign cultivars were planted in 6-row plots (20 cm between rows
 and 3.2 m long, 200-250 seeds per m2) on September 19 in 1986/1987 and on
 September 18 in 1987/1988 (11 cultivars were planted both 1986/1987 and
 1987/1988).  These wheats were ground experimentally by a quadrumat junior.
 
      In 1986-1987, Martonvasari 12, NS 2985 and T 79/3 had high flour yields
 with a high flour ash content.  T 79/8, Eupamil, 81146 and 81142 had high
 protein content of grain and flour.  T 79/8 had the highest sedimentation
 value, and Renard had the high brightness of flour and the high yellowness
 (log R554/R455) of flour.
 
      In 1987/1988, MV-15 and NS 2985 had high flour yield and low flour ash
 content.  Nanbukomugi, 81146, 81142, MV-14 and Stozher had high protein
 content of grain and flour.  TAM 200, Recital and Sterna had high
 sedimentation values.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station
 
      S. Ito
 
      Regeneration potential of long cultured callus in wheat.  Calli from
 immature embryos of 31 wheat cultivars were subcultured at four week
 intervals for 40 weeks on MS medium with 2,4-D 2 mg/1.  Halves of callus were
 transferred to MS medium without 2,4-D, at 4, 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 weeks.
 After the callus were cultured for eight weeks, number of plants regenerated
 from the callus was counted.  The frequency of plant regeneration from callus
 decreased as callus was subcultured.  Variation of plant regeneration
 obtained from the cultivars tried on a total of 31 cultivars ranged 0% to
 100%.  The 22 cultivars regenerated no plants at 24 weeks.  Four cultivars
 (Toyoho-komugi, Shimohusa-komugi, Aoba-komugi, Tohoku 144) regenerated plants
 from callus at 40 weeks.  The frequency of plant regeneration in these four
 cultivars were categorized into the higher group at 4 weeks.  In the tissue
 culture studies of wheat by callus, we need to select the cultivars with the
 highest regeneration rate and consider its maintenance during long culture.
 -------------------------
 
                               ITEMS FROM MEXICO
      CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F.
 
      R.A. Fischer and G. Varughese
                  Developments in CIMMYT Wheat Program in 1990
 
      There were few major staff changes in 1990. As foreshadowed, in
 mid-year, Gene Saari came back to Mexico to become Leader of the Crop
 Protection (CP) Subprogram and Edmundo Acevedo joined as Leader of the Crop
 Management and Physiology (CMP) Subprogram. In Germplasm Improvement, Sirkka
 Immonen joined the Triticale Section as Associate Scientist on FINNIDA funds;
 He Zhong-hu from China became Associate, and Getinet Gebeyehu from Ethiopia
 and Chen Tianyou from China joined as Visiting Scientists in Bread Wheat; Dr.
 Steven Calhoun left Bread Wheat for Louisiana State University. In Genetic
 Resources, Dr.  M.D.H.M. William and Mr. Oscar Riera joined as Post-Doctoral
 Fellow and Associate, respectively, while Nitschka ter Kuile left for further
 studies. Guillermo Fuentes (Karnal bunt) and Dennis Lawn (soil pathology)
 were promoted to Associate Scientists in CP, Roberto Ranieri (BYD) and
 Johnathan Robinson (RWA) joined as Associates. In CMP Matthew Reynolds became
 an Associate Scientist in Physiology of Wheat in hot climates, while Craig
 Meisner joined as a Post-Doctoral.  David Saunders resigned as agronomist and
 leader of the CIDA-Bangladesh project, returning to Australia to work in
 consulting. Max Alcala returned from sabbatical in Temple, Texas, and Rey
 Villareal and Miloudi Nachit took up sabbaticals at Cornell. Last year was
 busy for conferences with substantial program involvement in the Wheat for
 NonTraditional Warmer Areas Conference (Iguazu Falls, Brazil) and the
 International Triticale Conference (Passo Fundo, Brazil) and record
 participation in ASA/CSSA.
 
      On the funding front, an important achievement in 1990 was the renewal
 for 3 years from mid-1990 of the UNDP project on wheat for warmer non-
 traditional areas; the project now has the title Increasing Wheat Production
 in Warmer and Stress Environments, and it supports four international staff
 (Kohli, Wall, Mann, and Reynolds). Under the project the successful
 international conference was organized in Iguazu Falls (31 July-4 August
 1990);proceedings will be available in mid-1991. Also in 1990 the SDC
 (Switzerland) renewed support for wheat biotechnology (Krattiger) and granted
 funds for an Associate (Ruckstuhl) to work with Jesse Dubin in Nepal on
 Helminthosporium. Finally, ACIAR(Australia) approved a project organized out
 of Thailand to look at Boron deficiency in wheat in that Country, and in
 Nepal and Bangladesh.
 
     The 1989-90 season in northwest Mexico was close to average weatherwise,
 apart from heavy rains in December, which resulted in about 15% of the crops
 being sown late. Nevertheless, the average yield for the Yaqui Valley was the
 second highest on record (5.46 t/ha). The bread wheats Opata 85 and Oasis 86
 and the durum wheat Altar 84 predominated. New varieties released by INIFAP
 for the Yaqui Valley Bacanora 88 (= Kauz'S', bread wheat) and Aconchi 89 (=
 Altar/Aos, durum wheat) promise further small yield gains with normal
 planting, but because of their short erect-leaved habit, have raised concerns
 about possible yield penalties with the increasingly common bed planting
 system, which leaves a 45-50 cm unplanted gap between beds. This issue is
 subject to continuing research.
 
      On the disease front, Karnal bunt incidence in the Yaqui Valley was very
 low (89% of samples free, 0.02% above 2% infection, mean infection level
 0.03%).  Artificial KB inoculation was, however, very effective and good
 progress was made in identifying less susceptible progeny. Incorporation of
 stem rust resistance into durum wheats for hot spots, like the traditional
 growing areas of Ethiopia, also registered good progress in 1990 with a
 useful proportion CIMMYT material now showing resistance. Finally, resistance
 to Helminthosporium sativum, clearly superior to that of Chinese and
 Brazilian sources, has been identified in our Poza Rica hot spot in progeny
 of good plant type from a cross involving, among other parents, Agropyron
 curvifolium.
 
      In late 1990, the RFLP mapping project at Cornell University produced a
 map for barley and has identified several hundred wheat probes from various
 sources. Doubled haploid populations for mapping of certain traits are being
 produced at El Batan. The method using pollination with Zea mays is proving
 very efficient in the production of haploid plants. CIMMYT is also
 maintaining links with the International Triticinae Mapping Initiative.
 -------------------------
 
      Barley Yellow Dwarf and Russian Wheat Aphid Research
 
      P.A. Burnett, R. Ranieri, and J. Robinson
 
      Barley Yellow Dwarf Strains and Aphid Vectors in Mexico.  The main aphid
 species that feed on small grains in Mexico are Rhopalosiphum padi, R.
 maidis, Sitobion avenae, Schizaphis graminum, Metopolophium dirhodum, and
 Diuraphis noxia (Russian wheat aphid [RWA]).
 
      The work, to date, indicates that there are four prevalent strains of
 barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) in Mexico. The most prevalent is MAV-like
 and the major vector in Mexico is M. dirhodum, not S. avenae as it is in many
 other areas of the world. There is also a relatively high incidence of the
 RMV-like strain.  The other two strains present are PAV-like and RPV-like. We
 only occasionally detect SGV. To date, tests in Mexico have not shown that D.
 noxia is a vector of BYDVs.
 
      Germplasm Screening.  Screening for resistance to barley yellow dwarf
 (BYD) has continued in both winter and spring cereals. With the lifting of
 quarantine on the Altizapan Station near Toluca most of the screening work
 has returned to this site, where it is done under naturally occurring BYD
 epidemics.
 
      We have selected some wheat lines from material we obtained as F2s and
 F3s from Dr. A. Comeau (Agriculture Canada Quebec City, Canada), which have
 looked particularly good. These lines have been screened both with an
 MAV-like strain transmitted by greenhouse reared M. dirhodum and with natural
 epidemics. A number of these lines that have resistance to leaf rust, stem
 rust and yellow rust have been given to the bread wheat program for further
 evaluations. Table 1 lists the pedigree of the best lines.
 
      We screened a collection of septoria-resistant bread wheat lines that we
 obtained from Dr. Lucy Gilchrist of CIMMYT. It has been suggested that there
 may be a link between septoria resistance and BYD resistance. However, only
 10% of these lines showed resistance to BYD in our test.
 
      Yield Loss Studies.  We have some wheat lines that, based on symptoms,
 have appeared resistant/tolerant for several cycles of screening. In 1989 and
 1990, some of these lines were yield-tested under inoculation with greenhouse
 reared viruliferous M. dirhodum (transmitting and MAV-like strain). In these
 experiments, the cultivar Anza has been used as the resistant check and
 Bobwhite has been the susceptible check. The yield of the insecticide-sprayed
 plots were divided by the yield of the MAV infected plots. We want lines with
 ratios that are lower than Anza and tend towards 1.0. Some promising lines
 from 1989 are listed in Table 2.
 
      Russian Wheat Aphid.  Useful levels of resistance to RWA have been found
 in field screenings of winter wheat, spring barley, spring triticale, winter
 triticale, spring rye and winter rye, but not in CIMMYT spring wheat. The
 winter wheats were identified as resistant to RWA from screening in South
 Africa and the USA.  Screening of spring wheats from CIMMYT germplasm
 collections will continue in 1991 and crosses will be made between the
 resistant winter wheats and spring wheats.
 
 
 Table 1. Pedigree of selected lines with good symptomatic resistance to BYD
 in Mexico.
 ___________________________________________________________
 F7
                    SERI/PEL 72390//PVN/3/ALD/BH 1146*2
                    CNO 79/ANZA//PVN/3/ALD/BH 1146* 2
                    PVN 76//ALD/BH 1146*2/3/CNO 79/PEL 72390
 F6
                    MIRLO/BUC//TONI and the reciprocal cross
                    TONI/TSI
                    TONI/PAT 19 and the reciprocal cross
                    NHU-PORA/TSI
                    PF 70354/ALD//TONI
                    ALD/BH 1146*2/TSI
                    IAS 63/ALD//GTO LV/3/LONG MIAI 10
 ____________________________________________________________
 
 
 
 Table 2. The best lines of 1989 BYD yield loss experiment.
 ____________________________________________________________
 
 Pedigree                                     Ratio
 PF79765 LOTE 137/81                           1.17                                           
 SDY/CARC/3/AU/UP301//BOW                      1.23
 VEE#5/TRAP#1                                  1.23
 ALV110/2*IAS54/6/TP/4/TZPP/SM64/NA            1.24
 PO/3/CNO67/5/PF6968                                                                  
 AND/HN4/3/GTO/7C//BBCNO67/5/PVN/              1.25
 4/44/CNO//JAR/3/ORZ/6TAN
 BJY/COC                                       1.32
 CNO79/PRL                                     1.34
 TRAP#1                                        1.34
 FAN#1                                         1.37
 KEA/GH                                        1.39
 ANZA                                          1.42
 -------------------------
 
      Application of Distance Analysis to the Choice of Parents in Wheat
 Breeding
 
      He Zhong-hu*
 
      Euclidean distance, based on principal component analysis, was
 calculated among six groups of winter wheat lines developed during the
 1985-89 period.  They were clustered using the pair-group arithmetic average
 method. Three methods used for selecting characters, i.e., using all
 characters observed (Conventional Method), weighting the traits based on
 relative importance (Weighting Method), and selecting only those with high
 heritabilities (Heritability Method), were compared. The aim of these studies
 was to investigate the association between genetic distance and heterosis, to
 evaluate the relationship between cross performance and parental
 classification, to assess the consistency of distance analysis under various
 environments and its biological implication, and the problem of how to select
 and weight characters in distance analysis. The results are as follows:
 
      1) The relationship between genetic distance or weighted genetic
 distance and heterosis varied with different characters studied and different
 generations of materials used. A positive correlation existed between genetic
 distance or weighted genetic distance and the heterosis of sample yield or
 yield per plant, but this was influenced by the magnitude of heterosis and
 parental materials used.
                                                                                                                                                                           
      2) In order to obtain promising crosses in hybridization breeding and in
 hybrid wheat breeding, it may be better to select parents from intercluster
 rather than intracluster materials. The characteristics of the materials used
 and the experience of individual breeder in the choice of parents should also
 be considered.
                                                                                                                                                                           
      3) The results of distance analysis varied under different environments,
 but to some extent consistency was associated with the choice of characters.
 There is no association between the consistency of varietal clustering and
 the stability parameter of the individual character.
                                                                                                                                                                           
      4) The genetic difference derived from distance analysis is not
 identical to differences in pedigrees, nor to those caused by different
 geographical origins.  The genetic difference obtained from distance analysis
 appears to be the combined reflection of different phenotypic characters.
                                                                                                                                                                           
      5) Results suggest that distance analysis has a certain degree of
 consistency with respect to the selection and weighting of characters. It
 seems that the Heritability Method is superior to the Conventional and
 Weighting Methods. The influence of character weighting on distance analysis
 is far less than that of character selection. This research was part of my
 Doctoral studies at the Beijing Agricultural University.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Assessing Weed Competition Ability in Bread Wheat
                                        
      K.D. Sayre, I. Ortiz-Monasterio, and C. Meisner
 
      Weeds continue to reduce yields in most wheat producing areas. The
 relative importance of this yield reduction is certainly higher in many
 developing countries where cost and availability of herbicides and equipment
 limit their use and where labor costs/shortages increasingly preclude
 adequate hand weeding of wheat. Grass weeds (Avena sp., Phalaris sp., Bromus
 sp., Lolium sp., and other genera) are usually more difficult to control in
 wheat and are potentially more yield threatening than most common broadleaf
 weeds. Herbicides for grass weed control are normally more expensive and
 require more stringent application management to obtain satisfactory control.
 No grass herbicide similar to 2,4-D or its derivatives, widely used broadleaf
 herbicides, is available for grass weed control in wheat. With these
 considerations, the Agronomy Section of the CIMMYT Wheat Program has begun to
 investigate alternative methods for weed control in wheat that may reduce or
 replace reliance on herbicides and/or handweeding. Emphasis is placed on
 control of highly competitive grass weeds like wild oats (A. fatua).
 
      CIMMYT's major contributions to wheat producing countries is its
 diverse, high-yielding and widely adapted germplasm. Extensive variation
 exists in wheat morphological characteristics and growth habits. Casual
 observations in farmers' fields, in experiment station nurseries, and yield
 trials have indicated that short stature genotypes (75-80 cm) and/or
 genotypes with small erect leaves with a compact canopy appear to compete
 "poorly" with weeds such as P. minor or A. fatua. Taller, semi-dwarf
 genotypes (95-100 cm) with large, lax leaves and a spreading canopy appear to
 be "better" weed competitors.
 
      A trial was established during the 1989-90 winter cycle at the CIANO
 Experiment Station in the Yaqui Valley near Cd. Obregon, Sonora, in
 northwestern Mexico to attempt to identify bread wheat genotypes for weed
 competitive ability using criteria that breeders could feasibly use for
 making selections. The experiment station is located in a low-rainfall,
 irrigated area having high production (5-7 t/ha).
 
      Twelve spring wheat genotypes with similar yield potential in this
 environment were chosen. The wheat was planted in six-row plots that were 5 m
 long with 30 cm between rows. Previous spacing trials indicated that 30-cm
 rows provided a satisfactory spacing to facilitate genotypic differentiation
 for early ground cover. All genotypes were seeded at 120 kg/ha. Treatments
 involved a two-factor factorial combination of the twelve genotypes planted
 with or without a uniform over-seeding of 200 viable oat seeds/m2 (A. sativa
 cv. Paramo). This vigorous-growing, common oat variety was used to simulate
 weed competition and to avoid introduction of a noxious weed on station. The
 treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three
 replications.
 
      Assessments to characterize potential differences in weed competition
 among the 12 genotypes were made only on plots without overseeded oats. They
 included the following: sequential measurements of light interception by the
 wheat canopy to ground level beginning at first node; visual scores for
 canopy type; plant population per m2; days to 50% anthesis; plant height at
 full anthesis; and leaf area index (LAI) and mean leaf tip angle (MLTA) at
 near anthesis.  These determinations were then used to develop relationships
 with wheat and oat biomass yields harvested from the plots both with and
 without oats. When the wheat genotypes had reached anthesis in the plots
 without oats, dry biomass was determined individually for wheat without oats,
 wheat with oats, and oats with wheat. There were no significant differences
 in wheat biomass among genotypes in the absence of oats. However, significant
 differences were observed in wheat biomass between the genotypes grown in the
 presence of oats. The ratio of wheat biomass with oats versus wheat biomass
 without oats also varied significantly among genotypes (Table 1). Two
 genotypes in particular, INIA/A. DISTICHUM//INIA/VEE and FCT'S', were
 outstanding in their wheat biomass production in the presence of oats and
 their biomass ratio. Oat biomass in plots with the first genotype were
 markedly lower than for the other genotypes.
 
      Even though there were genotypic differences for many factors measured
 (except MTLA), some such as wheat population per m2, visual canopy scores,
 days to 50% anthesis, LAI, and MTLA were not strongly related to the biomass
 yields. The most promising of these factors appeared to be the visual canopy
 scores if they can be improved to detect potential genetic differences in
 early ground cover. Among genotypes, there was a height range from 78 to 112
 cm, which was correlated with oat biomass yield (r=-0.66; sig. at the 5%
 level). Height was not related to wheat biomass yield in the presence or
 absence of oats (Table 1.)
 
      Canopy light interception at ground level measured between the 30 cm
 rows at the first node varied between genotypes (Table 1) and produced the
 best correlation with oat biomass yield (r=-0.92; sig. at the 1% level). It
 was also significantly correlated with wheat biomass yield in the presence of
 oats (r=0.71; sig. at the 1% level). It was not related to wheat biomass
 yield without oats. Subsequent measurements of light interception over a 3-
 to 4-week period following first node became weaker though remained
 significant (r=-0.72 at early boot).
 
      It would appear that early measurement of light interception by wheat
 within an appropriate row spacing to maximize expression of genotypic
 differences can be a potentially useful screening method for weed competing
 ability in spring wheat. Several measuring devices are available to determine
 light interception in 20-30 seconds per plot, quite feasible for breeders to
 use. Similarly, it should be possible to develop better visual canopy scores
 combined with ground cover estimates that may be as useful.
 
                              INSERT #8 - TABLE 1 
 
 -------------------------
 
 
                                ITEMS FROM NEPAL
 
      CIMMYT S. ASIA REGIONAL WHEAT PROGRAM
         
      Breeding and Pathology (H.J. Dubin)
         
      Wheat varietal mixture experiments.  The first phase of a series of
 wheat varietal mixture experiments has been concluded.  The goal was to
 compare the stability of the mixture versus components over time and space.
 We have reported the general results of these experiments in previous
 Newsletters. In January 1991 a meeting was held in Kathmandu with twelve
 cooperators from India, Nepal and Switzerland to present individual
 experimental results and discuss future cooperation.
         
      The abstracts of the presentations will form a proceedings that will be
 available to interested scientists.  Future wheat mixture work with S. Asian
 cooperators will focus on relevant mixtures for their respective
 environments.
         
 
       A preliminary analysis of three years of combined regional results
 indicate that mixtures are more stable than their components. In general,
 mixture benefits increase when severe rust is present.  However, the benefits
 of stability without disease are signifcant over time and space.  Two methods
 of analysis were used to measure stability, i.e., Principal Coordinate
 Analysis [PCA] and Eberhart & Russell [E&R].  PCA [first two coordinates]
 accounted for 60% of the variation observed and gave a good representation of
 the stability relationships among treatments. Of the three mixture components
 used in the study Sonalika and UP262 are the least stable and lowest
 yielding, whereas Annapurna 1 = Vee #5 'S' is most stable and highest
 yielding of the components. The mixture was more stable than the components
 and slightly outyielded the mean of the components, on average. E&R accounted
 for very little of the variation in the G x E interaction. Both UP262 and
 Annapurna 1 had significant deviations from the regression indicating less
 stability than the other treatments.
         
 
 -------------------------
  
 
                                ITEMS FROM NEPAL
 
      CIMMYT S. ASIA REGIONAL WHEAT PROGRAM
         
      Breeding and Pathology (H.J. Dubin)
         
      Wheat varietal mixture experiments.  The first phase of a series of
 wheat varietal mixture experiments has been concluded.  The goal was to
 compare the stability of the mixture versus components over time and space.
 We have reported the general results of these experiments in previous
 Newsletters. In January 1991 a meeting was held in Kathmandu with twelve
 cooperators from India, Nepal and Switzerland to present individual
 experimental results and discuss future cooperation.
         
      The abstracts of the presentations will form a proceedings that will be
 available to interested scientists.  Future wheat mixture work with S. Asian
 cooperators will focus on relevant mixtures for their respective
 environments.
         
       A preliminary analysis of three years of combined regional results
 indicate that mixtures are more stable than their components. In general,
 mixture benefits increase when severe rust is present.  However, the benefits
 of stability without disease are signifcant over time and space.  Two methods
 of analysis were used to measure stability, i.e., Principal Coordinate
 Analysis [PCA] and Eberhart & Russell [E&R].  PCA [first two coordinates]
 accounted for 60% of the variation observed and gave a good representation of
 the stability relationships among treatments. Of the three mixture components
 used in the study Sonalika and UP262 are the least stable and lowest
 yielding, whereas Annapurna 1 = Vee #5 'S' is most stable and highest
 yielding of the components. The mixture was more stable than the components
 and slightly outyielded the mean of the components, on average. E&R accounted
 for very little of the variation in the G x E interaction. Both UP262 and
 Annapurna 1 had significant deviations from the regression indicating less
 stability than the other treatments.
         
 -------------------------
 
      Crop management research (Peter R. Hobbs)
         
      CIMMYT's regional South Asian crop management program is focussing on
 the rice-wheat cropping systems of the region in collaboration with IRRI and
 the South Asian National Agricultural Research Programs. The purpose of this
 work is to identify the factors responsible for low productivity of
 rice-wheat cropping systems and to develop suitable solutions for enhancing
 the productivity and sustainability of this system in the region.
 
     South Asia relies heavily on rice and wheat to provide a large portion of
 the daily caloric requirements of its people.  These two staples are
 frequently grown in rotation in South Asia on some 10 million hectares.
 Despite the use of irrigation, fertilizer, improved seeds and other inputs,
 yields of wheat and rice in this system in farmer fields are well below
 potential except in a few places in NW India. There is also evidence from the
 region that in some places the yields of rice and/or wheat are stagnant and
 even declining suggesting that the system as currently managed is not
 sustainable. Production in the region in the latter 1980's has not kept pace
 with the rising population or the 2.5-3.0% annual growth rate needed to meet
 food demands of the region for the 1990's. There will thus be continuing
 pressure to increase efficiency and production from the rice-wheat system of
 S.Asia to meet future regional food needs.
 
     Inefficient land preparation, delays in planting, deterioration of soil
 physical condition, nutrient imbalance, decrease in organic matter content,
 defective water management and crop protection problems are some of the major
 categories of problems already identified in the region. These are complex
 near and longer term problems that will require a more integrated in-depth
 research approach involving several disciplines and commodity programs.
         
     Work has started to look at the feasibility of using zero and minimal
 tillage techniques to reduce the land preparation and crop establishment
 problems.  The initial results look promising and result in lower costs,
 increased input efficiency and more profit for farmers. Crop and other farm
 residue management is being studied to improve the fertility and soil
 physical problems.
         
    Longer term biological sustainability problems such as declining soil
 fertility and increasing pest problems are being addressed in two ways:
         
         1. Computerization and analysis of existing long term trial data and
 setting up of new trials. There are several trials in the region using
 various fertilizer levels, that have been managed for more than ten years,
 that are beginning to show interesting deficiency symptoms.  Some new
 rotation trials using legumes and oilseeds in rotation with rice and wheat
 havebeen initiated to look at pest interactions including soil-borne
 pathogens.
         
         2.  Monitoring research is being started to develop a representative
 sampling frame for a selected site that will collect data on specific fields
 and farms over time. This program will quantify current farmer practices,
 land and resource quality, yield levels and system productivity. By sampling
 the same fields and farms over time the benchmark data above will form a
 basis for evaluating trends over time.
         
      Personnel: Mr. Markus Ruckstuhl, Ph.D candidate, the Swiss Federal
 Institute of Technology, Zurich, is working with us on identification of
 major diseases of wheat in the Tarai of Nepal. He will also be working on the
 determination of yield losses. The research is supported by the Swiss
 Development Corporation and CIMMYT.
 
 -------------------------
 
                               ITEMS FROM ROMANIA
 
      I C C P T (Research Inst. for Cereals and Industrial Crops) Fundulea,
 8264, jud. Calarasi
 
      N. Saulescu, Em. Jinga
 
      Estimation of optimum vernalization requirements and day-length response
 for wheat in South Romania, using a simulation model.  Optimum earliness,
 which is largely determined by vernalization requirements and day-length
 response, is an important component of the ideotype to be aimed at in
 breeding wheat for a particular region.  Taking into account the large
 weather variations from one year to another, a direct estimation of the
 optimum earliness (e.g., by testing near-isogenic lines differing in
 vernalization and day-length response) would be meaningful only after many
 years of testing (at least in our environment.  An alternative approach can
 be to use computer models simulating yield formation, fed with multi-year
 local weather data. We have used the CERES WHEAT N model, version 2.10.,
 kindly provided by Dr. Godwin from the International Fertilizer Development
 Center, Muscle Shoals Alabama, and weather data of the last 15 years from
 Fundulea.  By varying only the parameters describing vernalization
 requirements (P1V) and day-length response (P1D) we simulated the performance
 of "true isogenic" genotypes on two types of soil with different
 water-retaining capacity, with or without moisture stress (using or bypassing
 the water balance subroutines) and for two planting dates (normal and late).
 
      Simulation confirmed previous observations about specific years favoring
 early or late genotypes.  On multi-year average at normal planting date and
 without moisture stress, both very early genotypes (with low vernalization
 and day-length requirements) and late genotypes (with high day-length
 response) yielded less.  With moisture stress, on both soils, the highest
 yields were simulated for genotypes with medium vernalization requirements
 and low day-length response.  At late sowings vernalization requirements had
 no effect on yield and the yield was higher the lower the day length
 response.  Taking into account both the average yield and yield stability (as
 measured by standard error) several optimal combinations of vernalization and
 day length requirements were established.
 
      If this approach is correct, then the superiority of late, day-length
 responsive genotypes, manifested during the last few years, is only
 accidental and preference should be given to selecting photoperiodic
 insensitive genotypes, which will eventually produce a higher average yield.
 In our view this kind of simulation could help in resolving the confounding
 effect of Vrn and Ppd genes on yield, especially in variable climate like
 ours.
 
 -------------------------
 
      I. Hagima, N. Saulescu
 
      Selection for favorable glutenin and gliadin alleles.  Electrophoretical
 characterization of glutenins and gliadins has become routine in our breeding
 program.  All lines from F4 on are analyzed and for special projects
 selection starts in F2.  Based on their reported influence on baking quality,
 alleles of the glutenin and gliadin genes were scored from 1 to 9 reflecting
 their desirability.  When planting crosses and selecting, a mild selection
 pressure has been ut for more favorable alleles.  After 3 years of selection,
 in 1989, 85% of our breeding material possessed the allele Glu D1d
 (corresponding to fraction 5+10), 36% had the alleles G1u A1a or G1u A1b
 (corresponding to fractions 1 or 3) and 70% the allele G1u B1b (corresponding
 to fractions 7+8).  About 25% of the analyzed lines had a 10 score for
 glutenins, using the methods of Payne.  For gliadins, selection has increased
 the frequency of block 1A4 (as named by Sozinov and Poperelya) and decreased
 the frequency of 1B3 ("rye gliadins").
 
 -------------------------
 
      Mariana Ittu, N. Saulescu, Gh. Ittu
 
      An improved method of quantitative estimation of Fusarium scab in wheat.
 We used to estimate the Fusarium attack in spikes, inoculated by injecting
 two central florets, on the basis of a visual disease severity index (which
 is rather subjective and not very closely correlated with yield loss) and on
 the basis of reduction in the weight of grains from inoculated spikes as
 compared with uninoculated check which is very time-consuming).
 
      We found that both indices are strongly correlated with the weight of 10
 unthreshed inoculated spikes expressed as percentage from the weight of 10
 unthreshed uninoculated spikes.  The percentage divided by 10 and rounded
 gives a score which varies from 1 to 9.  Weighing unthreshed spikes is not
 only much more rapid but also has the advantage of taking into account both
 the reduction in grain number and in grain weight following the Fusarium
 attack.
 
      Using this improved method of quantitative estimation allowed a
 significant increase in the number of tested lines and improved the
 correlation with yield loss.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Gh. Ittu, N. N. Saulescu, Mariana Ittu, Aurelia Jilaveanu
 
      Triticale breeding.  TF 13 a new lie of winter triticale confirmed in a
 second year of ecological yield trials a high yielding potential.  In average
 for two years and 19 locations it outyielded the commercial cultivar TF 2 by
 19%.  TF 13 also exhibits improvements in test weight, lodging and fusarium
 scab resistance, fertility of the spike and winter hardiness compared to TF
 2.  TF 13 will probably be registered next year. Artificial tests with
 Fusarium showed a good level of resistance among our triticale germplasm.
 For many years of testing, a high level of resistance was found in the Polish
 cultivar Malno and a medium level in the Romanian line 37 TK.  In a first
 preliminary artificial screening, some sources with good levels of resistance
 to BYDV were identified.  Pedigree analyses of the lines and cultivars tested
 indicated the Russian cultivar AD 206 as a probable source of resistance to
 BYDV in our breeding material.  A good level of resistance, was also found in
 the Polish cultivar Malno and Romanian short straw line 58 TJ.
 
 -------------------------
 
                            ITEMS FROM SOUTH AFRICA
 
      Small Grain Centre, Grain Crops Research Inst., Bethlehelm
 
      H. A. Van Niekerk, P. R. Celliers, A. Brummer and D. J. Exley
 
                                    Breeding
 
      Winter wheat.  The Russian Wheat Aphid still remains one of the major
 problems confronting the winter wheat programme.  We are however progressing
 rapidly to the stage where existing cultivars with RWA resistance, derived by
 backcrossing, will be released.  We are submitting `Tugela' and `Betta' for
 release during April 1991.  As from this season no more spraying for RWA
 control of segregating populations will be undertaken.  This will allow us to
 select resistant plants under field conditions.  Limited quantities of seed
 of the abovementioned cultivars is available on request. We can also evaluate
 or select limited lines or segregating populations for interested parties.
 
      Hendrik Knobel has now also joined the winter wheat group and will
 initiate a hybrid wheat programme.
 
 -------------------------
 
      H. A. Van Niekerk, T. G. Paxton, R. Britz, M. S. S. Jordan and T. Van A.
 Bredenkamp
 
      Spring wheat.  The spring wheat programme caters for dryland as well as
 irrigated bread wheat cultivars.  For dryland conditions three lines W88/5,
 W88/8 and W88/9, will be submitted for provisional classification.  For the
 irrigated areas BSP 89/11, BSP 89/14 and BSP 89/16 will be submitted.
 Although Russian Wheat Aphid is not a serious problem in the spring wheat
 areas, some cultivars such as `Palmiet' and `Gamtoos' now have resistance
 which has been introduced by backcrossing.
 
      Francois Koekemoer, Anchen Schmutz and Rene Prinsloo have now joined the
 spring wheat group.
 
                                  Publications
 
 Van Niekerk, H. A.  1990.  `Letaba': A new winter wheat cultivar.  Proc. of
 Small Grain Centre Information Day.  (Afrikaans).
 
 Van Niekerk, H. A. and D. Van Lill.  1990.  Breeding wheat cultivars with
 good baking qualities.  Paper presented at the National Baking Symposium,
 Durban.
 
 Tolmay, V. L. and H. A. Van Niekerk.  1990.  Russian wheat aphid resistant
 cultivars: A Review Proc. of Small Grain Centre Information Day. (Afrikaans).
 
 Scott, D. B. and H. A. Van Niekerk.  Resistance in wheat to maize streak
 virus.  S. Afr. J. of Plant and Soil (In Press).
 
 -------------------------
 
      I. B. J. Smith, F. Groenewald and A. Basson
 
      International Nurseries.  Only 63 selections from the previous seasons
 international nurseries were evaluated in various irrigated trials.  Four
 promising lines were identified.  The remaining dryland trials were all
 discontinued on account of the drought.  Entries from these trials will have
 to be evaluated this coming season.
 
      Some 21 international nurseries, established under irrigation, were
 evaluated for all relevant agronomic characteristics and various diseases.
 Apart from powdery mildew and a slight Septoria nodorum infection, the lack
 of infection was apparent.  The entries to these nurseries were wheat 1688,
 barley 393, triticale 200 and durum 148.  Of these entries 15% were selected
 for further evaluation.
 
 -------------------------
 
      H. A. Smit, J. L. Purchase, P. A. Visser, A. H. Bothma, M. Maritz and H.
 A. Van Tonder
 
                         Agronomy and Plant Physiology
 
      1990 Crop Conditions.  The three major wheat producing regions of South
 Africa are the Western Cape (mediterranean Climate), the Orange Free State
 (summer rainfall region) and the irrigation areas along the major rivers and
 dams.  Spring types are generally planted in the Western Cape and under
 irrigation, while winter and intermediate types dominate production under
 dryland conditions in the Orange Free State.  The O F S produces
 approximately 60% of the total annual crop, the Western Cape 25% and roughly
 15% is produced under irrigation.  The total wheat crop for the period 1
 November 1990 to 30 October 1991, as estimated by the Wheat Board, should
 amount to 1,60 million metric tons, which is substantially down on the poor
 crop of the previous season.  An extremely severe drought in the spring
 months, together with severe Russian wheat aphid infestation, caused the
 drastic drop in production.
 
      Cultivar adaptation under dryland conditions.  Intensive cultivar
 adaptation research programs are run separately for the respective production
 regions.  Cultivars and preliminary released lines from the Small Grain
 Centre, as well as from the private seed companies, are included in the
 trials.  These trials analyzed over years enable the researchers to make
 accurate recommendations to the producers regarding cultivar selection,
 optimum planting date and seeding rate.  The intensive cultivar adaptation
 programs are necessary due to the large variation that exists in climate and
 soil types within the respective regions.
 
      Plant physiology.  The plant physiology program is mainly concerned with
 the screening of advanced breeding lines for Aluminum tolerance and
 coleoptile length, the determination of morphological and physiological
 factors that are associated with drought tolerance and the characterization
 of cultivars and advanced breeding lines in terms of vernalization
 requirement and photoperiod sensitivity.  The drought tolerance research is
 at present being conducted under rain shelters at the Small Grain Centre.
 
      Annelie Barnard has joined the physiology programme and will be involved
 in preharvest sprouting research.
 
                                  PUBLICATIONS
 
 Purchase, J. L., Le Roux, J. and Van Tonder, H. A.  1991.  The effects of
 various seed treatments on the germination, coleoptile length and emergence
 of winter wheat.  Paper presented at the South African Crop Production
 Society Congress, Stellenbosch.
 
 Pretorius, Z. A. and Purchase, J. L.  1990.  Virulence characteristics of
 wheat leaf rust in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi.  Phytophylactica 22,
 141-142.
 
 -------------------------
 
      C. G. Burbidge, R. C. Lindeque, H. A. Van Tonder, H. S. C. Van Der Merwe
 and W. Van Der Westhuizen
 
      Cultivar adaptation under irrigation.  There are five irrigation wheat
 producing regions in South Africa with distinct different bioclimates. The
 aim is to determine the physiological adaptation and yield stability of
 various wheat cultivars for these different irrigation regions.
 
      Optimum planting dates and seeding rates are determined for 40 different
 localities.  Combined analysis over years and localities ensures accurate
 recommendations to the producer regarding cultivar choice, optimum planting
 date and seeding rate.  Cultivar characteristics such as straw strength and
 preharvest sprouting as well as the resistance of cultivars to the most
 important diseases are also made available to the producer.
 
      Plant physiology.  In most irrigation regions of South Africa the grain
 fill period of spring wheat coincides with periods of high temperature
 stress.  The rate and duration of grain filling of all the wheat cultivars
 that are recommended in South Africa are determined in glass house and field
 trials.  Results suggest that the duration and rate of grain fill differs
 greatly between regions and cultivars.  Further trials are being conducted to
 determine whether cultivars can possibly be bred for better adaptation.
 
 -------------------------
 
      H. A. Smit, H. H. Knobell, B. L. deVilliers, R. C. Lindeque, J. P. du
 Toit
 
                                 Weed Research
 
      Phytotoxicity studies.  The aim of these studies is to screen for the
 phytotoxicity of all new registered herbicides (double the recommended rate)
 on all available wheat cultivars and lines in glasshouse and field trials.
 It was established that a tralkoxydim and bromoxynil combination is
 phytotoxic to certain cultivars under glasshouse and field conditions.
 
      Combination studies.  It was established that bromoxynil was the primary
 antagonist of both fenozaprop-P-ethyl and imazamethabenz-methyl when
 evaluating wild oat control.  MCPA antagonized tralkoxydim to the extent that
 wild oat control was diminished to a certain extent.  Studies with other wild
 oat herbicides in combination with broadleaf herbicides are currently being
 carried out.
 
      Adjuvant studies.  It was discovered that various surfactants had no
 effect on the efficacy of fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and the supposition is that this
 herbicide already has a sufficient amount of surfactant in its formulation.
 An additional amount of surfactant will therefore have little effect on this
 herbicide.  At present further studies are being carried out with herbicides
 containing adjuvants, in combination with other pesticides, to determine the
 effect of the adjuvants on the pesticides.
 
 -------------------------
 
      S. C. Drijepondt
                                   Pathology
 
      Leaf Rust Race survey.  Leaf rust occurred in all wheat producing areas
 during 1989, but severities generally were again low due to a dry season.
 Two hundred and forty-one single pustule isolates, representing 10
 agroecological areas, were characterized.  From these, 12 pathotypes were
 distinguished.  Pathotype 132 (avirulent to Lr3a, 3bg, 3ka, 11, 16, 20, 26,
 30 and virulent to Lr1, 2a, 2b, 2c, 10, 14a, 15,17, 24) was isolated most
 frequently.
 
      Resistance studies.  Due to the restricted sources of Lr genes in
 hexaploid wheat and also in alien and related germplasm, a new emphasis must
 be placed on the combination of existing effective or moderately effective Lr
 genes.  To this end, several gene combinations were made to look for
 complementary gene action, where the combination of genes produce a lower
 infection type than either of the parents.  Firstly, a gene showing good
 combining ability, Lr34, was crossed with several other genes that differed
 in their resistance expression at varying plant growth stages and at
 different temperatures.  The F2 of these crosses were evaluated at four
 temperatures and with different cultures of Puccinia recondita f. sp.
 tritici.  Plants with infection types lower than either parent were selected
 and grown.  The F3 was then divided and adult plant tests performed to
 determine the presence of Lr34 at 15oC.  The other half of each selected line
 was used to determine the presence of the second gene with cultures and
 temperatures known to show the second gene.  These lines will now be crossed
 into currently susceptible commercial cultivars to establish a broader
 network of genes for the control of this pathogen.
 
                                  Publications
 
 Drijepondt, S. C., Pretorius, Z. A., Van Lill, D. and Rijkenberg, F. H. J.
 1990.  Effect of Lr34 resistance on leaf rust development, grain yield and
 baking quality in wheat.  Plant Breeding.  105: 62-68.
 
 -------------------------
 
 
      J. Smith
 
      Bacterial Diseases.  In 1987 and 1988, 87 fluorescent bacterial strains
 were isolated from diseased wheat during a disease survey.  The local strains
 were compared to 10 reference strains in biochemical, physiological and
 morphological studies.  Five distinct groups were identified.  Group 1
 containing nine reference and 16 local strains were classified as Pseudomonas
 syringae pv. syringae.  Although group 2 and 3 closely resembled group 1,
 they could not be classified as P.s. pv. syringae.  Group 4 was a unique
 group containing strains with uniform characteristics but did not show any
 resemblance to Group1.  Group 5 contained bacteria with diverse
 characteristics.
 
      Virulence trials indicated that a virulence of local P.s. pv. syringae
 strains is low when compared to that of reference strains.  Results from
 cultivar reaction trials indicated that only 5 of 14 local commercial
 cultivars were susceptible to local P.s. pv. syringae strains.  It would
 therefore seem that P.s. pv.  syringae is a weak pathogen of wheat in South
 Africa.
 
 -------------------------
 
      B. J. Pieterse, J. T. Steyn and J. P. C. Tolmay
 
                                Soil Cultivation
 
      The Soil Cultivation Section at the Small Grain Centre initialized a new
 project during the 1990 season.  The aim of these experiments is to determine
 the influence of soil cultivation on the performance of different wheat
 cultivars.
 
      The results of a preliminary trial showed little difference in total
 yield of nine cultivars where conventional tillage with a disc and mouldboard
 plough was conducted.  Cultivar differences were however obtained where a
 chisel plough or V-blade was used for primary tillage.  As the reasons for
 these cultivar differences are not yet clear, detail data will be obtained
 during the following seasons.  Factors which will be kept in mind are the
 influence of cultivation on plant water relations, the soil water balance,
 soil density, soil strength and the growth rate of the plants.
 
 -------------------------
 
      G. J. Prinsloo, V. L. Tolmay, B. Koen, J. L. Hatting
 
                                   Entomology
 
      Resistance breeding against Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) Diuraphis noxia.
 Good progress has been made during 1990 with the breeding of resistant
 cultivars.  The best commercial cultivars are being used in a
 backcross-breeding programme with five sources of resistance.  Studies are
 being undertaken to establish the mechanism of resistance.
 
      Biocontrol.  A programme has been started on the introduction and
 evaluation of natural enemies against RWA.  One parasitoid species viz.
 Aphidius matricariae was imported during 1990 and attempts are now being made
 to establish this species in the wheat producing areas of the country.  A few
 other species will be introduced in the near future.  Both plant resistance
 and natural enemies will be used in an attempt to establish an integrated
 control programme on RWA.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Department of Plant Pathology, University of the Orange Free State,
 Bloemfontein 9300
 
      Z.A. Pretorius, F.J. Kloppers and E.G. Brink
 
      Wheat leaf rust.  Strategies for exploiting sources of resistance with
 proven durability to Puccinia recondita are being investigated.  Preliminary
 results indicate that Frontana resistance is not effective to all South
 African races.  Furthermore, the cultivar is heterogeneous for its response
 to leaf rust.  From F2 segregation ratios it appears that at least two genes,
 one of which is Lr13, are involved.  LrT3 and Lr34 could not be confirmed.
 In the Frontana background, expression of resistance was not extremely
 temperature-specific.  However, temperature influenced the F2 segregation
 ratios of Frontana/Thatcher and Frontana/Karee progeny.  At present, Frontana
 accessions from Australia , Canada and the U.S.A. are being compared to
 determine whether certain selections with superior leaf rust resistance could
 be introduced into local breeding programs.
 
      Other research activities include the characterization and expression of
 selected sources of resistance. Our objectives are to determine if different
 backgrounds influence Lr gene expression, to study possible erosion of
 resistance through backcrossing and to develop agronomically adapted lines
 with complex resistance to P. recondita.
 
                                  Publications
 
 Drijepondt, S.C., Pretorius, Z.A. , Van Lill, D. and Rijkenberg, F.H.J. 1990.
 Effect of Lr34 resistance on leaf rust development, grain yield and baking
 quality in wheat.  Plant Breeding 105:62-68.
 
 Kemp, G.H.J., Pretorius, Z.A. and Van Jaarsveldt, M. 1990.  The occurrence of
 Pyrenophora tritici-repentis on winter wheat debris in the eastern Orange
 Free State.  Phytophylactica 22:363-364.
 
 Pretorius, Z.A. 1990.  An assessment of leaf rust resistance conferred by two
 Lr genes associated with increased seed protein in wheat.  Phytophylactica
 22:121-122.
 
 Pretorius, Z.A. and Kemp, G.H.J. 1990.  Effects of temperature and growth
 stage on components of resistance in wheat genotypes with Lr26.  Plant
 Disease 74:631-635.
 
 Pretorius, Z.A. and Purchase, J.L. 1990.  Virulence characteristics of wheat
 leaf rust in Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi.  Phytophylactica 22:141-142.
 
 Pretorius, Z.A., Le Roux, J. and Drijepondt, S.C. 1990. Occurrence and
 pathogenicity of Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici on wheat in South Africa
 during 1988.  Phytophylactica 22:225-228.
 
 Pretorius, Z.A., Rijkenberg, F.H.J. and Wilcoxson, R.D. 1990.  Influence of
 genetic background on the expression of wheat leaf rust resistance gene
 Lr22a.  Phytopathology 80:579-584.
 
 Pretorius, Z.A. 1990.  An evaluation of leaf rust resistance in Era wheat.
 Phytophylactica 22:150 (Abstr.).
 
 Drijepondt, S.C. and Pretorius, Z.A. 1990.  Effects of growth stage and leaf
 position on Lr34 resistance to Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici.
 Phytophylactica 22:149 (Abstr.).
 
 Kemp, G.H.J., Pretorius, Z.A. and Smith, J. 1990.  Authracrose of wheat in
 South Africa.  Phytophylactica 22:151 (Abstr.).
 
 Kemp, G.H.J., Pretorius, Z.A., Wingfield, M.J. and Brink, L. 1990.  Head
 blight of wheat associated with Fusarium poae and the mite Siteropres avenae.
 Phytophylactica 22:145 (Abstr.).
 
 -------------------------
 
      Division of Plant Breeding, University of the Orange Free State,
 Bloemfontein, South Africa
 
      C.S. van Deventer and M.T. Labuschagne
 
      Soft wheat breeding programme.  South Africa currently has only one soft
 wheat which is used commercially for soft wheat products, especially for
 cookie production.  For this reason a soft wheat breeding programme was
 established at the U.O.F.S. Most germplasm was imported from the USA, Cimmyt,
 France and Australia due to lack of local resources.  The object of this
 programme will be to breed soft wheat for the irrigation areas, with good
 cookie quality. F2's are already in the evaluation process.
 
      SDS-PAGE is used to establish HMW glutenin subunits of the cultivars and
 lines, and research is currently being done to relate HMW glutenin subunits
 to quality characteristics under South African conditions.
 
                                  Publications
 
 M.T. Labuschagne and C.S. van Deventer, 1989.  The effect of moisture stress
 on combining ability and heterosis in winter wheat Cer. Res. Comm.
 17(3-4):179-185.
 -------------------------
 
 
      Department of Genetics, University of Stellenbosch
 
      R. de V. Pienaar, G. F. Marais, G. M. Littlejohn, H. S. Roux, R. Prins,
 C. du Pleissis and J. M. Hay
 
      Durum wheat breeding.  The 1990/91 national durum crop was estimated at
 16 400 metric tons.  The primary cultivar grown was Goeie Hoop.  Durum wheat
 trials were grown under flood irrigation near Kimberley.  Three hundred and
 fourty pure lines were evaluated in replicated trials, while 950 advanced
 lines and 350 segregating populations were grown as single rows.  The best
 yielding advanced line (a selection from the
 cross:DOY1/4/PLC"S"//MEXI"S"/3/DOM"S"//DACK"S"/KIWI"S"), produced 12.03 t/ha.
 A further 280 segregating lines were grown at Stellenbosch.  USD8712 (=GDO VZ
 578//LDS MUT/GTA"S"/3/FULI"S") was provisionally released to farmers, its
 yield is slightly better than those of the leading cultivars, and it has
 superior quality.
 
      Triple breeding.  Three spring cultivars are grown in the western,
 southern and eastern Cape Province on approximately 30 000 ha.  These
 cultivars have become susceptible to leaf and stem rust.  High yielding,
 resistant lines were identified.  One of these, ANNOAS"S" was selected from
 CIMMYT 's 19th ITYN nursery, and is presently being multiplied for release.
 While triticale is primarily used for livestock feeding a new breakfast
 cereal (flakes) based on triticale appeared on the market in 1990.
 
       Replicated trials (260 lines) and single rows (760 advanced and 470
 segregating lines) were grown under rainfed conditions near stellenbosch.
 Very wet soil conditions prevailed during the first eighty days of plant
 development.  During the flowering and grain filling periods very dry
 conditions existed.  Average grain yields were reduced by about 1 t/ha as
 compared to the previous season.  The best yielding triticale selection
 produced 3.8 t/ha while the best yielding wheat cultivar (Gamtoos) produced
 3.18 t/ha.
 
      An amphiploid from the cross: Triticum dicoccoides/Henoch rye, was
 crossed with the F1 backcrossed to the triticale cultivar USGEN 18.  High
 protein selections were identified among the progeny and will be used for
 further backcrossing.
 
      Cytogenetics.  An attempt is made to transfer Russian wheat aphid
 resistance from rye to hexaploid wheat.  Strong resistance to the aphid was
 detected in Turkey 77, an entity from the world rye collection.  An octoploid
 primary triticale was produced from the resistant F1: Chinese Spring/Turkey
 77.
 
      A study was made of preferential transmission of the Indis translocation
 chromosome (consisting of 7DS and a Thinopyrum distichum (Thunb.) Love
 chromosome arm) in common wheat heterozygotes.  It appeared as though the
 magnitude of a response to the presence of the translocation was the result
 of an interaction involving a number of chromosomes, excluding the normal
 chromosome 7D.  The subsequent selective elimination of gametes may have been
 based on recognition of the presence of the translocation.
 
      The Indis translocation was shown to carry very effective resistance to
 leaf rust.  An attempt to separate the leaf rust resistance from a gene(s)
 for yellow endosperm pigmentation, through the induction of homoeologous
 recombination, produced four possible recombinants.  In the one recombinant
 tested, the absence of yellow pigmentation was illustrated to coincide with
 the restoration of loci encoding forÓ-AMY-D2a and EP-D1a of common wheat.
 However, it needs to be determined whether recombination or a new
 translocation was induced.  The material is currently tested for possible
 associated deleterious effects of the modified translocation.
 
      A number of disomic addition lines of Th. distichum chromosomes in the
 common wheat cultivar Inia 66 have been identified by means of C-bands.  An
 attempt to obtain disomic substitutions for these chromosomes are continued.
 
      Chromosome pairing in Triticum durum/ Th. distichum hybrids, amphiploids
 and partial amphiploids in the presence and absence of the Ph1 gene was
 investigated.  The absence of Ph1 (obtained by combining the ph1c mutant with
 the 5D(5B) substitution) improved homoeologous pairing in the hybrids, but
 not significantly in the amphiploids and partial amphiploids.
 
      Backcross projects to develop ditelosomic series in the common wheat
 cultivar Pavon 76 and the durum wheat cultivar Orania, have progressed to the
 6th and 4th backcrosses respectively.  Crosses to transfer the kr
 crossability genes from Chinese Spring to Pavon 76 have progressed to the
 B4F1.
 
      An attempt is made to transfer genes (Rht2, Rht8, Lr19 and its
 associated genes for yellow endosperm pigmentation) from the D genome of
 common wheat to durum wheat.  Tetraploid plants having these characteristics
 were identified, however the presence of the semi-dwarfing genes needs to be
 verified.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Pioneer Seed Company, P. O. Box 17164, Bainsvlei, 9338
 
      F. du Toit*, S. S. Walters
 
      Pioneer Seed Company (not to be confused with Pioneer Hi-bred
 International) has initiated a wheat breeding programme in 1988.  The
 emphasis is on hard red winter wheats for the summer rainfall areas (mainly
 the Orange Free State Province) and hard red spring wheats for the winter
 rainfall region of the western and southern Cape province as well as for
 irrigation areas.  A farm was purchased near Bloemfontein in the Orange Free
 State and is currently being developed into a research and breeding station.
 
      Breeding objectives.  Some of the main objectives are the development of
 winter and intermediate wheat lines with acceptable baking qualities, drought
 tolerance, Russian wheat aphid resistance and crown rot tolerance.  In the
 spring wheat breeding programme emphases is put on disease resistance and
 high protein content.
 
      Personnel.  Boet Walters started the breeding programme in 1988.
 Francois du Toit, formerly from the Small Grain Centre at Bethlehem, joined
 Pioneer Seed Company in March 1990 and will continue to work on Russian wheat
 aphid resistance.
 
 -------------------------
 
                                ITEMS FROM SYRIA
 
      G. Ortiz-Ferrara, A. Shehadeh, M. Michael, and M. Asaad Moussa
 
      The joint CIMMYT/ICARDA spring bread wheat breeding program, based at
 Aleppo, Syria, continues to concentrate breeding efforts toward developing
 improved germplasm suitable to the low-rainfall (less than 400 mm) areas of
 West Asia and North Africa (WANA). In these areas, wheat is fall-planted
 where early growth and development occurs during the coolest months, but
 temperatures rise rapidly as the grain ripens. Extreme cold and heat are
 common stresses and are often combined with drought. Diseases and insect
 pests are also important constraints that limit wheat production in the
 region.
 
      Realizing that improved cultivars must reach farmers before they can
 have any impact on cereal production, we have joined efforts with national
 programs in conducting research in on-farm trials in Syria, Algeria, Sudan,
 Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia, Yemen, and Jordan. These activities reflect our
 concerns for germplasm adoption by farmers and the need to substitute
 improved varieties for the unimproved, low-yielding local varieties grown in
 WANA.
 
      Ten years of interaction with the national program of Syria has resulted
 in the release of six spring bread wheat varieties. Five of these varieties
 (Bohouth 2, Bohouth 4, Bohouth 6, Cham 2, and Cham 4), were released for the
 high rainfall (more than 400 mm) and irrigated areas.  This year, the
 national program decided to release Cham 6, a spring bread wheat variety with
 good adaptation in the dry areas of the country (250-350 mm annual rainfall).
 
      Table 1 presents the performance of Cham 6 in Farmers Field Verification
 Trials in Syria. Three years data show that Cham 6 had an average yield
 advantage of 14% over the local check Mexipak 65 and of 22% over the widely
 grown durum variety Haurani, under low-rainfall conditions. Similar results
 were obtained in large scale tests (3ha, farmer's fields) under less than 300
 mm rainfall.  The pre-released name of Cham 6 was Nesser (=W3918A/Jup,
 CM-39992-8M-7Y-0M- 0AP). Because of its good adaptation in other dry areas of
 the region, seed has been requested and distributed to other national
 programs such as Jordan, Algeria, Morocco and Lebanon.
 
 Table 1. Performance of Cham 6, CIMMYT/ICARDA spring bread wheat variety,
 under low- rainfall (250-350 mm) conditions in Syria. Farmer's Field
 Verification Trials 1985-86 to 1987-88.
 _________________________________________________________________                    
 Grain yield (kg/ha)             %    
                      ___________________________________   BW    
 Variety              1986      1987      1988    Average  Check
 _________________________________________________________________
 Cham 6               2109      1834      3632     2525     114
 
 Mexipak (BW)         1795      1643      3229     2222     100
 
 Haurani (DW)         1933      1409      2828     2056      92
 _________________________________________________________________
 No. of locations       7         7        10        24
 _________________________________________________________________
 BW= Bread wheat check; DW= Durum wheat check.
 
 -------------------------
 
 CIMMYT/ICARDA Joint Project - Winter and Facultative Wheat Breeding
 
      Byrd C. Curtis and Haitham Kayyali
 
      The 1989-90 crop season at Tel Hadya (Aleppo) was characterized by a
 severe drought, low winter temperatures and an unusually heavy freeze in mid-
 March.  Rainfed nursery yields were very low and some of the late maturing
 winter wheat lines failed to head. Rainfall occurring during the growing
 season measured 233mm compared to the average from 1978-79 through 1989-90 of
 330mm.  The low temperature of near -10o C reached during the night of March
 17, during jointing stage about one month before heading, caused considerable
 damage to spring habit wheats while winter and facultative wheats sustained
 little damage.
 
      The rainfed nurseries provided the most uniform conditions for field
 measurement of drought tolerance that I have experienced.  Bezostaya 1 check
 plots interspersed throughout the F2, F4 and F5 rainfed nurseries showed
 little heading except for plants bordering alleyways.  In contrast, 32% of
 the F4's and the F5's headed without much difficulty and some had little or
 no discernable plant height reduction in plot centers.  Twenty percent of the
 F2's had a predominance of plants that headed and were selected.  Several of
 the more apparent drought tolerant F2 and F4 populations had the Chinese
 winter variety CA 8055 as one of the parents.  In the crossing block that
 received supplemental irrigation, CA 8055 proved to be extra early maturing
 with short stature and bold white seed.  It appears to be a good breeding
 source for drought tolerance in winter wheat improvement.  ICARDA records
 indicate that CA 8055 was grown in the 17th IWWPN 1982-83 trial originating
 from Nebraska, however the international report for that year was not found
 at ICARDA preventing additional characterization of CA 8055 in this report.
 
      To study the vernalization response of material comprising the 1989-90
 regional winter and facultative (W&F) wheat screening nurseries of CIMMYT and
 ICARDA, distributed primarily in the West Asia and North Africa (WANA)
 region, the 310 entries were planted July 15 at Tel Hadya in dry soil and
 sprinkler irrigated July 23.  Irrigation was repeated each 10th day until
 late September.  Air temperature highs averaged 37o C for July and August and
 34o C for September and lows for the respective months averaged 22o C, 21o C
 and 17o C, providing a suitable environment for differential expression of
 vernalization genes.  Percent plants headed for each cultivar (excluding the
 known spring habit checks which headed 100% with an estimated yield level of
 near 2 tons/ha) was recorded on October 4 with results as follows:
 
      %/headed   No/lines % lines   Named cultivars
                          
        100       31 10.1      Seri 82
      70-90       17  5.5      Kirkpinar 79
      40-90       16  5.2      Gerek79, Zargoon
      10-39       12  3.9      ------
        1-9       12  3.9      ------
          0       21
               8               71.2      Bez, Atay 85                                  
       
      Both CIMMYT and ICARDA W&F material being distributed to national wheat
 research programs in the region contain a predominance of lines with heavy
 vernalization response.  This is cause for some concern since studies to-date
 would indicate that the West Asia, North Africa region (WANA) uses more
 facultative than true winter wheats.  The facultative cultivar, Gerek 79,
 which averaged about 50% headed in this study, was reportedly grown on more
 than a million hectares in Turkey in 1989-90 to include the Anatolian Plateau
 and other colder areas in eastern Turkey.  Gerek 79 continues to increase in
 area planted in Turkey and much of the wheat production in eastern Turkey is
 from facultative land races.  True winter wheats can be productive in eastern
 Turkey if emergence and plant development begins in September or early
 October but moisture shortages frequently prevent timeliness of emergence.
 Crops from delayed emergence of true winters usually mature too late and
 yield less in comparison with facultative wheats under the same conditions.
 
 -------------------------
 
                          ITEMS FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM
 
      Cambridge Laboratory, Institute of Plant Science Research, Colney Lane,
 Norwich, NR4 7UJ, UK.
 
      S.M. Reader and T.E. Miller*
 
      The chromosomal location of a gene for resistance to powdery mildew
 transferred from Triticum dicoccoides. A new source of resistance to wheat
 powdery mildew, Erysiphe graminis, has been transferred to hexaploid bread
 wheat from the wild tetraploid wheat, T. dicoccoides.  The winter bread wheat
 cultivar Maris Nimwood was pollinated with T. dicoccoides acc. CL1060025 from
 the Samarian mountains of Israel and the resulting pentaploid hybrid was self
 pollinated.  Resistant plants having a near stable hexaploid chromosome
 complement were observed in the F3 progeny; these were topcrossed and
 subsequently backcrossed to improve the phenotype.  Monosomic analysis of
 early backcross lines showed the transferred gene to be located on chromosome
 4A (formerly 4B).  The gene which confers resistance to all known resistance
 genes and gene combinations employed in UK cultivars has been designated
 Pm16.
 -------------------------
 
 
      I.P. King, T.E. Miller and R.M.D. Koebner
 
      Determination of the transmission frequency of chromosome 4Sl of
 Aegilops sharonensis in a range of wheat genetic backgrounds. The
 transmission of chromosome 4Sl from Aegilops sharonensis was observed in a
 range of wheat genetic backgrounds. Chromosome 4Sl was transmitted at a very
 high frequency (at least 97.8%) in all crosses. The genetic background
 appears to only have a small effect on transmission. The frequency of
 transmission of chromosome 4Sl was the same, in each genetic background,
 through both the male and female gametes.
 
 -------------------------
 
      I.P. King, R.M.D. Koebner, R. Schlegel, S.M. Reader and T.E.Miller.
 
      Exploitation of a preferentially transmitted chromosome from Aegilops
 sharonensis for the elimination of segregation for height in semi-dwarf bread
 wheat cultivars.  Certain semi-dwarf bread wheat cultivars tend to lose
 chromosome 4D, carrying the dwarfing gene Rht2, resulting in the production
 of tall "off types". In order to overcome this problem translocations
 involving the arm of the Aegilops sharonensis chromosome 4Sl, which carries
 the genes determining preferential transmission and the Rht2 carrying arm of
 chromosome 4D of Triticum aestivum, have been isolated. hese translocations,
 which were derived by self-pollinating plants doubly monosomic for
 chromosomes 4D and 4Sl, appear to be preferentially transmitted in both
 pollen and egg, thus ensuring constant disomy and homozygosity of Rht2.
 
 -------------------------
 
      I.P. King, R.M.D. Koebner, S.M. Reader and T.E. Miller
 
      Induction of a mutation in the male fertility gene of the preferentially
 transmitted Aegilops sharonensis chromosome 4Sl and its application for
 hybrid wheat production. Plants nullisomic for chromosome 4B are male sterile
 due to the absence of the male fertility gene Ms1. However, plants in which
 chromosome 4B has been substituted by the preferentially transmitted
 chromosome 4Sl of Ae.sharonensis are male fertile due to the compensating
 effect of Ms4 on the alien chromosome. This substitution line has been
 mutated and three recessive mutations of Ms4 have been selected. Plants
 homozygous for these mutations are male sterile. It is proposed that these
 mutations may be utilized for hybrid wheat production.
 
 -------------------------
 
 
 
      W.J. Rogers, E.J. Sayers and C.N. Law*
 
      Dosage effects of chromosomes of homoeologous groups 1 and 6 upon
 bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat.  The endosperm storage proteins,
 glutenin and gliadin, are major determinants of bread-making quality in
 hexaploid wheat.  Genes encoding them are located on chromosomes of
 homoeologous groups 1 and 6.  Aneuploid lines of these groups in the spring
 wheat cultivar Chinese Spring have been used to investigate the effect of
 varying the dosage of chromosomes and chromosome arms upon bread-making
 quality, where quality has been assessed using the SDS-sedimentation test.
 
      Differences between the group 1 chromosomes for quality were greater
 than those between those of group 6.  The chromosomes were ranked within
 homoeologous groups for their effect on quality as follows (> = better
 quality): 1D > 1B > 1A and 6A > 6B = 6D.  The relationship of chromosome
 dosage with quality was principally linear for four of the chromosomes, but
 not for 6B and 6D.  Increases in the dosage of 1B, 6A and, especially, 1D,
 were associated with significant improvements in quality, whereas increases
 in the dosage of 1A were associated with reductions in quality.  The effects
 of 1A and 1D were such that the best genotype for quality was nullisomic
 1A-tetrasomic 1D.  For group 1, effects of the long arm appeared in general
 to be more important than effects of the short.  For group 6, effects were
 found associated with the long arms as well as with the short arms, in spite
 of the absence of genes encoding storage proteins on the long arms.
 Significant interactions were found between chromosomes and genetic
 backgrounds and between individual chromosomes.
 
      Analysis of trials grown over two years demonstrated that, although
 additive environmental differences over years and genotype x years
 interaction were present, they were relatively small in magnitude compared
 with purely genetic differences.
 
      The results have implications in targeting which genes it would be
 desirable to duplicate or delete within the wheat genome.  For example, it
 would appear to be desirable to duplicate genes on chromosome 1D at the
 expense of genes on chromosome 1A.
 
 -------------------------
 
      A.I. Morgunov (NPD 'Podmoscovje, Moscow, USSR), W.J. Rogers, E.J. Sayers
 and E.V. Metakovsky (N.I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Moscow,
 USSR).
 
      The high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit composition of Soviet wheat
 cultivars.  One hundred and twenty-eight cultivars bred in the Soviet Union
 were screened for the composition of high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunits of
 glutenin, encoded by Glu-1 located on chromosomes of homoeologous group 1.
 In general, variability was low compared to that seen in cultivars from other
 countries.  For example, seventy-three of the cultivars belonged to three
 groups, with subunit composition 2*, 7+9, 2+12 (27 cultivars), 1, 7+9, 5+10
 (22 cultivars), or 2*, 7+9, 5+10 (24 cultivars).  Nonetheless, cultivars from
 different regions showed distinctive patterns, in some cases clearly due to
 the use of particular parents in certain breeding programmes, but in others
 possibly due to the adaptive value of particular alleles to the environmental
 conditions under which the cultivars were bred.  For example, among spring
 cultivars, the Glu-D1 allele encoding subunits 2+12 was more common in
 cultivars from areas with limited rainfall than was the allele encoding
 subunits 5+10.
 
      Twenty-two per cent of the cultivars showed heterogeneity in subunit
 composition.  While most of these were heterogeneous at only one of the Glu-1
 loci, some were heterogeneous at two of the loci, and a few were
 heterogeneous at all three.  For some cultivars this heterogeneity is due to
 the practice by some breeders in the USSR of deliberately retaining some
 variability within each cultivar, since they believe that a cultivar
 consisting of different biotypes provides more stable yield in changeable
 environmental conditions.
 
      The pattern of HMW glutenin subunits amongst cultivars with superior
 bread-making quality showed few differences from that amongst cultivars of
 lower quality.  However, a notable difference was that, particularly amongst
 spring wheats, the frequency of subunits 5+10 at Glu-D1 was lower in the
 superior group than in the group of lower quality.  This is in contrast to
 previous studies using cultivars from other countries, in which subunits 5+10
 have been shown to be associated with good bread-making quality.
 
 -------------------------
 
      M.D. Gale*, J.B. Smith, M.D. Atkinson, K.M. Devos, C.N. Chinoy, M.L.
 Wang, R.L. Harcourt and C.J. Liu
 
      Biochemical and molecular marker maps in wheat, barley and rye.  The
 development of the genetic maps continues with some 500 clones screened for
 RFLP utility and some 300 characterized for copy number, chromosomally
 located fragments with four restriction enzymes and levels of RFLP at
 individual loci over 13 cultivars in wheat and barley.  Initial maps of
 groups 1, 3 and 7 in all these genomes A,B,D,H and R are complete.
 
      Levels of variability obtained with cDNAs are low, with mean levels of
 pairwise locus comparisons among the diverse genotypes included in our
 varietal test set remaining at less than 10%.  Levels obtained with genomic
 probes are better, with mean values between 20% and 40% for different classes
 of clone.  For probes which hybridize well to both barley and wheat there
 appears to be very little correspondence between levels of RFLP in the two
 species.  These comparisons are hampered by the fact that those showing the
 highest levels in wheat do not generally hybridize with barley DNA.
 
      Among the probes showing the highest levels of RFLP are the chromosome
 specific low copy repeats.  We now have several examples which have <100
 copies, all of which map to the same chromosome region.  They
 characteristically display polymorphism for copy number including completely
 null phenotypes, as well as fragment length variants (Harcourt R.L. and M.D.
 Gale, Theo. Appl. Genet., in press).
 
      Another group of probes which show high levels of RFLP include those
 which hybridize to non-homoeologous loci in the three wheat genomes.
 
      A common feature of the wheat and rye maps is extreme clustering of loci
 around the centromere.  There are no obvious differences in the locations of
 genomic probes or cDNAs, so this is thought to reflect localisation of
 recombination towards the ends of the chromosomes.
 
      The programme has benefited from input by several visiting scientists
 including Dr. Teresa Millan, Cordoba, Spain and Dr. Dao Xin Xie, Beijing.
 
 -------------------------
 
      A.J. Worland,* C.N. Law and S. Petrovi (Institute of Field and Vegetable
 Crops, Novi Sad, Yugoslavia).
 
      Advantages of day length insensitivity to European winter wheats.  Wheat
 is potentially the most adaptable of all crop species with relatively few
 major genes determining its adaptability to varying climatic conditions.
 Amongst winter wheats alteration of time to flowering is most readily
 achieved by manipulation of photoperiodic genes determining the plants
 response to day length.  Normally true winter wheats carry vernalization
 sensitive genes that effectively prevent damage of floral primordia by
 delaying their development until temperatures rise in spring.  Plants that
 carry genes for day length insensitivity (Ppd) can immediately initiate
 floral primordia in spring and flower in early summer, whilst plants
 sensitive to day length (ppd) need a period of longer days to satisfy
 photoperiodic responses before developing floral primordia.  Ear emergence
 here is delayed by up to 10 days.
 
      Pleiotropic effects of the strongest photoperiodic gene, Ppd1 were
 studied using selected single chromosome recombinant lines that can be
 regarded as near isogenic.  Experiments were carried out under farm scale
 conditions in England and Yugoslavia. The results showed that the primary
 effect of Ppd1 in accelerating flowering time, by around 8 days, and the
 majority of associated pleiotropic effects, showed no interactive
 environmental effects.  A reduction of one vegetative and two floral
 primordia was linked to the shortening of the growing period.  With one less
 internode plants were reduced in height by around 10 cms.  Although the ear
 carried two fewer spikelets, the fertility of the remaining spikelets was
 increased markedly resulting in no overall decrease in grain set per ear.
 
      The development of set grain was highly sensitive to environmental
 stress.  Hot dry Yugoslavian summer conditions dessicated grain on the late
 flowering lines giving day length insensitive genotypes a minimal yield
 advantage of 30 per cent.  The UK traditionally has cool summers giving late
 genotypes with a longer growing period and less crowded spikelets, a 5 to 10
 per cent yield advantage.  In the past two seasons changing environmental
 conditions with hotter, dryer summers have, even in the UK, given a yield
 advantage to early flowering desiccation avoiding genotypes.  Thus, if the
 climate changes further as many predict, breeders will have to alter alleles
 of photoperiodic genes to obtain improved climatic adaptability.
 
 -------------------------
      J. W. Snape* and V.Hyne
 
      Location of QTL controlling agronomic characters by partial genome
 analysis. The development of high density genetic maps of wheat using
 morphological, isozyme and RFLP markers is well advanced at the Cambridge
 Laboratory.  To investigate the use of these maps to locate quantitative
 trait loci (QTL) for economically important characters a partial genome
 analysis of the genetic differences between the chromosome substitution lines
 Highbury ( Chinese Spring 5B ) and Sicco ( Chinese Spring 5B ) has been
 carried out.  This used a population of forty-five doubled haploid lines from
 this cross, developed using the Hordeum bulbosum system, which had been
 characterised for polymorphism at 29 marker loci and assessed over several
 environments for agronomic performance.  The polymorphic loci specified
 morphological, isozyme and RFLP differences and covered nine chromosomes, 1A,
 1B, 4B, 5A, 6A, 6B, 7A, 7B, with greatest marker coverage on the homoeologous
 group 6 and 7 chromosomes.
 
      Using the computer package MAPMAKER ( Lander et al. 1987 ) the marker
 loci were categorised into 17 independent linkage groups.  Subsequently, a
 programme DETECT.QTL was written using the GENSTAT computer package and used
 to detect associations between the marker loci and data for variation for a
 number of traits including yield and its components measured in replicated
 field experiments in 1982 and 1990.  This provided preliminary chromosomal
 locations for presumptive QTL.
 
      With respect to yield, the largest significant associations were found
 with respect to only three linkage groups, one on chromosome 4B and two
 independent groups on chromosome 6B.  Together these accounted for 61% of the
 genetical variation for yield in this cross. Analysis of yield components
 indicated that the 4B effect was associated with the allele Rht1, and is
 presumably a pleiotropic effect of the dwarfing gene locus, and accounted for
 29% of the total genetical variation for yield.  The 6B yield effects were
 associated with independent variation for the components spikelet number and
 ear weight, respectively.  Overall, greater than 40% of variation for all
 yield components measured could be accounted for by significant associations
 with these 17 linkage groups.  In addition 44% of variation in grain protein
 was associated with linkage groups on the homoeologous group 7 chromosomes
 alone, although only 17% of the genetical variation in ear emergence time was
 accounted for by significant associations.  Clearly this partial genome
 analysis has been able to highlight important components of the genome with
 respect to yield and its components and grain protein, although large
 components of variation for certain characters remain to be accounted for.
 These data are now being subjected to further analysis using different
 computer programmes to provide estimates of numbers, locations and effects of
 the detected QTL.
   
 -------------------------
      D.A. Laurie
 
      A simple method for wheat haploid production from wheat x maize crosses.
 The hybrid embryos formed when wheat is crossed with maize are karyotypically
 highly unstable, and lose all the maize chromosomes within the first few cell
 division cycles of embryo development.  A simple method is now available for
 recovering the resultant haploid wheat embryos as plants.  One day after
 pollination the upper internode of the tiller is filled with a 10mg/l
 solution of 2,4-dichlorophenozyacetic acid (2,4-D) and a few drops of the
 same solution are then placed in each floret.  Embryos are left to develop in
 situ for two to three weeks and then excised onto conventional embryo rescue
 medium.  Fertile doubled haploid lines can then be produced by treating young
 seedlings with colchicine.  This technique has proved effective in all the
 genotypes so far tested.  A recent experiment with 19 commercial British
 spring or winter cultivars yielded an average of five haploid plants per
 spike.
 
 -------------------------
      S.A. Quarrie and A. Steed
 
      Regulation of stress resistance in wheat by abscisic acid.  We have
 previously shown that genotypes selected for high ABA production in a
 laboratory test gave significantly higher yields than similar low ABA
 selections in several environments in the UK.  We are now extending this work
 by selecting for genetic variation in ABA content in wheat in the field.
 This will avoid the uncertainties associated with extrapolating results from
 a laboratory test to a field environment.  Over 40 spring wheat cultivars and
 land races were sampled for ABA content during a period of hot and dry
 weather and a range in ABA content amongst the genotypes of nearly three-fold
 was obtained.  The genotypes having the extremes of ABA content (58 and 159
 ng/h FW) have been crossed for preparing doubled haploid plants during 1991.
 
      The chromosomal distribution of genes controlling high ABA production is
 being investigated using a monosomic series in the cultivar Inia 66, which
 has very high ABA production under laboratory conditions.  So far the group 1
 and group 5 chromosomes have been examined, with no evidence from monosomic
 and occasional nullisomic plants of any major genes for ABA production being
 present on those chromosomes.
 
 -------------------------
 
      R. Johnson, R.N. Sawhney (IARI, New Delhi) and P.N. Minchin.
 
      Transfer of resistance to yellow rust from European to Indian wheats.
 European wheats believed to possess durable resistance to yellow rust were
 crossed and backcrossed with important Indian cultivars, Kalyansona and
 WL711, which are susceptible.  The European wheats all had red grain and
 comprised winter habit types, Atou, Avalon, Bounty, Cappelle Desprez, Elite
 Lepeuple, Flanders, Flinor, Hybride de Bersée, Hybrid 46, Maris Widgeon
 and spring habit types Atle and Highbury.  Segregating generations were
 selected in England and in India for disease resistance, plant type, spring
 habit, maturity date and amber grain.  Special emphasis was placed on
 resistance to yellow rust, and in England the trials were inoculated with
 races overcoming the known race-specific genes present in the cultivars.
 
      Despite the difficulties due to major differences between European and
 Indian wheats, a small number of lines representing most of the original
 crosses were selected, and the cross of Atou with Kalyansona yielded a
 considerable number of lines.  Under English conditions the lines had good
 resistance to yellow rust, many had good quality amber grain, and several
 outyielded both parents, even in the absence of severe yellow rust.  However,
 observations in India revealed that many of the lines were susceptible to
 brown rust and in Australia some lines were found to be of late maturity.
 
      Final selections remain to be made and exchange of materials between our
 laboratory and IARI New Delhi is continuing.  The lines may be usable as
 sources of potentially durable resistance to yellow rust in programmes for
 the Indian sub-continent.  Although they still have some weaknesses from the
 Indian point of view, they may provide some genetic diversity and useful
 disease resistance, and are certainly much nearer to Indian requirements than
 the European cultivars used as parents.  The programme has been running for
 ten years, but was slowed down in recent years due to difficulties in seed
 exchange between England and India and dislocation due to privatisation of
 the Plant Breeding Institute, Cambridge.
 
 -------------------------
      P. Nicholson and H.N. Rezanoor
 
      Molecular and biochemical markers in species of facultative pathogens of
 wheat and barley.  A number of RFLP markers have been used to study isolates
 of Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides, the cause of eyespot disease
 (strawbreaker footrot). Work with U.K. isolates has indicated that R-type
 isolates are phylogenetically distinct from W-type isolates.  We are
 extending this study to include isolates from around the world.  We are
 searching for additional markers and are currently screening plasmid
 libraries for type specific nucleic acid probes for use in epidemiological
 studies.  The sexual stage of this fungus has been identified in the field on
 inoculated material and has since been induced in the laboratory.
 Recombination of RFLP and biochemical markers has been shown to occur in the
 perfect stage, underlining the potential for this process to give rise to
 novel pathotypes.  An investigation of the mating system of this fungus is
 now in progress and we are collaborating with other workers in the UK to
 further investigate the genetics of this fungus.
 
      In conjunction with resistance studies we have begun to carry out
 karyotyping of Septoria spp. to identify the role, if any, of
 'mini'chromosomes in pathogenicity of these and other facultative pathogens.
 
 -------------------------
      M.J. Ambrose
 
      AFRC Wheat Collections move to Norwich.  As part of the move of the
 Cambridge Laboratory to Norwich, the AFRC Cereal Collections of wheat, barley
 and oats, and the Cambridge Laboratory Cereals Department collections of
 wheat, related species and cytogenetic stocks, have been rehoused in a new
 purpose built seed store.  The building is a self-contained unit with office,
 laboratory and seed preparation space. The store is 22.5 x 11m and is fitted
 with mobile shelf units with a storage capacity of 600m2.  Conditions within
 the store are maintained at 1.5oC and 7%RH offering us good medium term
 storage.
 
 
      Cereal collection databases.  Work is in progress to transfer much of
 the database activity from Datatrieve on our centralised Vax system to the
 more fully relational DBaseIV package run on personal computers.  All
 archiving will still be done on the Vax system as this is the most secure
 method.  Moving to the DBase environment means much more versatile
 programming and the development of small applications databases that can be
 sent to other institutions. An application is being prepared for the wheat
 collection which collates together all the relevant passport information
 including known passport data into a searchable screen display orientated
 programme that will be available on disk.
 
 -------------------------
 
                                  Publications
 
 Austin, R. 1990.  Prospects for genetically increasing the photosynthetic
 capacity of crops.  In: Perspectives in Biochemical and Genetic Regulation of
 Photosynthesis.  (Ed: Zelitch, I).  New York, Alan Liss, 395-409.
 
 Bozorgipour, R. and Snape, J.W. 1990.  The crossability of Persian wheat
 cultivars with Hordeum bulbosum and their potential for haploid production.
 Cereal Research Communications 18, 203-208.
 
 Cheung, W.Y. and Gale, M.D. 1990.  The isolation of high molecular weight DNA
 from wheat, barley and rye for analysis by pulse-field gel electrophoresis.
 Plant Molecular Biology 14, 881-888.
 
 Forster, B.P., Phillips, M.S., Miller, T.E., Baird, E. and Powell, W. 1990.
 Chromosome location of genes controlling tolerance to salt (NaCl) and vigor
 in Hordeum vulgare and H. chilense.  Heredity 65, 99-107.
 
 Koebner, R.M.D. 1990. Subtilisin inhibitor - a polymorphic protein produced
 by a gene on the short arms of wheat homoeologous group 1 chromosomes.
 Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 44, 49-52.
 
 Koebner, R.M.D. and Martin, P.K. 1990.  Association of eyespot resistance in
 wheat cv. 'Cappelle-Desprez' with endopeptidase profile.  Plant Breeding 104,
 312- 317.
 
 Laurie, D.A. 1990.  The frequency of fertilization in wheat x pearl millet
 crosses. Genome 32, 1063-1067.
 
 Laurie, D.A. and Bennett, M.D. 1990.  the behaviour of sperm cells in cereal
 wide-hybrids.  In: Mechanism of fertilization, NATO ASI Series, Vol. H45.
 (Ed: Dale, B.). Berlin, Springer-Verlag 445-454.
 
 Laurie, D.A. and Bennett, M.D. 1990.  Early post-pollination events in
 hexaploid wheat x maize crosses.  Sexual Plant Reproduction 3, 70-76.
 
 Laurie, D.A. O'Donoughue, L.S. and Bennett, M.D. 1990.  Wheat x maize and
 other wide sexual hybrids: their potential for genetic manipulation and crop
 improvement.  In: Gene Manipulation in Plant Improvement.  Proceedings of the
 19th Staadler Genetics Symposium (Ed: Gustafson, J.P.). New York, Plenum
 Press, 95-126.
 
 Laurie, D.A. and Snape, J.W. 1990. The agronomic performance of wheat double
 haploid lines derived from wheat x maize crosses. Theoretical and Applied
 Genetics 79, 813-816.
 
 Liu, C.J., Chao, S and Gale M.D. 1990.  The genetical control of
 tissue-specificperoxidases,Per-1, Per-2, Per-3, Per-4 and Per-5 in wheat.
 Theoretical and Applied Genetics 79, 305-313.
 
 Liu, C.J. and Gale, M.D. 1990. Est-7, a set of genes controlling green tissue
 esterases in wheat and related species.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics 79,
 781-784.
 
 Morgunov, A.I., Rogers, W.J., Sayers, E.J. and Metakovsky, E.V. 1990.  the
 high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit composition of Soviet wheat varieties.
 Euphytica 51, 41-52.
 
 Petchey, E.M., Koebner, R.M.D. and Gale, M.D. 1990. Genetic characterisation
 of a further homoeoallelic series of grain esterase loci, Est-6 in wheat.
 Theoretical and Applied Genetics 79, 294-296.
 
 Rogers, W.J., Rickatson, J.M., Sayers, E.J. and Law, C.N. 1990.  Dosage
 effects of chromosomes of homoeologous groups 1 and 6 upon bread-making
 quality in hexaploid wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 80, 281-287.
 
 Tobin, A.K., Thorpe, J.R., Hylton, C.M. and Rawsthorne, S. 1990.  Spatial and
 temporal influences on the cell-specific distribution of glycine
 decarboxylase in leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and pea (Pisum
 sativum L.).  Plant Physiology 91, 1219-1225.
 
 -------------------------
 
      John Innes Institute, Institute for Plant Science Research, Colney Lane,
 Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK.
 
      J.S. Heslop-Harrison, A.R. Leitch, T. Schwarzacher and K.
 Anamthawat-Jónsson
 
      Detection and characterization of alien chromosome transfer using
 genomic hybridization.  We have developed hybridization methods using total
 genomic DNA which are able to verify, identify and localize chromosomes or
 chromosome segments from alien species in wheat.  Discrimination between
 chromosomes or DNA from taxonomically closely related species in the genera
 barley, rye, wheat and their relatives is possible both by Southern
 hybridization to size- fractionated restriction enzyme digests of genomic DNA
 and by in situ hybridization to chromosome preparations.  To distinguish
 between two species, genomic DNA from one species is used as the labelled
 probe while unlabelled DNA from the other species is applied at much higher
 concentration as a 'block'.  The blocking DNA presumably hybridizes to
 sequences in common between the block and the labelled probe, and between the
 block and DNA sequences on the membrane or chromosomes in situ.  Thus, mainly
 species-specific sequences remain as sites for probe hybridizations.  These
 species-specific sequences seem to be dispersed and to represent a
 substantial proportion of the genome.  Consequently, rapid non-radioactive
 methods are able to detect probe hybridization sites satisfactorily both in
 situ and on Southern blots.
 
      Using total genomic DNA from rye labelled with biotin as a probe for in
 situ hybridization and fluorescent detection systems, we could show the size
 and translocation points of the rye chromosome segments in five wheat
 cultivars which carry a 1B/1R translocation.  All the translocation
 breakpoints were at, or very near to, the centromere. The method was also
 able to confirm the parentage of hybrid plants, such as Hordeum chilense x
 Secale cereale H. vulgare x H. bulbosum and triticale.
 
      The genomic probing method does not involve time consuming cloning
 strategies and is hence applicable in many different situation involving a
 wide range of species.  The genomic probing method may be of wide application
 in the introduction of alien variation for crop improvement, as it is able to
 detect, characterize and follow alien chromosomes or chromosome segments
 through breeding programmes.  In collaboration with T.E. Miller, W.J. Rogers
 and I.P. King (Cambridge Laboratory) we are currently examining different
 alien additions and translocations (e.g. H. chilense and Thinopyrum
 bessarabicum) to hexaploid wheat.
 
 -------------------------
 
                                  Publications
 
 Anamthawat-Jónsson, K., Schwarzacher, T., Leitch, A.R., Bennett, M.D. and
 Heslop-Harrison, J.S. 1990.  Discrimination between closely related Triticeae
 species using genomic DNA as a probe.  Theoretical Applied Genetics 79,
 721-728.
 
 Heslop-Harrison, J.S., Leitch, A.R., Schwarzacher, T and
 Anamthawat-Jónsson, K. 1990. Detection and characterization of 1B/1R
 translocations in hexaploid wheat.  Heredity 65, 385-392.
 
 Leitch, A.R., Mosgöller W., Schwarzacher, T., Bennett, M.D. and
 Heslop-Harrison J.S. 1990.  Genomic in situ hybridization to sectioned nuclei
 shows chromosome domains in grass hybrids.  J. Cell Sci. 95, 335-341.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bristol, AFRC
 Institute of Arable Crops Research, Long Ashton Research Station, Bristol,
 BS18 9AF, UK.
 
      P.A. Sabelli and P.R. Shewry*
 
      Characterization of gene families at the Gli-1 loci of bread and durum
 wheats by RFLPS.  The Gli-1 loci are located on the homoeologous group 1
 chromosomes and encode three classes of gluten proteins (the sulphur-poor
 -gliadins and the sulphur-rich -gliadins and LMW subunits of glutenin). The
 organisation of such complex loci is still poorly understood because of the
 low frequency of intra-locus recombination.We have characterised these gene
 families by homologous and heterologous probing of genomic DNAs digested with
 EcoRI, HindIII and BamHI, three endonucleases whose restriction sites are
 absent from the coding regions of cloned cDNAs and genes.  Euploid bread
 wheat cv. Chinese Spring, the nullisomic-tetrasomic series and the
 ditelosomic lines for the group 1 chromosomes, and durum wheat cv. Langdon
 and the disomic substitution lines 1D(1A) and 1D(1B) of Chinese Spring in
 Langdon (obtained from Dr. L.R. Joppa) were all probed with -gliadin and LMW
 subunit clones from wheat, a -secalin clone from rye and B hordein and C
 hordein clones from barley.  Under conditions of moderate stringency the
 -gliadin and LMW glutenin probes hybridised to specific classes of sequences.
 In addition the -secalin and B hordein clones gave hybridisation patterns
 similar to those of the -gliadin and LMW subunit clones respectively,
 confirming the homology relationships of barley, wheat and rye prolamin
 genes.  The restriction fragments were characterised with respect to size,
 chromosomal location and copy number.  Analyses under conditions of high
 stringency and by differential hybridisation using the C hordein clone and
 the non-repetitive 3'-end of the -gliadin clone, showed that the complex
 hybridisation patterns obtained with the -gliadin probe under conditions of
 moderate stringency included sequences which probably corresponded to
 -gliadin genes.  The minimum sizes of the Gli-1 loci were also estimated.
 
 -------------------------
 
      P.A. Sabelli, P.R. Shewry and D. Lafiandra (University of Tuscia,
 Viterbo, Italy).
 
      Restriction fragment analysis of null alleles at the Gli-1 loci of bread
 and durum wheats.  Wheat accessions (obtained from the bread and durum wheat
 collection preserved at the Germplasma Institute, National Research Council
 of Italy, in Bari) lacking some - and -gliadin components encoded by the
 Gli-1 loci on the short arm of chromosome 1D of bread wheat and chromosome 1A
 of durum wheat, were analysed by two-dimensional (two-pH) polyacrylamide gel
 electrophoresis.
 
      In order to investigate the cause of these deficiencies, restriction
 fragment analyses were also carried out.  Digested genomic DNAs of 'normal'
 and 'null' forms were probed with a cDNA clone related to -/ -gliadins and
 with a genomic clone encoding a LMW subunit of glutenin.  The hybridisation
 patterns with the -/ -gliadin probe were similar to those of cv. Chinese
 Spring and cv. Langdon used as standards for bread and durum wheats
 respectively, but several restriction fragments located on chromosome 1D of
 bread wheat and chromosome 1A of durum wheat were absent in the 'null'forms.
 In addition, specific LMW glutenin fragments encoded by the same chromosomes
 were also absent in the 'null' forms, suggesting that simultaneous deletions
 of blocks of genes for both
  -/ -gliadins and LMW glutenins had occurred.  Comparisons of the protein and
 RFLP patterns allowed certain other proteins, not affected by mutations, to
 be mapped to specific restriction fragments.
 
 -------------------------
 
      A.S. Tatham, P.R. Shewry, M.J. Miles, and H.H. Wills (Physics
 Laboratory, University of Bristol).
 
      Structure of the High Molecular Weight subunits of Glutenin.  Scanning
 tunnelling microscopy (STM) has been used to image the central repetitive
 domain of a high molecular weight (HMW) subunit of durum wheat glutenin.  The
 subunit was deposited from solution, by evaporation of solvent, on to a
 graphite support, and imaged without coating.  The proteins became aligned in
 a sheet over the graphite surface, forming a 2-dimensional array.  The array
 showed periodic rod-like structures, and the images were Fourier transformed
 to enhance their periodic nature.  A clear helical structure was observed,
 with a diameter of approximately 1.95nm and pitch of 1.49nm.
 
      Previous physical characterisation of the HMW subunits indicated a
 rod-like structure, while secondary structure analyses indicated reverse-turn
 rich central repetitive domains and alpha-helical N- and C-terminal domains.
 The structure observed for the central domain of the HMW subunit by ST< is
 consistent with a spiral secondary structure, but we do not know whether this
 structure contributes to the elastomeric properties of wheat gluten.  It
 does, however, possess structural characteristics suitable for an elastomeric
 material. These are a long molecule with cysteine residues at the ends for
 covalent attachment, and a long central repetitive domain that could undergo
 conformational changes under stress and then relax on the removal of stress.
 -------------------------
 
      Plant Breeding International Cambridge Ltd., Maris Lane, Trumpington,
 Cambridge, CB2 2LQ, UK
 
      S.J. Brown and P.I. Payne*
 
      Cultivars.  In 1990 PBI Cambridge released seed of two new winter wheat
 cultivars to its licensees.  Tara is a soft milling cultivar producing grain
 primarily for the animal feed market.  It has a very good specific weight and
 very good resistance to the major diseases except mildew.
 
      Hereward is setting new standards for the combination of yield and
 exceptional bread-making quality; in both respects it exceeds Mercia, which
 is currently the leading bread-making cultivar in the UK.  The agronomic
 characters and resistance to the major diseases are at least as good as, and
 in some instances better than, Mercia.  Hereward is expected to quickly take
 a significant part of the UK market and to be developed also in France,
 Ireland, Holland and Denmark.
 
      Research.  The HMW subunits of glutenin are known to be a major
 contributor to the viscoelastic nature of wheat gluten.  In particular
 subunits 5+10, coded by x and y genes at the Glu-D1 locus, confer increased
 strength of doughs when they replace their allelic counterparts, subunits
 2+12.  The genes that code for each of these subunits have been isolated and
 sequenced by other research groups.  There are small differences in sequence
 between each allelic pair and there are conflicting opinions on whether
 subunit 5 or subunit 10 is the key molecule that contributes the most
 elasticity.
 
      In collaboration with Dr. J.W. Snape at the Cambridge Laboratory,
 Institute of Plant Science Research, Norwich, natural mutations of the Glu-D1
 locus have been exploited to determine which has the most detrimental affect;
 loss of the x or y locus.  Routine screening of intervarietal series of
 Chinese Spring (CS) by SDS-PAGE revealed that CS (Ciano 3D) had a natural
 deletion for subunit 2.  This line was crossed with CS (Thatcher 1D), a line
 known to be deficient for subunit 12.  The F1 hybrid was crossed with euploid
 CS and the progeny passed through five generations of single-seed descent.
 Each was bulked through two generations of selfing and grown in a randomised
 field trial in 1990.  Deletion of either subunit 2 or subunit 12 gave a
 dramatic reduction in SDS-sedimentation volume, although samples with subunit
 2 alone gave a slightly but significantly lower SDS volume than samples with
 subunit 12 alone.  Similarly, when the rheological properties of the three
 genotypes (2, 12, 2+12) were determined by the Brabender xtensograph, loss of
 a subunit caused a dramatic reduction in elasticity (resistance to
 stretching) and an increase in extensibility.  However, genotypes with
 subunit 2 alone were more extensible and less elastic than corresponding
 genotypes with subunit 12 alone.  The results indicate that the y gene at
 locus Glu-D1 has a molecular structure that confers greater elasticity to its
 translated protein than does the x gene.
 
 -------------------------
 
                          ITEMS FROM THE UNITED STATES ARKANSAS
 
      University of Arkansas
 
      R.K. Bacon*, B.R. Wells, M.L. May, and D. Dombek
 
      Production. According to the Arkansas Agricultural Statistics Service,
 Arkansas farmers harvested 1,400,000 acres of winter wheat in 1990. Average
 yield in the state was 35 bu/A accounting for a total production of
 49,000,000 bu, which was 7% less than last year. The reduced production was
 due to the lowest yields since 1985 caused by unfavorable weather and
 diseases.
 
      Management. Field studies were conducted at three locations to evaluate
 the response of five cultivars to intensive management practices. These
 practices included fall N and P fertilization, spring N fertilization rates
 and use of a foliar fungicide. Pioneer 2548, Coker 9877, and Pioneer 2555
 were the highest yielding cultivars. Pioneer 2548 performed best on the silt
 loam soils whereas Pioneer 2555 performed best on the clay soil. Fall P
 fertilization resulted in a significant yield increase at the location
 typically low in available P. There was a significant interaction between
 cultivars, spring nitrogen rate, and fungicide application.  Coker 9877
 showed very little response to the fungicide whereas the other cultivars
 increased in yield 5 to 10 bu/A. Increasing the spring N rate from 100 to 150
 lb/A resulted in slight to moderate yield increases only on the clay soil.
 
      Mr. Sorel Jacques has completed a two year study to detetrmine the
 effects of double-cropping, relay-cropping and mono-cropping on the yield of
 wheat and soybeans. Yields of `Traveler' wheat were reduced by 10 bu/A in the
 relay cropping. Double-cropping was found to be the most efficient production
 system due to higher wheat and soybean yields
 
      Breeding and Genetics. Breeder seed of the experimental line AR 26415 is
 being produced for the second consecutive year. Although enough seed was
 available for release last year, the decision to look at one more year's data
 was made because the line appeared to be moderately susceptible to the new
 race of leaf rust in the state. This line not only shows good yield potential
 in the state but also has high test weights. Dockage for low test weight
 continues to be a problem in the area.
 
      Mr. Steve Schuler is continuing his work to determine factors affecting
 test weight and their relationship to quality. Second year test weight and
 milling data obtained in cooperation with Dr. Patrick Finney of the USDA Soft
 Wheat Quality Lab is currently being analyzed and secondary data collection
 is nearing completion. In addition, parents, F1 and F2 plants from a six
 parent diallel cross to study the inheritance of factors which may influence
 test weight are currently in the field and will be evaluated this summer.
 
      Mr. John Kelly has completed a three year study to characterize and
 select wheat cultivars for traits affecting nitrogen utilization.
 Measurements were taken to determine if a relationship existed among nitrate
 reductase activity (NRA), nitrogen content, nitrogen use efficiency, crop
 growth rate, net assimilation rate, yield and yield components. Ten cultivars
 were measured at four growth stages. NRA was found to be negatively
 correlated to yield and yield components with the highest negative
 correlation with kernel number. After two generations of divergent selection
 for plants having high NRA and for low NRA at anthesis, there has been an
 increase in NRA from selection. This research is to be continued with the F5
 plants in the field awaiting evaluation for NRA.
 
      Forty-six cultivars and experimental lines were tested in the small
 grain performance tests at seven locations in the state. The top five
 yielding cultivars were Pioneer 2548, Coker 9024, Wakefield, ABI 85-81 and
 Coker 9323, all of which had an average yield across locations of 51 bu/A or
 higher. Duplicate tests were planted at two locations and treated with a
 foliar fungicide to give growers an indication of the yield potential of
 cultivars protected from fungal diseases.  The mean yields of the
 fungicide-protected trials were 2.1 and 8.5 bu/A greater than the mean of the
 duplicate unprotected trials at the two locations, respectively.
 
      Personnel Changes. Mr. Don Obert joined the program this summer as a
 Graduate Assistant pursuing an MS degree. His research will focus on the
 allelopathic effects of rice straw on wheat germination and seedling growth.
 Mr. Robert Wright also started as a Graduate Assistant this summer. Research
 for his MS degree will be to determine the inheritance of tolerance to
 metribuzin in soft red winter wheat.
 
      Mr. Gill Giese joined the program this year as a Research Assistant.
 After completing his MS degree he worked as an assistant plant breeder for
 Petoseed Company in Felda, FL.
 
      Mr. Don Dombek has taken over the responsibilities for cultivar testing.
 He replaces Mr. Terry Walker who is now the soybean breeder for Illinois
 Foundation Seeds.
 
      Dr. Nathan McKinney recently became the Wheat Extension Specialist. In
 addition to his extension activities he is currently conducting research on
 the use of wheat blends. Dr. McKinney previously was the state soybean
 Extension Specialist in Mississippi. He replaces Mr. Don Adams who retired
 from the Extension Service after many years of dedicated service to the wheat
 growers in the state.
 
                                  Publications
 
 Bacon, R.K., K.A.K. Moldenhauer, and J.O. York.  1990.  Pest control in
 Arkansas cereal crops through genetic resistance.  Arkansas Farm Res.
 39:(3):8.
 
 Freeze, D.M., and R.K. Bacon.  1990.  Row spacing and seeding rate effects on
 wheat yields in the Mid-South.  J. Prod. Agric. 3:345-348.
 
 May, M.L., H.J. Mascagni, Jr., B.R. Wells, and R.K. Bacon.  1990.
 Fertilization of wheat following grain sorghum or corn: Final report. p.
 65-68.  In W.E. Sabbe, editor.  Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 1989.
 Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Research Series 398.
 
 Walker, D.W., C.P. West, R.K. Bacon, D.E. Longer, and K.E. Turner.  1990.
 Changes in forage yield and composition of wheat and wheat-ryegrass mixtures
 with maturity.  J. Dairy Sci. 73:1296-1303.
 
 Walker, T.K. 1990. Small-grain performance tests 1989-90. Arkansas
 Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series 404.
 
 West, C.P., D.W. Walker, R.K. Bacon, D.E. Longer, and K.E. Turner.  1991.
 Phenological analysis of forage yield and quality in winter wheat.  Agron. J.
 83:(in press).
 
 -------------------------
 
 CALIFORNIA
 
      Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California,
 Riverside
 
      Christine A. Curtis, Bahman Ehdaie, Adam J. Lukaszewski, Malik M. Rafi,
 Shakir H. Shah, and J. Giles Waines
 
                    Yield components and quality traits in wild wheats (Rafi,
 Waines)
 
      Forty-three diploid accessions representing the five Aegilops species in
 the Sitopsis group (S genome), 22 accessions of the three Triticum species in
 A genome group, six accessions of Ae. squarrosa (D genome), one tetraploid
 wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf., "Mexicali"), and two hexaploid
 wheats (T. aestivum L., "Anza" and "Yecora Rojo") were compared for straw
 yield per plant, head yield per plant, aboveground biomass, harvest index,
 D13C, single plant grain yield, 100 kernel weight, kernel protein, lysine,
 lysine/protein, and adjusted lysine/protein contents in the 1987-88 season
 under field conditions.  The mean values of modern cultivars were
 significantly greater than those of the diploids for head yield, harvest
 index, grain yield, and kernel weight.  For straw yield and kernel weight,
 the tall and large kernelled A genome accessions were significantly superior
 to the dwarf and small kernelled S genome accessions.  For head yield,
 biomass, harvest index, and grain yield, the mean of S and D genome
 accessions were significantly greater than the means of A genome accessions.
 The mean values of diploids were significantly higher than those of the
 modern cultivars for protein and lysine contents.  The mean values of the S
 and A genomes were significantly higher than those of the D genome for
 protein and lysine contents.
 
      Significant variability was observed among the 71 accessions for all 11
 traits, and among the three genomes for all traits except for D13C.  For most
 characters, the S genome accessions exhibited greater variation followed by
 the A and D genome accessions.  In the S genome, Ae. sharonensis and Ae.
 searsii showed high variation for yield and kernel quality traits,
 respectively, which could be exploited in breeding programs with modern
 cultivars.  To create genetic variability in breeding programs for harvest
 index and kernel quality traits, T. urartu of the A genome could also be
 used.  The correlation pattern between yield and quality traits was different
 in the three genomes.  Significant differences were found between means of
 Ae. speltoides and those of the other four S genome species for various
 traits.  Means of morphologically similar pairs Ae. longissima and Ae.
 searsii, and Ae. sharonensis and Ae. bicornis, did not differ for genetically
 induced characters.  Superior accessions with enhanced values for yield and
 quality traits were identified in each genome group.
 
      Water-Use Efficiency and Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Wheat (Ehdaie,
 Waines)
 
      Improved water-use efficiency (WUE) could provide breeding programs with
 a means to improve adaptation to drought-prone environments.  Carbon isotope
 discrimination (D) has been proposed as a criterion to select for improved
 WUE.  This study evaluated differences in total dry matter (TDM), WUE
 (TDM/transpiration), and D of flag leaves of landrace and modern wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes grown in pots in a well-watered (wet) and in
 a water-stressed (dry) experiment for 2 yr.  The wheat genotypes were also
 grown in wet and dry field conditions.  In the pot experiments, average WUE
 of the genotypes varied from 2.85 to 4.41 g dry matter/kg water in the wet
 experiment and from 2.08 to 4.53 in the dry experiment.  The mean values of D
 were 20.2 x 103 for the wet pot experiment and 22.7 x 103 for the dry pot
 experiment.  The tall landrace genotypes such as Chinese Spring had greater
 TDM and WUE, but were later in maturity than the modern dwarf and semidwarf
 genotypes.  Values of D associated with different genotypes were negatively
 correlated with WUE.  Broad-sense heritabilities for WUE and D were 93 and
 90%, respectively, in the pot experiments.  In the dry field experiments, D
 was positively associated with aboveground dry matter and grain yield in both
 years.  In the wet field experiments, there was a positive correlation
 between D and grain yield only in 1988.  Broad-sense heritabilities for D
 were 72% for wet field conditions and 74% for dry field conditions.  These
 observations indicate that selection for D, either under wet or dry
 conditions, could improve WUE in wheat.
 
      Water-Use Efficiency of Wheat, Barley, Dasypyrum and Rye and Their Alien
 Chromosome Addition Lines (Shah, Waines)
 
      Agronomic folklore holds that barley, dasypyrum (haynaldia) and rye are
 more drought resistant than wheat. We are looking at the water-use efficiency
 of Chinese Spring bread wheat, 'Betzes' barley, Dasypyrum villosum,
 'Imperial' rye and their available alien chromosome addition lines in well
 watered and droughted pot and field experiments. We will also collect flag
 leaves for carbon isotope discrimination analysis. Analysis of yield
 components will be performed an all materials.
 
      Wheat Cytogenetics (Curtis, Lukaszewski)
 
      Reverse tandem duplications (rtd) on chromosomes 4A, 1B, 2B and 3D were
 identified in 'Chinese Spring' (CS). All four initiate breakage-fusion-bridge
 (bfb) cycle in meiosis. Cytological aspects of the rtd-induced bfb cycles in
 wheat are similar to those of the Ac-Ds system in maize. The presence of the
 bfb cycle induced breakage of chromosomes not originally involved in the
 aberrations. Somatic chimeras for marker genes and morphological offtypes
 were identified following the initiation of the bfb cycles.
 
      Sets of deficient wheat chromosomes were obtained following the bfb
 cycles. Using combinations of rtd on 4AL, deficient and iso-deficient
 chromosomes, and translocations of small segments of 4AL to rye arm 2RL, the
 Dne (dosage necrosis) gene was physically located on 4AL in a position
 proximal and adjacent to the major C-band, about 75% of the relative arm
 length away from the centromere. The Dne gene which produces necrosis in 4A
 tetrasomics of CS appears to be position-sensitive with the most severe
 necrosis present in duplication homozygotes and the least severe in
 tetrasomics. Metaphase I pairing behavior of deficient chromosomes in wheat
 was observed in plants with varying doses and combinations of normal and
 deficient chromosome arms. In heterozygotes for even a small deficiency MI
 pairing between deficient and normal arms was drastically reduced while in
 deficiency homozygotes deficient arms paired with frequency approaching
 normal. In plants with varying doses of normal and deficient arms pairing was
 between arms of the same length to the exclusion of arms of different length.
 
      Using C-banding polymorphism among accessions of T. dicoccoides, and
 between T. dicoccoides and 'Langdon' durum, frequency of recombination was
 analyzed in 93 segments of chromosomes 1B, 2B, 3B, 5B, 6B and 7B. Among some
 750 chromosomes analyzed no recombination was observed in the proximal 38.7
 percent of the relative arm length. The relationship between the physical and
 genetic distances appeared to be exponential. Physical location and genetic
 linkage of GliB1 and GluB1 to C-bands were established.
 
      A line of spring wheat with 18" + 1RS.1AL" + 1RS.1BL" + 1RS.1DL" (six
 1RS arms; absent wheat group-1 short arms) was produced. Lines NASW85-294 and
 NASW85-5626 previously found to be heterogeneous for the presence/absence of
 the 1RS.1BL translocation were separated into translocated and
 non-translocated classes. Chromosome 7S of Ae. speltoides was identified in
 an 'Amigo' selection. When separated from the 1RS.1AL translocation it was
 found to offer resistance to greenbug biotype E.
 
      Dr. E.R. Sears' collection of Chinese Spring aneuploids is being regrown
 and multiplied. So far, nullisomics, monosomics, tetrasomics,
 nulli-tetrasomics, double ditelosomics and disomic additions of 'Imperial'
 rye were analyzed and grown. Considerable somatic instability was observed
 among some stocks. It appeared related to seed age, being virtually absent in
 seed stocks 10 years old or younger, and relatively frequent in stocks over
 10 years old. Probably as a result of this instability, translocations and
 deficiencies were present among the analyzed stocks.  Monosomic 2A was
 homozygous deficient for about 30% of 2BL; monosomic 7A was homozygous for a
 nonreciprocal translocation 5B.7B (four doses of 5BL); double ditelosomic 2B
 was homozygous deficient for about 8% of 4AL, tetrasomic 5A and
 nulli-5B-tetra-5A segregated for a 2AS.5AL centric break-fusion
 translocation; disomic addition of Imperial chromosome 3R was heterozygous
 for a deficiency of about 50% of one arm of 3R. In addition,
 nulli-7D-tetra-7B segregated for two different banding patterns on 7B. All
 these are being corrected by selection and crosses to normal Chinese Spring.
 
 
 Triticale Cytogenetics (Lukaszewski)
 
      Nine of 21 possible substitutions of D-genome chromosomes for A-, B-,
 and R-genome chromosomes in winter triticale 'Presto' have been carried
 through the sixth backcross, eleven are in BC2 to BC5 stage. 7D(7R)
 susbtitution is missing. Fourteen monosomics were isolated so far. In spring
 triticale 'Rhino' 13 D-for-A, -B, or -R substitutions have been completed
 (six backcrosses); remaining eight are in BC4-BC5 stage. Twenty monosomics of
 Rhino have been isolated: monosomic 2A is missing. In a primary hexaploid
 produced from Langdon durum and a rye inbred 2a a full set of 21 monosomics
 and at least one ditelosomic for each chromosome were selected. However,
 because of considerable instability the effort to complete the sets will
 probably be abandoned.
 
      A proximal segment of chromosome 1D from 'Wheaton' wheat was
 translocated to chromosome 1R of Rhino through a combination of centric
 break-fusion translocation and 5D(5B) substitution-induced homoeologous
 pairing. The recombinant chromosome 1R has normal short arm, proximal segment
 of chromosome 1DL and a distal segment of 1RL and carries HMW glutenin
 subunits 5+10 of Wheaton. Its effect on breadmaking quality of triticale is
 yet to be tested.
                                  Publications
 
 Curtis, C.A. and A.J. Lukaszewski. 1991. Genetic linkage between C-bands and
 storage protein genes in chromosome 1B of tetraploid wheat. Theor. Appl.
 Genet.  In press
 
 Curtis, C.A. and A.J. Lukaszewski. 1991. The relationship between genetic and
 physical distances in the B-genome chromosomes in wheat. Proc. 2nd Int. Symp.
 On Chromosome Engineering in Plants, Columbia MO, Aug. 1990. In press
 
 Curtis, C.A., A.J. Lukaszewski and M. Chrzastek. 1991. Metaphase I pairing of
 deficient chromosomes and genetic mapping of deficiency breakpoints in common
 wheat. Genome, In press
 
 Ehdaie, B. and J. G. Waines. 1990. Heat resistance in wild wheats and
 Aegilops. Amer. Soc. Agronomy Annu. Mtg., San Antonio, Texas. Abstract.
 
 Ehdaie, B., A.E. Hall, G. Farquhar, H.T. Nguyen, and J.G. Waines. 1991.
 Water-use efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination in wheat. Crop Sci. In
 press.
 
 Kaloshian, I., P.A. Roberts, J.G. Waines, and I.J. Thomason. 1990.
 Inheritance of resistance to root knot nematodes in Aegilops squarrosa. J.
 Heredity 81:170-172.
 
 Kaloshian, I., P.A. Roberts, J.G. Waines, and I.J. Thomason. 1991. Location
 of gene for root knot nematode resistance in D genome of wheat. J. Heredity.
 In press.
 
 Lookhart, G.L., R. Greybosch, J. Peterson, and A.J. Lukaszewski. 1991.
 Identification of wheat lines containing the 1RS.1BL translocation by high
 performance liquid chromatography. Cereal Chem. In press
 
 Lukaszewski, A.J. 1990. Frequency of 1RS.1BL and 1RS.1AL translocations in
 USA wheats. Crop Sci. 30:1151-1153
 
 Lukaszewski, A.J. 1991. Breakage-fusion-bridge cycles in wheat. Proc. 2nd
 Int. Symp. On Chromosome Engineering in Plants, Columbia MO, Aug. 1990. In
 press
 
 Lukaszewski, A.J. 1991. Development of aneuploid series in hexaploid
 triticale. Proc. 2nd Int Triticale Symp., Passo Fundo, Brazil, Oct. 1990. In
 press
 
 Rafi, M.M. 1990. Yield components and quality traits in wild wheats. MS.
 Thesis, University of California, Riverside, December 1990.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Colorado State University
 
      J. S. Quick, G. H. Ellis, R. Normann, M. Mergoum, S. Haley, K. Nkongolo,
 A. Saidi, Q. X. Sun
 
      Production.  The 1990 Colorado winter wheat production was 84.2 million
 bushels, 147 percent of the 1989 crop, and the yield average was about 33
 bu/a.  Hard red spring, soft white spring and durum wheats were collectively
 grown on about 50,000 acres.  Leading cultivars were TAM 107, Hawk, Vona,
 Baca, Sandy, and Scout 66.  The most significant 1990 production factor was
 the damage caused by high temperatures in central and northeastern Colorado
 during the grain filling stage . Early soil moisure shortage also contributed
 to yield reduction.
 
      Breeding program.  Several new winter wheats were evaluated for
 potential release.  Six were evaluated in the Wheat Quality Council milling
 and baking tests. Selection progress was made for grain yield, grain volume
 weight, heat tolerance and bread-making quality. Cultivar performance trials,
 fertilizer tests and Russian wheat aphid evaluations were conducted
 statewide. Our quality evaluation program was modified to include SDS
 sedimentation testing of all bulked F5 lines between harvest in August and
 planting in September (see Dick and Quick method, Cereal Chem. 60:315).
 Hence, all first year yield tests include only lines with acceptable gluten
 properties. Our results indicate that SDS sedimentation will predict
 mixograph mixing time for 90 percent of the lines. Construction of a
 climate-controlled growth room was completed and is now operational.
 
      Russian wheat aphid. The Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) damage in
 1990 was about one-third that of the 1987 damage (about $10.8 million loss in
 1990). Suction trap catches were lower than they were in 1989. The
 accumulated losses since 1986 in Colorado are $87.9 million. The aphid
 overwinters in Colorado and survives the dry summer on native and introduced
 grasses. Resistance to the Russian wheat aphid (RWA) was found in several T.
 tauschii lines, the inheritance determined, and crosses made to introgress
 the single recessive gene into hexaploid wheats. Seedling reactions of
 segregating generations of crosses with the RWA resistant line PI372129
 indicated that a single dominant gene governs this resistance. The reaction
 of PI372129 appears different from previous resistance sources and allelism
 tests are underway. A second uniform seedling screening test conducted at 10
 locations in N. America confirmed or identified 9 additional RWA-resistant
 wheat lines and one barley line. Leaf chlorosis and rolling were highly
 correlated.
 
      Other research. Seed inoculation by root rot pathogens and water stress
 treatments under field conditions in Morocco significantly increased the
 expression of root rot disease, and provides a disease screen for breeding
 programs. In field water relations studies at Fort Collins, several useful
 genotypic differences were observed. The 'drought-resistant' cv. Sandy had
 low leaf water potential, leaf conductance, leaf carbon isotope composition,
 and specific leaf weight.
 
    In heat tolerance studies, the protocols involving hardening for 48 and
 120 h at seedling and anthesis stage, resp., provided the greatest
 sensitivity in detecting genotypic differences in relative injury. Relative
 injury at seedling and anthesis stages were highly associated (0.79, n=90).
 Heat tolerance, as evaluated by membrane thermostability (MT), was highly
 associated with grain yield and quality in field studies; therefore, the MT
 test will be a suitable procedure for selecting heat-tolerant wheat genotypes
 in a breeding program.
 
    A visiting scientist from China, Dr. Q.X. Sun, conducted research projects
 on heat tolerance during 1990. He evaluated D-genome disomic substitution
 lines of durum wheat (Triticum turgidium L. var. durum) and their parental
 cultivars Langdon (recipient) and Chinese Spring (D-genome donor) for their
 relative heat tolerance as measured by membrane thermostability to determine
 the chromosomal locations of genes controlling this trait. Results indicate
 that homoelogues 3 and 4 are most closely associated with heat tolerance.
 Chromosomes 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, and 6A were found to be associated with heat
 tolerance of Langdon, while chromosomes 1B, 2A, 6B, and 7B were not related
 to heat tolerance.
 
    Two advanced HRWW lines, CO850034 and CO850061, have performed very well
 in Colorado and regional tests and will be released in 1991 pending seed
 increase. The Idaho HRWW line ID338 will be released for western Colorado in
 1991 pending successful seed increase.
 
                                  Publications
 
 Echols, J.W, and J.S. Quick. 1990. Top wheat varieties assessed in yield
 trials. Colorado Wheat Farmer. 32:6-7.
 
 Mergoum, M., and Quick, J.S. 1990. Implications of root rot inoculation and
 nitrogen fertilization of wheat cultivars under varying moisture stress in
 Morocco.  Agron. Abstr. p. 101. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI.
 
 Morgan, J.A., Lecain, D.R., McCaig, T., Mujahid, M.Y., and Quick, J.S. 1990.
 Agron. Abstr. p. 127. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI.
 
 Nkongolo, K.K., J.S. Quick, W. Meyer, F.B. Peairs. 1990. Gene locations for
 Russian wheat aphid resistance of rye. Cer. Res. Commun. 18:307-313.
 
 Nkongolo, K.K., Quick, J.S., Limin, A.E., Fowler, D.B., Meyer, W.L., and
 Peairs, F.B. 1990. Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) resistance in wheat
 and related species. Can. J. Plant Sci. 70:691-698.
 
 Nkongolo, K.K., Quick, J.S., Peairs, F.B., and Meyer, W.L. 1990. Inheritance
 of resistance to the Russian wheat aphid in a Triticum aestivum line and an
 amphiploid of T. tauschii/T. turgidum. In: Proc. Fourth Russian Wheat Aphid
 Conference, Bozeman, MT.
 
 Nkongolo, K.K., Quick, J.S., Peairs, F.B., and Meyer, W.L. 1990. Inheritance
 of resistance to the Russian wheat aphid in a wheat line PI372129. Agron.
 Abstr. p.  102. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI.
  
 Quick, J.S. 1990. CSU leads the search for aphid tolerant wheat. Colorado
 Wheat Farmer. 32:4.
 
 Quick, J.S. 1990. Breeding for Russian wheat aphid resistance. Wheat
 Technology. 5:9-10.
 
 Quick, J.S. 1990. Breeding for insect and disease resistance in wheat. p.
 163, MEY Wheat Management Conference, March 1990, Denver, CO.
 
 Quick, J.S. 1990. Uniform seedling screening of wheat and barley for Russian
 wheat aphid resistance. Agron. Abstr. p. 105. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI.
 
 Quick, J.S. 1990. Uniform seedling screening of wheat and barley for Russian
 wheat aphid resistance. In: Proc. Fourth Russian Wheat Aphid Conference,
 Bozeman, MT.
 
 Quick, J.S., K.K. Nkongolo, W. Meyer, F.B. Peairs, and B. Weaver. 1991.
 Russian wheat aphid reaction and agronomic and quality traits of a resistant
 wheat. Crop Sci. 31:50-53.
 
 Wildermuth, G.B., Quick, J.S. and McNamara, R.B. 1990. Factors which affect
 the susceptibility of cultivars to crown rot. Paper presented at the
 Australian Wheat Breeding Assembly, Tamworth, N.S.W.
  
 -------------------------
 
      University of Florida, Quincy and Gainesville
 
      R. D. Barnett, A. R. Soffes, P. L. Pfahler, H. H. Luke, and J. B.
 Hartman
 
      Hessian fly continues to receive emphasis in our breeding and research
 programs.  This insect continues to do considerable damage to southeastern
 wheat.  Growers are switching to resistant varieties as soon as possible and
 most are using either phorate (Thimet ) or disulfoton (Di-syston ) on
 susceptible varieties.
  The Coker 9766 variety is currently the most popular variety among growers
 in this area.  The best new varieties for our area appear to be GA-Gore, a
 Georgia release, and Coker 9835 a NK release.  Both yielded well in 1990
 yield trials and both have Hessian fly resistance.
 
      In order to test the effectiveness of chemicals for Hessian fly control,
 a fall granular systemic insecticide application applied in the row, and a
 fall application plus a spring foliar application were compared to no
 treatment in a field experiment in 1990.  This test was conducted at
 Marianna, Florida where a relative heavy infestation of Hessian fly occurred.
 Six entries were used, three susceptible and three resistant.  FL301H,
 FL85363-G18-14, and Coker 9766 are resistant to Hessian fly the other three
 are susceptible.  List of entries and grain yield data are presented in Table
 1.
 
 Table 1.  Evaluation of chemical treatmments for control of Hessian fly in
 six lines of wheat planted November 15, 1989 at Marianna, FL.
                               Grain Yield (Bu/A)                             
 Treatment          FL301    FL301H    FL302    FL8563-G18-14  FL303  Coker 9766
 Fall                51.2      45.21     35.7     47.5      50.6      61.8
 Fall & Spring       53.5      50.3      39.5     48.3      58.6      58.8
 Untreated           45.2      49.6      29.3     52.1      40.5      62.0
 LSD .05              6.9       6.3       7.2      4.9       5.4       8.0             
                                                                                    
                                                                                    
     All treatments were replicated six times.  The fall application was
 Thimet (20G at 7 lbs/A) drilled with the seed at planting.  The spring
 application was Di-syston (8EC at 1 pt/A) applied as a foliar spray at the
 time you would normally apply Nitrogen topdressing (first week in February).
 This is only one year's data but it indicates that the insecticide
 applications were effective for the susceptible entries, particularly Florida
 302.  It also indicates that insecticides should not be used on resistant
 varieties because of a possible negative effect.
 
 
      We have been using a number of different sources of Hessian fly
 resistance in our breeding program. We have gotten fairly far along with some
 Florida 302 types that carried the H9 gene from Ella but all are showing the
 same leaf rust and powdery mildew susceptible that Florida 302 is now
 showing.  We had planned to release one but they show just too much disease
 susceptibility.  We are increasing a line (FL8172-G98-L5) that has shown good
 field resistance to Hessian fly even though seedling greenhouse test show
 that it is only resistant to the GP biotype.  It has excellent resistance to
 leaf rust and good resistance to powdery mildew.  It has the following
 pedigree: Predgornaia 2 /3/Blueboy II/Coker 68-8// Fulbarn/ 4/Coker 80-29.
 Predgornaia 2 is PI367728 from Romania that was in the 1973 Int. Winter Wheat
 Rust Nursery as entry 286.  Fulbarn is a leaf rust resistant germplasm
 release from Oklahoma State University.  FL8172-G98-L5 will be named and
 released to the Florida Foundation Seed Producers, Inc. if it performs
 satisfactorily in 1991.
 
      Occasionally growers in our area blend seed with fertilizer, spread the
 blend on the fields with spreader trucks, and then lightly harrow to cover
 the seed.  We ran an experiment several years ago to determine what would
 happen to the seed if planting was delayed and the seed remained in contact
 with the fertilizer for an extended period of time.  We used Florida 302
 wheat, Florida 502 oats, and Florida 401 rye in blends with five different
 fertilizers.  A 10 pound seed lot of each of the three grains were mixed with
 30 pounds of each of the following fertilizers: Ammonium nitrate (35-0-0),
 triple superphosphate (0-46- 0), muriate of potash (0-0-60), a homogenized
 blend (5-10-15), and a blend of triple superphosphate, muriate of potash and
 urea (10-20-30).  The seed- fertilizer combinations were blended in a cement
 mixer, placed in a 5-gallon bucket and covered with plastic.  At various time
 intervals after the initial mixing; four hours, 1 day, 2 days, 4 days, 7
 days, 14 days, 21 days and 28 days the blends were sampled and the seed was
 separated by hand from the fertilizer and planted in a greenhouse soil bench.
 After 10 days germination counts were made.  Results indicated that both the
 type of seed and the components of the fertilizer had an effect on the seed
 germination.  Of the three seed types tested, rye was the most sensitive to
 long-term exposure to fertilizer and oats the least affected.  Of the
 fertilizers, those containing phosphates were the most damaging to the seed's
 viability when seed is exposed to the fertilizer for a period of time greater
 than one day.  Ammonium nitrate and muriate of potash did not seem to have
 any effect on the germination of the seed regardless of the time of exposure.
 
      Personnel: Dr. Joanna Cybulska Augustyniak, from the Agricultural
 University of Poznan, Poland, will be a visiting scientist in our breeding
 program from March 1, 1991 until August 31, 1991.  She has had considerable
 experience with the cytogenetics of triticale and will be helping us with our
 triticale breeding program.
                                  Publications
 
 Barnett, R. D.  1989.  University of Florida variety release policy and
 funding for breeding programs.  Proceedings of the Southern Small Grain
 Workers Conference, Clemson, South Carolina, April 24-25, 1989, pages 29-30.
 
 Barnett, R. D., P. L. Pfahler, H. H. Luke, and A. R. Soffes.  1990.  ATW 270
 - A soft red winter wheat for the southern U.S.  U. of Fla., IFAS, Quincy
 NFREC Research Report NF-90-15.
 
 Barnett, R. D., P. L. Bruckner, A. R. Soffes, P. L. Pfahler, and R. O. Myer.
 1990.  Breeding triticale for the southeastern United States.  2nd
 International Triticale Symposium, Abstracts, Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul,
 Brazil, Oct. 1-5, 1990, page 82.
 
 Gardner, C. S., G. M. Prine, R. D. Barnett, and E. C. French.  1989.
 Production of small grains on phosphatic settling pond clays in Polk county,
 south central Florida.  Agronomy Abstracts, 1989 Annual Meeting ASA, CSSA,
 SSSA.  Page 131.
 
 Hartman, J. B., R. K. Sprenkel, R. D. Barnett, and A. R. Soffes.  1990.
 Grain yield of various small grain blends.  Univ. of Fla., IFAS.  NFREC,
 Quincy, Fla., NFREC Research Report NF-90-21.  2 pages.
 
 Hartman, J. B., R. D. Barnett, R. K. Sprenkel, and A. R. Soffes.  1990.
 Blending susceptible and resistant wheat varieties for the control of hessian
 fly.  Univ.  of Fla., IFAS, NFREC, Quincy, Fla., NFREC Research Report
 NF-90-22.  8 pages.
 
 Hartman, J. B., R. K. Sprenkel, R. D. Barnett, and A. R. Soffes.  1990.
 Effects of systemic insecticides on grain yield of hessian fly susceptible
 and resistant wheat varieties.  Univ. of Fla., IFAS.  NFREC, Quincy, Fla.,
 NFREC Research Report NF-90-18.  2 pages.
 
 Hill, G. M. and R. D. Barnett.  1991.  Triticale grain production and
 utilization for the southeastern U.S.  Abstracts of Technical Paper, 1991
 Annual Meeting, Southern Branch of American Society of Agronomy, Number 18,
 page 6, Fort Worth, Texas, 2-6 Feb. 1991.
 
 Myer, R. O., R. D. Barnett, and G. E. Combs.  1990.  Nutritional evaluation
 of 'Florico' triticale in diets for growing-finishing swine.  Univ. of Fla.
 Agri. Exp. Sta., Dept. of Animal Sci., Res. Report MA-1990-3, Aug. 1990, 9
 pp.
 
 Myer, R. O., G. E. Combs, and R. D. Barnett.  1990.  Evaluation of triticale
 cultivars adapted to the southeastern USA as potential feed grains for swine.
 2nd International Triticale Symposium, Abstracts, Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do
 Sul, Brazil, Oct 1-5, 1990, page 70.
 
 Myer, R. O., G. E. Combs, and R. D. Barnett.  1990.  Evaluation of three
 triticale cultivars as potential feed grains for swine.  Soil and Crop Sci.
 Soc. of Fla. Proc.  49:155-158.
 
 Myer, R. O., G. E. Combs, and R. D. Barnett.  1991.  Triticale cultivars have
 feeding value for swine in south.  Feedstuffs 63(5):11-13.  February 4, 1991.
 
 Myer, R. O., W. R. Walker, and R. D. Barnett.  1990.  Feeding Wheat to Swine.
 Fla. Coop. Ext. Ser. Animal Science Fact Sheet AS25, 4 pp.
 
 Patel, S. K., F. M. Rhoads, E. A. Hanlon, and R. D. Barnett.  1990.
 Influence of root growth and fertilizer rate on potassium and magnesium
 content of wheat and soybean.  Abstracts of Technical Papers, 1990 Annual
 Meeting, Southern Branch of Ameri. Soc. of Agron., Number 17, page 3, Little
 Rock, Ar., 3-7 Feb. 1990.
 
 Pfahler, P. L. and R. D. Barnett.  1989.  Cultivar-ploidy level-temperature
 effects on coloptile length selection in rye.  Agronomy Abstracts, 1989
 Annual Meeting ASA, CSSA, SSSA. page 95.
 
 Pfahler, P. L., and R. D. Barnett.  1990.  Effect of gibberellic
 acid-potassium nitrate seed treatments on early seedling growth in two rye
 cultivars.  Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 49:146-150.
 
 Rogalska, S. M., and R. D. Barnett.  1989.  Triticale breeding in Poland.
 Proceedings of the Southern Small Grain Workers Conference, Clemson, South
 Carolina, April 24-25, 1989, pages 25-28.
 
 Soffes, A. R., R. D. Barnett, and D. L. Wright.  1989.  Effect of blending
 fertilizer and seed on germination of small grain seed.  Proceedings of the
 Southern Small Grain Workers Conference, Clemson, South Carolina, April
 24-25, 1989, pages. 12-14.
 
 Soffes, A. R., R. D. Barnett, and P. L. Pfahler.  1990.  Grain yield and
 quality of wheat, oat and triticale grown with varying levels of nitrogen
 topdressing.  Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 49:150-155.
 
 Stanley, R. L., Jr., R. D. Barnett, and A. R. Soffes.  1991.  Agronomic
 characteristics of wheat and triticale no-tilled into rhizoma peanut and
 undisturbed sod at three N levels.  Abstracts of Technical Papers, 1991
 Annual Meeting, Southern Branch of American Society of Agronomy, Number 18,
 page 7, Fort Worth, Texas, 2-6 Feb. 1991.
 
 -------------------------
 
      J. W. Johnson, B. M. Cunfer, P. L. Bruckner, J. J. Roberts, G. D.
 Buntin, and R. E. Wilkinson
 
      The 1990 Georgia winter wheat crop was grown on 590,000 harvested acres
 and produced an average of 36 bushels per acre. Favorable fall and winter
 temperatures contributed to high grain yields.  The warm temperatures
 hastened maturity by two weeks.  Severe leaf rust, powdery mildew, and
 Hessian fly were recorded on susceptible cultivars. An estimated $8.2 million
 was spent to control Hessian Fly.
 
      NEW CULTIVAR RELEASE.  `GA-Gore' was released as a high yielding,
 semi-dwarf, mid-season soft red winter wheat cultivar.  It possesses
 excellent resistance to locally predominate races of Hessian Fly (G, M, N,
 and O), excellent resistance to current races of leaf rust, and moderate
 resistance to powdery mildew.  It also has good resistance to septoria
 nodorum blotch.
 
      `GA-Andy' was released as a high-yielding, semi-dwarf, early maturing
 soft red winter wheat.  It has excellent resistance to locally predominant
 races of Hessian fly (G, M,N, and O), good resistance to current races of
 leaf rust, and moderate resistance to powdery mildew.  It is moderately
 resistant to septoria nodorum blotch.
 
      HESSIAN FLY IN WHEAT.  Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor (Say)) damage
 was widespread in susceptible cultivars in southern Georgia during the spring
 of 1990.  Recently completed studies found that delaying planting in the
 Piedmont region generally was effective in avoiding fall damage by the
 Hessian fly without enhancing spring infestations.  However, in the Coastal
 Plain region of Georgia, planting early enhanced fall and winter
 infestations, whereas late planting avoided fall and winter infestations but
 may greatly increase spring infestations.  Although planting in late November
 generally minimized damage without greatly reducing wheat yield potential,
 Hessian fly damage was not reliably avoided in the Coastal Plain region.
 Similar results were obtained for triticale but planting date changes were
 more effective for triticale than wheat because triticale was less severely
 damaged than wheat.  Recently completed studies also demonstrated the
 effectiveness of controlling Hessian fly in susceptible cultivars by applying
 systemic granular insecticides in the row furrow at planting. Disulfoton and
 phorate applied at 1.0 lb AI/acre consistently produced good control.
 Routine use of systemic insecticides on susceptible cultivars is economically
 justified in southern Georgia where the risk of economic damage is
 substantial.
 
      Wheat germplasm containing H1 - H16 and `Marquillo' genes were evaluated
 for resistance to mixed biotype populations of the Hessian fly.  Of the
 currently deployed sources of resistance, the H7H8 gene combination was very
 effective and is currently present in many resistant cultivars.  H3 was
 completely ineffective, but several H3 sources, Frankenmuth and Hart,
 contained additional resistances.  Lines containing H1H2, H9, H9H10, and H13
 genes and some sources of Marquillo resistance were effective in Georgia.
 Temperature sensitive genes, H10, H11, and H12, were only partially effective
 in the field.
 
      WATERLOGGED STRESS (Low Oxygen).  Germplasm evaluated under anoxic
 conditions exhibited variable levels of oxygen tolerance. `Tobari 66' had the
 highest root and shoot growth under oxygen stress.  Several lines from
 Georgia and Brazil were also very tolerant to oxygen
 
 stress. Root growth at the 10% oxygen level was not significantly reduced
 from that at the 20% level.  Shoot growth was reduced at the 10% oxygen
 level.  Several wheat cultivars were evaluated for their response to
 waterlogged conditions.
 
      ACID SOIL TOLERANCE.  Wheat and triticale germplasm from Georgia and
 Brazil have been evaluated using hematoxylin root tip staining techniques of
 Polle et al.  `Beagle 82' and `Florico' showed more tolerance to Al than
 wheat cultivars.  Several Brazilian triticale lines were more tolerant at 4
 mM Al than the best wheat check (Atlas 66).  We have initiated a backcrossing
 program to improve the tolerance that exists in our material.
 
      PLANT PATHOLOGY.  Mild winter weather during 1989-90 and spring rains
 resulted in early appearance of powdery mildew and leaf rust.  Powdery mildew
 declined with warmer weather after heading but the disease was found for the
 first time at high levels on Coker 9733. Leaf rust increased and caused yield
 loss on susceptible cultivars including Florida 302 which formerly had been
 resistant. Septoria nodorum blotch also caused some damage but declined
 somewhat due to drier conditions during the latter stages of grain-filling.
 Common bunt caused primarily by Tilletia laevis (syn. T. foetida) was found
 in the state for the first time in 10 years.  Bunt was found mostly in Burke
 and Screvens counties in the eastern part of Georgia near Augusta.  Samples
 from several fields had more than 50 % bunted grain and the samples had the
 strong typical smell of stinking smut.  Approximately 60,000 bushels of grain
 were affected.  The source of the infestation was traced to a few seed
 sources.  None of the seed from affected fields had been treated with a
 fungicide effective against bunt.
 
      An agar medium with improved selectivity for Septoria nodorum was
 developed to improve recovery of the fungus from seed.  The medium contains
 basal nutrients to support growth and sporulation of S. nodorum while slowing
 the growth of other seedborne fungi. Other seedborne fungi also are
 suppressed by the fungicides chloroneb, cupric hydroxide, and dicloran.  A
 mixture of antibiotics is also added to inhibit bacteria.  This medium,
 called SNAW (S.nodorum agar for wheat) is up to 50% more efficient than
 oxgall agar, the selective medium most commonly used currently.  The accuracy
 of identification is also improved because S. nodorum sporulates on SNAW but
 not on oxgall agar.
 
      Fifty-two advanced breeding lines and cultivars from southern Brazil
 rated resistant to Septoria nodorum in the field were evaluated for
 components of partial resistance.  The reaction of the genotypes to a typical
 isolate from the southeastern U.S. was nearly identical to their field
 response in Brazil.  Incubation period, latent period, and area under disease
 progress curve were determined on seedling and adult plants. Better
 understanding of resistance components and agronomic adaptation has improved
 selection of Brazilian wheats for use as parents in the Georgia wheat
 breeding program.
 
      A simple computer program called RATE has been developed for use on
 inexpensive "pocket computers" to record data rapidly. The program has been
 especially useful for recording disease and agronomic data in breeding
 nurseries and other field experiments. The pocket computer that has worked
 best is the Psion Organizer (Psion PLC, London). It is hand-held and weighs
 only 210 g. Several data entries can be made at one time for a given plot or
 other experimental unit. Replaceable memory packs permit almost uninterrupted
 data collection. Data can be printed immediately by a portable printer or
 uploaded to a PC or mainframe computer for immediate data analysis without
 the need for transcription.  All hardware necessary including the computer,
 memory packs, and interface cables can be purchased for less than $500.
 
      CEREAL RUST RESEARCH.  Cereal rust epidemiology research and surveys
 were conducted from the Gulf Coast in February to the Ohio Valley in June.
 Several new leaf rust virulences are now predominant throughout the
 Southeast, able to attack many widely-grown cultivars.  Early and severe leaf
 rust on seedlings of cultivars deriving some protection from adult plant
 resistance genes prompted many growers to use fungicides in early March.
 Wheat stem rust was light throughout the region, with only a few
 overwintering centers detected.
 
     The interstate highway nursery survey technique continued with
 "on-season" planting.  The first year's data were promising, indicating the
 technique could supplement standard methods used to detect rust and provide
 virulence information.  Planting for a second year is completed.
 
      Additional compounds were found which block the leaf rust germ tube's
 ability to utilize epicuticular waxes during infection.  These may offer a
 safe source from which to develop a fungicide for leaf rust control.
 
      Wheat leaf pubescence also has an important effect on leaf rust
 infection.  Interference of normal growth is evidenced by erratic germ tube
 behavior when contacting leaf hairs.  Such disruption offers another means to
 r educe damage from rusts.
                                  Publications
 
 Bruckner, P. L., and W. W. Hanna.  1990.  In vitro digestibility of fresh
 leaves and stems of small-grain species and genotypes.  Crop Sci. 30:196-202.
 
 Bruckner, P. L. and P. L. Raymer.  1990.  Factors influencing species and
 cultivar choice of small grains for winter forage.  J. Prod. Agric. 3: (in
 press).
 
 Buntin, G. D. and P. L. Bruckner.  1990.  Effect of planting date on Hessian
 fly infestation and production of triticale.  Appl. Agric. Research 5:82:88).
 
 
 Buntin, G. D., P. L. Bruckner, and J. W. Johnson.  1990.  Management of
 Hessian fly in Georgia by delayed planting of winter wheat.  J. Econ. Ent.
 83:1025- 1033.
 
 Buntin, G. D., P. L. Bruckner, J. W. Johnson, and J. E. Foster.  1990.
 Effectiveness of selected genes for Hessian fly resistance in wheat.  J.
 Agric. Ent. 7:283- 291.
 
 Johnson, J. W., J. E. Box, Jr., and W. L. Hargrove.  1990.  Breeding for root
 potential under stress.  International Wheat Symposium, Varna, BULGARIA.
 
 Johnson, J. W., B. M. Cunfer, and J. Manandhar.  1990.  Adapatation of
 triticale to the southeastern USA soils.  Second International Triticale
 Symposium.  BRAZIL.
 
 Manandhar, J. B. and B. M. Cunfer. 1991. An improved selective medium for the
 assay of Septoria nodorum from wheat seed. Phytopathology 81:(accepted for
 publication).
 
 Prestes, A. M. and B. M. Cunfer. 1990. Components of partial resistance to
 Septoria nodorum among Brazilian spring wheats. (Abstr.). Phytopathology
 80:967.
 
 Spradlin, T., J. Youmans, D. V. Phillips, and B. M. Cunfer. 1991. A simple
 and inexpensive system for collection of data at remote locations. Plant
 Dis.75:(accepted for publication).
 
 Roberts, J. J., D. L. Long, R. E. Wilkinson, and G. G. Ahlstrand.  Effects of
 Wheat Leaf Pubescence of Infection by Puccinia recondita.  (Abstract)
 Phytopathology 80: 1046 1990.
 
 Roelfs, A. P., D. H. Casper, D. L. Long, and J. J. Roberts. Races of Puccinia
 graminis in the United States and Mexico during 1988.  Plant Disease 74:
 555-557.  1990.
 
 Wilkinson, R. E., J. J. Roberts, and J. W. Johnson.  Utilization of
 Extracellular Lipids by Germinating Puccinia recondita Urediniospores.
 Abstracts of the 9th International Symposium on Plant Lipid Biochemistry,
 structure & Utilization.  Wye College, England. 8-13 July, 1990.
 
      Personnel.  Dr. Abraham Blum, Volcani Institute, Israel has been
 appointed as adjunct professor with the University of Georgia.  He conducted
 cooperative research on drought tolerance/mechanism with scientists at
 Griffin during the summer.
 
 Dr. Ariano M. Prestes, EMBRAPA wheat pathologist at the National Center for
 Wheat Research (CNPT) in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande du Sul, Brazil spent a year
 as a visiting scientist at the Georgia Experiment Station, Griffin.  He is
 conducting research on resistance to Septoria nodorum with Barry Cunfer.
 
 -------------------------
 
     University of Idaho, Moscow and Aberdeen
 
      R. Zemetra*, E. Souza*, S. Guy*, J. Johnson, C. M. Smith, M. Lauver, D.
 Schotzko, J. Tyler, M. Feng and S. Schroeder-Teeter
 
 Production.  The 1990 Idaho winter wheat production was 69 million bushels, a
 21% increase from 1989.  The increase can be attributed to an increase in
 acres planted and extremely favorable winter conditions.  A mild winter plus
 early spring rains made for excellent stands and good early season growth.  A
 water stress late in the season did cause reductions in yield and test weight
 in some areas.  With cool moist conditions early in the spring, foliar
 diseases such as leaf stem and stripe rust were found, especially where
 susceptible cultivars were being grown.  The Russian wheat aphid was a
 problem in some areas requiring insecticide applications in several areas in
 the fall.  Spring infestation did not appear to be a problem in the winter
 wheat.  Statistics for the Idaho winter wheat production for the last five
 years are shown below.
 
 Year Acres planted         Acres harvested     Yield   Production (bu)
             x1000                    x1000               
 1986         950                     850             61       51,850
 1987         868                     800             75       60,000
 1988         820                     770             66       50,820
 1989         880                     810             70       56,700
 1990         960                     920             75       69,000
 
      Personnel.  Dr. Stephen Guy was hired as the extension agronomist on the
 Moscow campus in September.  Dr. Jeff Tyler was hired as the research
 associate in the wheat breeding program at Aberdeen, Idaho. C. Michael Smith
 resigned as division chairman in the entomology division to become department
 head of the Department of Entomology at Kansas State University.  Inger Holme
 completed her Master's degree and returned to Denmark.  M.  Feng completed
 his Ph.D. degree and is currently in a postdoctoral position at Montana State
 University, Bozeman, Montana.
 
      Cultivar Releases.  The Aberdeen wheat breeding program released two
 cultivars during 1990.  Survivor was released, and is a snow mold tolerant,
 high milling yield, HRW wheat.  Survivor has the best snow mold tolerance of
 HRW wheats presently available to intermountain growers, and is comparable to
 the soft white winter, `Sprague.'  Survivor is moderately resistant to dwarf
 bunt and susceptible to stripe rust.  `Vandal' (PI546056), released in 1990,
 is a hard red spring wheat for intensive management.  Grain yield and seed
 protein percentage of Vandal are superior to `WPB926.'  Vandal has lodging
 resistance comparable to WPB926.  Vandal is resistant to stripe rust races
 common in PNW.  Vandal has a longer dough mixing time than WPB926 but poorer
 mixograph tolerance.  Puff loaf volume of Vandal is good, and puff loaf
 texture is excellent.
 
 
      Germplasm Releases.  Idaho DNSCo (PI546057) is a random mated, dark
 northern spring wheat population released as germplasm jointly by the IAES
 (Aberdeen) and the USDA-ARS.  Idaho DNSCo is composed of stiff-strawed,
 stripe rust resistant spring wheats adapted to the PNW and Montana which were
 random mated for 3 cycles.  Idaho DNSCo is segregating for a dominant gene
 conferring male-sterility.  Idaho DNSCo was developed as a base population
 for quantitative genetics studies and recurrent selection breeding projects.
 Limited quantities of Idaho DNSCo can be obtained by writing to E. Souza at
 Aberdeen, ID.  Larger quantities of Idaho DNSCo-OP1, open pollinated seed of
 Idaho DNSCo, will be available fall 1991.
 
      Russian Wheat Aphid.  Greenhouse evaluations of winter wheats for
 Russian wheat aphid resistance were conducted on red wheat accessions.  Seven
 winter wheat accessions from the NSGC derived (PI243630, PI225271, PI225267,
 PI222666, PI225226, PI243641, and PI222668) from Iran, were found to have
 resistance significantly better than `Stephens' and not significantly
 different from `Border' oat.  Field testing of previously identified
 resistance sources was conducted at Parma, ID in fall 1991 using introduction
 into hill plots of greenhouse reared aphids.  Stephens and `Weston,'
 susceptible checks, had greater than 90% of tillers damaged six weeks after
 infestation.  PI294994, PI137739, CI6593, CI6501, PI94355, and PI94365 had
 less than 15% of tillers with RWA damage.  PI262660 had 56% of tillers
 damaged.  `Turcikum 57' was not included in the trial.
 
      Monosomic analysis was used to identify the chromosome carrying Dn1, the
 resistance gene found in PI137739.  Based on F2 segregation data Dn1 appears
 to be on chromosome 7D and that chromosome 7B may carry a complementary or
 minor gene for Russian wheat aphid resistance.  Crosses have been made
 between Chinese spring monosomics and PI262660 and PI294994 to identify the
 chromosome locations of the resistant genes in these accessions.
 
      Studies continued on biological control of the Russian wheat aphid using
 entomopathogenic fungi and predaceous insects.  Fungi varied in their
 virulence and pathogenicity on the Russian wheat aphid and other cereal
 aphids.  Effect of introduced predaceous wasps and the ladybug, Symes
 frontalis, on aphid populations is currently being studied.
 
                                  Publications
 
 Feng, M. and Johnson, J. B.  1990.  Relative virulence of six isolates of
 Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycetes) on the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia
 (Homoptera: Aphididae).  Environ. Entom. 19:785-790.
 
 Feng, M., Johnson, J. B., and Kish, L. P.  1990.  Pathogenicity of a new
 isolate of Beauveria bassiana (Bals) and Verticillium lecanii (Zimm) (Fungi:
 Hyphomycetes) on 6 species of cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae).  Env.
 Ent. 19:815-820.
 
 Feng, M., Johnson, J. B., and Kish, L. P.  1990.  Survey of entomopathogenic
 fungi naturally infecting cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in irrigated
 cereal crops in southeastern Idaho.  Environ. Ent. 19:1534-1542.
 
 Knudsen, G. R., Johnson, J. B., and Eschen, D. J.  1990.  Alginate pellet
 formation of a Beauveria bassiana isolate pathogenic to cereal aphids.  J.
 Econ. Ent.  83:2225-2228.
 
 Smith, C. M., Schotzko, D., Zemetra, R. S., Souza, E. J., and
 Schroeder-Teeter, S.  1990.  Identification of Russian wheat aphid
 (Homoptera: Aphididae) resistance in wheat, Triticum aestivum. L.  J. Econ.
 Entom. 83: (In press).
 
 Souza, E. J., Kephart, K. D., and Sunderman, D. W.  1990.  Blizzard hard red
 winter wheat.  Current Information Series No. 870, Idaho Agric. Exp. Stn.,
 Moscow, ID.
 
 Sunderman, D. W., Souza, Ed, and Birzer, Diane.  1991.  Registration of
 `Blizzard' wheat.  Crop Sci. 31, No. 2 (In press).
 
 Tyler, J. M., Souza, E., Kruk, M., and Kephart, K. D.  1990.  Milling and
 baking quality of 44 hard red spring wheat cultivars released since 1911.
 Agronomy Abstracts, Am. Soc. of Agron.  p. 114.
 
 Zemetra, R. S., Schotzko, D., Smith, C. M., and Souza, E. J.  1990.  Seedling
 resistance to the Russian wheat aphid in white wheat germplasm.  Cereal Res.
 Comm. 18:223-227.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Purdue University
 
      H. W. Ohm*, H. C. Sharma*, I. M. Dweikat*, S. A. Mackenzie, D.
 McFatridge, F. L. Patterson (Dept. of Agronomy), G. Shaner*, R. M. Lister, D.
 M. Huber, G. Buechley (Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology), R. H.
 Ratcliffe*, R. H. Shukle, S. Wellso, G. Safranski, S. Cambron(USDA, ARS and
 Dept. of Entomology)
 
      Production.  Farmers planted 1,050,000 acres (425,000 ha) of soft red
 winter wheat in Indiana for the 1990 crop year, and harvested 970,000 acres
 (392,700 ha).  This represents an abandonment of 7.6%.  Total production was
 50.4 million bushels (1.369 million metric tons), compared to 51.9 million
 bushels last year.  Average yield was 52 bu/acre (3,496 kg/ha).  The leading
 cultivar was Cardinal which occupied 26.6% of the acreage.  Cultivar Caldwell
 occupied 24.3% of the acreage.  No other public cultivar accounted for more
 than 5% of the acreage.  Collectively, private cultivars occupied 34% of the
 acreage, compared to 30% last year.
 
      Season.  Weather conditions in the fall of 1989 were normal and wheat
 planting progressed at a normal rate.  Wheat stands were good at the end of
 November and temperatures were slightly below normal.  December was the
 second coldest on record.  Snow covered most of the crop in the second week
 of December and provided protection when temperatures dropped to -23 F with a
 wind chill of -45 F by the third week.  In contrast, January was the warmest
 in 40 years.  This warm trend continued into February with temperatures 15 to
 20 F above normal.  There were record high temperatures in early March and
 the wheat began to grow rapidly in the southern part of the state.
 Temperatures dropped below freezing at the beginning of April, by which time
 wheat in many fields in southern Indiana had jointed.  The freeze damaged
 stem tissue below the joint, which caused culms to die immediately, or to
 lodge later in the season, as a result of lesions at the base of the culm.
 Some fields were abandoned because of this damage.  Others recovered because
 later tillers were not damaged.
 
      Disease surveys.  Soilborne wheat mosaic and wheat spindle streak mosaic
 were prevalent in the spring, owing to the unusually warm weather in
 February, followed by colder weather in March.  Most cultivars grown in
 Indiana are reasonably tolerant to these viruses, so damage was light.
 Spring infection by barley yellow dwarf virus was noted, but the disease was
 not damaging to winter wheat.  Septoria leaf and glume blotches were the most
 damaging diseases in 1990.  Frequent and often heavy rains provided ideal
 conditions for production and dissemination of inoculum, and for infection.
 Septoria tritici was commonly found early in the season, but as temperatures
 increased, Septoria nodorum became the predominant pathogen.  Glume blotch is
 not usually a major problem in Indiana, but this year the continued
 favorability of weather past the heading stage led to a severe epidemic.
 Many fields had a distinctive "chocolate" brown cast resulting from a high
 frequency of severely blotched heads.  Bacterial black chaff, caused by
 Xanthomonas campestris f.sp. translucens , was also found.  Powdery mildew
 was common early in the season but was overtaken by Septoria blotch.
 Conditions were also favorable for leaf rust, but by the time inoculum
 arrived there was little green leaf tissue in many fields in which the fungus
 could establish itself.  Likewise, head scab was found in many fields, but
 the incidence was not as great as in 1986.  Prior infection of heads by
 Septoria nodorum probably prevented development of scab.  Take-all and sharp
 eyespot were noted in a number of fields early in the season.
 
      A survey of 240 fields in 59 counties in the summer of 1990 showed that
 there was a substantial decrease in Hessian fly infestation in 1990 compared
 to 1989.  The mean percentage infestation was 13.6 and 2.4, the number of
 puparia per 100 stems was 20.3 and 3.4, the percentage of fields sampled that
 were infested was 85.1 and 43.8, and the number of fields infested with
 greater than a 10% infestation was 51.4 and 5.8, respectively in 1989 and
 1990.  The Annual Uniform Hessian Fly Nursery evaluations were conducted by
 USDA, ARS in cooperation with SAES and private wheat breeders.  Thirty
 entries were evaluated in nurseries in AR, IL, IN, MS, OH, SC, and VA for
 Hessian fly response.  Field surveys in 20 states in 1990 identified 14 of
 the possible 16 Hessian fly biotypes present, with biotypes B, D, J, and L
 the most frequent.  Wheat genes H10, H11, and H15 appear to be ineffective
 because of natural virulence in the field.
 
      Variety development: Crosses were made between well adapted Purdue lines
 with resistance to Septoria tritici blotch, and wheats from South America and
 France that have resistance to both Septoria tritici and Septoria nodorum, to
 obtain higher levels of resistance to both pathogens.  Wheats from
 Switzerland and Germany with resistance to Septoria nodorum were crossed with
 Auburn to begin transfer of their resistance to cultivars adapted to Indiana.
 Slow rusting lines from a genetic study were crossed to Clark and other elite
 breeding lines.  In the spring of 1990, we made 3-way crosses to combine slow
 rusting and Septoria blotch resistance in adapted types.  Another round of
 backcrossing to transfer powdery mildew resistance from tetraploid Persian
 wheats to elite hexaploid lines was completed in the spring of 1990.
 
      The weather in the spring of 1990 was conducive for development of
 several diseases, and we were able to screen effectively for resistance to
 powdery mildew, Septoria leaf blotch, and leaf rust.  In addition to the
 screening and selection in the head row and yield nurseries, we made several
 disease assessments in the wheat performance trials west-central, southwest,
 and northwest Indiana to obtain more detailed information about disease
 reactions of varieties available for production in Indiana as well as our
 most advanced breeding lines.
 
      Fungicidal control of wheat diseases: Various labeled and experimental
 fungicides and various timings of application were evaluated on cultivar
 Clark, representative of modern cultivars with at least partial resistance to
 most of the diseases of importance in the eastern USA.  As we have found in
 the past, when Septoria nodorum blotch is a problem, fungicide treatments
 applied later in the season (boot or heading growth stage) provide greater
 control than those applied earlier (flag leaf emergence).  None of the
 treatments could be rated as highly effective against Septoria nodorum
 blotch, although several were quite good against powdery mildew and leaf
 rust.  The fact that some treatments were highly effective against leaf rust,
 but only moderately effective against Septoria blotch, suggests that the
 failure to control leaf blotch adequately is not only a matter of timing, but
 of inherent toxicity toward S.  nodorum.
 
 
      Genetics of slow leaf rusting (Shaner and Buechley): Advanced-generation
 progeny of the cross between slow rusting CI 13227 and fast rusting Suwon 92
 were selected for different levels of slow rusting.  These lines were then
 intercrossed in various combinations to test hypotheses about the number and
 interactions of genes that control latent period in CI 13227.  Based upon
 analysis of randomly-derived F7 families, we hypothesize that genes at three
 independent loci control slow rusting.  From crosses between lines with
 intermediate levels of slow rusting, we hope to determine if lines with the
 same slow rusting phenotype owe their resistance to different genes.  F1
 populations of single crosses between these lines were evaluated in the
 greenhouse in the fall of 1989.
  
      Durability of slow-rusting resistance in wheat: Jeff Lehman is
 continuing his study of the durability of slow leaf rusting.  Jeff measured
 disease levels on slow and fast rusting cultivars, grown in 3-ft. rows or in
 yield-sized plots in the field.  The cultivars were inoculated with a
 wild-type isolate of Puccinia recondita or with an isolate selected for a
 shorter latent period on the slow rusting cultivar CI 13227 in the
 greenhouse.  The selected isolates caused more rust in the field than the
 wild-type isolate on CI 13227, suggesting some degree of adaptation to slow
 rusting resistance.  Nevertheless, the adapted isolates did not cause nearly
 as much rust on CI 13227 as they or the wild-type isolate caused on fully
 susceptible cultivars.
 
      Adult-plant hypersensitivity to leaf rust (Shaner and Buechley):
 Thirteen lines with adult-plant hypersensitivity resistance (APHR) were
 crossed to susceptible cultivar Monon.  Backcross and F2 progeny were
 evaluated for APHR in the greenhouse in the fall of 1989.  Resistance in
 eight of the twelve parents appears to be controlled by recessive genes, and
 modifiers affect the expression of the major gene(s).
 
      Transfer of hypersensitivity and slow rusting from triticale to wheat
 (Shaner and Buechley): A third cycle of crosses was made to transfer leaf
 rust resistance from triticale to wheat.  Earlier research showed that these
 triticales have both an intermediate hypersensitive resistance and an
 excellent level of slow rusting, and we hope to transfer both of these
 manifestations of leaf rust resistance to hexaploid wheat.
 
      Septoria tritici blotch (Shaner and Buechley): Spring wheats from Israel
 and Australia, with resistance to Septoria tritici, were crossed to several
 Purdue cultivars and lines, some fully susceptible and others with the
 Bulgaria 88 resistance (e.g. Oasis and Sullivan).  The F1 and F2 generations
 of these crosses were evaluated for reaction to S. tritici in the greenhouse
 fall 1990.  Crosses were also made between lines with resistance to S.
 tritici and lines with other morphological or resistance markers, to check
 for linkages between any of these traits.
 
      Septoria nodorum blotch.  Dwight Bostwick's research on inoculation and
 incubation conditions has shown that as temperature, moist period duration,
 or inoculum concentration are increased, severity of disease on flag leaves
 and spikes is greater.  These variables were examined to improve greenhouse
 testing procedures for genetic studies and evaluation of parents for
 breeding.  A genetic study of the inheritance of resistance in the Brazilian
 cultivar Cotipora is also nearing completion.  Cotipora expresses a high
 degree of resistance in the flag leaf, but the spike is especially resistant.
 Spike resistance appears to have a significant amount of dominant gene action
 and low to moderate heritability.  Flag leaf resistance has low heritability.
 Studies will be done during the spring of 1991 utilizing monosomic analysis
 to determine which chromosomes of Cotipora are significant in determining
 resistance.
 
      Resistance to head scab.  Wheat scab, caused by Fusarium graminearum,
 occurs only in some years, but can be widespread and serious when weather is
 favorable for infection. Bai Guihua has tested twenty-one cultivars from
 China and two from Indiana for reaction to Indiana isolates of the fungus in
 the greenhouse, in an attempt to find resistance that would be useful in the
 breeding program.  At the time of anthesis, a droplet of spore suspension was
 placed between the rachis and a central spikelet.  Plants were given a 16-hr
 moist period during each of three consecutive nights after inoculation.
 Under these conditions, 13 cultivars proved to be either highly resistant
 (<10% of the spikelets scabby) or moderately resistant (10-50% of the
 spikelets scabby).  The Chinese cultivars Ning 7840, Fu 5114, and Sumai 3
 were highly resistant; only inoculated spikelets developed symptoms.  In
 contrast, all spikelets of susceptible cultivars developed symptoms.  In
 preparation for studies on the inheritance of resistance, Bai compared
 different moisture periods and inoculum concentrations in greenhouse tests.
 Successful infection requires a moist period of 1 to 3 days after
 inoculation, especially for resistant cultivars.  The length of moist period
 affects the frequency of infection, but not the rate of spread of the fungus
 through the spike.  However, when no moist period followed inoculation, the
 fungus failed to spread from the point of inoculation on Ning 7840, Fu 5114,
 and Sumai 3.  There was no effect of inoculum concentration over the range of
 20 to 200 thousand spores per ml.  At a concentration of 17 thousand spores
 per ml, the frequency of scabby spikes was less than at higher
 concentrations, especially for resistant cultivars.  A preliminary study of
 inheritance of resistance indicates that Ning 7840 has two major genes and
 other minor genes that condition resistance to F. graminearum.
 
      We also did some tests with seedlings germinated in petri dishes in the
 presence of liquid cultures of the fungus.  Shoot length of the susceptible
 cultivar Clark was reduced much more than shoot length of Ning 7840.  Most
 plants of Clark showed symptoms and signs of infection on and around the
 seed, whereas few plants of Ning 7840 showed these symptoms and signs.
 Isolates from Nanjing, PRC; Lafayette, Indiana; southern Indiana; and eastern
 Michigan all inhibited shoot elongation.  Ning 7840 and the other resistant
 cultivars expressed resistance to all four isolates.  Our results so far
 suggest three kinds of resistance: resistance to infection, resistance to
 spread of infection, and resistance to seed rotting.
 
      We have already crossed these resistant Chinese cultivars with elite
 soft red winter wheats to begin the transfer of scab resistance into our
 material.
 
      Hessian fly.  Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) is an insect pest
 of wheat in Indiana and eastern USA that can cause significant losses to
 wheat production.  The insect has been effectively controlled by a
 combination of cultural practices and host resistance.  Discussions and
 simulation models have been used by others to develop strategies for
 deploying genes in wheat cultivars for resistance to the Hessian fly.  The
 availability of data on prevalence of biotypes of the Hessian fly, levels of
 infestation in wheat, together with proportions of wheat acreage in Indiana
 seeded to cultivars with specific genes for resistance to Hessian fly
 provided an excellent opportunity to determine the effects of deploying genes
 one at a time in sequence and redeploying a gene after a 10-year absence from
 the commercial crop in Indiana during 1955 to 1989.  Three genes H3, H6, and
 H5 were deployed in 1955, 1962, and 1971, respectively, and H6 was redeployed
 in 1981.  A reduction in infestation levels of Hessian fly occurred for about
 6 to 8 years after each deployment.  Redeployment of H6, after a 10-year
 absence from commercial use, was highly effective.  Other methods of
 deploying resistance genes in conjunction with cultural practices should be
 considered for control of Hessian fly.  When considering the pyramiding of
 genes for resistance, one must evaluate the time required to develop new
 productive cultivars.  Efficient methods to determine that all of the
 pyramided genes are present in a line is important for the successful use of
 pyramided genes.  A wheat cultivar is seldom grown for more than 8 or 10
 years, but the same pyramided genes might be used in subsequent cultivars.
 
      The durum wheat, Triticum durum Desf., CI 15160, has resistance to
 biotypes C, D, E, and L, and is potentially useful in the development of
 resistant wheat cultivars.  Steve Weller carried out studies in controlled
 environment chambers to determine the number of genes conferring resistance
 in CI 15160 to biotype D and establish the allelic relationships or
 independence of these genes to 11 of the named genes that confer resistance
 to biotype D.  Testcross analyses of progeny rows from random selfed F1
 plants indicated that one, and possibly two genes, controlled resistance to
 biotype D.  One of these genes confers a high level of resistance expression,
 while the second gene may have a low degree of expression.  These genes
 differ from the named genes H5 and H9 through H18 as determined by test cross
 analysis but at least one gene may be linked to H16 and possibly H10.
 
      In our genetic analysis of the resistance to biotype L of Hessian fly
 that we have identified in einkorn wheat, first test cross and F2 generation
 seed was developed.  Additionally, accessions resistant to this biotype were
 identified in Aegilops and Agropyron species.
 
      S. G. Wellso, R.P Hoxie and R.L. Taylor conducted experiments to
 determine the effect of Hessian fly larval feeding on one susceptible and two
 resistant wheat cultivars.  Stem number, plant and crown weights, and soluble
 crown carbohydrates were measured in susceptible cultivar Monon (with the H3
 gene) and resistant cultivars Abe (H5 gene) and Caldwell (H6 gene) infested
 with biotype E larvae.  All plant variables were significantly different
 between infested and control Monon, and no significant difference in plant
 variables was detected in the resistant wheats 4 wk after infestation.  Of
 the four carbohydrates analyzed, only fructan in Monon, and fructose in Abe
 differed significantly between the two treatments.  These data support the
 use of resistant genes in plants to control the Hessian fly, in that
 essentially no damage was observed in the resistant wheat, whereas
 susceptible Monon was damaged severely.
 
      R. H. Shukle and P. B. Grover examined the interaction of Hessian fly
 biotypes on resistant wheat.  Results indicated virulent larvae can alter the
 expression of resistance and allow normally avirulent larvae to survive.  The
 duration of feeding by Hessian fly larvae on resistant and susceptible plants
 was investigated.  Results indicated the ability to initiate and/or maintain
 feeding was the process determining virulence.
 
      Analyses of plant proteins by SDS-PAGE and Westerns indicated changes
 occurred in both susceptible and resistant plants due to infestation.  In
 susceptible plants RuBisCo increased in the lower leaf sheath (an area where
 it is not normally in excess).  Changes in membrane proteins also occurred in
 this region.  These changes were not elicited by physical wounding of plants.
 In resistant plants (Caldwell, H6) low molecular weight proteins accumulated
 in the lower leaf sheath due to infestation.  Proteins appearing early in the
 infestation of resistant plants did not appear in susceptible plants.
 
      Low copy and unique clones have been obtained from a Hessian fly genomic
 library.  These clones have been used in identifying RFLPs among biotypes.
 To determine the location on polytene chromosomes of clones showing
 polymorphisms among biotypes, in situ hybridization has been used.
 
      Isolines which differ in alleles at specific virulence loci will
 facilitate the study of virulence and the identification of virulence genes.
 We propose to use gamma radiation to induce new virulence mutations in
 isofemale lines. Additionally, we expect to generate chromosome
 rearrangements and visible mutations which will aid in the genetic study of
 virulence.  Genetic analysis will determine whether virulence is associated
 with the production of novel products or absence of a normal product.
 Rearrangements and other DNA lesions associated with new virulence alleles
 will facilitate our ability to conduct chromosome walks and chromosome jumps.
 
      Barley yellow dwarf.  Hari Sharma and Herb Ohm are identifying and
 introgressing useful genes for biotic stresses from near and distant
 relatives into wheat and oats.  We are transferring BYDV and other disease
 resistance genes identified in Agropyron to soft winter wheats through
 backcrossing of intergeneric hybrids to wheat, and screening for BYDV, leaf
 rust, powdery mildew reaction and chromosome composition at each generation.
 Of over 1500 BC3 seeds planted, 730 seedlings were screened for reaction to
 BYDV, and 362 of these for chromosomal analysis.  ELISA values ranged from 0
 to 2 and chromosome number varied from 42 to 54.  The backcross progenies
 were forwarded to advanced stages: BC4, BC3F2 seeds, from some of the
 resistant plants for isolating resistant alien addition/substitution lines.
 
      Resistance of certain Thinopyrum spp. (formerly Agropyron) to barley
 yellow dwarf virus is primarily characterized by low or undetectable amounts
 of virus in plant tissues as demonstrated by low enzyme-linked immunosorbent
 assay (ELISA) values.  Luis Goulart showed that cDNA probes were powerful
 diagnostic tools to determine virus concentration in plant tissue.  Although
 uniformity in the results with both techniques depends on carefully
 controlled infestation and sample preparation, a high correlation between
 ELISA values and densitometry scans was obtained (0.93).  To maximize
 differences between susceptible and resistant reactions, one should take into
 consideration ELISA substrate incubation period (>90 min), autoradiographic
 exposure period with intensifying screens (>3 days) and use of denaturing
 conditions in sample preparation.  Relative viral RNA concentrations for
 cultivars Abe (wheat) and Clintland 64 (oat) were ca. 100 and >200 ng/g plant
 tissue, respectively.  Th. ponticum had 0 to 50 pg of virus RNA/g of plant
 tissue.  Three levels of resistance were distinguished: resistant, moderately
 resistant, and susceptible.  Resistant lines had densitometry absorbance
 values of 0.25 to 0.60 and ELISA values from 0.03 to 0.30, with a range of
 viral RNA concentration from 0 to 5 ng/g plant tissue.
 
       C. Quiroz, J. E. Araya, R, M. Lister, R. H. Shukle and J. E. Foster
 studied transmission of symptom variants selected from the NY-MAV isolate of
 BYDV by the English grain aphid and their effects on the feeding behavior and
 life-cycle of this aphid.  Two symptom types were subcultured from the NY-MAV
 isolate of BYDV by transmission with single English grain aphids that were
 allowed 3-d acquisition on infected oat, followed by 1-h transmission time on
 'Coast Black' oat plants, and verification of infection by ELISA.  The
 'notch' type caused leaf notches, leaf twisting and intense reddish color;
 the 'red' type caused only the intense red color but had a higher acquisition
 efficiency, probably associated with a faster and/or a longer phloem contact
 by aphids' stylets and a greater replication rate suggested by their higher
 ELISA values.  Electronic monitoring of aphid feeding behavior showed the
 aphids fed better on infected plants, with faster and longer phloem contacts;
 aphids carrying the 'red' subculture made faster and longer phloem contact
 than those carrying either the 'notch' subculture or the source of NY-MAV
 isolate, or no virus.  Aphids developed better on virus-infected than
 non-infected plants; the plants infected with the 'notch' subculture provided
 the best conditions for insect development.
 
      Wheat plants of cultivar Butte 86 that were infected with the 'red' and
 'notch' subcultures had fewer kernels than those infected with the NY-MAV and
 MAV-PS1 isolates.  For oat cultivar Clintland 64, the greatest reductions in
 plant size, kernel number, and kernel weight occurred in plants infected with
 the 'red' and 'notch' subcultures.
 
      Resistance to take-all (Shaner, Buechley, Ohm): Advanced breeding lines
 were grown in 1990 in southwest Indiana in a field with a high level of
 take-all inoculum in the soil.  There was considerable variation in disease
 development, but it was possible to identify several lines that showed milder
 symptoms and that were generally more vigorous.  These lines have been
 planted in a new take-all nursery at the Agronomy Farm.
 
      D. M. Huber, Tina Roseman (Graduate Student), Robin Graham (Visiting
 Scientist from the Waite Institute, Glen Osmond, Australia), and Howard
 Arnott (Visiting Scientist from the University of Texas at Arlington): The
 research on biological control of take-all in cooperation with Monsanto
 Company provided an opportunity to have the first field evaluation of a
 genetically engineered organism in Indiana.  This research provided basic
 information on the interactions of rhizosphere colonizing ability, possible
 mechanisms of control, and host nutrition on disease incidence and severity.
 It also provided an opportunity to evaluate our laser detection system for
 direct quantification of genetically altered organisms in rhizosphere soil.
 Siderophore production, phenazine-1-carboximide antibiotic production and
 several other laboratory identified inhibitors of Gaeumannomyces graminis
 produced by Pseudomonads apparently have little or no significant role in the
 control of take-all under the four soil types and environmental conditions
 evaluated in naturally infested field soils in Indiana.
 
      Selection of organisms on the basis of their manganese activity in soil
 was more likely to generate a potential biological control agent than direct
 antagonism to the pathogen in the laboratory or greenhouse.  Siderophore
 production, phenazine antibiotic production, and gram reaction were not
 associated with biological control capability of an organism.  Bacterization
 with manganese oxidizing organisms generally increased disease and reduced Mn
 tissue levels in host plants while the opposite was observed with manganese
 reducing organisms.  All the organisms reported to reduce the severity of
 take-all or promote plant growth which we have evaluated can reduce manganese
 and many of them also can oxidize it to the non-available form depending on
 the soil redox reaction. Nuclear magnetic resonance evaluations supported the
 role of redox reactions with manganese for the pathogen as well as the host.
 Immobilization of manganese through oxidation, predisposes the plant tissues
 to infection by Ggt since manganese is a direct requirement for defense
 reactions involving photosynthesis and the shikimate cycle.
 
       Virulence of Gaeumannomyces graminis is correlated with the manganese
 oxidizing ability of the pathogen.  This is conditioned by temperature, with
 some strains of the pathogen being virulent and able to oxidize manganese
 only at low or high temperatures while other isolates are insensitive to
 temperature for virulence and manganese oxidizing ability.  Scanning Electron
 Microscopic-Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis and evaluations confirmed
 that manganese oxidizing ability is the result of an extracellular matric and
 is most intense in the region of the hyphopodia, less intense around the
 runner hyphae and in advance of the penetration (infective) hypha.  The
 strain of the fungal pathogen also markedly modifies the bacterial
 composition in the rhizosphere relative to manganese oxidizing ability.
      
      Selection of seed with a higher manganese seed content resulted in
 plants more resistant to take-all and with a higher yield.  This reflected
 initial root vigor, growth and resistance which were manifest throughout the
 season even though the actual nutritional benefit of the seed-borne manganese
 was relatively short lived.  Seed-borne manganese provided a more readily
 available source of manganese for the developing seedling than seed treatment
 with manganese which could antagonise copper under copper deficiency
 conditions much the same as ammonium nitrogen which also was demonstrated to
 increase manganese concentrations in plant tissues when reduced take-all
 occurred with this treatment.  There are apparent differences in manganese
 uptake efficiency of the soft red winter wheats and they differ widely in
 their ability to accumulate manganese in the seed.  Manganese seed content in
 the cultivar Caldwell was relatively constant regardless of the manganese
 available, while the seed content of Cardinal, Lincoln, and Steele was
 influenced by the availabilty of manganese for plant uptake.
 
       New nitrification inhibitors with greatly increased efficacy were
 demonstrated to improve fertilizer retention (non-leachability), efficiency
 of plant utilization, and reduce soilborne disease under both conventional
 and no-till management programs and on the various soil types occurring in
 Indiana.
 
      Inhibition of nitrification of summer-applied manures will prevent their
 leaching and denitrification throughout the summer and winter non-crop
 season, and maintain the availability of the nitrogen for a subsequent crop,
 while removing their predisposing effect for take-all of cereals or stalk rot
 of corn.
      
      Residual effects of inhibiting nitrification of anhydrous ammonia
 applied to a previous corn crop were manifest as elimination of manganese
 deficiency and 900 kg/ha higher yield of a subsequent soybean crop grown
 under manganese deficient field conditions in Northern Indiana.  The effect
 on manganese availability was confirmed by tissue analysis (7.3 ppm without
 inhibiting nitrification and 15.1 ppm with a nitrification inhibitor).
 
      The aminopeptidase profile procedure was effective in identifying source
 host and race of Colletotrichum graminis, and readily distinguished
 Diaporthe/Phomopsis organisms from other soilborne pathogens or saprophytic
 fungi.  This technique can differentiate strains of bacteria used for
 biological control studies. There is wide variability in sensativity of G.
 graminis to potential chemical controls for take-all.  This is in part the
 effect of direct chemical interactions and other conditions that reflect
 variability in response to other rhizosphere organisms.
 
      Personnel.  Dr. Roger Ratcliffe, Research Entomologist with the USDA,
 ARS, came to Purdue in November to become the Lead Scientist for the small
 grains insect program.  Prior to coming to Purdue, Dr. Ratcliffe was located
 at Beltsville, MD and worked on insect resistance in alfalfa.  Guihua Bai,
 who has spent the past year in our program as a visiting scholar, has begun
 graduate work toward the Ph.D.  He will be working on resistance to wheat
 scab.  Mr. Bai is from the Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing,
 PRC.
 
      Sue Cambron joined the staff of the ARS Insect and Weed Control Research
 Unit as Small Grains Insect Research Assistant in July, 1990.
 
      Dr. Ishmail Dweikat accepted a research position with the small grains
 research program.  His primary responsibilities involve the development and
 application of biotechnologies to wheat improvement.
 
      Luiz Goulart completed requirements for the Ph.D. degree and returned to
 Brazil to join the research and teaching staff at the Agricultural University
 of Uberlandia.
 
      Xueyi Hu, a visiting scientist from Henan Academy of Agriculture
 Sciences, PRC, is studying the inheritance of resistance of three wheat lines
 to powdery mildew.  He is evaluating the parental lines, F1, backcross, and
 F2 populations.
 
 Publications and presentations at meetings
 
 Araya, J. E., C. Quiroz & S. G. Wellso.  1990.  Pest status and control of
 the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordovilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae).
 A review.  Purdue Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. No. 588. 70 pp.
 
 Araya, J.E., J.E. Foster, M.M. Schreiber & R.E. Wing. 1990. Residual action
 of slow release systemic insecticides on Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Homoptera:
 Aphididae) on wheat in the laboratory.  The Great Lakes Entomol. 23:19-27.
 
 Araya, J.E., M.A. Guerrero, M. L. Lamborot, P. Arretz, & J.E. Foster. 1989. A
 selected bibliography on the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani).
 (Homoptera: Aphididae).  Purdue Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. No. 573. 61 pp.
 
 Azimi, N., F.E. Lytle, D.M. Huber, J.E. Whitaker, and R.P. Haugland.  1990.
 Multiple reagent aminopeptidase profiling of bacteria.  Applied Spectroscopy
 44:400-403.
 
 Bostwick, D. E., H. W. Ohm, G. E. Shaner.  1990.  Effects of inoculation
 variables on development of Septoria glume blotch on wheat.  Agron. Abstr.
 82:81.
 
 Buechley, G., and Shaner, G.  1990.  Effect of seed treatments on wheat from
 bunted or smutted seed, 1989.  Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 45:2245.
 
 Chen, B.H., J.E. Foster, P.L. Taylor, J.E. Araya & C. Kudagamage. 1990.
 Determination of the frequency and distribution of Hessian fly (Diptera:
 Cecidomyiidae) biotypes in the north eastern soft wheat region.  The Great
 Lakes Entomol. 23:217-221.
 
 Chongrattanameteekul, W., J.E. Foster, R.H. Shukle & J.E. Araya. 1990.
 Feeding behavior of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.)
 Homoptera: Aphididae) on wheat as affected by conspecific and interspecific
 interactions.  J. Appl. Entomol. In press.
 
 D.W. Nelson and D.M. Huber.  1991. Nitrification Inhibitors.  In: Nielsen, R.
 (ed).  National Corn Handbook.  American Soc. Agron. Sp. Pub., Madison, WI.
 
 Day, K. M., Lorton, W. P., Buechley, G. C., and Shaner, G. E., Huber, D. M.,
 and Scott, D. H.  1990.  Performance of public and private small grains in
 Indiana, 1990.  Purdue University Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 594. 25 p.
 
 Fereres, A., R. H. Shukle, J.E. Araya & J.E. Foster. 1990. Probing and
 feeding behavior of Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hom., Aphididae) on three wheat
 cultivars infected with barley yellow dwarf virus.  J. Appl. Entomol.
 109:29-36.
 
 Fereres, A., R.M. Lister, R.H. Shukle, J.E. Araya & J.E. Foster. 1989.
 Development and reproduction of the English grain aphid (Homoptera:
 Aphididae) on wheat cultivars infected with barley yellow dwarf virus.
 Environ. Entomol. 18:388-393.
 
 Foster, J. E., H. W. Ohm, F. L. Patterson, P. L. Taylor.  1991.
 Effectiveness of deploying single gene resistances in wheat for controlling
 damage by the Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).  Environmental Entomology
 (in press).
 
 Goulart, L. R., S. A. Mackenzie, R. M. Lister, H. W. Ohm.  1990.  Molecular
 and immunological evaluation of barley yellow dwarf virus resistance in a
 segregating wheat x wheatgrass population.  American Oat Workers Conference.
 August 14-17, Jackson, Wyoming.
 
 Huber, D.M.  1990.  Fertilizers and Soilborne Diseases.  Soil Use and
 Management.  6:168-173.
 
 Huber, D.M. 1990.  Plant nutrition and disease development.  Proc. Purdue
 Fertilizer and Agricultural Chemical Conference, January 18, 1990.
 
 Huber, D.M. 1990.  The use of fertilizers and organic amendments in the
 control of plant disease.  pp. 405-495 In: D. Pimental (ed) Handbook of Pest
 Management in Agriculture.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
 
 Huber, D.M. and R.D. Graham.  1990.  Chloride-disease interactions.
 Discussion Session, ASA Meetings, San Antonio, TX.
 
 Huber, D.M. and R.D. Graham.  1991.  Techniques for studying nutrient-disease
 interactions.  In: C.M. Rush and L.L. Singleton (eds) Methods for Research on
 Soilborne Phytopathogenic fungi.  APS Press, St. Paul, MN (In Press).
 
 Kudagamage, C., J.E. Foster, P.L. Taylor & B.H. Chen. 1990. Biotypes of the
 Hessian fly (Diptera:Cecidomyiidae) identified in the Southeastern United
 States.  J. Entomol. Sci. 25:575-580.
 
 Lehman, J. S., and Shaner, G.  1990.  Adaptation of Puccinia recondita to
 slow-rusting wheat cultivars due to artificial selection.  Phytopathology 90:
 (in press) (Abstr.).
 
 Lu, C. S., H. C. Sharma, H. W. Ohm.  1991.  Wheat anther culture: effects of
 genotype and environmental conditions.  Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture
 (in press).
 
 Magalhaes, J.R. and D.M. Huber.  1991.  Response of ammonium assimilation
 enzymes to nitrogen form treatments in different plant species.  J. Plant
 Nutrition 14:(In Press).
 
 Nagy, J. G., H. W. Ohm, S. Sawadogo.  1990.  Farmer-researcher collaboration
 in developing cropping practices that involve the complementary use of
 mechanical tied ridge and fertilizer technology for sorghum in Burkina Faso.
 Expl Agric.  26:161-169.
 
 Obanni, M., L. R. Goulart, H. W. Ohm, S. A. Mackenzie.  1990.  Alien-specific
 DNA sequences amplified and isolated by phenol emulsion reassociation
 technique.  Agron. Abstr. 82:242.
 
 Ohm, H. W.  1990.  Evaluation of BYDV resistance in Avena Strigosa.  Oat
 Biotech V. November 12-14, Schaumberg, Illinois.
 
 Ohm, H. W.  1990.  Genetic and breeding aspects of wheat quality.  Wheat
 Quality Conference, April 16-17, Wooster, Ohio.
 
 Ohm, H. W.  1990.  The roles of conventional breeding and biotechnology in
 host plant resistance.  9th Biennial Plant Resistance to Insects Workshop.
 April 9-12, College Park, Maryland.
 
 Ohm, H. W.  1990.  Utilization of germplasm in wheat improvement.  Crop
 Germplasm Symposium honoring Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, retirement.  June 27,
 Lafayette.
 
 Ortman, E. E. & S. G. Wellso. 1990.  Annual plant resistance to insects
 newsletter, 126p.  Vol 16.
 
 Parry, J.M. 1990. The genetic relationship between resistance in wheat,
 Triticum aestivum L., and biotypes C and L of the Hessian fly, Mayetiola
 destructor (Say ). M.S. Thesis. Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
 
 Patterson, F. L., G. E. Shaner, H. W. Ohm, and J. E. Foster.  1990.  A
 historical perspective for the establishment of research goals for wheat
 improvement.  J. Prod. Agric.  3:30-38.
 
 Pereira, A. M. N., Lister, R. M., Barbara, D. J., and Shaner, G. E.  1989.
 Relative transmissability of barley yellow dwarf virus from sources with
 differing virus contents.  Phytopathology 79:1353-1358.
 
 Pereira, A. M. N., Lister, R. M., Barbara, D. J., Shaner, G. E.  1990.
 Influence of host virus content on the acquisition and transmission of barley
 yellow dwarf virus, pages 128-134 in Burnett, P. A., ed.  1990.  World
 Perspectives on Barley Yellow Dwarf.  CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., Mexico.
 
 Quiroz, C. 1990. Interactions between the English grain aphid, Macrosiphum
 avenae (Homoptera:Aphididae) and isolates of the MAV serotype of barley
 yellow dwarf virus. Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN.
 
 Roseman, T.S. and D.M. Huber.  1990.  Manganese seed content - an
 ameliorating factor for take-all of cereals.  Phytopathology 80:970.  Royer,
 M.H., W.M. Dowler and D.M. Huber (eds).  1991.  Major Diseases of the Tropics
 and Subtropics: Bananas, Cacao, Cassava.  Published by USDA (In Press).
 
 Shaner, G., Buechley, G.  1989.  Inheritance of latent period of Puccinia
 recondita in wheat.  Phytopathology 79: 1207 (Abstr.).
 
 Shaner, G., Buechley, G.  1990.  Effect of foliar fungicides on wheat, 1989.
 Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 45:190.
 
 Shaner, G., Buechley, G.  1990.  Effect of seed and foliar fungicides on
 wheat, 1989.  Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 45:191.
 
 Shaner, G., Buechley, G.  1990.  Effect of seed treatments on wheat stand
 establishment and foliar disease, 1989.  Fungicide and Nematicide Tests
 45:253.
 
 Sharma, H. C.  1989.  Transmission of telo and whole chromosomes, and
 fertility of alien addition lines of Agropyron trachycaulum and A. ciliare in
 wheat.  Wheat Information Service 69:1-4.
 
 
 Sharma, H. C., H. W. Ohm.  1990.  Crossability and embryo rescue enhancement
 in wide crosses between wheat and three Agropyron species.  Euphytica
 49:209-214.
 
 Sharma, H. C., J. E. Foster, H. W. Ohm, F. L. Patterson.  New sources of
 resistance to Hessian fly biotype L in Triticeae for germplasm enhancement.
 (Submitted).
 
 Sharma, H.C., L. R. Goulart, R. M. Lister, S. A. Mackenzie, H. W. Ohm.  1990.
 Evaluation of Avena strigosa for reaction to BYDV by symptomatology, ELISA
 and dot-blot assay.  American Oat Workers Conference, Jackson , Wyoming, Aug.
 14-17.
 
 Shukle, R. H., P. B. Grover, J.E. Foster. 1990. Feeding of Hessian fly
 (Diptera:Cecidomyiidae) larvae on resistant and susceptible wheat. Environ.
 Entomol.  19:494-500.
 
 Sutton, A.L., D.M. Huber and D.D. Jones.  1990.  Strategies for mazimizing
 the nutrient utilization of animal wastes as a fertilizer resource.  Proc.
 6th Int.  Symp. Agr. Food Proc. Wastes, Chicago, IL.  Dec. 17-18, 1990.
 
 Sutton, A.L., D.M. Huber, D.D. Jones and D.T. Kelly.  1990.  Use of
 nitrification inhibitors with summer application of swine manure.  Appl. Eng.
 Agr.  6:296-300.
 
 Thirakhupt, V., J.E. Araya, J.E. Foster. 1990. Interaction between Hessian
 fly (Diptera:Cecidomyiidae) and bird cherry-oat aphids (Homoptera:Aphididae)
 on wheat cultivars. J. Entomol. Science 25:571-574.
 
 Tuite, J., Shaner, G., and Everson, R. J.  1990.  Wheat scab in soft red
 winter wheat in Indiana in 1986 and its relation to some quality
 measurements.  Plant Disease 74:959-962.
 
 Wellso, S. G., R. P. Hoxie, P. L. Taylor.  1990.  A comparison of plant
 parameters and soluble carbohydrates of resistant and susceptible wheat
 infested with biotype E Hessian flies (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).  Environ.
 Entomol. 19: 1698-1701
 
 -------------------------
 
      Kansas State University and USDA/aRS
 
      T. S. Cox*, R. G. Sears*, J. P. Shroyer*, B. S. Gill*, J. H. Hatchett*,
 G. H. Liang*, T. L. Harvey*, T. J. Martin*, D. Fjell*, L. E. Browder, H. S.
 Dhaliwal1, T. Endo3, B. Friebe2, K. S. Gill, L. G. Harrell, D. S. Hassawi, J.
 Jiang, P. D. Chen, J. Werner, R. S. Kota, E. L.  Lubbers, Y. Mukai4, L. M.
 Patton, W. J. Raupp, B. R. Tyagi5, D. L. Wilson, G. Yue, S. Guoping, G. M.
 Paulsen*, S. Muthukrishnan
 
      1Punjab Agricultural University Regional Research Station, Guardaspur,
 Punjab, India
      2Institute of Plant Breeding, Technical University of
 Munich-Weihenstephan, West Germany
      3Nara University, 1230 Horaicho, Nara, Japan
      4Osaka Kyoiku University, 3-1-1 Jonan, Ikeda, Osaka 563, Japan
      5Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Post Bag #1, Post
 Office R.S.M. Nagar, Lucknow-226016, India
 
      Crop Year. Kansas produced a record crop of hard winter wheat in 1990
 harvesting 12.84 million metric tonnes.  The crop averaged 2688 kg/ha with
 the highest yields harvested in western areas.  Quality of the crop was very
 good and the protein content averaged 12.2%.  This is above the ten year
 average of 11.9%, indicating that the effort wheat breeders in the southern
 Great Plains have spent in breeding and releasing higher protein winter
 wheats with good yield potential is paying off.
 
      Growing conditions for the 1990 crop were not all that promising until
 late spring.  Fall planting was difficult in many areas because of dry
 seedbeds.  Stands in the central portion of the state were poorer than usual.
 A warm, consistent winter, followed by a wet cool spring accounted for the
 record crop.  Diseases were not a major problem in 1990 with leaf rust
 causing most of the loss.  Yields, in fact, would have been much higher had
 it not been for high temperature stress during the intermediate stages of
 grain filling.  This high temperature stress reduced test weights and dough
 mixing tolerance in wheat grown in western Kansas.
 
      Pioneer Germplasm Gift.  This past year Pioneer made the decision to
 drop their hard red winter wheat breeding program in Hutchinson.  Pioneer had
 been actively breeding winter wheat adapted to the Great Plains for over 25
 years.  Their entire program, including all released varieties and germplasm
 was deeded to Kansas State University.  This gift was substantial and it
 basically doubled the size of the KSU wheat breeding program.  Last summer
 the wheat breeders field day was held in Hutchinson and the region's wheat
 breeders went through the elite and advanced trials.  This fall an
 observation nursery was developed which was sent to cooperating locations in
 the southern Great Plains.  This material was developed for areas ranging
 from central Texas to southern South Dakota.  We are trying to maintain that
 testing effort through a cooperative effort from all the wheat breeders in
 the region.
 
      The loss of such a strong and supportive program has been a huge loss to
 the region. Pioneer has always been a very active partner in germplasm
 development and breeding of hard winter wheats.  The gift of all their
 germplasm is a priceless gift and has enhanced and significantly strengthened
 the KSU program.  As we release material from their program we plan to
 continue naming those wheats with 4 digits (eg. 2163) to signify the source
 from which the variety was developed and also to remind our Kansas wheat
 growers of this very generous and important gift. - Sears, Martin and Cox
 -------------------------
 
             FARMERS' PERCEPTIONS OF WHEAT CULTIVAR DEMONSTRATION PLOTS AND
 TOURS.
 
       Wheat cultivar demonstration plots are used widely in Kansas to promote
 early adoption of high yielding varieties, but we have little information
 regarding their impact on farmers' decision making process.  A survey
 instrument was developed and administered to individuals attending 38 county
 wheat plot tours during May and June, 1990.  The tours were well attended
 with 749 responses returned.  Respondents represented different size land
 holdings with 57% having less than 600 wheat acres planted.  Sixty-seven
 percent planted three or more varieties.
 
      Wheat cultivar plot tours have an excellent farmer following.
 Seventy-four percent of respondents indicated they attend the plot tour every
 year, while 10% said it was their first time.  Sixty-seven percent said they
 stopped to observe the plots prior to the tour and 86% reported they stopped
 2 or more times during the year.  Sixty-one percent reported they never
 attend tours in neighboring counties, while 28% said they sometimes did.
 Ninety- two percent indicated the plots and tours influenced their decisions
 regarding varieties they planted and 94% wanted the plots harvested to see
 yield differences.  Efforts have made to analyze demonstration plot data
 across locations (see Liu et al,. 1990 below). Sixty-eight percent placed an
 above average to high value on the yield data.  Cultivar descriptions and
 discussions of pest problems were rated the most helpful of the topics
 discussed.  Respondents indicated they would like to see soil fertility and
 tillage and residue management treatments with the cultivar demonstration
 plots.  Ninety-nine percent indicated they wanted the county agent to
 continue having wheat demonstration plots.
 
      Results from this survey would indicate the wheat cultivar demonstration
 program is very successful and important to farmers, and has potential to
 make a considerable impact on farmers' decisions. - Shroyer and Fjell
 
 -------------------------
 
       FARMER ACCEPTANCE OF PRE-PLANT WINTER WHEAT SCHOOLS IN SOUTH CENTRAL
 KANSAS.
 
      Historically, winter wheat schools have been held for producers in
 Kansas during the winter months of January, February, and March.  Subject
 matter presented included recommendations of: cultivar, fertility, weed
 control, planting date, and planting rate.  Many of the farmer decisions
 concerning winter wheat production are made during August and September, just
 prior to planting.  Thus, the information presented at these late winter
 meetings comes after the decision making time of the farmers.  The idea of
 holding pre-plant wheat schools in August and September met with some
 resistance from county agents who felt farmers would not attend an evening
 meeting at that time of the year.
 
      In 1982, just one county of the 19 counties in the South Central
 Extension area of Kansas held a pre-plant wheat school with 40 people
 attending.  The number of counties holding pre-plant wheat schools increased
 to 15 with over 500 people attending by 1988.  In 1990, a questionnaire was
 developed and administered to individuals attending 10 of the 13 county
 pre-plant wheat schools during August and September.  Two-hundred forty-nine
 questionnaires were returned and summarized.  The purpose of the
 questionnaire was to survey the attendees and find if the subject matter
 presented at the meetings was timely and influenced their decision making
 process.
 
      Initial questions included size of wheat acreage that they farm with 55%
 having less than 600 acres.  This percentage is very similar to the 57%
 results from the wheat tour questionnaire (see Shroyer and Fjell, above).
 Also, 90% of the respondents were farmers.  Seventy three percent have
 attended pre- plant wheat schools in the past while 31% have never attended
 the traditional late winter crops school.  This indicates that the pre-plant
 school is reaching new clientele and keeping them coming back from year to
 year.  Also, 56% did not attend the local County wheat cultivar tour this
 year where additional subject matter could be obtained.  This supports the
 rationale that the pre-plant meetings are reaching new clientele that
 otherwise would not attend other extension activities.
 
      Eighty-nine percent of the respondents said they were influenced on what
 wheat cultivar to plant.  Sixty-seven and 57% felt that they were influenced
 on fertilizer rates and herbicide usage, respectively.  Of the 249 responding
 to the questionnaire, 247 wanted their County Agent to continue scheduling a
 pre-plant wheat school for subsequent years.  Forty-seven percent still
 wanted to have a late winter crops school where wheat production would be
 discussed.  This indicates that the farmers of South Central Kansas, where
 "Wheat is King", are interested in attending extension schools many times
 during the year for updates on wheat production practices.
 
      Results from this questionnaire would indicate that the pre-plant wheat
 school concept is well received and that additional counties could increase
 their clientele by holding this "non-traditional" meeting. - Fjell and
 Shroyer
 
 -------------------------
 
           WHEAT GENETICS RESOURCE CENTER GERMPLASM RELEASE.
 
      A.  Germplasm release. KS90WGRC10 is a leaf rust (Puccinia recondita
 Roberge ex Desmaz) resistant hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
 germplasm line developed cooperatively by USDA-ARS, the Kansas Agricultural
 Experiment Station, and the Wheat Genetics Resource Center, Kansas State
 University.  It was released as a germplasm in September 1990.
 
 
      KS90WGRC10 seedlings produced low leaf rust infection type (01C) with 30
 different cultures of P. recondita.  Adult plants exhibited an immune
 reaction to leaf rust infection at four Kansas field locations in 1990.
 
      The pedigree of KS90WGRC10 is 'TAM 107'*3/TA 2460.  TA 2460 is a leaf
 rust-resistant accession of Aegilops squarrosa L., collected by Kyoto
 University, Japan, near Khoshyailagh in north-central Iran.  A direct TAM
 107/TA 2460 hybrid was backcrossed as a female to TAM 107 in spring 1987, and
 TAM 107 was pollinated by a resulting BC1F1 plant in the following fall.
 KS90WGRC10 is a BC2F2-derived line in the F5 produced by self-pollinating a
 single BC2F3 family that was homogeneous for immune reaction to PRTUS25.
 
       Leaf rust resistance in KS90WGRC10 is governed by a dominant gene on
 chromosome 1D.  The linkage relationships between this locus, the Lr21 locus,
 and the gene carried by KS89WGRC7, all located on 1D, are unknown; however,
 the spectra of reaction of the three genes to a range of leaf rust cultures
 differ.  In small-plot yield trials at Manhattan and Hutchinson, KS,
 KS90WGRC10 yielded 28% more than TAM 107 and had 18% greater kernel weight,
 under heavy leaf rust infection.  Otherwise, KS90WGRC10 is similar to TAM 107
 in height, maturity, and general phenotype.  It is segregating for alleles
 from TAM 107 and TA 2460 at the Gli-D1 locus on chromosome 1D. - Cox, Sears,
 Gill and Browder
 
 -------------------------
 
 B.  Collection Status:
 
      The various species and number of accessions maintained for each are
 listed below:
 
 
 Species                                  Number of accessions          
                                                
 Triticum boeoticum...............................   601
 Triticum urartu..................................   195
 Triticum dicoccoides.............................   385
 Triticum araraticum..............................   308
 Miscellaneous Triticum species...................   142
 Aegilops squarrosa...............................   341
 Miscellaneous Aegilops species (20)..............   298
 Genetic stocks................................... 1,174
 Perennial Triticeae species......................   171
 
     Total........................................ 3,615                
 
      The following lines were sent for evaluation prior to 1990.  No data has
 yet been received from these collaborators.
 
                                     Number of Accessions
 Pest Under Evaluation                      Being Tested   
 Stem Rust                                    99              
 Karnal Bunt                                 480
 Nematode                                    333
 Heat/drought tolerance                      304     
 Powdery Mildew                              280
 Protein quality                             217
 Aluminum tolerance                          131
 Scab                                        131
 Helminthosporium spp.                       131
 
 C.  Evaluation:  A large number of accessions were sent out for
 evaluation to our national and international cooperators.  These are
 summarized                    below.
                                                                                      
     
                    1990 GERMPLASM EVALUATION
                                                                      
                                                       Numbers of
 PEST                       SPECIES                    ACCESSIONS         
 Leaf Rust               T. boeoticum         6    Dr. L. E.Browder
                         T. monococcum        2    Kansas State University
                         T. araraticum       13
                         T. dicoccoides     118
                            Aegilops sp.     12
 
 Septoria Glume Blotch   A. squarrosa       112    Dr. Anne  McKendry
                                                   University of Missouri
 
 Hessian Fly             A. squarrosa       219    Dr. Jim Hatchett,
                                                   Kansas State University
 
 Greenbug                T. boeoticum        93    Dr. Tom Harvey,
                         T. urartu           37    Kansas State University
                         T. araraticum       19
                         T. dicoccoides      85
                         Other Triticum      85
                         A. squarrosa       161
                         Other Aegilops      29
 
 Tan spot                A. squarrosa       200    Dr. T. S. Cox
                                                   Kansas State University
 
 Soilborne mosaic virus   A. squarrosa       209   Dr. T. S. Cox
                                                   Kansas State University
     
 
      D.  Summary Evaluation.  Summary report on cooperative evaluation of
 wild Triticum and Aegilops species.  Cooperators providing data on pest
 resistance were J.  H. Hatchett, T. L. Harvey, T. J. Martin, L. E. Browder,
 R. Appels, A. McKendry, and J.  G. Moseman.
 
 PEST      SPECIES    # LINES
                      TESTED # RESISTANT % OF TOTAL RESISTANT % OF TOTAL TESTED
 LEAF RUST PRTUS61                                               
         T. boeoticum    575     169     29.3    94.8    
         T. urartu       194     61      31.4    99.5    
         T. araraticum   293     85      29.0    95.8    
         T. dicoccoides  367     9       2.5     95.3    
         Other Triticum2 137     35      25.5    94.5    
         A. squarrosa    341     61      17.9    100.0   
         Other Aegilops3 248     148     60.0    80.0    
 POWDERY MILDEW4                                         
 ABK/127 A. squarrosa    116     15      12.9    34.0    
         Other Aegilops  194     153     78.9    62.6    
 YumaCC/Asosan   A. squarrosa    115     12      10.4    33.7    
         Other Aegilops  169     133     78.7    54.5    
 Quincy/MO10     Other Aegilops  35      22      62.9    11.3    
 SEPTORIA LEAF
 BLOTCH5                                         
         A. squarrosa    157     45      28.7    46.0
 TAN SPOT6       
         T. araraticum   32      2       6.3     10.1    
         T. dicoccoides  18      0       0.0     4.7     
         A. squarrosa      17    2       1.2     5.0     
         Other Aegilops  9       0       0.0      3.0    
 WHEAT STREAK
 MOSAIC VIRUS7                                           
         T. boeoticum     12      0       0.0    42.7    
         T. araraticum   136       0      0.0    45.8    
         T. dicoccoides  174      0      0.0     46.6    
         A. squarrosa     80      0       0.0    46.0    
         Other Aegilops   36       0      0.0    54.5    
 HESSIAN FLY
 BIOTYPE D8                                              
         T. boeoticum    259     73      28.2    42.7    
         T. urartu       72      45      62.5    36.9    
         T. araraticum   140     123     87.9    45.8    
         T. dicoccoides  180     11      6.1     46.6    
         Other Triticum  7       0       0.0     4.8     
         A. squarrosa    112     58      51.8    32.8    
         Other Aegilops  208     68      32.7    67.1    
 HESSIAN FLY
 BIOTYPE GP8     A. squarrosa    54      28      51.9    15.8    
 GREENBUG BIOTYPE
 E9                                              
         T. boeoticum    367     48      13.1    60.6    
         T. urartu       103     1       1.0     52.8    
         T. araraticum   170     2       1.1     55.6    
         T. dicoccoides  213     9       4.2     55.0    
         Other Triticum  6       0       0.0     4.1     
         A. squarrosa    122     54      44.3    35.8    
         Other Aegilops  211     17      8.1     68.1    
 RUSSIAN WHEAT
 APHID10                                         
         T. boeoticum    149     17      11.4    24.8    
         T. urartu       169     2       1.2     86.7    
         T. araraticum   116     22      19.0    37.9    
         T. monococcum   22      8       36.4    78.6
         A. squarrosa    233     1       0.4     68.3    
 WHEAT CURL MITE T. boeoticum     87     0       0.0     14.5    
 Septoria nodorum
 111     A. squarrosa    237     132     55.7    69.5    
 Septoria nodorum
 211     A. squarrosa    112     59      52.7    32.8    
 Septoria
 tritici11       A. squarrosa    245     98      40.0    71.8    
 STRIPE RUST Yr111       A. squarrosa    302     88      29.1    88.6    
 STRIPE RUST Yr211       A. squarrosa    59      58      98.3    17.3    
 LEAF RUST Lr111 A. squarrosa    302     24      7.9     88.6    
 LEAF RUST Lr211 A. squarrosa    59      24      40.7    17.3    
 STEM RUST Sr111 A. squarrosa    302     38      7.9     88.6    
 STEM RUST Sr211 A. squarrosa    58      21      36.2    17.0    
 CEREAL CYST
 NEMATODE11      A. squarrosa    3       3       100.0   0.9
  1Resistance based on a scale of 0-9 with plants rating <2 scored as resistant.
  2This category includes T. monococcum, T. carthlicum, and other tetraploid and
          hexaploid.
  3This category includes all other Aegilops species except A. squarrosa.
  4Resistance based on a scale of 0-9 with plants rating <2 scored as resistant.
  5Resistance based on a scale of 0-5 with plants rating <2 scored as resistant.
  6Resistance determined on field-grown plants.  Plants with no lesions scored as
         resistant.
  7Plant score based on symptomology and ELISA ratings.
  8Plants scored as resistant, segregating, and susceptible.  The number of resistant
     plants includes those lines segregating for resistant and susceptible 
   plants.
  9Resistance based on a scale of 0-9 with plants rating <2 scored as resistant.
 10PI372179 was the resistant control.  TAM107 was the susceptible control and is the
     cultivar with the most resistance known at this time.  Resistant  
  plants rated <4.5    on a 1-9 scale.
 11Resistance based on a scale of 0-5 with plants rating <2 scored as resistant.
 
 C.  Research
 
      Evaluation of wild wheats for resistance to Russian wheat aphid.  The
 Russian wheat aphid is a serious threat to wheat production in the United
 States.  The wheat cultivar TAM107 has some resistance but is eventually
 killed by the aphid.  A higher level of resistance is found in wheat
 germplasm line PI372129.  We evaluated a collection of wild wheat relatives
 for resistance to Russian wheat aphid.  Accessions of Triticum araraticum
 (116), T. dicoccoides (96), T.  boeoticum (149), T. urartu (169), T.
 monococcum (22), and Aegilops squarrosa (118) were screened for resistance.
 Twelve accessions of T. araraticum and one of T. monococcum had resistance
 superior to that of TAM107.  And intermediate resistance equal to that of
 TAM107 was found in all species except T.  dicoccoides which were all
 susceptible.  Continued evaluation of wild wheat germplasm may provide
 additional sources of resistance to Russian wheat aphid.  -Wilson, Raupp,
 Harvey, B. Gill
 
 -------------------------
 
      Some species-cytoplasm-specific nuclear genes are located on the group 1
 chromosomes in the Triticeae.  Specific telosomes, homoeologous to group 1,
 of the respective cytoplasm donor species improved compatibility between the
 Triticum durum nucleus and Aegilops uniaristata cytoplasm.  Telosomes were
 identified by N-banding and storage protein analyses.  Genes on the Aegilops
 telosome coded for HMW glutenin, indicating homoeology to group 1, and
 conditioned exclusive maternal transmission of the telosome in 29-chromosome,
 male-sterile plants with Aegilops cytoplasm.  Seeds with euploid embryos were
 inviable.  Genes on the Elymus telosome coded for a gliadin marker and
 indicated homoeology to group 1.  Thus, each telosome has genes for protein
 markers which are specific to group 1 and also species-cytoplasm-specific
 (SCS) genes which condition intergeneric nucleo-cytoplasmic specificity.  The
 SCS genes improve nucleo-cytoplasmic compatibility and protein markers may be
 useful to study the effects of alien genes in euplasmic and alloplasmic
 wheats. - Raupp, Tyagi, Jiang, Maan, B. Gill
 
 -------------------------
 
     Cytoplasmic relationship between Elymus trachycaulus and E. ciliaris.
 Euploid wheat lines with the cytoplasms of Elymus trachycaulus (2n=4x=28,
 StStHtHt) and E. ciliaris (2n=4x=28, SSYY) were male and female sterile with
 greatly reduced vigor.  Alloplasmic wheat lines carrying the 1Htp telosome of
 E. trachycaulus or a wheat-E. ciliaris translocated chromosome 3Bp.Ec were
 vigorous and partially or fully fertile.  It appears that both 1Htp and
 3Bc.Ec carry species-cytoplasm-specific (SCS) gene(s).  Alloplasmic disomic
 addition lines 1Htp.1Htp and 3Bp.Ec were reciprocally crossed with each
 other.  The self-pollinated and backcross progeny of the hybrids were
 morphologically and cytogenetically studied.  Chromosome 3Bp.Ec was
 preferentially transmitted through both cytoplasms.  All plants carrying
 either 1Htp or 3Bp.Ec were vigorous and partially or fully fertile.  The SCS
 gene(s) on the chromosomes seemed to compensate each other.  However, 1Htp
 had stronger fertility and vigor restoring potential than 3Bp.Ec.  Our
 results suggest that these two species have a similar cytoplasm which may
 have been derived from an H genome diploid progenitor species. - Jiang and B.
 Gill
 
 -------------------------
 
      A genetic linkage map of the Aegilops squarrosa and its relationship to
 the D genome of bread wheat.  One hundred seventy-eight loci have been mapped
 in Aegilops squarrosa (2n=42, DD) and T. aestivum (2n=42, AABBDD).
 Thirty-five loci were mapped by aneuploid analysis in T. aestivum.  One
 hundred fifty- two loci including 143 RFLPs, eight proteins, and a leaf rust
 resistance gene were mapped in an F2 population (60 plants) of A. squarrosa.
 One hundred twenty-seven loci were placed in linkage groups belonging to
 seven D-genome chromosomes of A. squarrosa.  The source of the probes was a
 Pst1 genomic library of A. squarrosa which gave 13% single/low copy clones.
 Four restriction endonucleases (DraI, EcoRI, EcoRV, and HindIII) gave 75%
 polymorphism between the two parents.  Nineteen clones detected multiloci
 ranging from two to nine in number.  Deletions/ insertions and point
 mutations were equally important for generating RFLPs.  A hypervariable
 sequence was identified which may have potential use in varietal
 fingerprinting.  One marker was found to be linked to a rust resistance gene.
 The map will be useful for determining genetic relationships in the Triticeae
 and for tagging genes of economic importance. - K. Gill, Lubbers, B. Gill,
 Raupp, Cox
 
 -------------------------
 
                                 PLACE MAP HERE
 
      Deletion mapping in common wheat.  "Gametocidal" chromosomes of Aegilops
 cylindrica introduced into common wheat cause chromosome breakages.  About 80
 deletion lines involving 20 wheat chromosomes were previously isolated in the
 wheat cultivar Chinese Spring.  Twenty-eight deletions for chromosome arms
 4AL, 7AS, 7AL, 7BL, and 7DS were recovered in homozygous condition.  The
 breakage points in the deletion chromosomes were determined by the N-banding
 technique.  The deletion lines were used for physical mapping of the
 chromosomes from groups 4 and 7.  Molecular markers used included RFLPs,
 utilizing probes generated from A. squarrosa and wheat cDNAs; proteins; and
 Mendelian loci controlling plant morphogenesis and reproduction. - Werner,
 Endo, Mukai, and B. Gill
 
 -------------------------
 
      Detection of barley chromatin added to wheat by genomic in situ
 hybridization.  A technique for in situ hybridization is reported which
 anbeused to detect barley chromatin in wheat background using total genomic
 DNA as a probe.  A 1:2 ratio of biotin-labeled genomic DNA of barley to
 blocking (unlabeled, sheared) DNA of wheat was sufficient to reveal
 brownish-labeled barley chromosome domains against bluish background of
 unlabeled wheat chromatin in metaphase, prophase, and interphase nuclei of
 wheat-barley addition lines.  Using this procedure, the behavior of specific
 barley chromosomes was analyzed in interphase and prophase cells.  In
 prophase cells, the 6H chromosome was always associated with a nucleolus.  A
 genomic clone of Ó- amylase gene (gRAmy56) that contains a barley-specific
 dispersed repeat sequence was also used to detect barley chromosomes in a
 wheat background. -Mukai and B. Gill
 
 -------------------------
 
      Standard karyotype and nomenclature system for description of chromosome
 bands and structural aberrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  A standard
 karyotype based on N-banding, C-banding, and modified C-banding has been
 constructed for Triticum aestivum L. cv. 'Chinese Spring.'  An idiogram and a
 nomenclature system have been developed for the description of individual
 bands.  Nomenclatural rules have been proposed for the description of
 chromosomal structural aberrations and polymorphic bands in other wheat
 cultivars.  As a rule each short arm (S) and a long arm (L) consists of a
 series of dark bands (C-bands) and light bands (mainly euchromatic) and by
 definition there are no interbands.  In cases, each arm has been subdivided
 into two or more regions.  The description of a band requires designation of
 a chromosome number, arm (S or L), region, and band.  The region number is
 separated from the band number by a decimal point.  Except for arms 1AS, 3AL,
 4AS, and 6AS, all wheat chromosome arms have one or more intercalary C-bands
 and are divisible into three or more bands.  It is hoped that the proposed
 karyotype and nomenclature system will be widely adopted and lay the
 foundation of definitive chromosome analysis in wheat.  B. Gill, Endo, and
 Friebe
 
 -------------------------
 
       Identification of alien chromatin specifying resistance to wheat streak
 mosaic and greenbug in wheat germplasm by C-banding and in situ
 hybridization.  The chromosome constitutions of eight wheat streak mosaic
 virus (WSMV)-resistant lines, three of which are also greenbug resistant,
 derived from wheat/Agropyron intermedium/Aegilops speltoides crosses were
 analyzed by C-banding and in situ hybridization.  All lines could be traced
 back to CI15092 in which chromosome 4A is substituted for by an Ag.
 intermedium chromosome designated 4Ai-2, and the derived lines carry either
 4Ai-2 or a part of it.  Two (CI17881, CI17886) were 4Ai-2 addition lines.
 CI17882 and CI17885 were 4Ai-2(4D) substitution lines.  CI17883 was a
 translocation substitution line with a pair of 6AL.4Ai-2S and a pair of
 6AS.4Ai-2L chromosomes substituting for chromosome pairs 4D and 6A of wheat.
 CI17884 carried a 4DL.4Ai-2S translocation which substituted for chromosome
 4D.  CI17766 carried a 4AL.4Ai-2S translocation substituting for chromosome
 4A.  The results show that the 4Ai-2 chromosome is related to homoeologous
 group 4 and that the resistance gene(s) against WSMV is located on the short
 arm of 4Ai-2.  In addition, CI17882, CI17884, and CI17885 contained Ae.
 speltoides chromosome 7S substituting for chromosome 7A of wheat.  The
 greenbug resistance gene Gb5 was located on chromosome 7S.  Freibe, Mukai,
 Dhaliwal, Martin, Gill
 
 -------------------------
 ANTHER CULTURE TECHNIQUES
 
      There are many limitations applying anther culture techniques to plant
 breeding programs.  Frequencies of callus and haploid plant production are
 among the major restraints.  To increase the numbers of pollen and haploid
 plant, systems involving microspore culture or pollen culture should be
 evaluated.  We are testing such a system and the procedures are described as
 follows:
 
      A.  Medium.  We use medium 85D12 supplemented with glutamine, serine,
 inositol, sucrose and 2,4-D at pH 5.8.
 
      B.  Extraction of microspores.  Anthers containing late uninucleate
 microspores are ground in liquid medium with a pyrex tissue grinder (15 ml
 capacity), centrifuge in sterile tubes, collect the microspore pellet, and
 resuspend in the same liquid medium.
 
      C.  Culture condition for microspores.  The resuspended microspores are
 cultured in darkness with a density of 4-6 x 105 per ml.  Temperature is 26
 to 28oC day and night.
 
      D.  Callus culture.  Microspore calluses are transferred to a growth
 medium containing constituents as 85D12 supplemented with lactal albumin
 hydrolysate, coconut milk, and kinetin.  Temperature is maintained at 26 to
 28oC with 12-h light.
 
      E.  Doubling of chromosomes.  Calluses reaching 3 mm in diameter are
 transferred onto filter papers supported by grates in petri dishes (60 x 15
 mm) filled with liquid 85D12 medium which contains 0.0125% colchicine.  The
 calluses are treated for 48 h and washed before transferring to the
 regeneration medium.
 
      F.  Plant regeneration.  Colchicine-treated calluses are transferred to
 an agar medium containing the basal components of 85D12 plus IAA and kinetin.
 Calluses with green shoots are transferred to a medium comprising half
 strength of 85D12 medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, IAA, and kinetin for
 root development. - Liang
 
 EFFECTS OF ANTIMITOTIC AGENTS ON DOUBLE HAPLOID PRODUCTION IN WHEAT (Triticum
 aestivum L.)
 
      Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plantlets and calli is a
 critical step in haploid breeding programs.  For anther culture experiments,
 colchicine is the most commonly used compound in doubling the chromosomes of
 seedlings derived from such experiments.  However, colchicine is carcinogenic
 and expensive.  We evaluated three antimitotic agents at two concentrations
 each [colchicine 0.0125% (313 M) and 0.025% (626 M), treflan (5 and 10 M),
 and oryzalin (5 and 10 M)] and two treatment durations (48 and 72 h) for
 their effects on the production of double haploids from anther- derived calli
 of two wheat cultivars (Pavon and Kitt).  Calli from Pavon were more
 responsive to the three agents than those from Kitt.  Colchicine was most
 effective in doubling the chromosome number.  For Pavon, 89% of the plantlets
 from calli treated with colchicine were double haploids (2n = 6x = 42).
 However, treating calli for 72 h with colchicine at both concentrations had a
 deleterious effect.  No significant differences were observed between
 concentrations of any of the antimitotic agents.  All the plantlets produced
 from the control treatment (without antimitotic agents) were polyhaploids (2n
 = 3x =21).  These results indicated that colchicine was still the most
 effective compound for chromosome doubling and colchicine treatment of
 anther- derived calli was an effective method of obtaining a high frequency
 of double haploid plantlets through anther culture. - Liang
 
 RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASE PATTERNS OF CHLOROPLAST DNA AND MITOCHONDRIA DNA OF
 Dasypyrum villosum and Triticum aestivum
 
      Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Dasypyrum
 villosum L. (vv, 2n=14) Candargy (Syn. Haynaldia villosa) and Triticum
 aestivum (Chinese Spring) were isolated, purified, and digested with four
 restriction endonucleases: Bam HI, Hind III, Pst I, and Eco RI.  Two
 different accessions of D. villosum from Italy and Yugoslavia were used.  The
 restriction patterns of D. villosum and T. aestivum were quite different at
 both mtDNA and cpDNA level; thus, results did not confirm the speculation
 that cytoplasm of D. villosum might be close to that of the unknown donor
 species of B genome to the common wheat. - Guoping, Paulsen, Muthukrishnan,
 and Liang
 
                                  PUBLICATIONS
 
 Amri, A., T. S. Cox, B. S. Gill, and J. H. Hatchett.  1990.  Chromosome
 location of the Hessian fly resistance gene H20 in 'Jori' durum wheat.  J.
 Hered. 81:71- 72.
 
 Amri, A., T. S. Cox, J. H. Hatchett, and B. S. Gill.  1990.  Complementary
 action of genes for Hessian fly resistance in the wheat cultivar 'Seneca'.
 J. Hered.  81:224-227.
 
 Amri, Ahmed, J. H. Hatchett, T. S. Cox, M. El Bouhssini, and R. G. Sears.
 1990.  Resistance to Hessian fly from North African durum wheat germplasm.
 Crop Sci. 30:378-381.
 
 Cox, T. S.  1990.  The contribution of introduced germplasm to the
 development of U.S. wheat culitvars.  In H. L. Shands and L. Wiesner (eds.)
 The Use of Plant Introductions in Cultivar Development, Crop Science Society
 of America.  Madison, WI.  (in press)
 
 Dong, H., T. S. Cox, R. G. Sears and G. L. Lookhart.  1991.  Effects of high
 molecular weight glutenin loci on baking quality in hard winter wheat
 population.  Crop Sci. 31: (in press. (accepted October 31, 1990)
 
 Cox, T. S., J. H. Hatchett, B. S. Gill, W. J. Raupp, and R. G. Sears.  1990.
 Agronomic performance of hexaploid wheat lines derived from direct crosses
 between wheat and Aegilops squarrosa.  Plant Breeding 105:271-277.
 
 Dhaliwal, H.S., B. Friebe, K.S. Gill, and B.S. Gill.  1990.  Cytogenetic
 identification of Aegilops squarrosa chromosome additions in durum wheat.
 Theor. Appl.  Genet. 79:769-774.
 
 Friebe, B., J.H. Hatchett, R.G. Sears, and B.S. Gill.  1990.  Transfer of
 Hessian fly resistance from 'Chaupon' rye to hexaploid wheat via a 2BS/2RL
 wheat-rye chromosome translocation.  Theor. Appl. Genet. 79:385-389.
 
 Friebe, B., N.S. Kim, J. Kuspira, and B.S. Gill.  1990.  Genetic and
 cytogenetic analysis of the A genome of Triticum monococcum.  IV. Production
 and identification of primary trisomics using the C-banding technique.
 Genome 33:542-555.
 
 Friebe, B., Y. Mukai, H.S. Dhaliwal, T.J. Martin, and B.S. Gill.  1991.
 Identification of alien chromatin specifying resistance to wheat streak
 mosaic virus and greenbug in wheat germplasm by C-banding and in situ
 hybridization.  Theor. Appl. Genet. (in press).
 
 Gill, K. S., E. L. Lubbers, B. S. Gill, W. J. Raupp, T. S. Cox.  1991.  A
 genetic linkage map of Triticum tauschii (DD) and its relationship to the D
 genome of bread what (AABBDD).  Genome 34: (in press).
 
 Hassawi, D. S., R. G. Sears, and G. H. Liang.  1990.  Microspore development
 in the anther culture of wheat.  Cytologia 55:475-478.
 
 Kaleikau, E.K., R.G. Sears, and B.S. Gill.  1991.  Control of tissue culture
 response in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  Theor. Appl. Genet. (in press).
 
 Liang, G. H., J. Qi, and D. Hassawi.  1990.  A direct generation system for
 wheat haploid production.  In: Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. 13.
 Wheat.  (ed. Y. P. S. Bajaj). pp. 425-434.  Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
 
 Liu Ben-Hui, J. P. Shroyer, and T. S. Cox.  1990.  Utilizing grain yield data
 from wheat demonstration plots.  J. Agron. Educ. 19:164-166.
 
 Lubbers, E. L., K. S. Gill, T. S. Cox, and B. S. Gill.  1991.  Variation of
 molecular markers among geographically diverse accessions of Triticum
 tauschii.  Genome 34: (in press).
 
 Morris, K.L.D., W.J. Raupp, and B.S. Gill.  1990.  Isolation of Ht genome
 chromosome additions from polyploid Elymus trachycaulus (StStHtHt) into
 common wheat (Triticum aestivum).  Genome 33:16-22.
 
 Mukai, Y., T.R. Endo, and B.S. Gill.  1990.  Physical mapping of 5S rRNA gene
 family in common wheat.  J. Hered. 81:290-295.
 
 Mukai, Y., T.R. Endo, and B.S. Gill.  1991.  Physical mapping of the 18S.26S
 rRNA multigene family in common wheat.  Chromosoma (in press).
 
 Mukai, Y., and B.S. Gill.  1991.  Detection of barley chromatin added to
 wheat by genomic in situ hybridization.  Genome (accepted).
 
 Stein, I.S., R.G. Sears, R.C. Hoseney, T.S. Cox, and B.S. Gill.  1991.
 Chromosomal location of genes influencing grain protein concentration and
 mixogram properties in the hard red winter wheat 'Plainsman V'.  Crop Sci.
 (in press).
 
 Stein, I.S., R.G. Sears, B.S. Gill, R.C. Hoseney, and T.S. Cox.  1991.
 Heterogeneity of the Wichita wheat monosomic set for grain protein
 concentration and mixogram properties.  Crop Sci. (in press).
 
 Xu, Aili, Dean Bark, F. L. Barnett, C. M. Qian, and George H. Liang.  1990.
 Effect of temperature and genotype on duration of pollen maturation in wheat.
 Bot. Gaz. 151:10-13.
 
 Yuan, H., V. D. Keppenne, P. S. Baenziger, T. Berke, and G. H. Liang.  1990.
 Effect of genotype and medium on wheat anther culture.  Pl. Cell Tissue and
 Organ Culture 21:253-258.
 -------------------------
 
      U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory, USDA, Agricultural Research
 Service, Manhattan
  
      O. K. Chung, G. L. Lookhart, D. B. Bechtel, D. W. Hagstrum, C. S. Chang,
 W. Flinn, J. L. Steele, H. H. Converse, W. H. McGaughey, I. Zayas, B. W.
 Seabourn, M. D. Shogren, A. K. Dowdy, R. W. Howard, L. M. Seitz, W. M.
 Lamkin, W. D. Lin, D. L. Brabec, D. B. Sauer, C. R. Martin, M. G. Shin, R. D.
 Speirs, J. D. Wilson, and A. Xu
  
      Practical Variety Identification by Electrophoresis and HPLC in the
 United States.  Wheat classes in the U.S. have traditionally been defined by
 uniform phenotypic and agronomic characteristics, which predicted end-use and
 quality.  Recent changes in breeding strategies using exotic germplasms; to
 improve resistance, quality, and yield have now made the visual
 identification system somewhat obsolete.  Wide crosses have increased
 variation within classes and earlier selection has made multiple biotypes
 within a variety more common.  Consequently, interest is rapidly increasing
 in the use of PAGE and HPLC for "fingerprinting" endosperm storage proteins
 for routine varietal identification during marketing. Most wheat varieties
 may be unambiguously identified by routine inexpensive techniques of gliadin
 PAGE or glutenin sub-unit SDS-PAGE; in addition quality may be predicted, new
 gene sources selected, biotypes differentiated, and protein composition
 defined.  Recently, RP-HPLC has proved to be an alternative complementary
 method to electrophoresis; for some applications it has some advantages for
 quantification, resolution, and speed.  Optimal HPLC conditions are still
 being defined and new and better resolving columns being developed.  Current
 applications of electrophoresis and HPLC for wheat genotype identification,
 quality analysis, and varietal improvement are presented.
 
      Identification of Wheat Lines Containing the 1BL/1RS Translocation.  The
 presence of 1BL-1RS translocations in 63 experimental lines and in 6 released
 cultivars was determined by three distinctly unique methods; sodium
 dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analyses of
 grain proteins, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses of
 grain proteins, and Southern blotting of genomic DNA.  The SDS-PAGE patterns
 of alcohol, aqueous, or salt soluble extracts of wheat lines containing the
 1BL-1RS translocation exhibited a uniquely stained band via silver staining.
 HPLC patterns of gliadin (ethanol soluble proteins) extracts of those same
 lines also contained a unique peak.  That unique peak was collected and
 analyzed.  The veracity of each method was confirmed by direct karyotyping of
 the chromosomes of each tested line.  In flour samples, the presence of the
 rye translocation can only be determined using either the SDS-PAGE or the
 HPLC method.  Direct karyotyping requires viable grain samples, but is the
 only method that can differentiate between a 1BL/1RS translocation and
 1AL/1RS and/or 1DL/1RS translocations.
  
      Influence of Plastic Embedding Media on the Cytochemical Localization of
 Wheat Storage Proteins.  The plastic resin media used to embed wheat
 caryopses for electron microscopy has profound effects upon the results of
 cytochemical tests.  One medium that has been typically used for transmission
 electron microscopy is a low-viscosity epoxy resin called Spurr resin.
 Plastic thin sections of Spurr embedded wheat endosperm that have been
 treated with a variety of proteases have revealed a population of dense
 inclusions in the protein bodies that are resistant to digestion.  Similar
 samples embedded in a acrylic-based resin and treated with the same proteases
 exhibited dense inclusions that were partially digested after only 1 hour and
 completely digested after 2 hours of incubation.  Inclusions embedded in
 Spurr resin, however, were only partially digested after 48 hours.  The type
 of plastic used to embed samples for transmission electron microscopy must be
 selected for the specific cytochemical experiments to be conducted.  The
 inclusions were deposited near the surface of the matrix of protein body and
 this matrix also exhibited major differences in susceptibility to the
 proteases.  Spurr embedded samples required 24 hours to digest the matrix
 while only 30 minutes was required for the acrylic resin.
  
      Purification of Proteolytic Enzymes and their Effect on Rheological
 Changes of Cracker Sponge Doughs.  The effect of native proteolytic enzymes
 on rheological changes of cracker sponge doughs was studied.  Native enzymes
 were purified from soft wheat flour by sequential gel filtration
 chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and G-150.  Two peaks of proteolytic
 activity found in fractions 16 to 28.  Proteins with proteolytic activity
 found in peak 1 were collected and concentrated.  Sponge doughs made from
 enzyme extracted flours gave essentially no rheological changes. However,
 when the extracted enzymes were added back to the sponge doughs, from which
 the enzyme had been extracted, the rheological changes were restored to
 within 85% of the original cracker flours.
  
      Determination of Phospholipids in Wheat Starch by HPLC.
 Lysophospha-tidylcholine (LPC) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) in
 wheat starch lipids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography
 (HPLC). Starch lipids were extracted with n-propanol/water (3/1, v/v) in a
 boiling water bath for 12 hr after starch surface lipids were extracted at
 20°C by stirring for 4 hr.  Starch lipids in six cultivars from three
 classes (two hard red winter, one durum, and three soft red winter) of wheat
 amounted to 0.90 - 1.03%.  They consisted of 1.3 - 6.0% nonpolar lipids, 11.0
 - 16.3% glycolipids, and 80.6 - 83.5% phospholipids as determined by an open
 silica column chromatography.  Starch lipids contained 61.3 - 68.1% LPC and
 7.5 - 9.8% LPE as determined by HPLC with uv detection on a silicic acid
 Si100, 10 lm) column developed isocratically with n-hexane/2-propanol/ water
 (41/54/5, v/v/v) for 5 min, followed by a linear gradient of 41/54/5 to
 39/52/9 for 5 to 20 min, and finally isocratically at 39/52/9 for 20 to 80
 min with a flow rate of 1 mL/min.  There was little variation in fatty acid
 composition of the six starch lipids.  Therefore, reference lipids (LPC and
 LPE) for HPLC-UV Method could be prepared from starch of any class of wheat.
 The above HPLC Method was good for both LPC and LPE in wheat starch lipids.
  
      Bread Crumb Amylograph Studies.  II.  The Cause of Unique Properties.
 The cause of unique properties of bread crumb amylograph wasinvestigated.
 Amylograms of bread crumb have a bump in the setback stage and sometimes a
 minor peak before the major peak. Repeated amylograph cycles revealed that
 bread flour alone could show the bump formation phenomenon in both heating
 and cooling stages.  Bread crumb also showed a bump in the heating stage, in
 addition to the one in the cooling stage, upon repeated heating and cooling.
 The temperature ranges of the bumps and the minor peak, in a bread crumb
 amylogram, were similar and suggested that they were caused by similar
 effects.  Wheat starch and the polar fraction of the wheat flour lipids were
 shown responsible for the bump formation.  The viscosity change in the bumps
 were a temperature-dependent event.  Differential scanning calorimetry showed
 endothermic and exothermic peaks, respectively, upon repeated heating and
 cooling.  Addition of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL) to wheat starch also
 caused bumps in the amylogram.  Complexing of flour lipids, mainly polar
 lipids, with solubilized starch molecules and crystallization of the complex
 in the cooling stage, and melting and dissociation of the crystal and the
 complex in the heating stage, are probably the cause of changes in viscosity
 during bump formation.
 
      Gluten Quality of Hard Winter Wheats by a Glutomatic System.  Gluten
 quality of hard winter wheats from three nurseries was studied.  With a
 Glutomatic System according to the International Standard Method (ICC
 Standard No. 137), several gluten parameters were measured and calculated
 from hard winter wheats grown in 1987 and 1988 at the Northern Regional
 Performance Nursery (NRPN), Southern Regional Performance Nursery (SRPN) and
 Kansas Intrastate Nursery (KIN).  The average weight of wet gluten (GLW) of
 230 wheat flours (62 NRPN, 88 SRPN, and 80 KIN) was 3.44 g (2.54 - 9.63 g),
 dry gluten (GLD) 1.20 g (0.91 - 4.62 g), thrus (GLT) 0.42 g (0.01 - 5.72 g),
 overs (GLO) 3.02 g (1.78 - 3.91 g), residual water in gluten (GLR) 2.24 g
 (1.58 - 5.01 g), and gluten index (GLI) 88.9% (40.7 - 99.5%).  Among gluten
 parameters, GLW was highly significantly related to GLR (r = 0.970), GLD (r =
 0.956), and GLT (r = 0.800); GLD to GLR (r = 0.857) and GLT (r = 0.750); and
 GLI negatively to GLT (r = -0.908) and GLR (r = 0.644).  Flour protein
 contents showed significant effects on all gluten parameters and those
 parameters were linearly related to the loaf volume regression values.
 Gluten quality of wheats from three nurseries and grown in different years
 were compared.  Those samples with higher protein content exhibited higher
 gluten content.  Despite higher protein contents of all 1988 samples, their
 gluten quality was inferior to the 1987 crop.  It was concluded that the
 extreme drought and high temperature conditions of 1988 contributed to this
 reversal.
  
      Image Analysis Applications for Grain Science.  Morphometrical features
 of single grain kernels or particles were used to discriminate two visibly
 similar wheat varieties, foreign material in wheat, hard-soft and
 spring-winter wheat classes and whole from broken corn kernels.  Milled
 fractions of hard and soft wheat were evaluated using textural image
 analysis.  Color image analysis of sound and mold damaged corn kernels
 yielded high recognition rates.  The studies collectively demonstrate the
 potential for automated classification and assessment of grain quality using
 image analysis.
 
      Digital Image and Pattern Recognition Methodology.  Data were acquired
 for textural image analysis of the bulk material produced by a single kernel
 wheat hardness tester.  Data for seventeen varieties of six wheat classes
 were obtained and textural image analysis was performed on sixteen sub-images
 of the bulk material.  Preliminary analysis of twenty texture parameters
 showed a definite tendency for separation of HRW and SRW.  Discriminant
 analysis of the twenty features for all six classes showed a tendency for
 clustering, but a clear separation of all six classes was not evident.
 Software was developed to automatically analyze video taped microscope images
 of starch globules.  The procedure permits the unattended analysis of large
 quantities of microscope images.  For the five varieties evaluated over 11
 flower days, five globule shape parameters and basic statistics were produced
 for further analysis.
 
      Acquisition of Video Pictures from a light Microscope in Studying Wheat
 Starch Development.  Starch isolated from developing wheat caryopses was
 placed on a glass microscope slide and viewed with a light microscope under
 dark-field illumination.  Images of the starch were recorded using a
 solid-state CCD camera coupled to a video monitor and video tape cassette
 recorder.  The apparatus was standardized prior to each use and at intervals
 during image recording.  Polystyrene spheres were mounted on a glass
 microscope slide using permanent mounting medium; the same set of spheres was
 used for all calibrations to limit variation in the diameter.  The diameter
 of these spheres when viewed under dark-field was calibrated on the video
 monitor screen to a standard size using the illumination controls.  Video
 taped microscopic images of starch granules were input from
 
 the video tape recorder, digitized and analyzed by a Kontron image processing
 system.  Images were automatically unloaded in video memory and archived for
 future analysis.  Starch granule number, size and shape features were
 obtained following erosion and dilation image analysis techniques.
  
      Development of a Computerized Mixograph.  Hardware and software were
 developed for the mixograph apparatus to establish a computerized system
 supportable by the manufacturer and with the user free to enhance the system
 for their applications.  A 10 g mixograph was instrumented to acquire
 digitized moving or fixed bowl mixograms in relation to moving pin position.
 The instrumentation was carefully calibrated so that the mixograms could be
 directly compared in terms of bowl torque.  Computer simulation of the drag
 forces on the moving pins for a uniform viscous liquid predicted six torque
 cycles when the torque contributions of the four moving pins are
 algebraically summed during a period of time required for each moving pin to
 completely traverse its epitrochoid path.  In digitized flour mixograms, the
 predicted torque cycles were readily apparent for the fixed bowl procedure
 and were not clearly evident for the moving bowl procedure.  For the fixed
 bowl procedure, the torque cycles were uniquely positioned with moving pin
 position and overlay precisely cycle by cycle throughout the mixogram while
 this was not true for the moving bowl procedure.  This is projected to be
 caused by the fact that the fixed bowl pins are moving relative to the moving
 pins when the moving bowl procedure is used.  With careful calibration, the
 area or energy represented by the torque-time mixograms was nearly equal for
 both procedures.  For the fixed bowl procedure, the torque peaks were easily
 associated with the positions where the moving pins 'hurdle' rather than
 'straddle' the bowl pins.
  
      Development of Model to Predict Flow of Grain through Orifices.  Flow
 rates of wheat, corn, sorghum, and soybeans through horizontal and vertical
 orifices were measured.  Orifice sizes ranged from 100 to 400 square cm in
 increments of 100 square cm.  Each orifice size was tested in six different
 shapes: circular, triangular, and rectangular with four aspect ratios of 1.0,
 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5.  Coefficients for an empirical equation to predict volume
 flow rate of grain through the various sizes and shapes of horizontal and
 vertical orifices were determined.  For the same size orifice, differences in
 flow rate were significant among the six different orifice shapes.  Volume
 flow rates per unit orifice area increased as the orifice hydraulic diameter
 increased for all grains.  Volume flow rate of grain through vertical
 orifices was about 37 to 50% of the flow rate through the same orifices
 oriented horizontally.
 
       Development of Models to Predict Temperature and Moisture Conditions of
 Grain during Storage.  Temperatures of wheat in two 21-ft diameter bins were
 recorded four times daily during the year.  Aeration in one bin was
 controlled by a programmable microprocessor and in the second bin was
 controlled manually.  Samples of grain in bins at different locations and
 depths were taken periodically to determine moisture content and test weight.
 Grain temperature data and local weather data were used to develop and verify
 prediction models for grain temperature and moisture during storage.  Results
 indicated that the predicted grain temperatures were in close agreement with
 the measured grain temperatures.
 
      Comparison of the Effectiveness of Automatic Microprocessor and Manually
 Controlled Aeration.  Four equal-size round steel grain storage bins (12 ft
 deep) were filled with wheat and maintained over a full year while daily
 grain temperatures were recorded.  Moisture content and insect activity data
 were collected.  Different methods of aeration control were used for three of
 the bins and the fourth bin was used as a control treatment (no aeration).
 Data collection and analysis is in progress.
 
      The USGMRL Single Kernel Wheat Characterization Meter (Hardness Tester):
 Update.  The Engineering Research Unit scientists evaluated a prototype
 single kernel hardness tester to determine the accuracy of the instrument in
 measuring wheat kernel hardness, moisture content, weight and size.  A study
 was conducted to determine the effect of kernel weight and size on the
 classification performance of the single kernel wheat hardness instrument.
 Single kernel weight, size and crush-force profiles were determined for the
 17 Federal Grain Inspection Service hardness reference sample set.  Three
 hundred kernels of each sample were selected and manually weighed.  Physical
 dimensions of each kernel were obtained using two projection image analysis.
 The digitized crush-force profile for each kernel was then obtained using the
 single kernel instrument and stored on magnetic disk.  Several parameters
 were then determined by processing the stored profiles.  These parameters,
 weight, and the image parameters were then used to determine the hard/soft
 classification performance of the instrument.  The classification performance
 results were used to determine optimum parameter selections and combinations
 of parameters.  The results clearly demonstrate that the inclusion of kernel
 weight or two accurate kernel dimensions significantly improves the
 classification performance of the hardness instrument.
 
             Classification index with and without weight and image.
  
                            Number of parameters
                     CRUSH   WEIGHT   IMAGE   Classing Index
                        4       1        2         1.55
                        6       1        -         1.55
                        5       -        2         1.55
                        7       -        -         1.14
                        -       -        6         0.45
                        -       1        -         0.05
             _______________________________________________________
  
      For a hardness calibration, the scaling constants (slope and intercept)
 were determined so that the 5 soft and 10 hard wheat sample average hardness
 values were 25 and 75 respectively.  Overlap between hard and soft wheat
 hardness values may be represented by the absolute difference of the hard and
 soft means divided by the sum of the respective standard deviations.  This
 ratio or classing index represents the number or multiple of standard
 deviations where overlap between hard and soft wheat hardness values would
 occur in a normal distribution.  The larger the classing index the better the
 classing performance and an index value of 2.00 represents 2.3% overlap.  A
 classing index of 1.55 represents 6.1% overlap.
  
      As a result of the full profile, weight and two projection image study,
 a single kernel weigher was developed and included in the single kernel
 hardness instrument.  The single kernel weigher was a moving coil
 galvanometer (microampmeter) equipped with a null position indicator
 andelectronic circuitry that produced a signal directly proportional to the
 weight of a kernel resting in a weighing bucket.  By keeping the moving mass
 of the coil, position indicator, and bucket small, and adjusting the
 electronic response to dampen the signal controlling the return of the bucket
 to a null position, kernel weights could be determined 150 ms after a kernel
 was dropped into the bucket.  After weighing, the signal to the coil was
 changed so that the bucket was driven rapidly downward leaving the kernel
 free to fall into the crushing cavity of the instrument.  Repeated weighing
 of different sizes of plastic spheres produced a standard deviation of about
 0.5 milligrams.  When the kernel weigher was mounted inside the single kernel
 feeder of the hardness instrument, the kernel throughput rate, which included
 weighing, crushing, data processing, and data storage, was maintained at 90
 kernels per minute.
  
      Two single kernel hardness instruments were delivered to FGIS for
 evaluation on November 29, 1990.  These instruments were modified over those
 previously evaluated by including kernel guiding channels on the crescent, an
 improved rotor tooth design, a single kernel weigher, an improved hardness
 algorithm and computer software that outputs single kernel hardness,
 moisture, weight, and size (kernel diameter) and the standard deviation of
 each parameter.  They were calibrated using the 17 hardness reference samples
 equilibrated to 10.5% moisture, tempered to 12.5 and 14.5% moisture.  The
 classing index and NIR r square value of these instruments are listed below:
             _________________________________________________________
  
                              MOISTURE CONTENT - percent
                            10.5            12.5             14.5     
             Machine    CI      r^2     CI       r^2       CI     r^2 
  
                # 4     1.72   0.81     1.68    0.88       1.63   0.90
                # 6     1.79   0.82     1.71    0.89       1.55   0.92
             _________________________________________________________
  
      Evaluation of Wheat Hardness by NIR.  The Grain Quality and Structure
  Research Unit (Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory) scientists evaluated
  hardness values of hard winter wheat progenies (experimental lines) from the
  Kansas Intrastate Nursery (KIN), Northern Regional Performance Nursery
 (NRPN) and Southern Regional Performance Nursery (SRPN).  Hardness values
 were determined for each composite sample and each variety sample grown at
 each location.  The effects of growing years and locations on wheat hardness
 are evaluated to determine varietal stability in kernel hardness.  Hardness
 values were evaluated by a NIR for those hard winter wheats grown
 commercially in various Kansas counties during 1990 in cooperation with the
 Kansas Association of Wheat Growers.
 
      Fusarium Headblight (Scab) in Cereal Grains.  The preharvest infection
 of wheat by Fusarium fungi that cause Fusarium headblight disease (scab) was
 reviewed.  The disease may develop if prolonged wet weather occurs during
 wheat kernel maturation.  Moderate to severely infected kernels are
 shriveled, lightweight, and dull gray or pink in appearance.  Deoxynivalenol
 (DON) is the mycotoxin most commonly associated with scab-infected wheat.
 Some topics discussed are: effects of weather, cultivar, and other factors on
 degree of infection; Fusarium nomenclature; determination of DON and other
 mycotoxins by various chromatography and immunoassay methods; detoxification
 by mechanical, thermal, chemical and microbiological treatments; feeding
 studies with poultry, swine, and cattle; effects on food processing,
 including results from cleaning, milling, and baking tests with DON
 contaminated wheat.
 
      Head-Space Analysis of Post-Harvest Wheat.  Volatiles from three
 varieties of wheat ('Karl', 'Pioneer', and 'Victory') were analyzed by
 head-space sampling and direct capillary GC-MS and FT-IR.  Wheat samples were
 taken within 24 hours of harvest and were re-sampled weekly from the grain
 bin.  Low molecular weight alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes, and
 sesquiterpenes were present, and showed both qualitative and quantitative
 changes with storage time.
  
      Rhyzopertha dominica - Attraction to the Volatiles of Infested Wheat.  A
 study was conducted to examine the behavioral response of R. dominica (Fab.)
 (Lesser grain borer) to the volatile components of wheat that had been
 infested with insects and to synthetic aggregation pheromone of R. dominica.
 The beetles preferentially selected volatiles from wheat infested with
 insects or wheat plus synthetic aggregation pheromone as opposed to the
 volatiles from uninfested wheat or from cultures of insects only.  Because
 the response of R. dominica was stronger toward previously infested wheat,
 the migration rate into a bulk of infested wheat may be higher than the rate
 for clean wheat.
  
      Automated Acoustic Detection of Stored-Grain Insects and Its Potential
 in Reducing Insect Problems.  Acoustical sensors which automatically alert us
 to the need for insect control can improve pest management by reducing the
 chances of an infestation going undetected.  Also, monitoring of insects in
 stored grain can be the most costly part of pest management.  Acoustical
 detection may provide a means of continuous, utomaticmonitoring of insect
 populations at reduced cost.  The potential for automation of insect
 monitoring with acoustical methods is a major advantage over other methods.
 Acoustical sensors can provide, without taking grain samples, density
 estimates of lesser grain borer populations that are comparable to estimates
 made by counting the number of adults in grain samples.  A strong correlation
 demonstrated between the number of insects and the number of insect sounds is
 the key to using the acoustical detection method.  These studies provide some
 of the information essential to the development of acoustical detection as a
 routine method for monitoring stored-grain insect infestations.  Applications
 of the acoustical detection method include a desktop unit for determining the
 number of insects in grain samples, a probe for estimating the insect
 populations in stored grain without taking grain samples, and permanently
 installed cables for monitoring insect populations in the many bins at a
 grain storage facility from a single computer.
  
      Acoustic Monitoring of Rhyzopertha dominica - Populations in Stored
 Wheat.  Acoustical sensors provided estimates of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)
 population increases at 27 and 32°C that were comparable with estimates
 obtained from counts of adults in grain samples.  At both temperatures, the
 number of insect sounds increased in proportion to insect density and
 averaged twice the number of adult insects.  Between 7 and 70 d after
 eclosion, the number of adult insect sounds did not differ significantly with
 age.  At 22 and 27°C, adults produced >37 times the number of sounds
 produced by larvae at 27°C.  Thus, even though larvae were more numerous
 than adults, they probably did not contribute many of the sounds heard when
 adults were present.
  
      Stored Grain Advisor: A Knowledge-Based System for Management of Insect
 Pests of Stored Grain.  Management of insect pests of stored wheat is complex
 and involves many interacting factors, such as grain temperature and
 moisture, insecticide degradation, aeration, and fumigation. Determining
 whether or not insects will become a problem in stored grain is primarily a
 problem of predicting population increase under existing environmental
 conditions.  We have developed computer models for all five of the major
 insect pests of stored wheat.  These models predict insect population growth,
 as well as the degradation of insecticides and the effects of fumigating or
 aerating the grain in relation to storage temperature and moisture.  Results
 from model simulations were incorporated into the rule base of the stored
 grain advisor (SGA) expert system.  The SGA helps the manager identify
 insects or other problems, predicts the likelihood of insect infestation, and
 helps select the most appropriate prophylactic or remedial actions.  The SGA
 was developed on Apple Macintosh computers using the BruceShell (Pennsylvania
 State University).  This is a frame-based shell that is used in conjunction
 with a C-language compiler.  The shell has a graphic user interface, backward
 and forward chaining, explanation and help capabilities.  The SGA also runs
 on MS-DOS compatible computers.  This expert system should be valuable to
 producers, elevator operators, extension specialists, and others concerned
 with grain storage, and should greatly enhance our ability to store grain
 safely.
  
      Simulations Comparing the Effectiveness of Various Stored-Grain
 Management Practices Used to Control Rhyzopertha dominica a (Coleoptera:
 Bostrichidae).  A simulation model for the population dynamics of Rhyzopertha
 domonica (F.) was used to compare the effectiveness of various stored-wheat
 management programs in controlling this insect in the United States.
 Infestations on day 365 were reduced 88 times when wheat was harvested and
 stored in August instead of June, 34 times by aerating the grain in September
 instead of November, 20 times by storing grain at 10% instead of 14% moisture
 content, 18 times by fumigating in August or September instead of July, four
 times when wheat was stored at 27°C instead of 32°C, and approximately
 three times when malathion was used as a protectant.  The model simulations
 provide an overview of the relative advantages of various approaches to
 managing stored-grain insects in various geographic localities.
   
      Simulations Comparing Insect Species Differences in Response to Wheat
 Storage Conditions and Management Practices.  Seasonal changes in the
 populations of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), Oryzaephilus surinamensis
 (L.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and Tribolium
 castaneum (Herbst) and differences in their response to pest management
 programs were compared using validated population-growth-simulation models.
 The population growth of the five pest species differed in response to
 temperature and grain moisture conditions during storage, and this partially
 explains differences among species in their response to management practices.
 Aerating earlier in the storage season was generally more effective in
 limiting population growth of C. ferrugineus and O. surinamensis than the
 other species.  Although fumigation was equally effective against all
 species, S. oryzae was able to grow more rapidly than the others as
 temperatures decreased in the fall.  The internal feeders, R. dominica and S.
 oryzae, were much less affected by malathion protectant than the other three
 external-feeding species.  As indicated by these three examples, it would
 sometimes be advantageous to know which species are present in choosing a
 management program.
  
      Susceptibility of Classes of Wheat Grown in the U.S. to Stored-Grain
 Insects.  Comparative studies were done on the reproductive rates of
 Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) in relation to physical
 properties of the predominant U.S. varieties of hard red winter, soft red
 winter, hard red spring, white, and durum wheats.  Reproductive rates of both
 species differed significantly among the classes, and quantitative data were
 obtained that may be useful in modeling population growth on the different
 classes.  White wheats were most susceptible to both species, but the ranking
 of the other classes differed between the two species.  Within the classes of
 wheat, virtually no significant differences between varieties in reproductive
 rates of either species were apparent.  Variation between production sites
 exceeded that between varieties.  Kernel size and density were not suitable
 criteria for distinguishing between the classes and did not correlate well
 with reproduction by either species.  Kernel hardness differed among the
 classes and correlated well with S. oryzae reproduction but not with R.
 dominica.  S. oryzae appeared to be sensitive to kernel hardness only when
 differences were quite large, such as between classes.  Small differences in
 hardness between or within varieties within a class had little effect on S.
 oryzae reproduction.
  
      Staffing News at the USGMRL.  Mr. Harry H. Converse, Engineer in the
 Engineering Research Unit, retired from the USDA-ARS on July 28, 1990.  Mr.
 Converse still comes to the lab every day.  Dr. Virgil W. Smail, Agricultural
 Utilization Research Institute, Crookston, MN will come to the lab the end of
 February as Director of the USGMRL.  Dr. David B. Sauer, Research Plant
 Pathologist in the Grain Quality and Structure Research Unit, was appointed
 as Associate Editor for Cereal Chemistry (January 1991 - December 1994).  Dr.
 Okkyung Kim Chung, Research Leader of the Grain Quality and Structure
 Research Unit (Hard Winter Wheat Quality Lab), was elected Vice President of
 the Korean Scientists and Engineers Association in America with 8,000
 membership (July 1990 - June 1991).
  
                                   Publications
  
 Bakhella, M., Hoseney, R. C., and Lookhart, G. L.  1990.  Hardness of
 Moroccan wheats.  Cereal Chem. 67:246-250.
  
 Bechtel, D. B.  1990.  Preparation of cereals and grain products for
 transmission electron microscopy.  Food Struct. 9:241-251.
  
 Bechtel, D. B., and Wilson, J. D.  1990.  Influence of plastic embedding
 media on the cytochemical localization of wheat storage proteins.  Cereal
 Foods World 35:848.  [Abstract]
  
 Bechtel, D. B., Zayas, I., Kaleikau, L., and Pomeranz, Y.  1990.
 Size-distribution of wheat starch granules during endosperm development.
 Cereal Chem. 67:59-63.
  
 Bechtel, D. B., Zayas, I. Y., and Wilson, J. D.  1990.  Acquisition of video
 pictures from a light microscope for use in studying wheat starch development
 with digital image analysis.  Cereal Foods World 35:847.  [Abstract]
  
 Brabec, D. L.  1990.  The effect of air movement on red flour beetles and
 lesser grain borers in hard red winter wheat.  M. S. Thesis, Library, Kansas
 State University, Manhattan, KS.
  
 Chang, C. S., Converse, H. H., and Steele, J. L.  1990.  Trajectories of
 grain particles from trough-type grain spreaders.  Transactions of the ASAE
 33(2):590-595.
  
 Chang, C. S., Converse, H. H., and Steele, J. L.  1990.  Flow rates of grain
 through vertical orifices.  Transactions of the ASAE 33(2):601-606.
  
 Chang, C. S., Converse, H. H., and Steele, J. L.  1990.  Flow rates of grain
 through various shapes of vertical and horizontal orifices.  ASAE Paper No.
 90-6584, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  
 Chung, O. K.  1990 Cereal Lipids.  In: Handbook of Cereal Science and
 Technology, K. J. Lorenz and K. Kulp, eds.  Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York,
 NY.  (In press) [Book chapter]
  
 Chung, O. K., Lookhart, G. L., Bechtel, D. B., Sauer, D. B., Hagstrum, D. W.,
 Seitz, L. M., Zayas, I. Y., Converse, H. H., Wilson, J. D., Bolte, L. C.,
 Kim, W. S., Martin, C. R., McGaughey, W. H., Shogren, M. D., Steele, J. L.,
 Brabec, D. L., Chang, C. S., Dempster, R. E., Lamkin, W. M., Rousser, R., and
 Speirs, R. D.  1990.  Wheat research activities at the U.S. Grain Marketing
 Research Laboratory.  Wheat Newsletter 36:156-165.
  
 Chung, O. K., and Seabourn, B. W.  1990.  Effects of two growing years on
 gluten quality or hard winter wheats from two nurseries.  IV. International
 Workshop on Gluten Proteins.  Abstract:54-55.  [Abstract]
  
 Chung, O. K., and Seabourn, B. W.  1990.  Effect on two growing years on
 gluten quality of hard winter wheats from two nurseries.  In: Gluten
 Proteins, Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Gluten Proteins,
 R. Tkachuk and W. Bushuk, eds.  Canadian Grain Research Laboratory, Canadian
 Grain Commission and Univ. of Manitoba.  Published by American Assoc. of
 Cereal Chem., St. Paul, MN.  (In press) [Book chapter]
 
 Chung, O. K., Seabourn, B. W., and Seib, P. A.  1990.  Gluten quality of hard
 winter wheats from three nurseries determined by a Glutomatic System.  Cereal
 Foods World 35:833.  [Abstract]
 
 Dong, H., Cox, T. S., Sears, R. G., and Lookhart, G. L.  1990.  Effects of
 high molecular weight glutenin genes on quality traits in a randomly mated
 wheat population.  Crop Sci.  (In press)
  
 Dowdy, A. K., McGaughey, W. H., Howard, R. W., and Seitz, L. M.  1990.
 Rhyzopertha dominica attraction to the volatiles of infested wheat.  Entomol.
 Soc. of America Annual Mtg.  [Abstract]
  
 Flinn, P. W., and Hagstrum, D. W.  1990.  Simulations comparing the
 effectiveness of various stored-grain management practices used to control
 Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).  Environ. Entomol.
 19(3):725-729.
  
 Flinn, P. W., and Hagstrum, D. W.  1990.  Stored grain advisor: a
 knowledge-based system for management of insect pests of stored grain.  AI
 Applications.  4(3):44-52.
  
 Flinn, P. W., McGaughey, W. H., and Burkholder, W. E.  1990.  Effects of fine
 material on insect infestation.  North Central Exp. Sta. Bull., Wooster, OH.
 (In press)
  
 Hagstrum, D. W.  1990.  Automated acoustical detection of stored-grain
 insects and its potential in reducing insect problems.  Proceedings of the
 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, Bordeaux,
 France, Sept. 9-14, 1990.
  
 Hagstrum, D. W., and Flinn, P. W.  1990.  Simulations comparing insect
 species differences in response to wheat storage conditions and management
 practices.  J. Econ. Entomol. 83(6):2469-2475.
  
 Hagstrum, D. W., Vick, K. W., and Webb, J. C.  1990.  Acoustical monitoring
 of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: bostrichidae) populations in stored
 wheat.  J. Econ. Entomol. 83:625-628.
  
 Harner, J. P., Chang, C. S., and Wilcke, W. F.  1990.  Grain spreading and
 leveling.  Proceedings III National Stored Grain Pest Management Training
 Conference, pp. 135-140.
  
 Harner, J. P., and Hagstrum, D. W.  1990.  Utilizing high airflow rates for
 aerating wheat.  Appl. Eng. Agric. 6:315-321.
  
 Howard, R. W., Seitz, L. M., Dowdy, A. L., and McGaughey, W. H.  1990.
 Head-space analysis of post-harvest wheat: changes in volatile odor
 composition of three varieties with storage time.  American Chem. Soc. 25th
 Midwest Reg. Mtg., pp. 141.  [Abstract]
  
 Lamkin, W. M., Unruh, N. C., and Pomeranz. Y.  1990.  Use of fluorometry for
 the determination of uric acid in grain.  Elimination of interfering
 fluorescence.  Cereal Chem.  (In press)
 
 Lin, W. D., Lookhart, G. L., and Hoseney, R. C.  1990.  Purification of
 proteolytic enzymes and their effect on rheological changes of cracker sponge
 doughs.  American Chem. Soc. 25th Midwest Reg. Mtg., pp. 147.  [Abstract]
 
 Lookhart, G. L.  1990.  Cereal proteins: composition of their major fractions
 and methods for identification.  In: Handbook of Cereal Science and
 Technology, K. J. Lorenz and K. Kulp, eds. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
 (In press) [Book chapter]
  
 Lookhart, G. L., and Bietz, J. A.  1990.  Practical wheat variety
 identification in the United States.  Cereal Foods World 35:404-407.
  
 Lookhart, G. L., Graybosch, R., Peterson, J., and Lukaszewski, A.  1990.
 Identification of wheat lines containing the 1BL/1RS translocation.  IV.
 International Workshop on Gluten Proteins.  Abstract:80.  [Abstract]
  
 Lookhart, G. L., Graybosch, R., Peterson, J., and Lukaszewski, A.  1990.
 Identification of wheat lines containing the 1BL/1RS translocation.  In:
 Gluten Proteins, Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Gluten
 Proteins, R. Tkachuk and W. Bushuk, eds.  Canadian Grain Research Laboratory,
 Canadian Grain Commission and Univ. of Manitoba.  Published by American
 Assoc. of Cereal Chem., St. Paul, MN.  (In press) [Book chapter]
  
 Lookhart, G. L., Graybosch, R., Peterson, J., and Lukaszewski, A.  1990.
 Identification of wheat lines containing the 1BL/1RS translocation by high
 performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).  Cereal Chem.  (In press)
 McGaughey, W. H., and Akins, R. G.  1989.  Application of modified
 atmospheres in farm grain storage bins.  J. Stored Prod. Res. 25:201-210.
 
 McGaughey, W. H., Speirs, R. D., and Martin, C. R.  1990.  Susceptibility of
 classes of wheat grown in the United States to stored-grain insects.  J.
 Econ.  Entomol. 83:1122-1127.
  
 Pomeranz, Y., Bechtel, D. B., Sauer, D. B., and Seitz, L. M.  1990.  Fusarium
 headblight (scab) in cereal grains.  Chapter 6.  In: Advances in Cereal
 Science and Technology, Y. Pomeranz, ed.  American Assoc. Cereal Chem., St.
 Paul, MN.  pp. 373-433.  [Book chapter]
  
 Shin, M. G., Chung, O. K., and Seib, P. A.  1990.  Determination of
 lysophosphatidyl-choline and -ethanolamine in wheat starch lipids by high
 performance liquid chromatography.  Cereal Foods World 35:839.  [Abstract]
 
 Shogren, M. D.  1990.  A short history of the mixograph.  Cereal Foods World
 35:480-482.
  
 Shogren, M. D.  1990.  The mixograph - a historical perspective of an
 instrument with a promising future, Department of Grain Science and Industry,
 Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS.  [Pamphlet]
  
 Steele, J. L., Brabec, D. L., and Walker, D. E.  1990.  Mixograph
 instrumentation for moving bowl and fixed bowl comparisons of wheat flour
 performance.  Proc. of the Food Processing Automation Conference, FPEI, ASAE,
 Lexington, KY.  pp. 224-234.
  
 Wilcke, W. F., Chang, C. S., and Hetzel, G. H.  1990.  Grain flow through
 horizontal guarded orifices.  ASAE Paper No. 90-6585, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  
 Xu, A., Ponte, J. G., Jr., and Chung, O. K.  1990.  Bread crumb amylograph
 studies.  II.  The cause of unique properties.  Cereal Foods World 35:832.
 [Abstract]
  
 Zayas, I. Y., and Steele, J. L.  1990.  Image analysis applications for grain
 science.  Technical Abstracts, Applications in Optical Science and
 Engineering, SPIE International Symposia, Boston, MA.  [Abstract]
 
 -------------------------
 
      T. J. Byram
 
                                        
 
                                   TABLE HERE
 
                                  PUBLICATIONS
 
      Monthly Crops.  Wheat cultivars, percent of acreage devoted to each
 cultivar.  Wheat quality, test weight, moisture, and protein content of
 current harvest.  $10.00
      Weekly Crop-Weather.  Issued each Monday, March 1 through November 30.
 Provides crop and weather information for previous week.  $12.00.
      County Estimates.  County data on wheat acreage seeded and harvested,
 yield and production on summer fallow, irrigated, and continuous cropped
 land.  December.
      Wheat Quality.  County data on protein, test weight, moisture, grade,
 and dockage.  Includes milling and baking tests, by cultivar, from a
 probability sample of Kansas wheat.  September.
 
 -------------------------
      WHEAT QUALITY COUNCIL
 
      Tom C. Roberts, Manhattan
 
      This is the 53rd year for the Hard Winter Wheat Improvement program of
 the flour milling industry and the 41st year for the Large-Scale Milling an
 Baking Evaluation Program of the Breadstuff's Industry.
 
      Organized for the purpose of serving as a not-for-profit liaison group
 within the industry in 1938 and supported in total by the milling industry
 until 1980, the Wheat Quality Council emerged and has developed as it is
 today with the assistance of other industry groups - Baking, Grain, Seed,
 Banking, Associations, Publishing, Transportation, Wheat Commissions and
 Allied.
 
      The Wheat Quality Council shall be for charitable, educational and
 research support of wheat improvement, conservation and protection.  In
 furthering these purposes the organization shall encourage development of new
 varieties and production by growers of all wheats that meet the nutritional
 and functional needs of food processors.
 
      The Council has played an important role in improving wheat quality.
 The Large-Scale Milling and Baking Program began in 1949, being initiated by
 what is now known as the KSU Dept. of Grain Science and Industry.  Minimum
 support funds were generated by a number of the industry groups to assist in
 a very low cost volunteer-oriented program until 1980.  A Standardized
 Evaluation System was implemented in 1988 with funding from the American
 Bakers Association.  The following flow chart explains the analytical
 organizations of the 1990 program.
 
      Funds for the Wheat Quality Council come entirely from fees and dues
 paid by members and cooperators on a volunteer basis.  The affairs of the
 Council are under the supervision of the Executive Vice-President and the
 Board of Trustees.  The Board consists of representatives from the various
 interest groups who support the Council.
 
      A Technical Committee is designated by the Board of Trustees consisting
 of industry groups as well as non-dues paying groups (USDA), State
 University, American Institute of Baking, etc.) to implement the Large-and
 Small-Scale Milling and Baking Evaluation Program.
 
      Four from 13 large- and 10 small-scale samples were sent to 35
 cooperators for baking.  Those cooperators include: mill control chemists,
 bakery chemists, state and federal wheat quality testing chemists, commercial
 laboratories, and commercial breeding chemists.
 
      Their results are collected and prepared in a preliminary report, which
 is used at an annual meeting for evaluation of quality.  This meeting
 includes representatives of the many disciplines working on wheat.  A 41st
 final report is to be distributed, giving the findings of the program.
 
 -------------------------
 
 KENTUCKY
 
      Department of Agronomy
 
      D. A. Van Sanford, C. T. MacKown, and L. J. Grabau
 
      1990 Production.  In 1990 Kentucky farmers harvested 18.5 million
 bushels of SRW wheat produced on 500000 acres for an average yield of 37
 bu/a.  Extremely cold December temperatures resulted in complete
 vernalization of the wheat crop.  The subsequent mild January weather
 prompted very early growth, and jointing of some genotypes occurred about 3
 weeks earlier than normal.  Hard freezes in March and April severely damaged
 many fields.  Hardest hit were early planted fields of cultivars that grow
 rapidly in the early spring (eg. Pioneer Brand 2555, Coker 916) which had
 received early topdressing of N.  The freeze damaged either the developing
 spike, the lower stem, or both.  It was an excellent year for screening for
 powdery mildew and Septoria leaf blotch.  Leaf rust arrived too late to do
 much damage.-- Van Sanford
 
      Kernel Growth Studies.  Two Ph.D. students, Lloyd May and Aslim Rasyad
 completed their degrees in 1990, each having studied some aspect of wheat
 kernel growth.  The key results to emerge from their work were: 1)in diverse
 genetic material, kernel growth rate is a trait of intermediate heritability
 (0.4-0.65), that might be used in developing early maturing genotypes, and 2)
 kernel growth rate can be accurately estimated by a single sample late in the
 linear phase of kernel growth, which reduces the labor intensity of measuring
 this trait.  Ongoing research includes divergent recurrent selection for
 kernel growth rate.-- Van Sanford
 
      Reproductive characteristics of winter wheat cultivars subjected to
 postanthesis shading.  High temperatures during reproductive development of
 soft red winter wheat reduce the length of the available grain filling period
 and may make cultivars grown in such environments more sensitive to
 short-term reductions in light intensity.  Therefore, short-duration,
 post-anthesis shading (63%) was applied to the cultivars Caldwell, Hart, and
 Wheeler (about 30, 38, and 45 mg/kernel, respectively) to assess the impact
 of light intensity on kernel growth rate (KGR, mg/kernel/day) and other
 reproductive characteristics.  Early shading (ES, 1 to 6 or 1 to 8 d after
 anthesis (DAA)) or mid-shading (MS, 14 to 21 or 15 to 22 DAA) were used with
 Hart in 1986-88 and the other cultivars in 1987-88.  Cultivars differed in
 relative response to shading with KGR of 1.55, 1.42, and 1.33 (Caldwell);
 1.78, 1.75, and 1.59 (Hart); and 2.00, 1.89, and 1.79 (Wheeler) for control,
 ES, and MS, respectively.  Yield reductions due to ES (8.6%) were related to
 depressed floret fertility (all cultivars) and kernels /spike (Hart only),
 while those due to MS (5.6%) resulted from lower KGR and kernel weight.  Data
 from MS may support the conclusion that wheat yields are source-limited in
 some post-anthesis environments, in contrast to a number of previous reports.
 A shortened reproductive period may be responsible for this observation.--
 Grabau, Van Sanford, and Meng.
 
 
      Carbohydrate Profiles of Wheat Stems in Response to Source or Sink
 Limitation.  Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) in wheat stems may play an
 important role in supporting kernel growth.  In order to assess this
 possibility, Adder and Saluda wheat plants were grown under two environments
 and subjected at anthesis to 50% degraining (DG), flag leaf blade removal
 (FL), or flkag and penultimate leaf blade removal (FPL).  Stem tissue was
 analyzed for fructose, glucose, sucrose, fructans, and NSC using an enzymatic
 technique.  Preliminary results indicate that DG increased NSC within 5 to 10
 days after treatment.  This difference disappeared in one of the two
 environments by maturity.  Both FL and FPL significantly reduced stem NSC
 within 5 to 10 days after treatment, and this difference was maintained
 through maturity.  However, FPL did not reduce stem NSC more than FL in any
 of the studies conducted.-- Meng, Grabau, MacKown, Egli, and Van Sanford.
 
      Kernel Size Response to Partial Degraining.  Soft red winter wheat
 cultivars have been identified and classified as either responsive or
 nonresponsive depending on the change in kernel size when 50% of the
 spikelets are removed.  It was hypothesized that the presence of tillers with
 intact spikes influenced the classification and relative response of the
 cultivars.  Partial removal of tiller and main stem spikelets was used to
 evaluated the competing sink role of tillers on the kernel size response.
 Two responsive cultivars (FL 302, Pioneer 2551) and two nonrepsonsive
 cultivars (Wheeler, Caldwell) were used.  Within each class, the kernel size
 of one of the cultivars was large and the other small.  Partial degraining of
 all spikes increased kernel size of both main stem and tillers for the
 responsive cultivars.  Except for the kernel size of tillers on Wheeler, an
 increase in the kernel size of the nonresponsive cultivars was not observed
 when all stems were partially degrained.  Partial degraining of the tiller
 spikes did not further increase the kernel size of the partially degrained
 main stem spike of the responsive cultivars.  Partial degraining of the main
 stem spike had no effect on the kernel size of the tillers.  Apparently, for
 these four cultivars minimal transfer of assismilates between main stem and
 tillers occurred.  Lack of a compensatory response to an enhanced source of
 assismilates indicicates a possible sink limitation for the nonresponsive
 cultivars, while an increase in kernel size indicates a source limitation for
 kernel development on the responsive cultivars.-- Ma, MacKown, and Van
 Sanford.
 
      Cultivars.  Verne wheat,tested as KY83-38, was released in 1990 for its
 superiority in grain yield and test weight under conventional management.
 Verne was derived from the cross:Red Coat /Gaines/5/Taylor// Norin
 10/Brevor/3/?/4/Oasis.  An F3 bulk of this cross was obtained in 1981 from
 Tom Starling, formerly small grain breeder at Virginia Polytechnic Institute
 and State University.  After several generations of selfing and selection, a
 number of F8 headrows were bulked on the basis of uniform plant type and
 increased in the F9 and F10 generations to produce F11 breeder seed.  Heading
 date of Verne is approximately 2 d earlier than Cardinal.  Verne is tall,(
 equivalent in height to Cardinal), and will lodge under high N rates.  Verne
 is slightly more winterhardy than Saluda..Verne has shown consistent yield
 superiority to cultivars currently grown in Kentucky.  In 4 years of testing
 at seven locations, grain yield of Verne was 106% of Cardinal.  Test weight
 of Verne is slightly lower than that of Saluda.  Verne has moderate
 resistance to powdery mildew, and Septoria leaf blotch and seems to have some
 adult plant resistance to leaf rust.  Verne is susceptible to the Hessian
 fly.  Limited certified seed will be available to growers for the fall of
 1991.-- Van Sanford.
 
      Personnel.  Dave Van Sanford spent a 6 month sabbatical at the Wheat
 Genetics Resource Center at Kansas State University, working with Stan Cox,
 Bikram Gill, and Rollie Sears.
 
                                  Publications
 
 Ma, Y. Z., C. T. MacKown, and D. A. Van Sanford.  1990.  Sink manipulation in
 wheat: compensatory changes in kernel size.  Crop Sci. 30: 1099-1105.
 
 Ma, Y. Z., C. T. MacKown, and D. A. Van Sanford.  1990.  Differential
 response of kernel size to partial degraining in four winter wheat cultivars.
 Agron. Abstr., p. 126.
 
 Meng, Q. W. , L. J. Grabau, C. T. MacKown, D. B. Egli, and D. A. Van Sanford.
 1990.  Carbohydrate profiles of wheat stems in response to source or sink
 limitation.  Agron Abstr., p. 127.
 
 Zourakis, D., J. H. Grove, C. T. MacKown, and M. S. Smith. 1990.  A study on
 15N recovery by crop components of the corn-wheat-doublecrop soybean
 rotation.  Agron. Abst. p. 286.
 
 Meng, Q. W., C. T. MacKown, L. J. Grabau, D. A. Van Sanford, and D. B. Egli.
 1990.  Wheat fructans: response to nitrogen fertility. Agron. Abstr., p. 369
 
 Grabau, L. J. , D. A. Van Sanford, and Q. W. Meng.1990.  Post-anthesis
 shading of winter wheat cultivars.  Crop Sci.  30: 771-774.
 
 Rasyad, A., D. A. Van Sanford, and D. M. TeKrony.  1990.  Changes in seed
 viability and vigor during wheat seed maturation.  Journal of Seed Sci. and
 Tech.  18: 259-267.
 
 -------------------------
 
 
 LOUISIANA
 
      Louisiana State University, LSU Agricultural Center
 
      S.A. Harrison*, Patrick Colyer*, and Clayton Hollier*
 
      Production and Diseases, and Hessian Fly.  Wheat production estimates
 for 1990 are somewhat lower than initially projected due to heavy rainfall
 during and after planting time.  Estimates are that 440,000 acres produced
 12,870,000 bushels of wheat, for an average of 33.0 bushels/acre.  The low
 yields are mostly a reflection of poor stands that resulted from fall rains.
 Rust diseases of wheat were comparatively light during the 1989-90 season.
 Losses were estimated at 4.7% for leaf rust (Puccinia recondita), 0.3% for
 stem rust (P. graminis f.sp tritici), and 0.3% for stripe rust (Puccinia
 striiformis).  Statewide yield loss due to Septoria leaf and glume blotch was
 relatively low although individual fields displayed high incidence and
 severity.  Both Septoria nodorum and S. tritici are present in Louisiana, but
 S. nodorum is responsible for most of the yield loss attributed to Septoria
 spp.  During the 1990 season bacterial streak / black chaff (Xanthomonas
 campestris pv. translucens) was extremely heavy in most areas of the state.
 Yield losses attributed to Xct were estimated at 6-9%, and reduced yield more
 than any other single disease for the season.  Hessian Fly (Mayetiola
 destructor) was again identified in Bossier Parish in the northwest corner of
 the state.  Research on identification of the severity of the Hessian Fly
 problem and biotypes present will continue.  Hessian Fly has not become a
 major problem in Louisiana.
 
      Variety Testing: Under high management (fungicide + additional topdress
 N), Coker 9877 had the highest three-year (70.2 bu/acre) and two-year (70.7
 bu/acre) mean yield across all locations.  Coker 9323, Florida 302, and
 McNair 1003 also had yields of greater than 65 bu/acre for the past three
 years.  Bayles, Coker 9877, Coker 9105, Hartz HX2326, and Coker 9323 were the
 highest-yielding entries across locations for 1990.  Results of the LAES
 performance trials are published in LAES Mimeo Series No. 48.
 
      Wheat Breeding: A total of 307 new crosses were added to the LAES wheat
 breeding program in 1990.  Fifty-two of these were part of the dominant males
 sterile facilitated recurrent selection program (DMSFRSP) for disease
 resistance, 245 were bi-parental crosses, and 10 were obtained from Dr. Phil
 Bruckner.  The DMSFRSP is aimed at increasing levels of resistance to leaf
 rust, septoria, and bacterial streak in a broad-based population.  New
 parents are added to the program as deemed appropriate.  A separate
 population will be initiated in 1991 for bacterial streak alone.  The
 bi-parental crosses are about equally divided between germplasm enhancement
 and variety development objectives.  Parents include CIMMYT lines, Hessian
 Fly resistant lines form Kansas State and Purdue Universities, CERUGA leaf
 rust lines (CEreal Rust Lab-Univ. GA), and many other sources.  The crosses
 were grown in an air- conditioned greenhouse during the summer and advanced
 to the F2 generation for the 1990-91 season.
 
      All of the yield nurseries at Baton Rouge were lost to excessive rains
 (15+" within 8 weeks of planting).  Additionally, many of the breeding
 nurseries were lost and had to be replanted from remnant seed in 1991.  The
 greatest progress was made in the F3 nurseries, which were already
 established before the floods.  A total of about 18,000 headrows, from
 segregating populations were planted for 1991.  Over 8,000 of these are F3:4
 headrows, with the remainder split among F2, F3, F3x, F5x and F5 headrows.
 
      Cooperative research continued with Dr. Tim Croughan to refine anther
 culture methods for the development of di-haploids from F1 and F2 soft red
 winter wheat.  Published methods for spring wheats have not worked well with
 winter wheat.  Mumerous combinations of media are being evaluated.
 Somaclonal variants are being also generated and evaluated.
 
      Bacterial Streak Research: The increasing importance of bacterial streak
 prompted a series of studies on the disease.  Approximately 40 isolates of
 Xanthomonas campestris have been collected in Louisiana since 1989 and
 numerous isolates have been identified that produce good disease symptoms
 when inoculated onto wheat.  Dr. Chris Clark is characterizing these isolates
 for pathogenicity and biochemical traits.  Three of the virulent isolates
 were used in a series of experiments to assess the reaction of wheat
 varieties to the pathogen and to determine the yield loss caused by the
 disease.  Wheat lines from the LAES wheat performance trials and the USDA
 UESSRWW and USSRWW nurseries in recent years (250 lines total) were grown in
 replicated single-row plots at two locations in 1990.  Results of
 inoculations with Xct indicate that their are genetic differences in
 resistance.  The genetic screening research will be continued for 1991 to
 determine the relationship of field and greenhouse ratings for Xct.
 
      Twelve varieties were planted in a split plot arrangement of a RCBD at
 two locations in 1990, with main plots as inoculation level (inoculated vs
 non).  All plots were protected with Tilt to prevent confounding of results
 by differential infection with leaf rust and septoria.  Varietal differences
 were observed at both locations for disease development.  Yield losses at
 Winnsboro ranged form -1.8 (-2%) to 20.4 (27%) bu/acre, and averaged 6.0
 bu/acre.  Several varieties appeared to have a moderate level of resistance,
 while two of the twelve varieties showed tolerance.  This research is also
 continued for the 1991 season.
 
      Personnel Changes: Mr. David Thompson assumed the position of Research
 Associate for the wheat breeding program in June, 1990.  David completed a
 M.Sc. at Oklahoma State University in May, 1990.  He will assist in all
 aspects of the breeding and variety testing program.  Dr. John Russin joined
 the LAES in February, 1991, as a research wheat pathologist.  John will be
 working will major wheat pathogens in the state and will also assist in
 evaluation of lines in the wheat breeding program.  Ms. Wendy Kursell
 completed her M.Sc. on bacterial streak in December and has assumed a
 position with American Cyanamid.  Ms. Laura Oberthur completed her M.Sc. on
 somaclonal variation and leaf rust, and is pursuing a Ph.D. with Dr. Steve
 Baenziger at Nebraska.  Mr. Sayed Shah began a Ph.D. working with management
 practices of wheat and will also work in the wheat breeding program.  His
 research will be to evaluate the effects of various management practices to
 determine their effectiveness in offsetting the adverse effects of late
 planting.
  
 -------------------------
 
 MARYLAND
 
      Department of Agronomy, University of Maryland at College Park
 
      D. J. Sammons* and R. J. Kratochvil
 
      1990 Winter Wheat Production. Maryland wheat producers harvested 190,000
 acres (76,950 hectares) in 1990, an 11.6% decrease over harvested area in
 1989. The state crop totaled 9.88 million bushels (268,835 metric tons) of
 grain, a 15% increase in total production compared to the 1989 harvest. This
 production was obtained by a state average of 52 bu/a (3494 kg/ha),
 approximately 30% higher than for the 1989 crop year.
 
      The production year 1989-1990 was generally favorable for wheat in
 Maryland. The fall planting season was normal, and timely planting occurred
 statewide. Seasonable moisture and temperatures resulted in good stand
 establishment. The winter months were generally mild, and relatively little
 winter kill was noted anywhere. An unusual midwinter warm spell in late
 February was followed by a freeze in March, however little damage was noted
 in this region except sporadically in unusually early heading experimental
 lines. Spring regrowth was normal, encouraged by gradually warming
 temperatures and sufficient rainfall. During the grain fill and maturation
 period, the climatic conditions were excellent - warm, sunny, and relatively
 dry. Yield performance and test weights were good to excellent for most
 entries at most locations in the state. An exception to this occurred in
 western regions of Maryland, where a five-day rainy period occurred just at
 the time of wheat harvest in mid-July; many fields had not been harvested at
 this time. Grain harvested following these conditions suffered from
 dramatically reduced test weight largely due to pre-harvest sprouting of the
 grain.
 
      Disease pressure was relatively intense in wheat in the Spring. Powdery
 mildew (Erysiphe graminis) was present everywhere in the state, but was
 particularly severe on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay. Leaf rust
 (Puccinia recondita) was also severe in this region of the state on
 susceptible cultivars. In general, other common wheat diseases, including
 glume blotch (Septoria nodorum) and scab (Fusarium sp.), were present but
 incidence and severity were generally low. Insect damage to wheat also
 occurred during the 1989-1990 production year. At several locations on the
 Eastern Shore, infestations of true armyworm (Pseudaletia unipuncta), grass
 sawfly (Dolerus sp.), and cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) were observed
 - some reaching economically damaging levels.
 
      Cultivar Evaluation. Cultivar evaluation was conducted at four locations
 in Maryland in 1990. A total of 42 genotypes were tested (29 cultivars, 8
 elite breeding lines, 1 blend, and 4 private experimental lines). Among
 public cultivars tested, five (Caldwell, FL 302, Geneva, Susquehanna, and
 Williams) yielded over 85 bu/a (5712 kg/ha) in statewide testing; seven
 private cultivars (Agra brand 863, Agripro brand Twain, Hoffman brand 1089,
 Pioneer brand 2548, and Southern States brands FFR 374, 544, 568) also
 yielded in this range. The highest statewide yield in the evaluation program
 was observed for Pioneer brand 2548 which yielded 95.9 bu/a (6444 kg/ha).
 
      Several excellent elite breeding lines are currently under consideration
 for possible release in Maryland. Most prominent among these lines are MD
 80004-62 and MD 80071-56. Both of these lines are characterized by early
 maturity, short plant stature, stiff straw, excellent winter hardiness, good
 test weight and resistance to powdery mildew, the most damaging disease in
 Maryland.
 
      Test weight for most cultivars in Maryland in 1990 was good, except in
 the western part of the state. The statewide average test weight in the
 evaluation trials was 55 lb/bu (71 kg/hl). Low test weight, which for sound,
 plump wheat does not consistently correlate with poor milling and baking
 quality, is a concern for Maryland producers and most producers in the
 southeastern United States. Research has been initiated in Maryland to
 attempt to separate the genetic and environmental components of this problem,
 and to better understand its significance in terms of end use product
 quality. Preliminary results of this work are summarized in the article which
 follows.
 
      Effects of weathering on soft red winter wheat grain and flour quality.
 Current emphasis on end-use quality of agronomic crops has made it necessary
 for breeders to place more emphasis upon those traits which affect quality in
 their breeding programs.  Identification of the genotypic differences and the
 environmental factors that affect those traits are necessary for a successful
 breeding program to improve quality.  A growing controversy as to what
 constitutes a quality soft red winter wheat has emerged among growers,
 breeders, millers, and bakers.  Test weight has long been associated with
 wheat quality in the marketing chain; millers, in particular, have claimed
 that test weight is a predictable indicator of the flour yield of a grain
 lot.  However, researchers have found that test weight does not always
 correlate positively with flour yield as millers have long contended.  It is
 known that rainfall at harvest time will cause a reduction in test weight.
 What is unclear is if this decline in test weight also results in a
 predictable decline in milling and baking quality.  If the rainfall period is
 long enough, the grain is able to imbibe enough water to commence germination
 which results in elevated alpha-amylase activity.  Flour from this weathered
 grain will impact some products detrimentally.  Research at Maryland is being
 conducted to identify the amount of weathering that will affect milling and
 baking quality negatively.  Also, since sprout-damaged wheat can be a
 problem, screening procedures for lengthening pre-harvest grain dormancy and
 identifying cultivar differences for dormancy are under investigation.
 
      A study to measure the effects of weathering or rainfall on soft red
 winter wheat grain and flour quality was done during 1989 at the Southern
 Maryland Research and Education Center-Poplar Hill Research Farm.  Four
 genotypes (Severn, Caldwell, Agripro-Twain, and Md 75191-80) were grown in a
 split plot arrangement of treatments in an RCB design.  Whole plots consisted
 of a combination of harvest time (timely or delayed) and shelter (uncovered
 or covered) from rainfall.  The harvest dates were 28 June (timely) and 26
 July.  Covers were placed over the plots on 8 June.  The covers consisted of
 10x10 wooden frames with sloped roofs for rainfall drainage.  They were
 covered with clear PVC plastic.  The plastic was rolled to approximately 15
 cm above the canopy on all four sides of the framework to allow air movement
 under the shelter.  The peak of each shelter was approximately 1.2 m above
 the canopy.  The structures were removed at each harvest date and the
 corresponding plots were harvested.  Following harvest, test weight and 1000
 kernel weight were measured for each treatment; seed germination was also
 determined for samples from all treatments.  Samples from each plot were sent
 to the USDA Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory in Wooster, OH for milling and
 baking quality analyses and alpha-amylase activity.
 
     A brief rainfall period occurred within a week of the timely harvest
 date.  Rainfall between harvest dates was considerable (10-13 cm) with more
 than one rainy period.  As expected, a significant decline in test weight
 occurred between both the timely and late harvested plots and the sheltered
 and unsheltered plots.  This decline in test weight ranged from 3.9 to 6.4
 kg/hl.  Thousand kernel weight was not affected by the weathering treatments.
 Post- harvest germinations also were unaffected by weathering.  Overall,
 weathering appeared to have no effect upon the milling quality, flour
 protein, alkaline water retention capacity, cookie diameter, and top grain
 scores.  Overall baking quality for three of four genotypes was improved
 significantly by the weathering associated with uncovered plots.  Softness
 equivalent also improved for the grain harvested from the uncovered plots.
 Only Severn had a significant decline in flour yield from the weathered
 plots.  These results indicate that the weathering associated with a delay in
 harvest in 1989 had little or no detrimental effect upon the quality of the
 flour.  Alpha-amylase activity was elevated significantly for the
 non-sheltered
 
 plots at the late harvest date.  However, these levels varied by genotype and
 were non-significant for Severn and Md 75191-80 when compared to their levels
 with timely harvest and under sheltered conditions.  This work was expanded
 for the 1990 crop year.
 
      Seed dormancy study.  A study to identify dormancy differences for SRWW
 was initiated in 1989.  Seventeen cultivars and breeding lines were grown in
 an un-replicated block at the Central Maryland Research and Education
 Center-Beltsville Farm.  The anthesis date for each genotype was noted, and
 commencing with the three week post-anthesis date for each genotype 50
 randomly selected primary spikes were collected.  These spikes were air dried
 to approximately 10% moisture content, threshed by single head thresher, and
 the seed stored at -170 C (for dormancy maintenance) until germination tests
 were done.  This sampling procedure continued at weekly intervals through the
 seven week post-anthesis date.  Germination tests were done at 0, 3, 6, and
 12 weeks after removal from cold storage with an additional 0 week
 germination test with stratification done to break dormancy and serve as a
 check for the other timed germination tests.  Each germination test per
 genotype was replicated twice at each time interval.  The procedure for the
 germination test was to place the seed on Anchor Seed Germination paper, wet
 it, and put it in an incubator at 260 C for seven days.  Seed was then
 classified as either germinated or not germinated by visual analysis.
 
      The stratification treatment proved that the differences seen for the
 cultivars and the harvest dates was due to dormancy as normal germination
 rates of 90% or greater were present.  The general trend for dormancy for the
 17 genotypes was to decline (germination percentage increased) across the
 post- anthesis harvest dates of three through seven weeks.  Cultivar
 differences for the rate of dormancy decline were found with Florida 302 and
 Blueboy found to be the most resistant to loss of dormancy.  Two of the most
 susceptible cultivars were New Northrup King-Coker 9733 and Agripro-Twain.
 Additional screening procedures are currently underway for both greenhouse
 grown genotypes and an expanded field study grown during 1990.
 
      Interactions between seeding dates and seeding rates.  In Maryland
 planting of wheat is sometimes delayed due to wet fall weather.  This study
 was conducted to determine the yield response resulting from a delayed
 seeding date and to determine if this response can be influenced by the
 seeding rate.  The experiments were conducted at two locations: Central
 Maryland Research and Education Center (CMREC)-Beltsville Unit and
 CMREC-Clarksville Unit in 1989-90.  The treatments included three seeding
 dates (Hessian fly-free date, two weeks later, and four weeks later,
 respectively), four seeding rates (112, 140, 168, and 196 kg/ha), and two
 cultivars (Agripro brand Twain and FL 302).  A split plot arrangement of
 treatments within a randomized complete block design was used.  Response to
 the seeding rates and seeding dates differed at the two locations.  There
 were no differences in yield for either the seeding rates or the seeding
 dates at Beltsville, however, the two cultivars were significantly different
 at this location.  There also was a significant interaction between the
 seeding dates and the cultivars.  At Clarksville, Fl 302 had lower yields
 with the two greater seeding rates at the first two seeding dates than for
 the two lower seeding rates.  At the last seeding date, however, the two
 higher seeding rates produced better yields.  Twain tended to have a decline
 in yield as the seeding rate was increased at the first two seeding dates.
 At the third seeding date, the two intermediate seeding rates produced
 greater yields than the other two seeding rates. In conclusion, it would
 appear that yield response to increased seeding rates as the seeding date is
 delayed is both cultivar and location dependent.  The study is continuing.
 
                                  PUBLICATIONS
 
 Alemu, Alemayehu A. 1990. Effects of Selection Environment and Methods on the
 Performance of Progeny of Wheat and Barley Crosses Grown in Maryland.  M.S.
 Thesis, Department of Agronomy, University of Maryland. 88 pg.
 
 Kratochvil, R.J. and D.J. Sammons. 1990. A Comparison of Soft Red Winter
 Wheat F2 Populations, Their F1 Hybrids, and Parents. Journal of Production
 Agriculture 3:363-367.
 
 Kratochvil, R.J. and D.J. Sammons. 1990. Preliminary Screening for
 Post-Harvest Dormancy of Soft Red Winter Wheat Cultivars. 1990 Agronomy
 Abstracts, p. 97.
 
 Sammons, D.J. 1990. Registration of "Susquehanna" Wheat. Crop Science 30:235.
 
 Sammons, D.J. and R.J. Kratochvil. 1990. Effect of Environmental and
 Management Factors on Soft Red Winter Wheat Cultivars. 1990 Agronomy
 Abstracts, p. 192.
 
 Sammons, D.J. and R.J. Kratochvil. 1990. Maryland Barley and Wheat Variety
 Performance. Agronomy Mimeo 19. Department of Agronomy, University of
 Maryland.
 
 -------------------------
 
 USDA-ARS and Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of
 Minnesota, St. Paul.
 
 R.H. Busch and Brent Delzer
 
      Wheat Production , Breeding and Studies.  Minnesota produced an
 estimated 135 million bushels (3.67 million MT) from 2.75 million acres (1.12
 million ha) harvested.  Durum was harvested from about 30 thousand acres with
 a total production of 1.3 million bushels and winter wheat was planted on
 about 130,000 acres.  The average yield of spring wheat in 1990 was estimates
 to be 44 bu/A compared to an average yield of 38 bu/A in 1989 and 23 bu/A in
 1988.  Weather conditions were favorable for April seeding again in 1990 but
 subsoil moisture was quite low. Rainfall was abundant in the southwest and
 central areas resulting in severe scab infection in these areas.  The main
 growing area received adequate rainfall through June but July and August were
 again very dry.  Scab was not a problem in the main growing area and yields
 were quite high even with the dry conditions
 
 because temperatures remained near normal.  Protein content was near normal
 even though yield were high but the 1990 crop has weaker mixing properties
 than in other years.
 
 The survey of wheat varieties grown in Minnesota in 1990 was as follows:
 Marshall, released from MN in 1982, 50%; Stoa, released from ND in 1984, 9%;
 Butte 86, released from ND in 1986, 8%; Wheaton, released from MN in 1983,
 7%; 2375, released from Pioneer in 1988, 5%; Nordic, released by Agripro in
 1986, 4%; Prospect, released from SD in 1988, 2%; and Vance, released by MN
 in 1989, 2%.  The leading variety of winter wheat was Roughrider, released
 from ND in 1975, with 58% of the acreage.
 
 The Pioneer hard red spring wheat breeding program was discontinued in 1990,
 and breeding materials were distributed to North Dakota, South Dakota, and
 Minnesota public breeding programs.  The breeding portion of the nurseries in
 1990 were almost double their normal size and only thesis problems were grown
 as well.
 
 Cycles 0, 2, and 4 of recurrent selection for percent protein improvement
 were evaluated in 1989 and 1990 at two locations each year for yield, heading
 date, plant height, grain protein, and other traits (Table 1).  Percent
 protein increased linearly at the rate of 0.4% protein per cycle.  Grain
 yield decreased in each cycle of selection.  Kernel weight, plant height, and
 days to head were relatively unaffected by selection for protein.  Line
 variation does not appear to have been reduced in a practical terms for
 selection.
 
 Table 1.  Effect of Recurrent Selection for Protein Percentage in Hard Red
 Spring Wheat, Evaluated at Two Locations in MN, 1989-90
 
          Grain    Kernel   Grain    Plant    Days    Aerial
 Cycle    protein  weight   yield    height   head    biomass                
           (%)    (g\1000) (t/ha)    (cm)             (t/ha)
  
   0       16.4      28.1   2.78      91.1     58.3    9.06
   
   2       17.2      27.1   2.71      88.5     57.9    8.72
 
   4       18.0      27.7   2.53      89.9     57.7    8.48           
 CHECKS
 
 Marshall  14.7      24.0   2.93      78.9     60.0    8.69
 Chris     16.7      24.0   2.56      94.4     59.6    9.04
 
                                                                      
 
 
                        PUBLICATIONS
 
 Busch, R., D. McVey, J. Wiersma, D. Warnes, R. Wilcoxson, and V. Youngs.
 1990.  Registration of Minnpro wheat.  Crop Sci. 30:748-749.
 
 Busch, R., D. McVey, J. Wiersma, D. Warnes, R. Wilcoxson, and V. Youngs.
 1990.  Registration of Vance wheat.  Crop Sci. 30:749.
 
 Delzer, B.W., and R.H. Busch.  1990.  Recurrent selection of grain protein
 percentage in spring wheat.  Agron. Abstr. p. 85-86.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Cereal Rust Laboratory, USDA-ARS, St. Paul
 
      A. P. Roelfs, D. L. Long, D. H. Casper, M. E. Hughes and J. J. Roberts
 
             The Rusts of Wheat in the United States in 1990
 
      Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici).  Overwintering stem rust
 sites were found on susceptible cultivars in southern Texas and southern
 Louisiana.
  A dry summer in 1989 which limited oversummering infections, late planting,
 plus a December freeze probably resulted in the low initial level of fall
 infection in the area within 75 miles of the Gulf Coast.  During the last two
 weeks of May, only traces of stem rust were found in plots in north central
 Texas, west and east central Arkansas and west central Indiana.  Heavy rains,
 in late April, throughout Texas and Oklahoma scrubbed urediniospores from the
 air, washed them from the uredinia, and resulted in long periods of high
 humidity within the canopy limiting spore release.  These factors limited the
 number of spores in the air, over the affected fields, that were available
 for long-distance dispersal.
 
      During the first week in June, stem rust was found in several wheat
 fields in central Kansas.  The general occurrence and severity of rust
 suggested that the inoculum source probably originated from infected plots in
 south central Kansas.  Several overwintering centers were found in the McNair
 701 (susceptible host) plots across Kansas, indicating that conditions may
 have been generally favorable for winter rust survival.  The inoculum in
 Kansas was adequate to result in a light severity in fields of Karl, TAM 107
 and Pioneer 2157 and to provide inoculum for regions to the north.  By
 mid-June, stem rust was found in fields and plots of susceptible cultivars in
 northern Kansas and south central Nebraska.  In late June, traces of stem
 rust were found in winter and spring wheat plots in east central North
 Dakota, in east central Minnesota, and east central Washington.  Then by the
 third week in July stem rust severities of 20% were found on winter wheats in
 southern Michigan, southeastern North Dakota and east central Washington
 fields.  Since most of the wheat in these areas was near maturity losses were
 light.
 
      As shown in Table 1, nine Pgt races were identified from 101 collections
 made from wheat in the U.S.A. in 1990.  Race Pgt-QFC (151-QFC) and Pgt-TPM
 (15-TNM) each comprised 30% of the isolates.  Race Pgt-QCC (151-QBC)
 comprised 22% of the isolates and was the most common race isolated from
 barley.  A race common in previous years, Pgt-TPL (15-TNM avirulent on Sr17),
 was identified in a specific area in Kansas, and this was unusual as this
 virulence combination has not been found in the previous three years.  Races
 Pgt-BBC, LBC, MBC and RKQ were also identified in the 1990 survey.
 
      Leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici).  Dry conditions during
 the winter restricted normal leaf rust increase in south Texas. However,
 early spring rains created conditions favorable for rust increase throughout
 Texas and Oklahoma.  During the last week in April, 60% severities were
 reported in many fields where the rust overwintered, while in adjacent fields
 only traces were present.  By early May, leaf rust was severe in fields and
 plots in north central Texas, southern Oklahoma and southern Arkansas.
 However, heavy rains reduced the potential for long range dispersal of wheat
 leaf rust spores from this area.  Leaf rust overwintered in south central
 Kansas but cooler than normal weather in late April and early May and severe
 levels of powdery mildew in eastern Kansas and Missouri slowed rust
 development in this area.  By mid-May, leaf rust severities ranged from
 traces in northern Kansas to severe in southern Oklahoma fields where leaf
 rust overwintered.  In mid-June, leaf rust severities ranged from 80% in
 north central Kansas where losses occurred to traces in east central North
 Dakota fields.  In the northern Great Plains leaf rust did not overwinter on
 winter wheats, therefore, rust was observed on susceptible spring and winter
 wheats on approximately the same dates in early July and with similar
 severities.  During mid-July, 40% leaf rust severities were recorded in
 susceptible spring wheat plots in northeastern North Dakota and western
 Minnesota and traces in fields throughout the northern spring wheat growing
 area.  Losses were insignificant, due to the resistance of the commonly grown
 spring and durum wheat cultivars.
 
      In the soft red winter wheat area during early April 90% leaf rust
 severities were common in wheat fields within 75 miles of the Gulf Coast from
 Louisiana to Georgia.  Rust developed rapidly in late January, slowed in
 February and then increased in late March.  The most severe rust was in late
 planted fields of CK 9766 and Fla 302, where losses occurred.  The southern
 soft red winter wheat area provided inoculum for the northern soft red and
 white wheat areas as no leaf rust overwintered in the northern area in 1990.
 From southern Illinois to eastern Virginia, leaf rust severities increased in
 susceptible cultivars from 10 to 80% during the first week of June.  Losses
 in this area were from leaf rust, Septoria nodorum and scab.
      In California, wheat leaf rust was severe on susceptible cultivars in
 plots and light in fields throughout the grain growing area.  In the Pacific
 Northwest, rust developed slowly and losses were light.
 
      The leaf rust Prt races identified in 1990 (Table 2) include many of
 those found in 1989 and in the same areas.  A few significant differences
 when compared to the last year's survey are an increase in virulence to Lr11
 in the U.S.A. population and an increase in the Lr2a + 9 virulence
 combination in the southeastern U.S.A.
 
      Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis).  By early April, stripe rust was
 found in the Sacramento Valley of California, southeastern and northwestern
 areas of Washington.  The cool weather in May was favorable for stripe rust
 increase on susceptible cultivars in the Pacific Northwest.  Some wheat
 growers in eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington sprayed with fungicides
 to control the rust on the susceptible hard red winter wheats Victory and
 Weston and the club wheat Tres.  No stripe rust was found in the Great Plains
 in 1990.
 
      Rust losses.  Acreage harvested and yield production records are based
 on 1990 Annual Crop Summary, Agricultural Statistics Board, USDA.  Loss data
 are summary of estimates made by personnel of the State Departments of
 Agriculture, University extension and research projects, Plant Protection
 Programs of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Agricultural
 Research Service and the Cereal Rust Laboratory.  Losses for 1990 are shown
 in Tables 3 and 4.  Losses were calculated for each rust as follows:
 
            Loss (specific rust) = (Production) X (Percent loss)
                                    (100%) - (Percent loss due to rusts)
 
      Losses are indicated as a trace when the disease was present but no
 fields were known to have suffered significant losses.  If a few fields
 suffered measurable losses this is reflected as a percent of the state's
 production.  Zeros indicate the disease was not reported in that state during
 the season.  Blanks for stripe rust indicate that the disease was not
 reported nor does it occur annually in that state.
 
 -------------------------
 
      USDA-ARS, Cereal Rust Laboratory, and Dept of Plant Pathology: and Dept.
 of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St.  Paul.
 
      D.V. McVey and R. Busch
 
            Winter Wheat Survival at St. Paul, Minnesota, 1989-1990
 
      About 5000 winter wheat accessions from the USDA-ARS Small Grains
 Collection were to be evaluated for their reaction to stem rust in 1990. Only
 100 survived the open winter of 1989-90 at St. Paul, MN and are listed below.
 Although the winter was much above average in temperature, a severe cold
 period for the last two weeks of December with no snow cover was a major
 factor. The accessions which survived could be sources of
 
 winter hardiness. However, all were susceptible to stem rust. Stem rust races
 used for creating the field epidemic were comprised of the following with
 Cereal Rust Laboratory codes: QFBS, QSHS, RHRS, RKQS, RTQQ, and TNMK.
 
 Table 1. Winter wheat accessions from the USDA-ARS Small Grains Collection
 surviving the winter of 1989-90 at St. Paul, MN.
                                                                                                                         
 
  ACNO             ACCULT                       SOURCE         ANCO            ACCULT                      SOURCE
                                                                                                                        
  94463                VALKI EXP STN 38-R-E-MG                 USSR                   254070                                                                                                                                                                                                       USA
  94463                VALKI EXP STN 39-R-E-34                 USSR                   254075                                                                                                                                                                                                       USA
  94466                VALKI EXP STN 41-R-E-MG                 USSR                   254078                                                                                                                                                                                                       USA
  94467                VALKI EXP STN 42-R-E-MG                 USSR                   262577                                                                                                                                                                       MOSKOWSKAYA                     USSR
  94477                VALKI EXP STN 48-A-R-E-34               USSR                   262578                                                                                                                                                                       ULYANOBKA                       USSR
  94478                VALKI EXP STN 49-R-E-MG                 USSR                   262580                                                                                                                                                                       ODESSKAYA 16                    USSR
  94479                VALKI EXP STN 50-R-E-MG                 USSR                   262589                                                                                                                                                                       GORITSKAYA                      USSR
  94484                VALKI EXP STN 57-R-E-MG                 USSR                   262632                                                                                                                                                                       LUTESCENS 1060-10               USSR
  94487                VALKI EXP STN 60-R-E-MG                 USSR                   262635                                                                                                                                                                       KAZACHINSKAYA                   USSR
  94488                VALKI EXP STN 61-R-E-MG                 USSR                   262637                                                                                                                                                                       USI ISHIMSKAYA                  USSR
  94489                VALKI EXP STN 62-R-E-MG                 USSR                   267142                                                                                                                                                                       HOSTIANUM 23F                   USSR
  94493                VALKI EXP STN 75-R-E-MG                 USSR                   267148                                                                                                                                                                       VESELOPODOL YANKAYA             USSR
  94500                VALKI EXP STN 107-R-E-34                USSR                   267151                                                                                                                                                                       VELUTINUM                       USSR
  94501                VALKI EXP STN 127-R-E-34                USSR                   272495                                                                                                                                                                       MILTURUM BABOLNAI 4750          HUNGARY
  94502                VALKI EXP STN 128-R-E-34                USSR                   277112                                                                                                                                                                       LESOSTEPKA 75                   GERMANY
  94504                VALKI EXP STN 131-R-E-34                USSR                   277113                                                                                                                                                                       VOROSILOVSKAJA                  GERMANY
  94507                VALKI EXP STN 136-R-E-34                USSR                   277114                                                                                                                                                                       MOSKOVSKAJA 2453                GERMANY
  94510                VALKI EXP STN 141-R-E-34                USSR                   277115                                                                                                                                                                       ODESSKAJA 12                    GERMANY
  94513                VALKI EXP STN 161-R-E-34                USSR                   294992                                                                                                                                                                       PETROWSKAJA 7                   BULGARIA
  94514                VALKI EXP STN 163-R-E-34                USSR                   294937                                                                                                                                                                       BEZENTSCHUKSKAJA 51             BULGARIA
  94515                VALKI EXP STN 164-R-E-34                USSR                   294999                                                                                                                                                                       BELOZERKOWSKAJA 37              BULGARIA
  94517                VALKI EXP STN 166-R-E-34                USSR                   295346                                                                                                                                                                       ODESSNAJA 21                    USSR
  94519                VALKI EXP STN 168-R-E-34                USSR                   295349                                                                                                                                                                       MILTURUM 321                    USSR
  94522                VALKI EXP STN 171-R-E-34                USSR                   306505                                                                                                                                                                       LUNNIJA 56                      RUMANIA
  94536                VALKI EXP STN 193-R-E-34                USSR                   326301                                                                                                                                                                       ALABASSKAJA                     USSR
  94537                VALKI EXP STN 194-R-E-34                USSR                   326310                                                                                                                                                                       MIRONOVSKAJA 808                USSR
  94541                VALKI EXP STN 201-R-E-34                USSR                   340681                                                                                                                                                                       BORMANS 339                     NETHERLANDS
  94594                SQUARE WHEAT  USSR                      345682                 BAHRATNAJA                      USSR
 119034                1060/10       USSR                      345683                 BELOCERKOVSKAJA 198             USSR
 119133                SHANSI STN203 CHINA                     345699                 STEPNAJA 135                    USSR
 119134                SHANSI STN204 CHINA                     350961                 69Z2.90/7D                      SWITZERLAND
 119135                SHANSI STN204 CHINA                     351176                 MUNSTERTALER                    SWITZERLAND
 119135                SHANSI STN298 CHINA                     418192                 BG-89 (VIR 38298)               USSR
 119138                SHANSI STN1274                          CHINA                   11035                                                                                                                                                                       LOVE H H L11                    CHINA
 124366                NANKING 169   CHINA                      6680                  ASHKOF                          USA WI
 157587                SEO YUC 10                               6938                  KHARKOF MC22                                                                                                                                                                 
 157588                SEU SEUN 1                               7166                  MINGUTA 148                     CHINA
 157597                SEU SEUN 10                              7366                  TURKEY SEL                      USA OR
 157606                TURKEY         8033                     YOGO                            USA MT
 157607                TURKEY         8034                     MINHARDI/MINTURKI               USA MT
  10012                19104C-6-10-1-34                                                8036                                                                                                                                                                        EUREKA/MINHARDI                 USA MT
 192386                RYSTKT 0246   PORTUGAL                   8040                  KANRED/MINHARDI                 USA MT
  10094                NEBRED USA NE  8887                     TURKEY/MINESSA                  USA KS
  10095                1065 TURKEY SEL                         USA NE                  8888                                                                                                                                                                        MINNESOTA 2313(MINARD/MINHARDI) USA MN
  10097                TURKEY 1068   USA NE                     8889                  MINNESOTA 2314(MINARD/MINHARDI) USA MN
 254024                       USA    278463                    KRASNAIA OSTISTAIA              USSR
 254030                       USA    278464                    T 9283 AIV                      USSR
 254036                       USA    278467                    O 237 SARATOV                   USSR
 254044                       USA    278468                    O 329 SARATOV                   USSR
 254053                       USA    124350                    NANKING 433                    CHINA
 
 -------------------------
 
 MISSOURI
 
      E. R. Sears, G. Kimber, J. P. Gustafson, A. L. McKendry, C. G. D.
 Chapman, H. Aswidinnoor, J. Berg, D. Bittel, M. Daud, A. Dera, M.  Feiner, G.
 Henke, K. Houchins, M. Jlibene, S. Madsen, J. V. Monte, K. Ross, D. Tague, M.
 Wanous, R. Wilman, B. Winberg, Z. Zhou
 
      The substitution of T. dicoccoides chromosomes 4B and 5B into Chinese
 Spring has been completed, leaving only three still unfinished.  BC6 of 2B
 has been grown and seed obtained on monosomics; BC6 has been made for 6B; and
 BC2 made for 3A.
 
      Telocentrics 4AS, 6AL, and 2DL are reported by Adam Lukaszewski to
 differ from Chinese Spring in their C-banding.  He has already recovered a
 correct telo-4AS from CS, and a search is under way at Missouri for
 replacements for the other two.
 
      The use of autotetraploids in the genomic and evolutionary analysis of
 the wheat group continues.  In particular, the genomic relationships of the
 S- genome species, which are the closest to the B genome of T. aestivum, have
 yielded new information on the relative evolutionary divergence of this
 group.
 
      The U genome of T. ovatum, which had previously been found to show
 evidence of substantial differentiation, was also reinvestigated.  It was
 shown that the U genome of accessions of T. ovatum collected where they are
 sympatric to their diploid relative and U-genome donor, T. umbellulatum, do
 not demonstrate substantial genomic change.  It is concluded that continued
 introgression between these species has assisted in the maintenance of the
 pivotal status of this genome.
 
      A qualitative effect of an accessory chromosome of T. tripsacoides in
 hybrids deficient for chromosome 3D was demonstrated.
 
      The 1990 Missouri Wheat Crop.  Missouri's 1990 wheat crop was harvested
 from 2,000,000 acres, up from a harvested acreage of 1,850,000 acres for
 1989.  The state-wide average yield of 38 bushels acre-1, was down from 47
 bushels acre-1 reported for the 1989 crop year and resulted in a state
 production of 76,000 bushels.
 
      Significant winter injury and/or freeze damage occurred at Columbia and
 in the southern region of the state due to sub-zero December temperatures
 without adequate snow cover and spring freezes at these locations.  Generally
 cooler than normal temperatures persisted throughout much of the growing
 season.  Rainfall was well above normal and resulted in significant disease
 infections of powdery mildew, septoria leaf blotch and septoria glume blotch.
 In addition, conditions during flowering resulted in wide-spread scab
 infections, particularly in early varieties.  Disease levels significantly
 impacted grain yield and test weight throughout much of the state.
 
      Small Grains Breeding: The small grains breeding project had studies
 underway in 1990 to evaluate the impact of Septoria tritici on yield and its
 components, to identify from among the wild relatives of wheat, sources of
 resistance to this pathogen and to introgress these resistance genes into
 commercial soft red winter wheats.  A total of 20 out of 291 wild wheat
 accessions were found to be resistant to S. tritici, (Saari-Prescott rating <
 1.0).  Of the accessions screened, resistance was found primarily among
 accessions of Triticum tauschii and T. speltoides.  Direct hybrids were
 obtained between hexaploid wheat and T. tauschii accession 2377 (Kansas State
 Collection), as well as accessions TS62-2, TS88-4 and TS61-2 of T. speltoides
 (Missouri Collection) and are currently in backcross programs to reconstitute
 the recurrent parent.
 
      Field studies on yield losses in commercial cultivars as a function of
 timing of S. tritici disease development indicated that losses were highest
 (31.7%) when disease development occurred at heading.  The ratio of percent
 yield loss to percent canopy infection identified genotypic differences
 within resistant and susceptible classes.
 
      Other studies are currently underway to investigate the impact of
 wheat-rye translocations and substitutions on yield, disease resistance and
 quality of soft red winter wheat cultivars.
 
       Cytogenetics: Progress is being made in the creation of a new
 ditelocentric series in the spring wheat BH1146.  It is hoped that this
 series will add considerable information about the genetic of a wheat highly
 tolerant to aluminum.  This is a continuation of the project to study the
 genetics of aluminum tolerance in wheat as influenced by alien genes.
 
      Work continues to progress on physically mapping genes and restriction
 fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) to chromosomes of wheat, rye, and rice.
 At the present time, RFLPs as small as .9 kb in size.  Differences between
 genetic and physical distances have been noted for several species.  In some
 cases there appears to be large parts of chromosomes that are void of any
 known marker.
 
      Genome-specific DNA sequences for T. tauschii have been isolated and
 characterized.  These sequences do not cross-hybridize with either the A or D
 genomes.  It appears that there is T. tauschii DNA present on all seven of
 the B-genome chromosomes.  However, this does not mean that DNA from other
 genomes has not also been introgressed into the B genome.
 
      An RFLP map for rye is being developed from a Pst1 genomic library of
 the rye variety Imperial.  In addition, wheat, rye, and rice are being
 screened for the presence of hypervariable minisatellite DNA sequences.
 
      Visitors in 1990.  H. Guedes Pinto, G. Butnaru, C. Taylor and C. Crane.
 
      In response to inquiries, the National Plant Germplasm System, USDA/ARS,
 will continue to maintain and distribute the Sears Aneuploid and Genetic
 Stock Collections from Columbia, Missouri.  Requests should be directed to J.
 P. Gustafson, Curtis Hall, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211
 USA.  Telephone: 314-882-7318; FAX 314-875-5359.
 
                                 Publications
 
 Yen, Y. and Kimber, G.  1989.  A triploid hybrid between autotetraploid
 Triticum longissimum and T. speltoides.  Cereal Res. Commun. 17:259-264.
 
 Yen, Y. and Kimber, G.  1990.  Meiotic behaviour of induced autotetraploids
 in Triticum L.  Genome 33:302-307.
 
 Yen, Y. and Kimber, G.  1990.  Production and meiotic analysis of
 autotriploid Triticum speltoides and T. bicorne.  Theoretical and Applied
 Genetics 79:525- 528.
 
 Yen, Y. and Kimber G.  1990.  Reinvestigation of the S genome in Triticum
 kotschyi.  Genome 30:521-524.
 
 Kimber, G. and Yen, Y.  1990.  The genomic analysis of diploid plants.  Proc.
 Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87:3205-3209.
 
 Yen, Y. and Kimber, G.  1990. Genomic relationships of Triticum sharonense
 with other S-genome diploid Triticum species. Jour. Plant Breeding 104:53-57.
 
 Yen, Y. and Kimber, G.  1990.  Genomic relationships of Triticum searsii with
 other S-genome diploid Triticum species.  Genome 33:369-373.
 
 Yen, Y. and Kimber, G.  1990.  The U-genome in Triticum ovatum from Turkey.
 Cereal Res. Comm. 18:13-19.
 
 Chapman, C. G. D. and Kimber, G.  1990.  A qualitative phenotypic effect of
 accessory chromosomes of Triticum tripsacoides.  Cereal Res. Comm.
 18:239-242.
 
 Kephart, K. D., A. L. McKendry, D. N. Tague, J. E. Berg, C. L. Hoenshell and
 R. C. Wilkins.  1990.  1990 Missouri winter wheat performance tests.  Ag.
 Exp. Station Special Report No. 416.
 
 Kephart, K. D., A. L. McKendry, D. N. Tague, J. E. Berg.  1990.  Missouri
 spring oat performance tests.  Ag. Exp. Station Special Report No. 420.
 
 Gustafson, J. P., Butler, E. and McIntyre, C. L.  1990.  Physical mapping of
 low-copy DNA sequences in rye (Secale cereale L.).  Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.,
 U.S.A.  87:1899-1902.
 
 Gustafson, J. P. and Ross, K.  1990.  Control of alien gene expression for
 aluminum tolerance in wheat.  Genome 33:9-12.
 
 Dillé, J. E., Bittel, D. C., Ross, K. and Gustafson, J. P.  1990.
 Preparing plant chromosomes for scanning electron microscopy.  Genome
 33:333-339.
 
 Gustafson, J. P.  1990.  Gene Manipulation in Plant Improvement II.  Plenum
 Press.
 
 Petrovic, S., Gustafson, J. P. and Dera, A. R.  1990.  "Alien Genes" in NS
 wheat varieties.  In Yugoslavian Wheat Symposium, Novi Sad, Yugoslavia, July,
 1989.  In press.
 
 Aswidinnoor, H., Dallas, J. F., McIntyre, C. L. and Gustafson, J. P.  1990.
 Species-specific repetitive DNA sequences as markers in rice backcross
 breeding programs.  2nd Intl. Rice Genet. Symp.  Manila, Philippines.  May
 14-18.  In press.
 
 Gustafson, J. P., McIntyre, C. L. and Dillé, J. E.  1990.  Physical
 mapping rice restriction fragment length polymorphisms.  2nd Intl. Rice
 Genet. Symp.  Manila, Philippines.  May 14-18.  In press.
 
 Bittel, D. C., Bernardo, A., Hueros, G., Jouve, N. and Gustafson, J. P.
 1990.  Cambios en la expresion genica en trigos conteniendo el brazo corto
 del cromosoma 1R de centeno.  XXV Jornadas de Genetica Luso-Espanoles.
 Alcala de Heneres, Spain.  October 18-20.  In press.
 
 Gustafson, J. P. and Bittel, D. C.  1990.  Chromosome engineering and alien
 gene expression in wheat and triticale.  2nd Intl. Symp. on Triticale.  Passo
 Fundo, Brazil.  October 1-5.  In press.
 
 Bittel, D. C. and Gustafson, J. P.  1990.  Wheat storage proteins for the
 improvement of triticale.  2nd Intl. Symp. on Triticale.  Passo Fundo,
 Brazil.  October 1-5.  In press.
 
 Jlibene, M. and Gustafson, J. P.  1990.  The identification of a
 gibberellic-acid-insensitive gene in Secale cereale.  J. Plant Breed.  In
 press.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Winter Wheat Breeding, Montana State University, Bozeman
      E.A. Hockett, T. Kisha
 
      Personnel Changes.  G. Allan Taylor is on a two year assignment with
 US-AID in Morocco starting in August of 1990.  E.A. (Gene) Hockett, long time
 barley breeder and geneticist with USDA-ARS, agreed to assume the winter
 wheat breeding duties for Montana during this time period, after retiring
 from ARS August 15, 1990.  Ted Kisha, Research Associate with the winter
 wheat breeding program since 1985, is leaving for Michigan State University
 to pursue a Ph.D.
 
 
      1990 Wheat Crop.  Montana`s 1990 wheat crop is estimated at 145.9
 million bushels, just over that of the 1989 crop (Montana Agricultural
 Statistics Service).  Winter wheat harvested from 2.5 million acres produced
 87.5 million bushels with an average of 35.0 Bu/A.  Spring wheat harvested
 from 2.45 million acres, produced 53.9 million bushels and averaged 22.0
 Bu/A.  Durum wheat harvested from 235,000 acres produced 4.47 million bushels
 averaging 19.0 bu/A.
 
      Neeley led the state in percent seeded acreage of winter wheat in 1990,
 up 2.5% from 1989 (Table 2.).  This represents an increase of over 100,000
 acres.  Redwin declined by over 5% in total seeded acreage from the 1989
 winter wheat crop, but this was expected as Tiber (a selection out of Redwin)
 increased its percentage from 1.9 to 9.4, an increase of over 200,000 acres.
 The combined acreage of Redwin and Tiber increased 2%, up almost 100,000
 acres from 1989.  Seed acreage of Rocky fell from 12.0% to 10.4% in 1990, a
 reduction of 19,000 acres.  This may have been a result of the relatively
 lower winterhardiness level of Rocky compared to Neeley and Redwin, combined
 with the severe winter of 1989 which resulted in high winterkill.
 
 Breeding Program
      a.  Tiber (PI 517194), a selection form Redwin has performed well in a
 wide array of growing environments, including the drought of 1988.
  About 253,000 acres were planted in the fall of 1990, up from 47,200 acres
 in 1989.
 
      b.  Judith (MT 8039) was released to Montana Seed Growers as 18,000
 bushels of foundation seed in the fall of 1989.  This HRWW is a high-
 yielding semidwarf wheat with shatter and lodging resistance. It is resistant
 to stem rust, stripe rust, bacterial leaf blight and the leaf spotting
 disease complex.  Judith is the winter wheat we have identified having both
 early maturity and a reasonable level of winterhardiness.  It is 3-4 days
 earlier then Neeley, Redwin and Tiber, with winterhardiness similar to Redwin
 and Tiber.
 
      Judith is the first recommended HRWW to equal or surpass Neeley in grain
 yield.
      
       All generations of head row, line row and breeder's seed of Judith are
 planted at Bozeman for observation and harvest in 1991. In addition, new head
 rows were selected in 1990 and planted.  This effort is designed to obtain
 new breeders and foundation seed which does not contain the off-types found
 in the 1990 registered seed fields.
 
      c.  MT 88062, MT 88064 and MT 88065 are stripe rust/dwarf smut resistant
 lines.  If field reactions to dwarf smut occur in 1991 a decision
  will be made during the winter of 1991-92 concerning release as a new
 variety.  MT 88064 performs best for yield in 1990.
 
      d.  Hard White Winter Wheat.  MT 7811 is an MAES HWWW line which has
 been thoroughly tested for agronomic and quality characteristics.  Pacific
 Rim buyers of Montana wheat like the quality characteristics of MT 7811 (see
 previous Reports to MW&BC from MSU and from US Wheat-Portland).  In 1982
 eight US companies which buy and mill Montana wheat approved of the milling
 and baking qualities of MT 7811.  More recently, General Mills of Los Angles
 reported that MT 7811 performed very well in all tests conducted with the
 8,000 bushels purchased and processed in 1989.
 
      Line rows of MT 7811 were planted in Bozeman in the fall of 1989 for
 harvest in 1990.  These rows were not harvested because of mixtures comprised
 of red seeds.  Head selections were made from MT 7811 and planted in 1990 for
 evaluation and harvest in 1991.  If pure headrows of hard white lines can be
 obtained, line rows will be grown in 1991 - 1992 for harvest and bulking as
 breeder's seed.  MT 7811 could then be released to foundation seed growners
 in the 1992 - 93 season.
 
      Several hundred HWWW lines have advanced to the MAES Winterhardiness
 Trial which is planted at three Montana locations.  These are being evaluated
 for yield, protein, and mixograph charactersistics and will be advanced to
 the preliminary evaluation (PE) nursery next year. Two HWWW's are in the 1991
 PE and two are being evaluated from the 1990 PE.  Nine HWWW's are being
 evaluated from the 1990 Intrastate nursery.
 
      The most promising selections of these nine for yield are MT 88013, MT
 88017, MT 88018, and MT 88021.
 
      e.  Sawfly Resistant Winter Wheat Lines. More than 2,000 HRWW F5 lines
 selected for stem solidness were planted at Bozeman in 1989; 515 F5 lines
 were planted at the Conrad Research Center by Dr. Greg Kushnak. The Bozeman
 lines were re-evaluated in 1990 and almost 900 were planted with the 1991
 winterhardiness nursery. The 1990 harvested seed will be analyzed for protein
 and mixograph characteristics and those failing the mixograph test will be
 eliminated.  A selection of solid stemmed lines will then move into the 1992
 Preliminary Evaluation (PE) nursery.  Seventy of the F5 lines from the 515
 planted at Conrad with the highest ranking solid stem scores were moved to a
 Sawfly PE nursery and planted at all the research centers (excluding
 Kalispell) in fall of 1990.  These selections will be evaluated and moved
 into a 1992-93 nursery.
 
      It was decided to not release a "stop gap" cultivar such as MT 88005,
 but to make the development of a superior sawfly resistant cultivar the
 number- one priority of the winter wheat breeding project.
 
      f.  Twenty-eight hard red winter wheat selections (in addition to the
 three dwarf smut selections) are being evaluated in the 1990
     intrastate nursery.  The best selections for yield in 1990 are MT 8502,
 MT 88029, MT 85200, and MT 88030.  The table below shows agronomic data for
 these four selections.
 
 Table 4.      1990 Intrastate Average at 7 Locations
             Yield    Test Wt   Head      Plant  Winter 
 Entry       Bu/A      Lb/Bu    Date     Height Hardiness1
 _______________________________________________________________________
 502          62.6   59.6    166.7       37.1    3 (2)
 Neeley       62.1   58.7    169.5       39.2  
 MT 88029     61.3   59.1    166.9       39.1    3 (1)
 MT 85200     60.7   56.3    164.8       34.5    4 (2)
 MT 88030     59.9   61.1    166.2       38.1      (1)
 Redwin       57.0   60.5    168.4       40.0    3          
 _______________________________________________________________________
     1.  No. of observations in parenthesis, winterhardiness score is 1 - 5
 with 5 being very hardy.
 
     g.  Hybrid Wheat.  Only Hybritech (Monsanto) continues to enter winter
 wheat hybrids in MAES trials.  Both hybrids Quantum 542 and 546 performed
 well in most field trials.  QT 542 was recommended by the Variety
 Recommendation Committee in January 1991.
 
 -------------------------
 
       University of Nebraska and USDA-ARS, Lincoln
 
       P. S. Baenziger*, C. J. Peterson* (USDA-ARS), D. R. Shelton*, R. A.
 Graybosch* (USDA-ARS), M. R. Morris*, L. A. Nelson*, D. D.  Baltensperger*,
 D. J. Lyons*, G. L. Hein*, and R. Simonson
 
 Growing Conditions and Production.  The 1990 Nebraska wheat crop was highly
 variable.  The fall planting season was generally dry and most growers were
 able to plant near optimum times.  The winter had a few sharp and bitter cold
 periods, but the crop generally survived the cold with little winterkilling.
 The spring season began with minimally adequate moisture, but due to cool
 temperatures, the wheat crop grew well.  The cool spring season increased the
 symptoms of wheat soilborne mosaic virus in southeastern Nebraska.  In early
 summer most of the state experienced severe heat, often combined with
 drought.  In many areas the heat and drought prematurely ended grain fill.
 In these heat and drought stressed areas, low test weight was a severe
 quality problem.  In other parts of the state, rains came just before and
 during harvest which produced weathered grain.  In areas of adequate
 rainfall, foliar diseases were significant (mainly powdery mildew, leaf rust,
 leaf blotches, and some stem rust).  In western Nebraska, Russian wheat aphid
 was prevalent and many fields were sprayed.
 
      The estimated wheat production for Nebraska is 85,500,000 bushels from
 2,250,000 harvested acres with an average yield of 38 bushels/acre.  This
 production level was very close to the five year average, but significantly
 better than 1989 when the wheat yield for Nebraska was 27 bushels per acre
 from 2,050,000 acres for a total production of 55,350,000 bushels.
 
      Siouxland continued as the most widely grown cultivar in 1990 (18.7% of
 the total acreage).  Redland was the second most widely grown variety (15.2%
 of the total acreage).  As Redland is a selection from Brule (9.4% of the
 total acreage), Redland and Brule were the most popular varietal group in
 Nebraska.
 
 -------------------------
 
 
      P. S. Baenziger, C. J. Peterson, D. R. Shelton, D. D. Baltensperger, D.
 V. McVey, J. H. Hatchett
 
      Cultivar and Germplasm Releases:
 
      NE83498 was developed by the University of Nebraska and the USDA-ARS and
 jointly released with South Dakota State University as 'Rawhide'.  Its pedi-
 gree is Warrior*5/Agent//Kavkaz/4/Parker*4/ Agent//Beloterkovskaia
 198/Lancer/3/Vona.  Rawhide has performed well in areas which favor a
 medium-early wheat.  Its earliness makes it attractive for southern Nebraska
 and in areas where an early maturing wheat is needed to complement later
 maturing wheats.  It seems to have fairly good tolerance to heat and drought
 stress which often tend to favor early wheats. In five years of testing in
 the Nebraska Intrastate Nursery, its yield is similar to Siouxland, less than
 Arapahoe, and superior to Redland and Colt.  It has good winterhardiness and
 has a medium height (is a semidwarf) with moderately strong straw.  It is
 moderately resistant to the currently prevalent races of stem rust (contains
 Sr17, Sr24, and/or Sr31), and moderately resistant to Hessian fly.  It is
 susceptible to leaf rust, wheat soilborne mosaic virus, and wheat streak
 mosaic virus.  It has good test weight characteristics, superior to Redland
 and similar to Siouxland.  It has acceptable intrinsic quality with slightly
 higher protein than Brule or Redland.
 
      Three lines are being proposed for germplasm release and have been
 submitted to the USDA National Small Grains Collection.  All three lines had
 been tested extensively in Nebraska and in regional performance nurseries.
 
      NE82438 (P.I. 537261, HiPlains/Wings/3/Parker*4/Agent// Beloterkovskaia
 198/Lancer) in Nebraska is a late, semi-dwarf wheat with good straw strength
 and winterhardiness.  It is resistant to stem rust (contains genes Sr6 and
 Sr24).  It expresses the heterogeneous reaction to Hessian fly (Great Plains
 biotype) which is believed to indicate the Marquillo-Kawvale genes for
 resistance.  It is moderately susceptible to leaf rust, and is susceptible to
 wheat streak mosaic virus and to wheat soilborne mosaic virus.  It has good
 baking and milling quality.  It has less than average thousand kernel weight
 and an average test weight.  It has been tested extensively in Nebraska and
 in the Northern Regional Performance Nursery for two years (1987 and 1988).
 In 1988 in the Northern Regional Performance Nursery, it was the highest
 yielding line.  When compared to 'Arapahoe', NE82438 has yielded 2% less in
 regional trials (41 environments) and 11% less in Nebraska (14 environments).
 Due to its lateness in Nebraska, it was unsuitable for release as a variety.
 
      NE82533 (P.I. 537262, KS73167/Agate//Sage sib) in Nebraska is a
 medium-early, high tillering, semi-dwarf wheat with good straw strength and
 winter- hardiness.  It is resistant to stem rust (having genes Sr17 and Sr24)
 and moderately resistant to soilborne mosaic virus.  It is susceptible to
 leaf rust and wheat streak mosaic virus.  It expresses the heterogeneous
 reaction with most plants being susceptible to Hessian fly (Great Plains
 biotype) which is believed to indicate that some plants contain the
 Marquillo-Kawvale genes for resistance.  NE82533 has good baking and milling
 quality.  It has average thousand kernel weight and test weight.  It has been
 tested extensively in Nebraska and in the Southern Regional Performance
 Nursery for two years (1987 to 1988, 60 environments).  When compared to
 'TAM105', a regional check, NE82533 has yielded 8% less.  In Nebraska,
 NE82533 has yielded 6% less than Arapahoe (14 environments).  While having
 good yield characteristics in parts of Nebraska where earliness and
 resistance to soilborne mosaic virus are important, its overall performance
 did not warrant release as a variety.
 
      NE84557 (P.I. 536263, Warrior/Scout//MoW6811/3/Agate sib/4/
 NE68457/Centurk) in Nebraska is a medium-late, medium-tall (conventional
 height) wheat with good straw strength and winterhardiness.  It is resistant
 to stem rust (having genes Sr6, Sr17, and Sr24) and moderately resistant to
 moderately susceptible to wheat soilborne mosaic virus.  It expresses the
 heterogeneous reaction with most plant being susceptible to Hessian fly
 (Great Plains biotype) which is believed to indicate that some plants contain
 the Marquillo-Kawvale genes for resistance.  NE84557 is very susceptible to
 wheat streak mosaic virus, and moderately susceptible to leaf rust.  It has
 excellent milling and baking quality.  It has an average thousand kernel
 weight and good test weight.  It has been tested extensively in Nebraska and
 in the Southern Regional Performance Nursery for two years (1988 to 1989, 54
 environments).  When compared to 'TAM105', a regional check, NE84557 has
 yielded 2% less.  In Nebraska, NE84557 has yielded 5% less than Arapahoe (18
 environments).  NE84557 has a good yield record for a high quality,
 conventional height wheat and would have been considered for possible
 cultivar release had it not been very susceptible to wheat streak mosaic
 virus.  An alternative and unplanned use for NE84557 would be as an indicator
 line for the presence of wheat streak mosaic virus.
 
 -------------------------
 
      R. L. Simonson, J. Rybczynski, P. S. Baenziger
 
 Wheat Anther Culture.  The wheat anther culture program is continuing to
 progress, using improved media developed last year.  Anthers from the spring
 wheat cultivar 'Pavon 76' when placed on the optimum medium are able to
 produce 1.5 embryoids (or polyembryoids) from each anther.  Approximately 35%
 of the embryoids (or polyembryoids) are able to regenerate green plants.
 Under conditions which favor polyembryoids an average of almost four plants
 are regenerated per polyembryoid.  Anthers from two winter wheat crosses (Ram
 x Siouxland and NE83404 x Colt) were used in anther culture to develop
 doubled haploid populations for breeding methodology experiments.  Using the
 techniques optimized for Pavon 76, only about one embryoid that regenerated a
 plant is produced per 100 anthers plated.  We also repeated our genetic
 segregation experiment with the blue aleurone trait.  It continued to
 segregate 1:1 as expected.  In addition, all of the regenerated plants were
 blue seeded or non-blue seeded indicating that they were exclusively derived
 from microspores.  As no chimeric plants were identified, microspore derived
 embryoids did not fuse to form 'chimeric' plants.
 
      Jan Rybczynski, a visiting scientist from Poland sponsored by the
 International Atomic Energy Agency, completed a comprehensive study on wheat
 mor- phogenesis in anther culture.  The objective was to describe and
 quantify the events leading to callus or embryoid, and plant formation; and
 identify poten- tial stages for improving wheat anther culture.  His study
 highlighted the responsiveness of Pavon 76 on our optimized culture system.
 Under our growth chamber growing conditions, each anther contains about 1200
 microspores.  In the first few days of culture, approximately 31% undergo
 nuclear division in responsive anthers (33% of the plated anthers).  After 21
 days in culture for responding anthers, an average of 67 multicellular
 structures were formed.  The range was from 1 to 262 multicellular
 structures.  However, at 42 days in culture, only 3.7 embryoids were formed
 per responsive anther.  When measured by the number of anthers that produced
 embryoids at 42 days, only 16.7% of the plated anthers were responsive.  The
 embryoids germinated normally when placed on regeneration medium.  When the
 embryoids were left on initiation medium for extended periods of time,
 adventitious embryoids formed on the embryoid.  Within an anther, the
 morphogenic stages were very asynchronous among multicellular structures.
 This asynchrony is believed to hinder the development of an optimal medium
 for a particular embryogenic stage.
 
 -------------------------
 
      T. G. Berke, P. S. Baenziger, M. R. Morris
 
 Reciprocal Chromosome Substitution Lines.  The analysis of the reciprocal
 chromosome substitution lines between Wichita and Cheyenne hard red winter
 wheat grown in eight environments from 1987 to 1989 for agronomic performance
 was completed in 1990.  Our interest in this germplasm is that Wichita was a
 popular cultivar in Kansas in the 1950's and Cheyenne is the foundation of
 the USDA-ARS/University of Nebraska wheat breeding program (coefficient of
 parentage of 0.422 with Colt and 0.431 with Siouxland).  Hence this germplasm
 is agronomically adapted to the hard red winter wheat region (as opposed to
 Chinese Spring derivative cytogenetic stocks) and chromosomal effects are
 expected to be pertinent to our current breeding program.  Numerous
 chromosomes were identified that affected yield, the components of yield,
 test weight, plant height, and anthesis date.  Of these chromosomes, 3A and
 6A were the most interesting.  When 3A or 6A from Wichita was substituted for
 its respective Cheyenne chromosome in Cheyenne, the substitution chromosome
 lines yielded approximately 15% more than Cheyenne (mainly due to increased
 seed weight).  In the reciprocal case, when 3A or 6A from Cheyenne was
 substituted for its respective Wichita chromosome in Wichita, the
 substitution lines yielded approximately 15% less than Wichita (mainly due to
 reduced tillering).  These yield and yield component changes did not appear
 to be caused by changes in anthesis date.
 
      Using the data from six of the above eight environments (1988-1989), the
 chromosomal effect on environmental stability (using the Eberhart-Russell
 regression model) was determined.  In this experiment, we identified
 chromosomes that affected the stability of a character, but not the mean
 performance value for that character and vice versa.  In addition,
 chromosomes that affected both the stability and mean performance value of
 the character were identified.
 
      On the basis of this study, the performance value for and stability of
 important agronomic characters, which are usually assumed to be
 quantitatively inherited, can be explained by chromosome effects.
 Recombinant chromosome lines are being developed for chromosomes of interest.
 
 -------------------------
      A. Masrizal and P. S. Baenziger
 
      EMS Treatment of Immature Embryos and Immature Embryo Callus.  The
 objective of this study was to determine the somatic response curve for
 different doses of EMS mutagen treatment of immature embryos and of calluses
 derived from immature embryos from two spring wheat cultivars.  Somatic
 response was measured as the ability of the treated immature embryo to
 initiate callus, or for the treated callus to continue to grow.  Using a
 regression of somatic response on EMS dose, it was determined that both
 tissues responded to the EMS treatment with remarkable similarity.  In
 addition, the somatic responses for treated immature embryos and treated
 callus was similar to published reports of somatic responses for treated
 seed.  Unfortunately, time did not permit the regenerated plants to be
 studied for genetic mutations.
 
 -------------------------
      C. J. Peterson (USDA-ARS)
                                        
      Closing of the International Winter Wheat Performance Nursery Program.
 The International Winter Wheat Performance Nursery (IWWPN) was initiated in
 1968 by the USDA-ARS and University of Nebraska wheat research group under
 contract with the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID).  Dr.
 Virgil Johnson, USDA-ARS, organized the nursery program as a unique mechanism
 for international germplasm and information exchange, and for evaluation of
 varietal performance and adaptation.  Since the close of the AID contract in
 1981, USDA-ARS has provided funds and leadership to continue the program.
 This last August, seed for the 23rd IWWPN was distributed to 73 programs in
 32 countries for evaluation.  Regretfully, the 23rd IWWPN will also be the
 last in this long running program.  This year the IWWPN program reached a
 critical point where increasing operational costs could not be covered by
 existing funds and the USDA-ARS was forced to abandon the program.
 
      The IWWPN has provided significant information on world wide adaptation,
 performance, and disease resistances of very diverse varieties and germplasm
 from international research programs.  Through the 23 years of the program,
 300 winter wheats and 3 triticales have been distributed and evaluated.  The
 nursery has been the focus for a number of research publications dealing with
 yield trends, zones of adaptation, grain protein, end-use quality, and
 disease resistance.  While it is difficult to measure the total impact of the
 nursery, the germplasm distributed has contributed significantly to
 development of new varieties and germplasm in the U.S. as well as many
 foreign countries.  The IWWPN has played an important role in promoting and
 increasing international scientific cooperation and exchange that will have
 lasting impact on the world wheat community.  We wish to thank the many
 collaborators involved with the nursery program for all of their efforts,
 cooperation, and excellent management of the nursery trials.
 
      Relationships Among Test Sites in the Hard Red Winter Wheat Region.
 Regional performance nurseries have provided significant information to
 breeders on adaptation characteristics of cultivars.  However, utilization of
 information from these programs has been hindered by lack of understanding of
 relationship among test sites in terms of intra-regional zones for crop
 adaptation.  Thirty years of wheat yield data from the Southern and Northern
 Regional Performance Nurseries (SRPN and NRPN, resp.) were analyzed using
 principal factor analysis as a means to define relationships among test sites
 in the Great Plains hard red winter wheat growing area.  Six factors
 adequately accounted for 55% of the variability among SRPN locations based on
 average correlations of cultivar yields over years.  Four location factor
 groups essentially divided the central plains region on north-south,
 east-west axes, representing the south-central plains, north central plains,
 southern high plains, and central high plains areas.  Five factors were used
 to group test sites in the NRPN, accounting for 55% of the variation in the
 correlation dependence structure.  Variation in winterhardiness requirements
 for wheat production in the northern and central plains areas appeared to
 have significant influence on test site relationships.  Factor analysis was
 used effectively to further investigate site relationships within three and
 two of the larger location groups in the SRPN and NRPN, respectively.
 Relationships among sites and areas of adaptation indicated by factor
 analysis were interpretable in terms of general stresses associated with
 wheat production in the region.
 
 
      C. J. Peterson (USDA-ARS), R. A. Graybosch (USDA-ARS), P. S. Baenziger,
 A. W. Grombacher
 
      Relative Influences of Environment and Cultivar on Quality Attributes of
 Hard Red Winter Wheat: Improvement in wheat end-use quality depends on
 thorough understanding of the influences of environment, genotype, and their
 interaction.  Eighteen hard red winter wheat cultivars were grown in
 replicated trials at six locations in Nebraska and one site in Arizona, both
 in 1988 and 1989.  Harvested grain was micromilled to produce flour samples
 for evaluation of protein concentration, mixing characteristics, and SDS
 sedimentation.  Kernel hardness was determined by microscopic evaluation of
 individual kernels.  Cultivar, environment, and interaction effects were
 found to significantly influence variation in all quality parameters.
 Variances of quality characteristics associated with environmental effects
 were generally larger than those for genetic factors.  The magnitude of GxE
 effects were found to be of similar magnitude to genetic factors for mixing
 tolerance and kernel hardness, but were smaller for flour protein
 concentration, mixing time, and SDS sedimentation value.  Significant
 differences among cultivar responses (b values) were observed in the
 regressions of cultivar mean on locations mean for each quality parameter.
 There were few instances of significant deviations from regression.  Positive
 correlations between cultivar grand mean and cultivar b values for flour
 protein, mixing time, and mixing tolerance suggests that simultaneous
 improvement in both mean and stability for these traits may be difficult.
 Based on these results, environmental influences on end-use quality
 attributes should be an important consideration in cultivar improvement
 efforts toward enhancing marketing quality of hard red winter wheat.
 
 -------------------------
 
      R. A. Graybosch (USDA-ARS), C. J. Peterson (USDA-ARS), D. R. Shelton
 
      Comparative Quality Effects of 1BL/1RS and 1AL/1RS Translocations.  The
 quality effects of 1BL/1RS and 1AL/1RS in a common genetic background were
 investigated.  We obtained the following number of lines from the cross
 'Siouxland' (1BL/1RS) / TX81V6610 (1AL/1RS): 10 1BL/1RS, 13 1AL/1RS, 4 with
 both 1AL/1RS and 1BL/1RS (DT lines), and 5 with no rye chromosomes present
 ("Normal" lines).  Lines were grown in Vernon, Texas and in Lincoln,
 Nebraska, in 1990.  In both locations, the DT lines exceeded all other lines
 in grain protein content.  SDS sedimentation and mixograph tolerance scores
 differed significantly among the classes, with Normal > 1AL/1RS > 1BL/1RS >
 DT lines for both scores.  For mixograph time, 1BL/1RS > 1AL/1RS = Normal >
 DT lines.  Specific SDSS scores (SDSS volume / flour protein content)
 decreased in the order Normal > 1AL/1RS > 1BL/1RS > DT.  Thus, Normal and
 1AL/1RS wheats realize a more rapid increase in SDSS volume per unit protein
 than 1BL/1RS and DT lines.  Our results confirm the suspicion that 1AL/1RS
 translocations are less detrimental to quality than 1BL/1RS.  The presence of
 both translocations together in DT lines was extremely detrimental to SDSS
 and mixograph scores.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Jai-Heon Lee, R. A. Graybosch (USDA-ARS), C. J. Peterson (USDA-ARS)
 
      Improving the Quality of 1RS Wheats.  Approximately 650 lines derived
 from 14 experimental breeding populations were screened for the presence of
 1RS.  Quality attributes (SDS sedimentation volume, mixograph parameters and
 flour protein content) are presently being measured.  To date, three
 populations have been completed.  Using Siouxland as a reference, 1BL/1RS
 lines with improved dough strength and SDSS volumes have been obtained from
 populations derived from crosses with the strong gluten wheat 'Plainsman V',
 and with the experimental line 'NEW 66.1.8'.  The latter was derived from a
 cross between 'Newton' and a synthetic allohexaploid produced via crosses
 between Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops squarrosa.  1BL/1RS lines derived
 from the cross Siouxland/Sumner all were of poor quality.  Improved quality
 1BL/1RS lines appear to occur at a very low frequency.
 
 -------------------------
      R. A. Graybosch (USDA-ARS)
 
      Frequency of HMW Glutenin Subunit Alleles Among U.S. HRWW and SRWW.  HMW
 glutenin subunit composition was determined for 300 U.S. HRW and SRW wheats
 and parental lines.  Allelic frequencies, examined in relation to date of
 release, are listed below.  In both classes, a steady increase in the
 frequency of 1D-encoded subunits 5+10 has occurred.
 
 -------------------------
      D. R. Shelton
 
      Selecting Nebraska Wheats for Processing Needs of Domestic and Foreign
 Markets.  The timely analyses of wheat samples in their early generations
 allows the breeder to make selections that emphasize quality traits that will
 yield hard red winter wheat varieties of superior milling and baking quality.
 Between harvest and planting, a time span of seven weeks, 1266 samples were
 analyzed for quality traits.  Early generation evaluations included milling
 performance on the Quadrumat Jr. flour mill, flour moisture and protein
 content, and dough mixing characteristics as determined by the mixograph.
 These rapid screens allow the breeder to more effectively discard inferior
 lines and focus on those with greatest potential for maintaining Nebraska's
 reputation for superior quality wheats.  Later in the year an additional 566
 wheat and flour samples were similarly analyzed.
 
      Milling properties of later generation samples were determined using the
 Buhler laboratory mill.  The 246 samples were evaluated for flour moisture,
 ash, and protein content, and dough properties by mixograph.  Kernel hardness
 was evaluated by microscopic examination.  Flour samples of 100 gm were
 experimentally baked using the straight dough method and evaluated for
 external appearance and internal crumb color, grain and texture.
 
      A study of 74 lines derived from the variety 'Arapahoe' was initiated to
 assess impact of variability for hard and soft kernel characteristics found
 within the variety.  Analyses for this study will include kernel hardness,
 milling performance, flour protein content, and mixograph evaluation.
 
 -------------------------
      D. J. Lyon, D. D. Baltensperger, G. L. Hein
 
      Winter Annual Grass Weed Control in Winter Wheat Production Systems.
 Wheat heavily infested with jointed goatgrass is often docked at the elevator
 and reduced to feed grade quality.  Jointed goatgrass spikelets fed to cattle
 may be dispersed by the animals or through the spread of manure on fields.
 The objective of this research was to determine if cattle would voluntarily
 eat jointed goatgrass spikelets, and if so would they be able to pass through
 the cattle's digestive systems in a viable state and thus pose a potential
 dissemination problem.  Wheat contaminated with jointed goatgrass spikelets
 was mixed with chopped hay and fed to four fistulate steers.  The feeding was
 repeated three times with increasing rates of jointed goatgrass spikelets
 (0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 kg/steer, respectively).  Rumen and fecal samples were
 collected at 24, 36, and 48 h after feeding.  Cattle consumed all jointed
 goatgrass spikelets fed.  Seventy-five percent of the seed collected in
 either the rumen or the feces was viable, although only 24% germinated within
 the first five days.  This high rate of viability suggests that cattle fed
 jointed goatgrass contaminated wheat may act as a seed dispersal mechanism
 for this highly undesirable weed.  Future studies should investigate the rate
 of seed deterioration in manure over time and the feasibility of grinding
 jointed goatgrass contaminated wheat prior to feeding in order to prevent
 subsequent germination.
 
      A study has been initiated at the High Plains Ag. Lab near Sidney, NE,
 to compare the effectiveness of crop rotations and tillage systems to control
 winter annual grassy weeds including downy brome, rye, and jointed goatgrass.
 A replicated series of plots have been established with known populations of
 downy brome, rye, and jointed goatgrass.  Six basic tillage and crop rotation
 systems are being superimposed on these dryland wheat plots.  Continuous
 wheat, wheat-fallow, wheat-fallow-fallow, wheat-sunflower-fallow, and
 wheat-proso millet-fallow rotations will be used.  Tillage systems will
 involve several combinations of chemical and mechanical weed control.
 
      A study initiated in the Spring of 1991 will try to determine the
 effects of intermittent plowing on the physical properties of soils that have
 been in a stubble mulch or no-till winter wheat-fallow system for an extended
 period of time.  Long-term tillage plots were established in 1969 at the High
 Plains Ag. Lab near Sidney, NE.  After plowing, we will determine the rate at
 which physical soil properties return to pre-plowing values following
 resumption of stubble mulch or no-till practices.  Downy brome control
 provided by moldboard plowing and the rate at which downy brome populations
 increase with the resumption of stubble mulch or no-till practices will be
 quantified.  The effect of intermittent plowing on water conservation, wheat
 yield and protein content will be determined.
 
      Russian Wheat Aphid.  Russian wheat aphid research has been directed at
 determining the relationship between aphid infestations and yield loss.
 Artificial infestations and insecticides have been used to establish
 different aphid infestation levels.  Additional studies are underway to
 monitor the dispersal and immigration of the Russian wheat aphid in western
 Nebraska.
 
 -------------------------
 
      R. French (USDA-ARS), N. L. Robertson (USDA-ARS), W. G. Langenberg
 (USDA-ARS)
 
      Detection of Barley Yellow Dwarf Viruses.  Barley yellow dwarf virus
 (BYDV) is one of the least understood viruses of wheat and other cereals.  In
 some years it is widespread in wheat and other years seems to be relatively
 rare.  Because disease symptoms are similar to nutritional deficiencies, it
 is likely that BYDV infection is not always recognized.  BYDV is a complex of
 at least five different phloem-limited luteoviruses which can be
 distinguished by their aphid vector specificities and serological properties
 of their coat proteins.  Most laboratories lack the tools to reliably detect
 all BYDV serotypes.
  
      Our objective was to develop a single test capable of detecting most
 BYDV isolates.  The recently developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an
 extremely sensitive technique for detecting specific nucleic acids, provided
 that a portion of the target molecule's nucleotide sequence is known.  From
 the published nucleotide sequences of three luteoviruses (beet western
 yellows virus, potato leafroll virus, and the PAV strain of BYDV), several
 short oligonucleotide primer pairs representing conserved coat protein
 sequences were synthesized.  Total nucleic acid extracts from infected and
 healthy plants were subjected a cDNA synthesis step followed by 30-40 PCR
 cycles using the synthetic primers.  These primers specifically detected the
 MAV, PAV, RMV, RPV, and SGV strains of BYDV.  The viruses could be
 distinguished by restriction endonuclease or hybridization analysis of
 amplified cDNA.  Based on both restriction and hybridization analyses, all 28
 Nebraska BYDV field isolates collected in the summer of 1990 were identified
 as PAV.  The PCR-based BYDV detection method is the first single test capable
 of identifying all five BYDV strains.
  
      Potyvirus Cylindrical Inclusions.  Immuno-electron microscopy of wheat
 or maize tissue doubly infected by wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and
 agropyron mosaic virus (AMV), hordeum mosaic virus (HMV), or maize dwarf
 mosaic virus showed that cylindrical inclusions (CI) only self-assembled.  No
 phenotypic mixing was detected which is unexpected since CI's presumably
 serve the same function in all potyvirus infections.  Understanding of CI
 functions may lead to novel strategies for limiting crop losses caused by
 potyvirus infection.
  
      Personnel.  Dr. David R. Shelton joined the University of Nebraska in
 the Cereal Chemistry position during July, 1990.  Dr. Shelton comes to
 Nebraska from North Dakota State University where he conducted research on
 spring wheat quality.  He succeeds Prof. Paul Mattern, who retired in 1989,
 and will be conducting research on hard red winter wheat quality.  Dr.
 Rosalind Morris, Cytogeneticist with the University of Nebraska, retired in
 June, 1990, after more than 30 years of teaching and research efforts.  Dr.
 Terry G. Berke completed his Ph.D. degree and accepted a postdoctoral
 position with Dr. D. V.  Glover at Purdue University.  Ms. Laura Oberthur
 replaced him as the barley breeder and has begun working on intergeneric
 crosses for haploid wheat plant production as a possible Ph.D. problem.
 Masrizal, sponsored by the Indonesian Atomic Energy Agency, completed his
 M.S. degree and after returning to Indonesia was awarded a fellowship to work
 on his Ph.D. at the University of Nebraska.  Ms. Vicki Gustafson joined the
 project and will be working on wheat suspension cell culture systems as part
 of her Ph.D. project.  Dr. Jan Rybczynski, Head of the Tissue Culture Group
 at the Warsaw Botanical Garden, was a visiting scientist for six months in
 the tissue culture laboratory working on improved tissue methods and the
 developmental biology of our wheat anther culture system.
  
                                  Publications
 
 Baenziger, P. S.  1990.  The challenges of attracting graduate students to
 plant breeding.  J. Agron. Ed. 19:205-210.
 
 Baenziger, P. S., J. W. Schmidt, T. G. Berke, T. S. Payne, and S. M. Dofing.
 1990.  Registration of 'Perkins' winter barley.  Crop Sci. 30:1355.
 
 Graybosch, R. A., C. J. Peterson, S. Primard, and J. H. Lee.  1990.
 Relationships between gluten protein composition and wheat end-use quality in
 four populations of hard red winter wheat germplasm.  Proceedings of the
 Fourth International Workshop on Gluten Proteins.  In press.
 
 Langenberg, W. G.  1991.  Cylindrical inclusion bodies of wheat streak mosaic
 virus and three other potyviruses only self-assemble in mixed infections.  J.
 Gen Virol.  In press.
 
 
 Lazar, M. D., G. W. Schaeffer, and P. S. Baenziger.  1990.  The effects of
 interactions of culture environment with genotype on wheat (Triticum
 aestivum) anther culture response.  Plant Cell Reports 8:525-529.
 
 Lookhart, G. L., R. Graybosch, C. J. Peterson, and A. Lukaszewski.
 Identification of wheat lines containing the 1BL/1RS translocation.  Cereal
 Chem.  Accepted 10/90.
 
 Keppenne, V. D. and P. S. Baenziger.  1990.  Inheritance of the blue aleurone
 trait in diverse wheat crosses.  Genome 33:525-529.
 
 Kudirka, D. T., G. W. Schaeffer, and P. S. Baenziger.  1990.  Stability of
 ploidy in meristems of plants regenerated from anther calli of wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.).  Genome 32:1068-1073.
 
 Papa, C. M., R. Morris, and J. W. Schmidt.  1990.  Rye C-banding patterns and
 meiotic stability of hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale) selections
 differing in kernel shriveling.  Genome 33:686-689.
 
 Petty, I. T. D., French, R., Jones, R. W., and Jackson, A. O.  1990.
 Identification of barley stripe mosaic virus genes involved in viral RNA
 replication and systemic movement.  EMBO J. 9:3453-3457.
 
 Primard, S., R. Graybosch, C. J. Peterson, and J. H. Lee.  Relationships
 between gluten protein composition and end-use quality in four populations of
 high protein, hard red winter wheat germplasm.  Cereal Chem.  Accepted 1/91.
 
 Robertson, N. L., French, R., and Langenberg, W. G.  1990.  Direct RNA
 sequencing for identification and determination of genetic relatedness of
 potyviruses infecting wheat.  Phytopathology Abstr. 80:1018.
 
 Yuan Han-min, V. D. Keppenne, P. S. Baenziger, T. Berke, and G. H. Liang.
 1990.  Effect of genotype and medium on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) anther
 culture.  Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 21:253-258.
 
 -------------------------
 
 NEW YORK
 
      Department of Plant Breeding and Biometry, Cornell University, Ithaca,
 NY
 
      M. E. Sorrells* and W. R. Coffman*
 
      1990 Winter Wheat Production: The 1990 soft white winter wheat crop for
 New York was 145,000 acres, up about 15,000 acres from 1989 in spite of the
 fourth autumn in a row with excessive precipitation.  Yield was estimated to
 be 49 b/a, up 4 b/a from 1989 and down 9 b/a from the record yield of 1985.
 The 1990 growing season was close to normal for temperature but record levels
 of precipitation were received for May and June.
  
      Soft White Winter Wheat: Harus, Houser, and Geneva are cultivars
 currently recommended to New York farmers.  No new cultivars are pending
 release.
 
 
      Soft Red Winter Wheat: Susquehanna soft red winter wheat continues to
 perform well in our trials.  Certified seed will be available to farmers for
 1991 production.
 
      Hard Red Spring Wheat: Production of hard red spring wheat continues at
 a low level.  HT Brand 715 (NK 715) continues to yield well, however; Stoa
 and lines related to Stoa have demonstrated very good milling and baking
 quality and yield performance.  We are currently testing cultivars and
 breeding lines from other regions as well as powdery mildew resistant Sinton
 backcross selections from our own program.
 
      RFLP Mapping: Dr. Manfred Heun, a visiting scientist from Germany, has
 been working with Ann Kennedy, a post-doc, to develop a barley RFLP linkage
 map.  We recently completed a low density barley RFLP map consisting of 144
 markers using a doubled-haploid population from the cross Proctor x Nudinka.
 Most of the clones came from a wheat genomic library and oat and barley cDNA
 libraries.  In addition, genomic clones from Aegilops squarrosa and barley
 were mapped.  A subset of the clones were assigned to chromosome using
 wheat-barley addition lines and nullitetrasomic and ditelosomic aneuploids in
 Chinese Spring wheat background.  DNA markers have been placed on all
 chromosome arms except the short arm of chromosome 6 for a total of 1109 cM.
 Over all libraries, about 30% of the clones were polymorphic.  The barley map
 will be used to facilitate construction of the wheat map.  We are in the
 process of increasing seed of both the Proctor x Nudinka population and the
 Steptoe x Morex population for field testing in 1991.  CIMMYT is currently
 developing a doubled-haploid wheat mapping population from a cross between a
 synthetic hexaploid (durum x Ae. squarrosa)2 and cultivated wheat.  Over the
 past year Jim Anderson, a Ph.D. student has assigned about 900 bands from 200
 probes to chromosome or chromosome arm using the nullitetrasomic and
 ditelosomic aneuploids.  Enrique Autrique and Zhenqiang Ma are also working
 toward a Ph.D. and their projects involve mapping and tagging genes for rust
 and Hessian fly resistance.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca
 
      G.C. Bergstrom*, D.W. Kalb, A.M.C. Schilder, and D. Shah
 
      Winter wheat pathology research.  Large acreage trials with Baytan 30F
 seed treatment were conducted on three central New York farms.  Seed treated
 with Baytan 30F plus Captan 400 emerged 1-2 days after seed treated with
 Vitavax 200 or not treated and were slightly shorter.  By late fall, however,
 there were no visual differences between treatments.  There was also no
 significant difference between treatments in plant population for both spring
 and fall stand counts.  Powdery mildew control was no longer evident at
 ratings at GS-9 and -11.  There was also no significant reduction in leaf
 spots or leaf rust assessed at GS-11.  Yield from plots where seed was
 treated with Baytan 30F plus Captan 400 was increased significantly over crop
 yield from nontreated or Vitavax 200 treated seed.  Yield increases over
 nontreated seed from treatment with Baytan 30F plus Captan 400 averaged 7.2
 bu/A over the three farm locations.  Each of these farmers would have
 realized a net profit above variable costs for Baytan seed treatment.
 
      Current research includes the development of restriction fragment length
 polymorphism probes for Stagonospora nodorum (collaboration with Dr. Peter
 Ueng, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD).  Genetic fingerprinting will be used for
 studies of the epidemiology of Septoria nodorum blotch of wheat.  Graduate
 students Annemiels Schilder and Denis Shah are currently conducting research
 on the epidemiology of tan spot and Septoria nodorum blotch of winter wheat,
 respectively.  Both projects emphasize the role of seedborne inoculum in
 initiation of epidemics.
 
                                 Publications:
 
 Cox, W.J. and G.C. Bergstrom.  1990.  Evaluation of foliar fungicides for
 control of leaf spots on winter wheat under two nitrogen regimes, 1989.
 Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 45:175.
 
 Kalb, D.W. and G.C. Bergstrom.  1990.  Potential benefits of managing eyespot
 in winter wheat in New York.  Phytopathology 81:122.
 
 Kalb, D.W., G.C. Bergstrom, and M.E. Sorrells.  1990.  Effects of planting
 date, and foliar- and seed-applied fungicides on eyespot of winter wheat in a
 continuous wheat culture site with a history of foot rot diseases, 1989.
 Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 45:177.
 
 Keyes, G. J., and M. E. Sorrells. 1990 Mutations blocking sensitivity to
 gibberellic acid promote ethylene induced sterility in wheat.  Euphytica
 48:129-139.
 
 Keyes, G. J., M. E. Sorrells, and T. L. Setter.  1990.  Gibberellic acid
 regulates cell wall extensibility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  Plant
 Physiol.  92:242-245.
 
 Miller, N.R., G.C. Bergstrom, and S.M. Gray.  1990.  Assessment of viral
 diseases of winter wheat in New York, 1988 and 1989.  Barley Yellow Dwarf
 Newsletter 3:26-27.
 
 Miller, N.R., G.C. Bergstrom, M.E. Sorrells, and W.J. Cox.  1990.  Resistance
 of winter wheat cultivars to wheat spindle streak mosaic virus: results of a
 field plot experiment and an on-farm survey in New York, 1989.  Biological
 and Cultural Tests for Control of Plant Diseases 5:73.  Paterson, A.H. and M.
 E. Sorrells. 1990.  Inheritance of grain dormancy in white-kernelled wheats.
 Crop Sci. 30: 25-30.
 
 Paterson, A.H. and M. E. Sorrells. 1990.  Variation in Peroxidase Isozymes
 During Grain Maturation not Associated with Dormancy in Wheat Genotypes
 Near-Isogenic for Dormancy Factors.  Cereal Res. Comm. 18:209-215.
 
 Paterson, A.H. and M.E. Sorrells. 1990.  Spike-based and seed-based selection
 for improvement of preharvest sprouting resistance in wheat.  Euphytica.
 46:149-155.
 
 Schilder, A.M.C. and G.C. Bergstrom.  1990.  Variation in virulence within
 the population of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis in New York.  Phytopathology
 80:84-90.
 
 Skinnes, H. and M.E. Sorrells. 1990.  Effects of post maturity seed moisture
 level on seed dormancy in wheat. Acta Agr.Scand. Acta Agric. Scand.
 40:341-348.
 
 Wu, K.K., W. Burnquist, M.E. Sorrells, T.L. Tew, P.H. Moore, and S.D.
 Tanksley. 1991. The detection and estimation of linkage in polyploids using
 single-dose restriction fragments. Theor. Appl. Genet. In Press.
 
 -------------------------
 
      North Carolina State University, Raleigh
 
      R. E. Jarrett*, S. Leath* and J. P. Murphy*
 
      Production.  The 1990 growing season was very similar to 1989.  Seeding
 was slower than normal but was 90% complete by the end of December.  A
 significant amount of wheat acreage was planted in January about 6 weeks
 later than normal.  Temperatures were below normal for most of December and
 some wheat, although planted on time, did not germinate until January.
 January and February had above-normal temperatures which caused some
 production problems with vernalization, nitrogen topdressing and herbicide
 applications.  Powdery mildew was the most prevalent disease, although leaf
 rust and glume blotch were evident as well.  Rainfall was more than adequate
 as usual and some freeze damage occurred at certain areas
 
 over the state during April but was not as severe as in 1989.  Harvesting was
 90% complete by July 1, since afternoon thunderstorms and showers were rare
 and test weights were good in most locations.
 
      Production from the 1990 winter wheat crop was 22.55 million bushels, an
 increase of 5.3% from last year's (1989) 21.42 million bushels.  The total
 acreage harvested for grain was 550,000, a 12.7% decrease from the 630,000
 acres harvested in 1989.  The 1990 state average yield, however, was 41
 bushels per acre compared to 34 in 1989.  Wheat contributed approximately
 $67.7 million to the economy of North Carolina in 1990.
 
      The activities of the extension program are continuing to address
 certain national initiatives and issues, primarily sustainable agriculture,
 alternative agricultural opportunities, and conservation and management of
 natural resources.  This means continued evaluations of intensive management
 practices versus the low-input approach.  The program also includes seed
 treatments and triticale studies.  Also, work is continuing with the North
 Carolina Small Grain Growers Association in promoting marketing and new uses
 for wheat and other research and educational programs.
 
      Plant Pathology and Breeding.  Field tests initiated in 1987 were
 continued and are designed to evaluate the combined effect of leaf rust and
 powdery mildew on yield of winter wheat cultivars varying in resistance.
 Different management strategies were utilized and empirical models are now
 being developed to forecast the effects of these diseases and control
 practices.
 
      The International Winter Wheat Powdery Mildew Program received germplasm
 entries from small grain breeders worldwide.  These entries are currently
 being screened for resistance with cultures of Blumeria graminis f. sp.
 tritici of known virulence; this year the project involved the evaluation of
 over 300 lines.  These entries also were planted in October 1990
 forevaluation at two field locations against the native B. graminis
 population.  Sets of entries were compiled from lines which performed best
 inthe previous season.  These sets were sent to over 50 plant breeders and
 pathologists in the United States and 22 other countries for use in their
 programs. Germplasm from wide crossing programs in Kansas and North Carolina
 State University also were evaluated for powdery mildew resistance.
 
      Data from the USDA-ARS International Winter Wheat Powdery Mildew Program
 continues to indicate that genes Pm1, Pm8 and Pm17 remain highly effective in
 controlling powdery mildew in the USA.  However, the resistance of Pm8
 appears to be collapsing in South Carolina. Resistance conditioned by Pm1
 also is collapsing and over a more general area of the southeastern USA.
 Genes Pm3b, Pm4a, and Pm5 are still effective as many locations in the
 eastern USA.  Virulence to Pm3a, which has been high in the South, has risen
 high enough to render it ineffective throughout most of the soft red winter
 wheat region.  In separate experiments, genes for powdery mildew resistance
 in 22 cultivars of soft redwinter wheat were determined.  Genes Pm3a, Pm5,
 and Pm6 were detected in some cultivars.  Approximately 33% of the cultivars
 evaluated have no previously identified genes for powdery mildew resistance.
 
      Genetic studies also are underway, and two of them are described here.
 An eight-parent diallel cross was completed to study the inheritance of
 sensitivity to triadimenol in winter wheat.  Lines in the F2:3 generation
 were tested for a second time in 1989-1990; data analysis is currently
 underway.  Populations (40-50 families/population) of somaclonallyregenerated
 plants have been produced to determine the existence of and to quantify any
 somaclonal variation in wheat.
 
      Both agronomic and disease resistance traits are being evaluated in
 eight populations of F2:3 lines.Introgression of Resistance Genes from
 Diploid Progenitors into Soft Red Winter Wheat. Varying quantities of BC2F2
 or BC2F3 bulk seed have been obtained from interspecific diploid x soft red
 winter hexaploid crosses involving the following diploid accessions obtained
 from the Wheat Genetic Resources Center, Kansas State University and Dr. John
 Moseman, USDA(retired):
 
                 Ae. squarrosa          T. monococcum        T. beoticum
 
                    TA 2377             PI 191097              PI 427662
                    TA 2450             PI 212414              PI 427772
                    TA 2466             PI 266844
                    TA 2481             PI 352484
                    TA 2492             PI 355520
                    TA 2536
                    TA 2552
                    TA 2556
                    TA 2570
 
      The diploids were selected on the basis of their powdery mildew, leaf
 rust or Septoria nodorum reactions, and the hexaploid backcross parents were
 predominantly 'Saluda', 'Coker 80-12', and 'Arthur'.  We plan to advance
 these populations in bulk and, once sufficient seed is obtained, distribute
 them to interested parties.
 
      Extension publications: Small Grain Production Guide Series 1990:
 Variety selection, Ag 419-1; Seed selection, Ag 419-2; Planting methods and
 planting dates, 419-3; Soil fertility management, Ag 419-4; Harvesting,
 drying and storage, Ag 419-5; Marketing, Ag 419-6; Disease identification, Ag
 419-7; Insect management, Ag 419-8; Keys to optimum economic yield, Ag 419-9;
 Keys to intensive wheat management, Ag 419-10.
 
                                  Publications
 
 Leath, S. and Heun, M.  1990.  Identification of powdery mildew resistance
 genes in cultivars of soft red winter winter.  Plant Dis. 74:747-752.
 
 Wilkinson, C. A., Murphy, J. P. and Rufty, R. C.  1990.  A comparison of
 preservation methods for Septoria nodorum isolates.  Cer. Res. Comm.
 18:33-39.
 
 Wilkinson, C. A., Murphy, J. P. and Rufty, R. C.  1990.  Diallel analysis of
 components of partial resistance to Septoria nodorum in wheat.  Plant Dis.
 74:47-50.
 
 -------------------------
 
      NORTH DAKOTA
 
      B.L. D'Appolonia, J.W. Dick, K. Kahn, C.E. McDonald and D.R. Shelton,
 Cereal Science and Food Technology; B. Donnelly, Northern Crops Institute; G.
 Hareland and L.A. Grant, USDA/ARS Wheat Quality Laboratory.
 
      General Activities.  Foreign travel during 1990 was undertaken by Dr.
 Bert D'Appolonia, Mr. Truman Olson and Dr. Brendan Donnelly representing the
 Department of Cereal Science and Food Technology.
 
      Dr. Bert D'Appolonia, Chairman of Cereal Science and Food Technology,
 attended the ICC Congress in Vienna, Austria during the period May 18-31,
 1990.  In addition to participation in the various technical sessions, the
 two pre-Congress symposia entitled "Oats in Human Nutrition" and
 "Bread-Ancient Food for Modern Times" were also attended.  He received the
 Harold Perten Foundation award during the opening ceremony of the Congress.
 He also gave one presentation during the ICC meeting and another presentation
 at the Swiss school of milling in St. Gallen, Switzerland.  He participated
 at a seminar in Leipzig, GDR on behalf of U.S. Wheat Associates at which time
 three presentations were given.
 
      D'Appolonia participated as a member of a working group at a meeting in
 Moscow November 22-27, 1990, to develop research plans between NDSU and the
 All-Union Research Institute for Grain and Products of Grain VNPO
 Zernoprodukt.
 
      Mr. Truman Olson, Cereal Technologist in Cereal Science and Food
 Technology, participated in a number of seminars as a member of a crop
 quality team presenting information on the quality of the 1990 HRS and durum
 wheat crops in several European countries in November of 1990.
 
      Dr. Donnelly, Director of the Northern Crops Institute presented
 information on the quality of the 1990 HRS and durum wheat crops in Japan and
 Korea during November of 1990.  The information for the seminars was prepared
 by the Cereal Science and Food Technology Department.
 
      Faculty and staff of the department participated in several short
 courses presented by the Northern Crops Institute as well as giving
 presentations to numerous trade team delegations.
 
      A successful AACC short course entitled "Experimental Baking and Related
 Physical Dough Tests" directed by Dr. Bert D'Appolonia was presented during
 April of 1990.
 
      Construction continued during 1990 on a building to house a pilot durum
 mill.  In addition several new laboratories are under construction to be
 utilized by the department.
 
      Hard Red Spring and Hard Red Winter Wheat Research.  An important
 function of the Department of Cereal Science and Food Technology continued to
 be the quality evaluation of hard red spring (HRS) and hard red winter (HRW)
 wheats. Most of the evaluations were performed on a macro scale (Buhler- or
 Brabender Quad. Sr.- milled and 100g flour used in baking) or micro scale
 (Brabender Quad., Jr.- milled and 25g flour used in baking). These
 evaluations also included the other typical chemical and physical analyses
 performed on wheat and flour. Macro testing was performed on 23 HRS wheat
 flour samples for the Spring Wheat Quality Advisory Council program and 13
 HRW wheat flour samples for the Wheat Quality Council.  In addition, macro
 tests were performed on 291 HRS wheats and micro tests were performed on 481
 HRS and 389 HRW wheats.  A series of 1400 samples were analyzed for protein.
 
      Each year the department conducts a four-state survey of the current HRS
 wheat crop.  In 1990, 1211 samples were collected, and a statistically
 significant number of these were analyzed to describe the quality of the
 crop.
 
      The cargo monitoring project was continued through 1990.  Forty HRS
 wheat cargo samples were macro-tested for the North Dakota Wheat Commission
 and 150 HRS wheat sublot samples were macro-tested for U.S. Wheat Assoc.
 
      Summary of the 1990 HRS Wheat Crop.  As usual, there was some variation
 in the moisture and growing conditions within the four states (ND, SD, Mn,
 MT).  Rainfall was generally just adequate during the growing season, and
 harvest conditions were generally dry.  There were no extended
 high-temperature stress periods in the four states during the growing season.
 Harvest was completed ahead of the long-term average.
 
      USDA HRS wheat production estimates (October, 1990) for the four state
 region was 14.43 million metric tons, which was higher than last year's 11.00
 million metric tons.  Test weight averaged 60.9 lbs/bu which was higher than
 last year.  Eighty three percent of the region's crop graded 2 DNS or better.
 Weed growth was limited throughout much of the region because adequate
 initial moisture conditions which resulted in a good crop canopy and later
 dry growing conditions inhibited further weed growth.  Consequently, average
 dockage was low at 0.8%.  Wheat protein (12% moisture basis) averaged 14.2%
 for the region, which was 1.1% lower than last year.  Very little sprouting
 was detected.
 
 -------------------------
 
 [ Section 5/8 is missing.  DEM 12/21/92 ]
 
 -------------------------
 
       Breeding from 1000 feet
 
       S.T. Ball, B.E. Frazier, G.S. Campbell and C.F. Konzak
 
      An integrated approach, using remotely sensed-spatial analyses of
 wheat yield, has made considerable progress toward quantifying the
 spatial variation responsible for yield patterns in the field, and has
 improved the accuracy of yield measurements.  Future research will
 continue to analyze quantitatively the field spatial variation of wheat
 yield.  In addition, new studies are planned stages in which
 environmental factors, such as precipitation, temperature, solar
 radiation, and others will be monitored, quantified, and related to
 yield at selected locations.
 
      Variation in soil and environmental factors can account for the
 majority of the variability in field experiments, to confound their
 interpretation.  Instead of measuring these environmental factors, plant
 breeders generally have estimated the total environmental variation (all
 sources combined) from genotype responses grown at a number of locations
 over a period of years.  These studies are  commonly called genotype x
 environment interaction experiments because genotypes often show
 different responses when grown in a varied set of environments. 
 Therefore, yield trials must be conducted at several locations over
 several years in order to reach a desired level of precision in
 selection for yield.  It should be noted that these yield estimates and
 measures of the environment are always biased because they fail to take
 into account the effects of spatial variation causing yield patterns in
 the field.
 
      Now, remote sensing, combined with spatial statistical procedures,
 can provide the foundation to quantitatively measure and then remove the
 effects of this variability from field experiments.  In an effort to
 quantify this environmental variation, and improve estimates by which we
 compare wheats for yield performance in field trials, we have initiated
 new studies to analyze and model both on-farm and breeding trials.  
 
      Preliminary research was carried out at eight locations in Eastern
 WA during the 1990 growing season.  The areas surrounding the spring
 wheat variety trial locations were selected for detailed field analyses
 using aerial photographs of plot and field locations, soil samples to
 establish the level of fertility and soil organic matter within the
 plots, and computer aided statistical analyses of the remotely sensed
 data for comparison with yield data.  
      Our preliminary research indicates that digitized data from
 inexpensive aerial photographs processed using spatial methods can
 greatly increase precision in the analyses of field trials.  For
 example, at one field site a linear, diagonal trend was observed in
 aerial photos of the plot area prior to seeding.  Later in the season,
 infrared photos of the plots and spatial analyses showed a low yielding
 area in the middle of the yield trial which corresponded to this
 pattern.   More detailed analyses indicated that the variation in yield
 was due largely to differences in the spatial distribution of soil
 organic carbon and soil moisture.
 
      Using aerial photos at a site provided by another grower showed
 that the crop residue was not evenly spread over the field.  Photos of
 the crop canopy showed  striped color differences in the crop foliage. 
 The pattern swept across the variety trial and provided an additional
 source of variability corresponding to the chaff rows.
 
      Possibly the most interesting finding at two different test sites
 was that late season photos of the crop showed the variable depths to
 caliche (CaCo3) layers.  Caliche depth was indicated by random
 distributed circular areas of abnormal coloration in the crop canopy. 
 These findings indicate differences in crop vigor which will be
 confounded in the yield data of these trials.  The bottom line is that
 for plant breeders, high spatial variation may distort the actual
 rankings of geotypes in variety trials.
    
 -------------------------
 
      E. Donaldson, M. Nagamitsu, B. Sauer
 
      Washington wheat producers planted 198,000 acres of hard red winter
 wheat for 1990 harvest.  In the hard wheat producing area of eastern
 Washington, fall (1989) seeding moisture was fair, but deep over most of
 the area.  The Horse Heaven Hills and a few other smaller areas had
 inadequate moisture for early seeding.  The winter was mild, followed by
 a cool spring.  Most of the hard red winter wheat showed moisture stress
 in early May and without additional moisture, became severely stressed. 
 Some winter wheat was abandoned.  Some fields showed 60 to 70 percent
 white heads caused by dryland footrot, a stress disease.
 
      Buchanan (PI532994, WA007523) was available to producers as
 registered seed in the fall of 1990.  It was released for its superior
 emergence under stress conditions.  Its coleoptile is extremely long,
 obtaining a length of up to 15 cm under field conditions.  Buchanan is
 a semitall, white chaffed, awned, common headed hard red winter wheat. 
 Its yield record on low rainfall, dryland areas of eastern Washington
 has been equal to that of Hatton.  Buchanan appears to have fair
 resistance to snowmold, but poor resistance to dwarf bunt. 
 Winterhardiness is less than that of Hatton.  Major weaknesses include
 poor straw strength, moderate stripe rust resistance, and a slightly low
 whole grain protein content.
 
      Mass selection for hardness based on seed density.  Since wheat
 seed can be mass selected for seed production concentration based on
 seed density, presumably any characteristic influenced by seed density
 could be subjected to similar mass selection procedures.  Ten
 populations from crosses having parents differing in hardness were used. 
 The procedure used was similar to that of Peterson et al.  Crop Science
 26:523-527.   Seeds were soaked in water for 36(+-1) hours at 0 degrees
 centigrade.  A salt-sugar solution containing about twice as much sugar
 as Peterson's was then used to obtain separation.  The 25% of the
 population with the lowest density (T) was saved for comparison.  The
 solution was readjusted by adding more sugar and the 25% of the
 population with the highest density (B) was removed.  This portion (B)
 was soaked for an additional 8.5 days after retaining a sample.  The
 soaked portion of the population was again subjected to density
 separation.  The least 25% (BH) was saved.  BH should contain the
 highest protein fraction of the hardest seeds.  The seeds were dried and
 planted in an irrigated site.  The results of the differences between
 treatments for test weight, protein content, and the hardness of the
 subsequently harvested grain are given in Table 1.  Apparently density
 separation for hardness is possible, however, no gain in protein content
 was obtained.  The seeds with the highest protein content tend to be
 lost in the first separation, this portion also contains the seeds with
 the lightest test weight.
 
      Table 1.  Density Separation of Ten Bulk Populations.
    Differences obtained in progeny after separation of one generation.
                  O - T     O - B     O - BH    T - B    T - BH    B - H
 Density g/1   +10.68**    -4.12*    +0.13    -14.80**   -10.81*8  +3.99
 Protein %     - 0.38      +0.04     -0.41    + 0.41     - 0.02    -0.07
 Hardness      - 0.66      -3.97*    -6.12*8  - 3.43      -5.69*  -2.97 
 
  *,**  Indicates significant differences between treatments at P = 0.05
        and P = 0.01, respectively.
    O = original bulk, T = lightest seed in first separation,
    B = heaviest seed in first separation, BH+ = lightest seed in second
 separation.
 
 -------------------------
 
 WISCONSIN
 
     Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison
 
     R. A. Forsberg*, E. S. Oplinger*, R. D. Duerst, and J. B. Stevens
 
      Production and Diseases.  The 1990 Wisconsin statewide average
 wheat yield was 53 b/a, equal to that in 1989 and 5 b/a below the state
 record of 58.0 set in 1985.  Soft red winter wheat acreage fluctuates
 between 150,000 - 200,000 acres in Wisconsin with nearly all the grain
 moving into cash markets.  A ready market also exists for wheat straw. 
 Hard red spring wheat acreage ranges from 7,000 to 10,000 acres.
 
      Soft red winter wheat cultivars grown in Wisconsin need a high
 level of winterhardiness.  For example, in December 1989 much of the
 state's winter wheat crop was subjected to -20 to -22o F, with 50 to 60
 MPH winds and no 
 snow cover.  Although winter injury was widespread, level of survival
 was 
 surprising, perhaps aided by the occurrence of the cold stress after
 "hardening in" but relatively early in the winter or dormant season.
 
      The drop in wheat grain prices resulted in a decrease in value of
 grain per acre from $189 in 1989 to $111 in 1990, a drop of 41.5%.  The
 value of straw remained relatively constant at $93/a for a total crop
 value (grain & straw) of $204 per acre, a 29% reduction from a total
 value of $287 in 1989.
 
      In 1990, many winter wheat fields and the Wisconsin breeding
 nursery were infected by an array of diseases including leaf and stem
 rust, mildew, the Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, and, apparently, numerous
 other leaf and root viruses.  Yields and test weights were reduced in
 many cases, and many lines did not perform as expected.
 
      Breeding.  Merrimac, released in 1988, appears to be finding a
 niche in central and northern areas of Wisconsin.  A 15-acre increase of
 test selection X1625-1-1 was seeded in September 1990, and a release
 decision will be made in July 1991.  Selection X1625-1-1 was an entry in
 the Uniform Eastern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nursery in 1988-89 and
 1989-90.
 
      Management.  Results of research conducted by Dr. E. S. Oplinger
 and his graduate students reveal that under Wisconsin conditions, only
 cultivars with a high level of winterhardiness should be used if
 planting is late, i.e.,end of September - early October.  Planting
 during September 8 to 25 will minimize insect problems (aphids/BYDV;
 Hessian Fly) and give the producer more choice among cultivars regarding
 degree of winterhardiness.
 
 
 -------------------------
 
 
                             ITEMS FROM YUGOSLAVIA
 
      Dr. Bogdan Koric and Slobodan Tomasovic - Institute for Breeding
 and Production of Field Crops - Zagreb, Croatia
 
                            Wheat Diseases Research
 
      Breeding for diseases resistance.  One of the limiting factors for
 obtaining and keeping high yield level are plant diseases.  Based on the
 results of investigations carried out until now under artificial
 conditions, stem rust is estimated to effect yields up to 67%, powdery
 mildew up to 42%, septoria glume blotch up to 52% and scab up to 73%. 
 Each of the four mentioned diseases currently worked on in the
 Institute.  The program of breeding for resistance to stem rust started
 at the earliest date.  The work was so successful that almost all Zg
 wheat varieties and lines today possess resistance to this disease.
 
      As a result of breeding for resistance to powdery mildew, there are
 15 varieties.  The best varieties now in production, from this program
 are Sana, Biljana, Dijana, Ariana, Helijana and Alena.
 
      Work on septoria glume blotch resistance began after the technique
 of growing Leptosphaeria nodorum fungus on media.  All the sources were
 first tested to the population of domestic isolates and then used in the
 breeding work.  The promising line Zg 3021/84 and a new variety Irena
 are the result of that program.  Work on developing wheat genotypes
 resistant to scab was very hard but successful and resulted in several
 promising, tolerant lines with good agronomic traits.
 
      Septoria nodorum blotch.  Laboratory studies of Leptosphaeria
 nodorum fungus were aimed at selecting the best isolate for inoculum
 production to be used in artificial infection on the basis of
 individual, morphological and physiological characteristic.  These
 studies have divided several isolates from the whole.  Collection of
 samples, identification of Leptosphaeria nodorum from samples, pure
 culture production, selecting the best inoculate, and inoculum
 production for artificial infection have been done.  Inoculum was
 produced on sterilized wheat kernels.  The results of a five-year study
 showed that Septoria nodorum blotch can reduce the kernel weight up to
 42.2%.  All 7 varieties in the test exhibited susceptibility to Septoria
 nodorum blotch attack, which resulted in statistically significant
 reduction of kernel weight from 4.6% to 42.2%.  The decrease of kernel
 weight depended to a large extent on the sensitivity of the variety and
 climatic conditions.  The results showed also that decrease of kernel
 weight seems to be the best indicator of yield reduction.  This five
 years of field experiments were done under the condition of artificial
 infection.  The inoculum for this infection contained the best isolates
 of Leptosphaeria nodorum in the western part of Yugoslavia.
 
      Powdery mildew.  Over the five-years (1983-1987) investigations of
 incidence and spread of the physiological races of powdery mildew
 (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici), 29 physiological races were
 determined as well as five undetermined isolates.  In this period only
 race 46 was isolated each year, i.e., in all five years.  The most
 prevalent races were 46 and 75 which were recorded in almost all
 locations where the samples were taken and virtually on all varieties. 
 The investigations are closely connected with the problem of wheat
 breeding, the objective of which is the creation of new varieties
 resistant or tolerant to powdery mildew, in order to prevent the damage
 caused by epiphytotic attack of powdery mildew in the humid part of
 western Yugoslavia.
 
               Improvement of Sources of Resistance of New Wheat
               Lines (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare) to Fusarium
                    Head Blight (Fusarium graminearum Schw.)
 
      During 1976 and 1977 a systematic work was initiated in Zagreb
 Institute for Breeding and Production of Field Crops on finding sources
 of wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight from world resources.  By
 1980 some 870 genotypes were collected, among which especially notable
 are 25 sources originating from Brazil, China, Japan, France and the
 USSR.  Based on their degree of resistance and valuable agronomic
 properties, seven sources were selected for further work.  In 1981 and
 1982 they were included in crossings and in 1983 trials were set under
 conditions of both artificial and natural infection.  Most combinations
 of single crosses exhibited improved resistance in the F1 generation, in
 comparison to their parental components.  For 10 combinations of double
 crosses, improved levels of resistance was observed in relation to
 initial sources and single crosses form the F1 generation.  Among the
 tested progenies, the most reliable indicators of Fusarium graminearum
 and its effect on yield reduction, and hence the most reliable
 indicators of resistance, are number of kernels per spike, kernel weight
 per spike and kernel weight.  It was found that adequate breeding
 methods (semi-diallel) allowed accumulations of genes for resistance
 from various sources, the result of which are new sources with improved
 resistance to Fusarium head blight.
 
      Crosses were tested in F2 and later generations; thus from 1984 to
 1989, 22 combinations of crossing were selected (from F3 to F7
 generations) and tested at the stage of partial or complete
 homozygosity.  During the breeding process under conditions of
 artificial infection, the most resistant combinations were selected and
 among the most resistant plants with good agronomic properties chosen. 
 Through preliminary and comparative micro-trials, lines were selected
 with improved degrees of resistance in comparison with the initial
 sources and the standard varieties in production.  Five Zg-wheat lines
 were selected with valuable agronomic properties and improved levels of
 resistance to Fusarium head blight, and with satisfactory resistance to
 other serious wheat diseases.  The new Zg wheat lines were selected form
 the following combinations of crossings:  Roazon/Balaya-cerkov,
 Roazon/Poncheau//Toropi/Encruzilhada, and Zg 17-75/Roazon.
 
 -------------------------
 III. CULTIVARS AND GERMPLASM
 
 Triticum Accessions in the National Small Grains Collection
 
 Harold E. Bockelman, USDA-ARS, National Small Grains Collection
 
 Taxonomy                                        No. Accessions
 
 Triticum aestivum                                     31093
 Triticum araraticum                                     270
 Triticum boeoticum                                      136
 Triticum boeoticum subsp. boeoticum                     623
 Triticum boeoticum subsp. thaoudar                        6
 Triticum carthlicum                                      90
 Triticum compactum                                       62
 Triticum dicoccoides                                    901
 Triticum dicoccon                                       513
 Triticum durum                                         6096
 Triticum hybrid                                         181
 Triticum ispahanicum                                      5
 Triticum karamyschevii                                    3
 Triticum macha                                           49
 Triticum militinae                                        2
 Triticum monococcum                                     184
 Triticum polonicum                                       59
 Triticum sp.                                            211
 Triticum spelta                                        1153
 Triticum sphaerococcum                                   32
 Triticum timopheevii                                     43
 Triticum turanicum                                       71
 Triticum turgidum                                       453
 Triticum urartu                                         200
 Triticum vavilovii                                        2
 Triticum x fungicidum                                     3
 Triticum x timococcum                                     2
 Triticum zhukovskyi                                       7
                                                    ---------
                                     Total             42450
 
 Please note that some accessions may not be available due to
 low seed inventory.
 
 -------------------------
 
 PI Assignments in Triticum since AWN Vol. 36
 
 Harold E. Bockelman, USDA-ARS, National Small Grains Collection,
 Aberdeen, ID
 George A. White, USDA-ARS, Plant Introduction Office, Beltsville, MD
 
 PI Numbers    Species     Cultivar         Origin     Donor/Acquisition
 
 537261        aestivum    NE 82438         U.S., NE   P.S. Baenziger, NE
 AES
 537262        aestivum    NE 82533         U.S., NE   P.S. Baenziger, NE
 AES
 537263        aestivum    NE 84557         U.S., NE   P.S. Baenziger, NE
 AES
 537303        aestivum    CENTENNIAL       U.S., ID   E. Souza, ID AES
 537307        aestivum    SWS-52           Canada, AB R.S. Sadasivaiah,
 Ag Can
 537310        durum       KYLE             Canada, SK J.G. McLeod, Ag
 Can
 537968-537979 aestivum                     Turkey     J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 537980-537997 durum                        Turkey     J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 537998-538003 boeoticum                    Turkey     J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538415-538522 araraticum                   Iraq       J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538524-538541 boeoticum                    Turkey     J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538542-538575 boeoticum                    Iraq       J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538576-538578 boeoticum                    Iran       J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538579-538606 boeoticum                    Iraq       J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538607-538608 boeoticum                    Turkey     J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538609-538618 boeoticum                    Iraq       J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538619-538625 boeoticum                    Turkey     J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538720-538723 monococcum                   Turkey     J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538724-538733 urartu                       Turkey     J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538734-538751 urartu                       Lebanon    J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538768        aestivum    BERGEN           U.S., CO   Agripro
 Biosciences
 538626-538668 dicoccoides                  Turkey     J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538669-538699 dicoccoides                  Israel     J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538700-538718 dicoccoides                  Lebanon    J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 538719        dicoccoides                  Israel     J.G. Waines, CA
 AES
 540401        aestivum    SD 2980          U.S., SD   F.A. Cholick, SD
 AES
 542072        aestivum    CHEROKEE         U.S., CO   Agripro
 Biosciences
 542400        aestivum    WA 7526          U.S., WA   R.E. Allan,
 USDA-ARS
 542401        aestivum    WA 7527          U.S., WA   R.E. Allan,
 USDA-ARS
 542432-542465 aestivum                     U.S., OR   R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542466        macha                        U.S., OR   R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542471        durum       DWL 5023         India      R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542472        militinae                    USSR       R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542473        monococcum                   U.S., OR   R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542474        monococcum                   Turkey     R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542475        boeoticum                    U.S., OR   R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542478-542508 hybrid                       U.S., OR   R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542575-542577 aestivum                     U.S., OR   R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542578-542582 hybrid                       U.S., OR   R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542583-542589 aestivum                     U.S., OR   R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542590        durum                        Turkey     R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542650-542675 aestivum                     U.S., OR   R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542676-542680 turgidum                     Italy      IBPGR, Rome
 542704        aestivum    EARLY BLACKHULL  U.S., OR   R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542705        aestivum    BLACKHULL        U.S., OR   R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 542706        aestivum    E.E. BLACKHULL   U.S., OR   R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
 543007        aestivum    SIOUXLAND 89     U.S., TX   TX AES
 543791        aestivum    BEARDLESS BRONZE U.S., WY   G. Howard,
 USDA-ARS
 543893        aestivum    RAWHIDE          U.S., NE   P.S. Baenziger, NE
 AES
 545491        aestivum    CHENA            U.S., AK   R. Taylor,
 USDA-ARS
 545492        aestivum    VIGAL            U.S., AK   R. Taylor,
 USDA-ARS
 546056        aestivum    VANDAL           U.S., ID   E. Souza, ID AES
 546057        aestivum    IDAHO DNSC0      U.S., ID   E. Souza, ID AES
 546461        aestivum    MD 75266-46      U.S., MD   D.J. Sammons, MD
 AES
 546462        durum       GERGANA          Bulgaria   T. Yanev, Cotton
 Res Inst
 546463        durum       ZAGORKA          Bulgaria   T. Yanev, Cotton
 Res Inst
 546464-538466 durum                        Bulgaria   T. Yanev, Cotton
 Res Inst
 
 Please note that new accessions may not be immediately available due to
 low seed inventory.
 
 -------------------------
 
 Aegilops Accessions in the National Small Grains Collection
 
 Harold E. Bockelman, USDA-ARS, National Small Grains Collection
 
 Taxonomy                                         No. Accessions
 
 Aegilops bicornis                                         2
 Aegilops biuncialis                                      87
 Aegilops columnaris                                       8
 Aegilops comosa                                          11
 Aegilops comosa subsp. comosa                             2
 Aegilops crassa                                          17
 Aegilops cylindrica                                      63
 Aegilops geniculata                                      55
 Aegilops geniculata subsp. geniculata                    11
 Aegilops geniculata subsp. gibberosa                      1
 Aegilops hybrid                                           1
 Aegilops juvenalis                                        6
 Aegilops kotschyi                                        14
 Aegilops longissima                                       4
 Aegilops markgrafii var. markgrafii                      22
 Aegilops markgrafii var. polyathera                       2
 Aegilops neglecta                                        88
 Aegilops neglecta subsp. neglecta                         4
 Aegilops neglecta subsp. recta                            1
 Aegilops peregrina                                       19
 Aegilops peregrina subsp. cylindrostachys                 1
 Aegilops searsii                                          1
 Aegilops sharonensis                                      2
 Aegilops sp.                                             48
 Aegilops speltoides                                      90
 Aegilops speltoides var. ligustica                       20
 Aegilops speltoides var. speltoides                      18
 Aegilops tauschii                                        85
 Aegilops tauschii subsp. strangulata                      7
 Aegilops tauschii subsp. tauschii                        13
 Aegilops tauschii var. anathera                           2
 Aegilops tauschii var. meyerii                            1
 Aegilops triuncialis                                    243
 Aegilops triuncialis subsp. persica                      13
 Aegilops umbellulata                                     42
 Aegilops uniaristata                                      3
 Aegilops ventricosa                                       7
                                                   ---------
                                      Total             1014
 
 Please note that some accessions may not be available due to
 low seed inventory.
 
 -------------------------
 
 
 
 PI Assignments in Aegilops since January 1, 1990
 
 Harold E. Bockelman, USDA-ARS, National Small Grains Collection,
 Aberdeen, ID
 George A. White, USDA-ARS, Plant Introduction Office, Beltsville, MD
 
 PI Numbers       Species          Origin               Donor/Acquisition
 
 542144-542170    biuncialis       Turkey               R.J. Metzger,
 USDA-ARS
                                                        G. Kimber,
 Missouri AES
 542171           columnaris       Turkey                    "         "
 542172-542178    comosa           Turkey                    "         "
 542179           cylindrica       Turkey                    "         "
 542180-542190    geniculata       Turkey                    "         "
 542191           hybrid           Turkey                    "         "
 542192-542193    juvenalis        Turkey                    "         "
 542194-542195    kotschyi         Turkey                    "         "
 542196           longissima       Turkey                    "         "
 542197-542210    markgrafii       Turkey                    "         "
 542211-542218    neglecta         Turkey                    "         "
 542219           markgrafii       Turkey                    "         "
 542220-542235    neglecta         Turkey                    "         "
 542236           peregrina        Turkey                    "         "
 542237           sharonensis      Turkey                    "         "
 542238-542276    speltoides       Turkey                    "         "
 542277-542278    tauschii         Turkey                    "         "
 542279-542361    triuncialis      Turkey                    "         "
 542362-542384    umbellulata      Turkey                    "         "
 542385           ventricosa       Turkey                    "         "
 
 Please note that new accessions may not be immediately available due to
 low seed inventory.
 
 -------------------------
 
 Elite Germplasm for the National Small Grains Collection
 
      Harold E. Bockelman, USDA-ARS, National Small Grains Collection,
 Aberdeen, ID
 
      Breeders are encouraged to submit their elite lines for inclusion
 in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC).  Of special interest are
 lines that have been in uniform nurseries, but are not to be released as
 cultivars.  Historically, uniform nurseries been the testing-grounds for
 the most advanced, elite germplasm from the various public and private
 breeding programs.  Entries in uniform nurseries and other breeding
 materials that are never released as cultivars are still of potential
 value to breeders, pathologists, entomologists, and other researchers.
 
      Breeders should submit 500 g of untreated seed to the NSGC
 (address: P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210).  Seed from outside of the
 United States should be sent to the USDA Plant Germplasm Quarantine
 Center (address: Bldg. 320, 
 BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705) with enclosed forwarding directions. 
 Include a description of the germplasm, including: donor (breeder,
 instition); botanical and common name; cultivar name and/or other
 identifiers (breeder line or selection number, etc.); pedigree;
 descriptive information (of important traits and special
 characteristics); and growth habit.  The request is then forwarded to
 the Plant Introduction Office.  Upon PI assignment the Plant
 Introduction Officer returns documentation (PI card) to the NSGC Curator
 and the originating breeder.  The NSGC Curator forwards a backup sample
 of seed to the National Seed Storage Laboratory and places the remaining
 seed in the NSGC.
 
      Assignment of a PI number and inclusion in the NSGC makes the
 germplasm available for research purposes to bona fide scientists in the
 U.S. and worldwide.
 
      Please note that a different procedure applies if you are obtaining
 Crop Science registration (see Crop Sci. 28: 716. 1988).
 
 
 -------------------------
 
 Cultivar Name Clearance
 
      Harold E. Bockelman, USDA-ARS, National Small Grains Collection,
 Aberdeen, ID
 
      Breeders are encouraged to submit proposed names for new cultivars
 for clearance in order to avoid duplication and possible trademark and
 other infringemts.  The breeder should submit the proposed name to the
 NSGC Curator (P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210).  If desired, more than
 one name may be submitted, listed in order of preference.  This will
 save considerable time if a conflict is found with the first name.  The
 NSGC Curator checks available records (GRIN, CI/PI cards, variety files,
 etc.) for conflicts with the proposed name.  If a conflict is found
 (previous use of the name for that crop), the originating scientist is
 requested to submit a different name.  If no conflicts are found in the
 available records, the requested name is forwarded to the Agricultural
 Marketing Service where the proposed name is checked for possible
 conflicts in trademarks, etc. Their findings and recommendations are
 reported to the NSGC Curator.  The Agricultural Marketing Service does
 not guarantee that its findings are the final word since their files may
 not be complete and/or there may be unregistered trademarks.  The NSGC
 Curator then responds to the originating scientist.  The clearance
 procedure generally requires 4 to 6 weeks.
 
 -------------------------
 
 Guidelines for Exporting and Importing Seed
 
      Harold E. Bockelman, USDA-ARS, National Small Grains Collection,
 Aberdeen, ID;  David Manning, USDA-ARS, Plant Germplasm Quarantine     
  Center, Beltsville, MD
 
      Exporting.  All seed sent to a foreign country should be inspected
 and receive a phytosanitary certificate.  For large shipments of seed,
 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) personnel in your
 locality should becontacted.  For small, research-sized samples the seed
 can be routed through the USDA Plant Germplasm Quarantine Center
 (address: USDA Plant Germplasm Quarantine Center, Attn: David Manning,
 Bldg. 320, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705).  Both ARS and APHIS
 personnel are located at the PGQC.  All necessary customs requirements
 are handled at the PGQC.  There is no charge for this service.  Address
 the package to the PGQC.  Inside, place a second unsealed package
 containing the seed, addressed to the recipient.  Also include: two
 copies of a listing of materials enclosed; a copy of your transmittal
 letter or a copy of the original request from the foreign scientist; and
 any import permits (supplied by the requesting scientist) or special
 shipping instructions.  Failure to include necessary import permits can
 delay shipments by weeks since it will be necessary to request such a
 permit from the foreign scientist or country.
 
      Importing.  Any scientist importing seed should be aware of any
 restrictions that apply.  APHIS personnel can provide current
 information on applicable restrictions.  Of particular importance to
 wheat researchers are import restrictions related to flag smut and
 karnal bunt.  Presently, some 34 countries have flag smut import
 restrictions.  Six countries currently have karnal bunt import
 restrictions. Importation of seed from flag smut and karnal bunt
 countries requires a permit from APHIS.  Special handling and grow-out
 procedures apply to such shipments.
 
 -------------------------
 
 Evaluation of National Small Grains Collection Germplasm Progress Report
 - Wheat
 
      H.E. Bockelman, D.M. Wesenberg, M.A. Bohning, and  L.W. Briggle *
 
      National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility, Aberdeen, ID,
 and National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, MD
 
      Systematic evaluation of accessions in the USDA-ARS National Small
 Grains Collection (NSGC) was coordinated by National Small Grains
 Germplasm Research Facility staff at Aberdeen during 1990.  Cooperative
 evaluations for resistance to Russian Wheat Aphid, Hessian fly, barley
 yellow dwarf virus, barley stripe mosaic virus, spot and net blotch of
 barley, stripe rust of wheat, and dwarfbunt continued along with
 cooperative evaluations of oat germplasm for beta-glucan, protein, and
 oil content and ploidy analysis of Triticum species.  In addition to the
 ongoing evaluation program, the Aberdeen staff has been involved in the
 entry of NSGC evaluation data into the Germplasm Resources Information
 Network (GRIN) system; growth habit evaluations of 10,000 NSGC wheat
 accessions; grow out and taxonomic evaluation of over 600 NSGC spring
 wheat accessions; field taxonomic classification of over 2,200 NSGC oat
 accessions; laboratory taxonomic classification of about 2,800
 previously unclassified NSGC oat accessions in addition to a similar
 number of accessions reviewed the previous year; quarantine and field
 grow out of 893 new accessions of Avena sativa from a collection made in
 Turkey in 1986; initiation of cooperative evaluations of NSGC barley
 accessions and other elite germplasm for reaction to stem rust race QCC
 in North Dakota and Puerto Rico; initiation of cooperative evaluations
 of NSGC barley accessions and other elite germplasm for reaction to
 barley stripe rust race 24 in Bolivia under the direction of Colorado
 State University staff; and increase and evaluation of a spring wheat
 germplasm collection derived from a series of interspecific crosses
 completed by Mr. William J. Sando in the 1930s and previously last grown
 in the 1960s.  Cooperative ploidy analysis of Triticum species were
 conducted by Dr. Gordon Kimber and staff, Columbia, Missouri.  Dr. Lee
 Briggle completed the documentation and organization of his Avena fatua
 collection and the material has now been assigned PI numbers and entered
 in the NSGC.  Location funds were also used to partially support the
 evaluation of Pioneer Seed Company-developed hard red winter wheat
 germplasm at Manhattan, Kansas.  Specific Cooperative Agreements or
 within ARS Fund Transfers involving such cooperative evaluations and
 related research for all small grains currently involve over 20
 University and ARS projects in at least 16 states.
 
      Descriptors appropriate for each of the principal small grain crop
 species - wheat, barley, oats, and rice - have been established in
 collaboration with the appropriate Crop Advisory Committees.  Data on
 field descriptors have been obtained on approximately 35,500 wheat
 accessions, 11,000 oat accessions, and 9,000 barley accessions during
 the 1983-90 period.  Special nurseries were grown for that purpose at
 Aberdeen, Idaho and Maricopa, Arizona, with grain being harvested from
 each field evaluation nursery to replenish NSGC seed stocks.  Field
 evaluation data are recorded on such descriptors as growth habit, number
 of days from planting to anthesis (heading), plant height, spike or
 panicle density, lodging, straw breakage, shattering, and awn and glume
 characteristics, including color.  Spikes or panicles are collected from
 each evaluation or nursery plot at maturity to facilitate detailed
 laboratory analysis for seed characters and for more precise spike or
 panicle descriptors than can be obtained under field 
 conditions.  Yield data are also recorded for each accession.
 
      Evaluations for disease and insect resistance were initiated in
 1983 along with the agronomic evaluations.  Accessions of Triticum or
 Aegilops 
 submitted for formal NSGC disease and insect evaluations to date include
 
 the following:
 
    Barley Yellow Dwarf           1983-90    Davis, CA
                                             27,300 wheats
 
                                             Urbana, IL
                                             27,500 wheats
 
    Soilborne Mosaic Virus        1985-89    Urbana, IL
                                             10,000 wheats
 
    Leaf Rust                     1983-89    Manhattan, KS
                                             29,900 wheats
 
    Stripe Rust                   1984-90    Pullman, WA
                                             25,575 wheats
 
    Stem Rust                     1987-90    St. Paul, MN
                                             14,700 wheats
                                             184 Aegilops
 
                                             Fargo, ND
                                             290 Aegilops
 
    Common and Dwarf Bunt         1985-86    Pendleton, OR
                                             5,000 wheats
 
    Karnal Bunt                   1988-90    Ludhiana,India
                                             1,522 wheats
 
    Hessian Fly                   1983-90    West Lafayette, IN
                                             30,605 wheats
 
      Evaluation of NSGC wheat, barley, rye, and triticale germplasm for
 Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) reaction is also underway at the ARS Plant
 Science Research Laboratory in Stillwater, Oklahoma as well as a number
 of other locations in the United States.  The NSGC staff is overseeing
 the 
 distribution of NSGC wheat germplasm to the several researchers
 interested in the evaluation of this germplasm for reaction to the
 Russian Wheat 
 Aphid.  Data for Russian Wheat Aphid reaction for 4,457 NSGC wheat
 accessions are presently entered in the GRIN data base.
 
      Wheat descriptors with data entered in the GRIN system are
 summarized below.  Systematic evaluations for descriptors such as stripe
 rust, dwarf bunt, stem rust, Septoria nodorum, Septoria tritici, yield,
 kernel weight, kernels per spike, and kernel texture are currently
 underway, with data in 
 the process of being prepared for entry into the GRIN system.  No
 evaluations have been conducted to date for other descriptors such as
 drought tolerance, salt tolerance, winterhardiness, Cephalosporium
 stripe, flag smut, leaf blight, loose smut, powdery mildew, snow mold,
 take all, tan spot, wheat streak mosaic, green bug, cereal leaf beetle,
 and protein.
 
 Evaluation Data on the Germplasm Resources Information Network
 
 AWN COLOR               Awn color of healthy plants at maturity
 
 Data on GRIN:           Black                1036
                         Brown                 656
                         Gray                   46
                         Purple                  2
                         Tan                   649
                         White/Amber          4291
                         Yellow                225
                         Mixed                1102
                                Total         8007
 
 
 AWN TYPE                Presence and extent of awning
 
 Data on GRIN:           Awned                21330
                         Awnletted             8840
                         Apically Awnletted     751
                         Awnless               1297
                         Mixed                  413
                                Total         32631
 
 
 BYDV                    Reaction to Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus
 
 Data on GRIN:           Resistant (1-3)       127
                         Intermediate (4-6)   1767
                         Susceptible (7,8)     163
                               Total          2057
 
 
 CHROMOSOME NUMBER       Laboratory determination of chromosome count
 
 Data on GRIN:           14 chr.               18
                         28 chr.              253
                         42 chr.              245
                         56 chr.                3
                                   Total      519
 
 
 COMMON BUNT             Reaction to Common Bunt incited by Tilletia    
                         foetida and T. caries
 
 Data on GRIN:     R39: Virulence to Bt1,2,3,4,6,7,9,10
                         Resistant (1-3)       112
                         Intermediate (4-6)    241
                         Susceptible (7-9)     491
                                 Total         844
 
                   R36: Virulence to Bt2,5,7
                         Resistant (1-3)        70
                         Intermediate (4-6)     73
                         Susceptible (7-9)     250
                                 Total         393
 
                   T-1: Virulence to Bt7
                         Resistant (1-3)      2063
                         Intermediate (4-6)   2036
                         Susceptible (7-9)    1843
                                 Total        5942
 
                   Multiple: Virulence to Bt1 through 10
                         Resistant (1-3)       918
                         Intermediate (4-6)   1693
                         Susceptible (7-9)    3108
                                 Total        5719
 
 
 GLUME COLOR             Color of glume on healthy plants at maturity
 
 Data on GRIN:           Black                 142
                         Brown                 866
                         Gray                   98
                         Purple                  3
                         Tan                  1025
                         White/Amber          4656
                         Yellow                273
                         Mixed                1008
                                 Total        8071
 
 
 GLUME PUBESCENCE        Presence and extent of pubescence on glumes
 
 Data on GRIN:           Absent               6872
                         Edge only              16
                         Short/Fine            194
                         Short/Medium           14
                         Long                  935
                         Mixed                 372
                                 Total        8403
 
 
 GROWTH HABIT            Growth habit
 
 Data on GRIN:           Spring                7537
                         Winter                5940
                         Facultative           2022
                         Mixed                 1213
                                 Total        16712
 
 
 HEADING DATE            Number of days after January 1 when 50% of the 
                         spikes are emerged from the boot
 
 Data on GRIN:           180 or less          1247
                         181 to 190           2671
                         191 to 200           3620
                         201 or more          1420
                                Total         8958
 
 
 HESSIAN FLY             Reaction to Hessian Fly, Mayetiola destructor
 
 Data on GRIN:           Biotype-B
                         Resistant (1-3)          6
                         Intermediate (4-6)       9
                         Susceptible (7-9)      433
                                Total           448
 
                         Biotype-C
                         Resistant (1-3)        960
                         Intermediate (4-6)    1794
                         Susceptible (7-9)    21472
                                Total         24226
 
                         Biotype-E
                         Resistant (1-3)       1009
                         Intermediate (4-6)    1840
                         Susceptible (7-9)    21560
                                Total         24409
 
 
 KERNEL COLOR            Color of the kernel of healthy plants at 
                         maturity
 
 Data on GRIN:           Brown                    6
                         Gray                     1
                         Purple                  48
                         Red                  14174
                         White/Amber           8755
                                 Total        22924
 
 
 LEAF PUBESCENCE         Presence and extent of pubescence on the leaves
 
 Data on GRIN:           Absent               8349
                         Minute                 19
                         Medium                 18
                         Very Heavy              8
                                 Total        8394
 
 
 LEAF RUST               Reaction to Leaf Rust incited by Puccinia      
                         recondita
 
 Data on GRIN:           Resistant (0-3)       3556
                         Intermediate (4-6)    3291
                         Susceptible (7-9)    17599
                                 Total        24446
 
 
 PLANT HEIGHT            Height (cm) at maturity of the plant from the  
                         ground to the top of the spike, excluding awns.
 
 Data on GRIN:           70 or less            785
                         71 to 90             2177
                         91 to 110            2647
                         111 to 130           2046
                         131 or more           829
                                 Total        8484
 
 
 RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID     Reaction to the Russian Wheat Aphid, Diuraphis 
                         noxia
 
 Data on GRIN:           More Resistant (3-5)  181
                         Intermediate (6,7)   1168
                         Susceptible (8,9)    3028
                         Mixed                  80
                               Total          4457
 
 
 RWA LEAFROLL            Leafroll symptoms caused by the Russian Wheat  
                         Aphid, Diuraphis noxia
 
 Data on GRIN:           Flat                  139
                         Rolled               4129
                         Mixed                 189
                                Total         4457
 
 
 SHATTERING              Degree of shattering of seed from the spike
 
 Data on GRIN:           None (1)             3161
                         Little  (2,3)         355
                         Moderate (4-6)        121
                         Severe  (7-9)          32
                                Total         3669
 
 
 SOIL-BORNE MOSAIC       Reaction to Soil-born Mosaic Virus vectored by 
                         Polymyxa graminis
 
 Data on GRIN:           Resistant (0-2)       756
                         Intermediate (3-5)   3066
                         Susceptible (6-9)    2767
                               Total          6589
 
 
 SPIKE DENSITY           Visual measure of relative density or          
                         compactness of the spike
 
 Data on GRIN:           Lax (1-3)            2435
                         Medium (4-6)         4801
                         Dense (7-9)           725
                         Mixed                 441
                                 Total        8402
 
 
 SPIKE TYPE              General shape of the spike
 
 Data on GRIN:           Fusiform              674
                         Oblong               7033
                         Clavate               320
                         Elliptical             47
                         Mixed                 334
                               Total          8408
 
 
 STRAW BREAKAGE          Degree of straw or stem breakage at maturity
 
 Data on GRIN:           None                 7173
                         Little               1037
                         Moderate               75
                         Most or all             7
                                 Total        8292
 
 
 STRAW COLOR             Color of straw on healthy plants at maturity
 
 Data on GRIN:           Black                  13
                         Blue                    1
                         Brown                  10
                         Gray                    4
                         Purple                330
                         Red                     1
                         Tan                   402
                         White/Amber          3837
                         Yellow               5175
                         Mixed                 215
                                 Total        9988
 
 
 STRAW LODGING           Degree of straw lodging at maturity
 
 Data on GRIN:           None (0)             1460
                         Little (2,3)         2719
                         Moderate (4-6)       2018
                         Most or all (7-9)    2186
                                Total         8383
 
 
 *  The authors wish to acknowledge the important contributions of NSGGRF
 staff and cooperators in this effort, with special thanks to Santos
 Nieto, Glenda B. Rutger, A. Lee Urie, John F. Connett, Dave E. Burrup,
 Kay B. Calzada, Vicki Gamble, Evalyne McLean, Judy Bradley, Dallas
 Western, and Laura Morrison.
 
 -------------------------
 
 
      R.E. Allan, USDA-ARS, Washington State University
 
      CSSA Wheat Cultivar and Germplasm Registration, 1990.
 
      Refer to Crop Sci. 30:1394 for references to registration articles
 on wheat cultivars assigned CV 748 to CV 753.  No wheat germplasm lines
 or genetic stocks were published in Crop Sci. 30.  Wheat cultivars and
 germplasm lines assigned CSSA registration numbers since the last report
 (AWN 36:234-235) are:
 
                          Wheat Cultivar Registration
 Reg. No.   ID No.    Kind       Origin                 Type   Crop Sci.
 
 753    PI494096  Tadinia     California             HRS     30:1366
 75   PI537310   Kyle          Agriculture Canada     Durum
 755  PI537307   SWS-52        Agriculture Canada     SWS
 756  PI538257   Georgia 100   Georgia, USDA-ARS      SRW
 757  PI511674   Blizzard      Idaho, USDA-ARS        HRW  
 758  PI532913   Pioneer 2548  Pioneer Hi-Bred Int. Inc. SRW
 759  PI532914   Pioneer 2555  Pioneer Hi-Bred Int. Inc. SRW
 760  PI537303   Centennial    Idaho, USDA-ARS           SWS
 CV167 PI537060  Ajantha       Maharashtra, India           HRS
 
                          Wheat Germplasm Registration
 
 GP322    PI535770   Wichita//TA1649/2*Wichita    Kansas, USDA-ARS  Leaf 
                                                  rust resistance       
                                                  
 GP323   PI535767   TA1695/3*Wichita   Kansas, USDA-ARS  Hessian fly,   
                    greenbug, SBM virus resistance
 
 GP324   PI535766   TA1642/2*Wichita   Kansas, USDA-ARS Hessian fly     
                                       resistance
                    
 GP325   PI535769   TA2452/TA1645//2*WI/3/NWT   Kansas, USDA-ARS Hessian 
                                                fly resistance 
 
 GP326  PI535771   Ms3 Facilitatated Kansas, USDA-ARS Multiple disease  
                   and HRW bulk population insect resistance
 
      Those considering registering cultivars, germplasm, parental lines,
 or genetic stocks of wheat should refer to Crop Sci. 28:716-717 which
 explains some of the procedures that are to be followed.  North American
 wheat research workers who wish to register cultivars or germplasm may
 also write to any member of the wheat subcommittee of CSSA Registration
 Committee (C852) for information.  The members of the 1991 committee
 are:
 
                R.E. Allan - Chm., Western USA Wheats, USDA-ARS,
 Washington
                Robert Busch - Hard Red Spring Wheats, USDA-ARS,
 Minnesota
                J.S. Quick - Hard Red Winter Wheats, Colorado
                P. Zwer - Soft Wheats, Oregon
 
 -------------------------
 B. Skovmand, CIMMYT and M.C. Mackay, Australian Winter Cereals
 Collection
                                        
 Wheat Cultivar Abbreviations, 1990
 
 The Wheat Cultivar Abbreviations were last published in June 1, 1985, as
 Special Report 749, Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State
 University, Corvallis, Oregon. An updated list of abbreviations has been
 compiled by the CIMMYT Wheat Program and is now available on diskette in
 ASCII format. Paper copy can be made available to programs lacking
 computer facilities.
 
 A copy of this list can be obtained from any CIMMYT regional program or
 from:
 Bent Skovmand, CIMMYT, Lisboa 27, Apdo. Postal 6-641, Deleg. Cuauhtemoc,
 06600 Mexico D.F., Mexico or from 
 M.C. Mackay, Australian Winter Cereals Collection, Private Mail Bag
 R.M.B. 944, Tamworth NSW 2340, Australia
 The listing is available free on request for bona fide wheat breeders,
 scientists, and programs with the exception of programs in highly
 developed countries as listed below.
 
 Highly developed country programs in Australia, Austria, Belgium,
 Canada, Denmark, Faeroe Islands, Germany, Finland, France, Greece,
 Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands,
 New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
 United Kingdom, and United States of America can obtain a copy by
 mailing a formatted diskette (one 3.5" or three 5 3/4") to either of the
 addresses above and the diskettes will be returned with the information.
 
 A database to collect information on abbreviations and names has been
 developed and a current listing can be made at any time.
 
 To keep this file current, we would appreciate information concerning
 wheats missing in the list or new cultivars of bread wheat, durum wheat,
 and triticale, including name and abbreviation, pedigrees, selection
 histories, growth habit, origin, and year of release.
 
 -----------------------------
 IV. CATALOGUE OF GENE SYMBOLS: 1991 SUPPLEMENT
 
 -----------------------------
 V. ANNUAL WHEAT NEWSLETTER FUND
  
  
                             Financial Statement 
            Account Number 52-732-7, Brenton Bank & Trust Company 
                               Johnston, Iowa 
             Ian B. Edwards, Treasurer:  Annual Wheat Newsletter 
  
           The level of financial support for the Annual Wheat Newsletter
 increased slightly during 1990-91, and the current fund balance (as of 
      April 15, 1991) is at $4,065.65 (compared with $3,963.24 in 1989-90
 and  $5,412.26 in 1988-89. 
  
           We are pleased to welcome the following new corporate or
 institutional contributors: 
  
           - American Cyanamid Company, Princeton, NJ 
           - John Innes Centre for Plant Science Research, Colney Lane,
 Norwich, U.K. 
           - Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge,
 LA 
           - Orsem, Fretin, France 
  
           A total of 145 individual contributors made donations to
 Volume 37. All those whose donations were received on or before April 15
 are 
      acknowledged in the pages that follow.  Those who contributed
 between April 15 and June 1 may still expect to receive a copy of the
 AWN, and 
      their financial support is also appreciated.  However, owing to the
 high costs of printing the AWN, we are only able to print a certain
 number       of copies, and requests received from new contributors
 after June 1 will likely not be filled.  We apologize for this and ask
 for your 
      understanding.  Printing is limited by available funding, and we
 try to meet all requests received on time. 
  
           A special thanks is extended to Dr. J. S. Noll (Canada), and
 Dr. R. A. McIntosh (Australia), for coordinating individual 
      contributions.  We would encourage individuals in other overseas
 countries to volunteer and coordinate local contributions; the use of 
      a single bank draft represents a substantial savings in time and
 bank charges and is much appreciated by your treasurer.  Certain
 institutions 
      have indicated that they are only able to pay by invoice.  In such
 instances, please notify your treasurer as to the amount that you are 
      willing to donate, and we will gladly send you an invoice. 
  
           It has been a pleasure to serve as your treasurer this past
 year, and I would again like to extend my thanks to all of those who so 
      graciously support our Newsletter. 
  
                                                  Current        Previous
 
                                                   Year            Year 
  
      Balance as of October 30, 1990:      $   <70.25>     $   185.52 
  
      Contributions (Oct. 30, 1990 to 
        April 15, 1991, plus interest 
        on checking):                             3,995.40       
 3,777.72 
  
      Total Fund Balance (Previous 
        balance, plus 1990-91):                 $ 4,065.65      $
 3,963.24 
                                           
                         1991 (VOLUME 37) AWN CONTRIBUTORS 
  
                             (Contributions over $200) 
  
       Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Ian B. Edwards, 6800 Pioneer
 Parkway, Johnston, IA  50131; Gregory C. Marshall, R.R. 1, Windfall, IN 
 46076 
       Western Plant Breeders, Dan Biggerstaff, P.O. Box 1409, Bozeman,
 MT  59715 
  
                           (Contributions $100 to $200) 
  
       AgriPro, Rob Bruns, 806 North 2nd Street, P.O. Box 30, Berthoud,
 CO  80513 
       Cargill, Sid Perry, 2540 East Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO  80525 
       HybriTech Seed International, Inc., John Erickson, 5912 N.
 Meridian, Wichita, KS  67204 
       Orsem, Christian Quandalle, 5 Rue Clemenceau, BP 12, 59273 Fretin,
 France 
       Nickerson Seeds Ltd., W. J. Angus, Rothwell Lincoln LN7 6DT,
 England 
   
                            (Contributions $50 to $99) 
  
       American Cyanamid Company, Kenneth L. Hill, P.O. Box 400,
 Princeton, NJ  08543-0400 
       Mike Brayton Seeds, Inc., Gary A. Smelser, P.O. Box 308, Ames, IA 
 50010 
       John Innes Centre for Plant Science Res., T. E. Miller, Colney
 Lane, Norwich  NR4 7UH 
       Louisiana State University Ag. Center, Stephen A. Harrison,
 Department of Agronomy, 104 Madison B. Sturgiss Hall, Baton Rouge, La  
             70803-2110 
       Robert S. Zemetra, University of Idaho, Plant Breeding & Genetics,
 Plant, Soil, & Entomological Sciences, Moscow, ID  83843 
   
                              (Contributions $2 to $49) 
      Robert E. Allan          Francis J. Gough         Ron Normann 
      Marcus M. Alley          Diane Grodzinski         L. O'Brien 
      Richard E. Atkins        Cebeco Handelsraad       A. Oyanagi 
      Dan Atsmon               Elmer G. Heyne           A. A. Pagnutti 
      Sem Y. Atsmon            G. Hollamby              R. F. Park 
      Robert K. Bacon           N. K. Howes             F. L. Patterson 
      P. Stephen Baenziger     Robert Hunger            J. Carlos Pavoni 
      Augusto Carlos Baier     Russell Karow            C. J. Peterson 
      B. Ballantyne            E. R. Kerber             R. V. Pienaar 
      Ron Barnett              W. Kim                   D. R. Porter 
      P. Bartos                M. B. Kirkham            Kenneth B. Porter 
      A. Bayraktar             R. K. Kiyomoto          Z. A. Pretorius 
      Robert K. Bequette       Daryl Klindworth         Bob Rees 
      A. Blum                  Takato Koba              R. Richards 
      Harold E. Bockelman      Frederic L. Kolb         Diane Rickerl 
      Joseph J. Bonnemann      Mathias F. Kolding       John J. Roberts 
      Basilio Borghi           J. Kolmer                C. C. Russell 
      Myron Brakke             Calvin F. Konzak         David J. Sammons 
      Hans-Joachim Braun       M. I. P. Kovacs      J. A. Martin Sanchez 
      P. Brennan                 Warren E. Kronstad       John F. Schafer 
      K. G. Briggs              E. Lagudah               Hidefumi Seko 
      Samuel J. Brown          M. D. Lazar              Hari C. Sharma 
      A. L. Brule-Babel        D. Leisle                P. Sharp 
      L. Burgess               Roland F. Line           M. Walker Simmons 
      David H. Casper          A. J. Lukaszewski      Larry L. Singleton 
      Fred A. Cholick          O. Lukow                 Bent Skovmand 
      Okkyung Kim Chung       M. Mackey                Ed Smith 
      Allan J. Ciha           G. F. Marais           T. F. Townley-Smith 
      Gordon Cisar             D. Mares                 Mark E. Sorrells 
      Robert L. Clarkson       David Marshall           Debra K. Steiger 
      Joseph L. Clayton        David J. Martin          Bruce Stewart 
      Fred C. Collins          Joe Martin               Qixin Sun 
      Darrell Cox              P. Martin                D. W. Sunderman 
      Thomas S. Cox            R. Martin                D. The 
      Christine A. Curtis      Bob Matchett             J. Thomas 
      E. Czarnecki             Paul J. Mattern          Trio Research 
      E. Deambrogio            C. May                   J. Vandam 
      Dennis J. Delaney        R. A. McIntosh           Wayne E. Vian 
      H. Jesse Dubin           R. I. H. McKenzie        James A. Webster 
      Dennis J. Dunphy         A. Meinel                Sarl W. Weibull 
      Ian B. Edwards           Robert J. Metzger        C. Wellings 
      R. L. Eisemann           Gene Milus               G. B. Wildermuth 
      F. Ellison               S. Moore                 N. D. Williams 
      Everett H. Everson       Craig F. Morris          P. Wilson 
      George Fedak             Rosalind Morris          R. Wilson 
      Moshe Feldman            D. K. Mulitze            David Worrall 
      K. J. Fowler             Charles F. Murphy        C. Wrigley 
      R. J. Graf               Lloyd R. Nelson 
      John Gorham              J. S. Noll                               
   
 -----------------------------
 VI.  VOLUME 37, MANUSCRIPT GUIDELINES
 
      1.   The required format for Volume 38 will be the same as for
           Volume 37. Cost of production and quality of the end product
           require using computer files and a laser printer (see
           guidelines in #3 below). Send your written contributions to
           James Quick and financial contributions to Ian Edwards.
           Considering recent cost increases, a $15 contribution would
           seem appropriate.  Your attention to editorial details below
           would be very helpful.
 
      2.   Subject matter contributions related to wheat:
      - germplasm development and genetic stocks, new cultivars
      - breeding procedures, equipment, techniques, computerization
      - diseases, insects, quality, production practices, weed control,
        fertilizer responses
      - untried ideas
      - personnel changes
      - list of recent publications (not other references to support
        materials and methods, etc.)
 
      3.   All text will be entered in computer files; therefore, please
           submit your manuscript on a 5 1/4 inch diskette if at all
           possible. Use Word Perfect 4.2, 5.0, or 5.1 programs or send
           an ASCII file which we can convert. Use Courier 12 CPI and
           avoid indents (F4 in Word Perfect) and tabs in the text.
           Maintenance of correct spacing during conversion of tables to
           a reduced size script is difficult so please submit tables in
           "Tables" format in WP 5.1 if possible and send hard copies
           using CPI = 12 and a maximum width of 17 cm. Double-space the
           text of your contribution if you must use a typewriter. Do not
           fold your manuscript.
 
      4.   Do not submit manuscript with literature reviews.  Tabular
           material must be brief, simple, and camera-ready in a maximum
           width of 17 cm (send original, not photocopy). Use CPI = 12.
 
      5.   If line drawings are presented, they should be suitable for
           direct use, i.e., camera-ready original copy in a maximum
           space of 17 x 17 cm.
 
      6.   No acknowledgement of contributions are made.
 
      7.   Some editorial changes are made.  PLEASE NOTE that "cultivar",
           not variety, is used throughout, semidwarf is one word, kg/ha
           is preferred to kg ha-1, and Crop Science should be used as a
           guide.  Use Volume 37 as a guide for page headings for
           country, state or province, and authors.  Underline subject
           headings at the beginning of the first line of the paragraph. 
           Use the pedigree writing system of Purdy, et al., Crop
           Science.   Coordination of manuscript preparation, combined
           listing of authors, and dispatch within research locations
           would aid in organization, provision of copies, etc.
 
      8.   The mailing list is revised annually for contributors for all
           countries and includes the following:
      - those who make a written contribution; sent only to senior author
      unless otherwise requested
                - those who make a financial contribution
                - for those who do neither, a request for a copy must be
                made in writing
      - the AWN is sent only to individuals.  We suggest, however, that
      you place a   copy in your local library for others to use.
 
      9.   The Annual Wheat Newsletter is sponsored by the USA National
           Wheat Improvement Committee and is financed by voluntary
           contributions.
 
     10.   Send only one copy of your written contributions to the
           editors by 15 February 1992.
 
     11.   The AWN size and contributions have increased considerably,
           and that is good news!  Do not include much detail of apparent
           local interest only; readers can correspond with the author
           for more details. 
 
     12.   The editor appreciates your careful assistance in manuscript
           preparation, and suggestions for improved communication are
           appreciated.  The job has been made much easier by the receipt
           of information on computer diskettes.
 
 -----------------------------
 VII.  MAILING LIST
 
      Carefully check the present mailing list to see that your address
 is correct.  We need complete information on each individual because in
 most cases of multiple authors, we often do not know in what department
 or area each person is involved.  Please clearly type or print your name
 and address.
 
      At the time of printing the mailing list for Volume 37 was:
 
 ARGENTINA
 
 
      Jose Buck S.A., 7637 La Dulce, Necochea - L.J. Gonzales
      Juan Carlos Pavoni, Calle 26 - Nro. 4017, 7630 Necochea, BsAs
      Ricardo H. Maich, Faculty Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad
      Nacional de Cordoba, Cassilla de Correo 509-C Central
      S.E. Feingold, Catedra de Cereales, Facultad de Agronomia,
      Universidad de Buenos Aires
      H.E. Hopp, Instituto Biologia Molecular, CICV, INTA Castelar, CC77,
      1708 Moron
      Hector Carbajo, Istilart 189, 7500 Tres Arroyos
 AUSTRALIA
     A.C.T.
      CSIRO, GPO Box 1600, Canberra 2601 - R.A. Richards, E. Lagudah
     NEW SOUTH WALES
      Agricultural Research Station, RMB 944, Tamworth, 2340, R. A. Hare,
      M. C. Mackay 
      Agricultural Research Institute, Wagga Wagga 2650 - B. Ballantyne,
      Cedric May
      Agricultural Research Centre, P.O. Box 304, Temora 2666 - R. Martin
      Cargill Wheat Research, P. O. Box W252, West Tamworth 2340 - Peter
      Wilson
      I. A. Watson Wheat Research Center, P. O. Box 219, Narrabri 2390 -
      L. O'Brien, F.W. Ellison, D. J. Mares, S. G. Moore
      University of Sydney, School of Crop Sciences, Sydney 2006 - L. W.
      Burgess, P. Sharp
      University of Sydney, Plant Breeding Institute, Cobbitty Road,
      Cobbitty 2570 - R.A. McIntosh, C. Wellings, D. The, R.F. Park
      CSIRO Wheat Research Unit, P.O. Box 7, North Ryde 2113 - C. Wrigley
     QUEENSLAND
      Wheat Research Inst., P. O. Box 5282, Toowoomba, 4350 -  Bob Rees,
      D.J. Martin, P. Brennan, R.L. Eiseman, G. Wildermuth, B. G. Stewart
     SOUTH AUSTRALIA
      Waite Agricultural Research Inst., Department of Agronomy, Glen
      Osmond 5065 - H. Wallwork
      Roseworthy Agricultural College, Roseworthy 5371 - G. Hollamby, A.
      Bayraktar
     VICTORIA
      Victorian Wheat Research Inst., P. B. 260, Horsham 3400 - Peter
      Martin  
     WEST AUSTRALIA
           Department of Agriculture, Jarrah Rd., S. Perth, W. A. 6151 -
 R. Wilson
 BANGLADESH
      Dep. Genetics & Breeding, Bangladesh Agric. Univ., Mymensingh - M.
      A. Hossain
 BELGIUM
      Station d'Amelioration des Plantes, Rue du Bordia 4, B-5800,
      Gembloux - J. Vandam
 BRAZIL
      Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo, Caixa Postal 569, 99 100
      Passo Fundo, RS - C. N. A. Sousa, J.C.S. Moreira 
             CNPT/EMBRAPA, Cx Postal 569, 99001 Passo Fundo, R.S. - A.C.
 Baier
             Instituto Agronomy do Parana, Caixa Postal 1371, Londrina,
 P. R. 86001 - C. R. Reide
      Universidade Federal do RS, Departamento de Genetica, Cx. P. 1953,
      90.001 Porto Alegre, RS - Leo de J.A. Del Duca
      O.S. Rosa, Melhoramento de Sementes, Rua Joao Battisti, 76 Passo
      Fundo, RS 99 050
      A.C.P. Goulart EMBRAPA-UEPAE de Dorados, Caixa Postal 661, 79800
      Dourados, MS
 BULGARIA
      Institute for Wheat and Sunflower, Near General Toshevo - K.
 Gotsov, V. Kehayov
      Institute of Introduction and Plant Genetic Resources, 4122 Sadovo,
      Plovdiv
 CANADA
     ALBERTA
      Alberta Wheat Pool, Alberta Wheat Pool Bldg., Calgary, T2P 2P5 - B.
 A. Friesen
      Agriculture Canada Research Station, Lethbridge, T1J 481 - R.S.
      Sadasivaiah, R.L. Connor, Julian Thomas
      Plant Science Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2P5 -
       Keith Briggs
     MANITOBA
      Agriculture Canada Research Station, 195 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, R3T
      2M9 - E. M. Czarnecki, P. L. Dyck, N. K. Howes, E. R. Kerber, O.
      Lukow, M. Kovacs, D. Leisle, D. Harder, J. S. Noll, T. F. Townley-
      Smith, W. Kim, R. I. McKenzie, A. Brule-Babel, S. Haber, T. Aung,
      P. Thomas, W.J. Turnock, J.A. Kolmer, S.E. German
      Manitoba Pool Elevators, 220 Portage Ave., Winnipeg, R3C 0A6 - D.
      W. Wilton
      United Grain Growers Ltd., P. O. Box 6600 - Winnipeg, R3C 3A7 - J.
      A. White
      Deiter Mulitze, Agromix Software, P.O. Box 67, Portage la Prairie
      R1N 3B2
     ONTARIO
      Agriculture Canada, Plant Research Center, Ottawa K1A 0C6 - George
      Fedak, D.R. Sampson, E.F. Schneider, W.L. Seaman
     PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
      Agriculture Canada Research Station, Charlottetown, C1A 7M8 - H. G.
 Nass, H.W. Johnston
     SASKATCHEWAN
      Agriculture Canada Research Station, Swift Current, S9H 3X2 - R. M.
 DePauw
      Canada Coop. Wheat Prod., Sask. Wheat Pool, Regina, S4P 2Y6 - J. O.
      Wright
      Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, 15 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon, S7N 2X8 -
      R.J. Graf
      University of Saskatchewan, Crop Science Department, Saskatoon S7N
      0W0 - Brian Fowler 
 CHINA
      Wheat Inst., Henan Academy of Agric. Sciences, Zhengzhou, Henan -
      Lin Zuo-ji
      Nanjing Agricultural College, Dept. of Agronomy, Nanjing, Jiangsu
      210014 - Zhaosu Wu 
      Beijing Agricultural University, Dept. of Agronomy, Beijing - Tie
      Cheng Huang, Q. Sun           
      Inst. of Crop Breeding and Cultivation, Academy of Agricultural
      Sciences, Department of Wheat Breeding, Beijing - Heng Li Wang
      Academy of Agriculture, Gansu Province, Lanzhou, Gansu - Cao Ke
      Chang
      Dry Farming Institute, 6 Nan Men Kou St., East of Bridge, Hengshui
      City, Hebei Province - Fengwu Zhao
 CZECHOSLOVAKIA
      Inst. of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Praha 6, Ruzyne 507 - P.
      Bartos, Z. Stehno
      Plant Breeding Station Uhretice, 538 32 Ahretice, Okres Chrudim -
 Pavel Amler
      Cereal Research & Breeding Inst., Dept. of Genetics, Havlickova
      2787, 767 41 Kromeriz - J. Smocek
 DENMARK
      Carlsberg Plant Breeding, G. L. Carlsberg, Vej 10-DK-2500,
      Copenhagen, Valby - J. Larsen
 ECUADOR
      INIAP, Apartado 2600, Quito - S. Fuentes
 EGYPT
      Assuit University, Dep. Agronomy, Assuit - M. Saadalla
 ESTONIA
      Institute of Experimental Biology, Estonian Academy of Science,
      Harju rajoon, Harku, 203051 Estonia, SSR, USSR - O. Priilinn
 ETHIOPIA
      Holetta Research Station, Inst. of Agricultural Research, P. O. Box
      2003, Addis Abada - Gebre-Mariam Hailu
 
 FRANCE
      Station de Selection Weibull, Semonville, Cedex 1824, 28310
 Janville - J. P. Jossett, Sarl Weibull
      Centre de Recherche, ORSEM, Pouy-Roguelaure, G32480 La Romieu - Ch.
      Quandalle, S. Sunderwirth, L. Bateau
      Nickerson S.A., 5 Rue de l'egalite', 28130 Chartainvilliers - Jayne
      T. Semple
 GERMANY
      Institut fur Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuchtung, Der Universitat
      Gottingen, 34 Gottingen, V., Seibold Strasse 8 - Gerhard Robbelen,
      K. Rudolf
      Technische Universitat Munchen, Institut fur Pflanzenbau und
 Pflanzenzuchtung, 8050 Freising, Weihenstephan - F. J. Zeller
      Akademie der Wissenschaften, Genetics Institute, Corrensstrasse 5,
      4325 Gatersleben - D. Mettin, A. Boerner, R. Schlegel
      Landesanstalt fur Bodenkultur u Pflanzenbau, P221, Vottinger Str.
      38, 8050 Freising - G. Zimmerman
      Veg. P. Langenstein, Boehnshausen 3721 - A. Meinel
 HUNGARY
      Agricultural Research Inst., Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2462
      Martonvasar - Laszlo Balla, Z. Bedo, L. Szunics, L. Lang, J. Sutka,
      B. Barnabas
      Cereal Research Inst., Wheat Breeding Dep., P.O. Box 391, 6701
      Szeged - Z. Barabas
 INDIA
     HARYANA
      Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi - 110012 
      Division of Genetics - R. N. Sawhney, M. K. Upadhyaya, Dalmir
 Singh, S.M.S. Tomar, P.C. Pande
      Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal 132001 - K.N.
      Singh
     HIMACHYAL PRADESH
      H.P. Krishi Vishva Vidyalya Research Station, Palanpur 176062 -
      Satish Sharma, G.S. Sethi
     PUNJAB
      Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141004, Director
 Extension Education - K. S. Gill 
     MADHYA PRADESH
      IARI Regional Station, Indore 452001 - A.N. Mishra
 IRAN
      National Plant Gene Bank, Seed and Plant Improv. Inst., Mardabad
      Rd., Karaj - A. Maroofi 
 ISRAEL
      Weizmann Inst. of Science, Plant Genetics, Rehovot 76100 - Dan
 Atsmon, M. Feldman
      Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, POB 6, Bet
      Dagan - A. Blum
      Hazera Seeds, Research Department, Post SDE GAT 79570 - S. Y.
 Atsmon
 ITALY
      ENEA, FARE/BIOAG, CRE Cassaccia, CP 3500, 00100 Roma, A. D. - B.
 Giorgi
      Istituto Sperimentale per la Cerealicoltura, via Cassia 176, 00191
      Rome - V. Vallega
      Istituto Cerealicoltura, via Mulino 3, 20079 San Angelo Lodigiano
 (Milano) - B. Borghi, N. E. Pogna
      DERIS S.R.1, via Roma 144, 31040 Chiarano (TV) - A.A. Pagnutti
      Societa Produttori Sementi, Via Macero 1, 40050 Argelato (BO) - E.
      Deambrogio
 JAPAN
      National Agricultural Research Center, Kannondai 3-1-1, Tsukuba,
      Ibaragi-Ken 305 - S. Oda, M. Saburo, T. Yamada, A. Oyanagi,
      Hidefumi Seko
      Gifu University, Faculty of Agriculture, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi
 501-11 - N. Watanabe
      Takarazuka Research Center, Sumitano Chemical Co., 4-12-1
 Takatsukasa, Hyogo 665 - Koji Murai
      Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Shimo-Kuriyagawa,
      Morioka, Iwate 020-01 - Ito Seiji, Y. Taniguchi
      Laboratory of Genetic Resources, Ishikawa Agricultural College,
      Nonoichi, Ishakawa 921 - Takato Koba
 KOREA
      Yeong-nam Crop Exp. Sta., 1085 Naidong, Milyang 627-130 - Duck-Yong
      Suh
 MEXICO
      CIMMYT, Lisboa 27, Apdo. Postal 6-641, Delg. Cuauhtemoc 06600
      Mexico, D. F. - R.A. Fischer, S. Rajaram, G. Varughese, P. Burnett,
      R. L. Villareal, Bent Skovmand, K.D. Sayre, He Zhong-hu 
 MOROCCO
      INRA/USAID/MIAC, Aridoculture Centre, B. P. 290, Settat - M.
      Mergoum
 NEPAL
      CIMMYT/Winrock, P. O. Box 1336, Kathmandu - Jesse Dubin, Peter
      Hobbs
 NETHERLANDS
      CEBECO Handelsraad Plant Breeding, P. O. Box 139, Lisdoddewet 36,
 Lelystad - R. K. Rai
 NIGERIA
      Dept. of Plant Science, Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B. 1004 -
 Zaria - U. S. Gupta
 PAKISTAN
      Agricultural Research Station, Bahawalpur - Manzoor Husain 
      Cereal Disease Research Inst., P. O. Box 1031, NIH Park Road,
      Islamabad - M. Mujahid
      Plant Genetics Division, Atomic Energy Research Center, Tandojam,
      Sindh - K. A. Siddiqui
 PARAGUAY
      CIMMYT, G.C. 1170, Asuncion - M.M. Kohli
 POLAND
      University of Wroctaw, Inst. of Botany, Kanonia 6/8 50-328 Wroctaw
 - Romuald Kosina
 PORTUGAL
      Divisao de Genetica, UTAD, AP 202, 5001 Vila Real Codex - H. Guedes
      Pinto
 ROMANIA
      Res. Inst. for Cereal Crops, Fundulea 8264, Calarasi - Gh. Ittu, N.
 Saulescu, I. Hagima
 SOUTH AFRICA
      Small Grain Centre, Bag X29, Bethlehem 9700 - H. A. van Niekerk,
 W.H. Kilian,
      J. le Roux, H. A. Smit, B. Pieterse, J. de Kock
      University of Stellenbosch, Department of Genetics, Stellenbosch
      7600 - R. de V. Pienaar, G. F. Marais
      Department of Agronomy, University of the Orange Free State,
      Bloemfontein - C.S. van Deventer, Z.A. Pretorius
      Sensako, P.O. Box 556, Bethlehem 9700 - J.P. Jordaan
      Pioneer Seed Company, P.O. Box 17164, Bainsvlei 9338 - F. du Toit
 SPAIN
      UPC-IRTA, Centre R+D de Lleida, Alcalde Rovira Rovre 177, 25006
 Lerida - J. A. Martin Sanchez
 SYRIA
      ICARDA, P. O. Box 5466, Aleppo - B.C. Curtis, G. Ortiz-Ferrera
 TURKEY
      Regional Agricultural Res. Inst., P. O. Box 9, Menemen, Izmir - The
 Director
      CIMMYT, R. F., P. O. 120, Yenimahalle, Ankara - Hans Braun
 UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS
      Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Academy of Sciences, Siberian
      Branch, Novosibirsk-90, USSR 630090 - O.I. Maystrenko
 UNITED KINGDOM
      Nickerson RPB Ltd., Rothwell, Lincolnshire, LN7 DT - W.J. Angus 
      AFRC, J.I. Center for Plant Science Research, Cambridge Laboratory,
      Colney Lane, Norwich N4R 74J - T. E. Miller, M. D. Gale, C. N. Law,
      A. J. Worland, J. Snape
      John Innes Institute, Institute for Plant Science Research, Colney
      Lane, Norwich NR4 7UH - J.S. Heslop Harrison
      Long Ashton Research Station, Long Ashton, Bristol BS18 9AF - P.R.
      Shewry
      AFRC Grassland Institute, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, Dyfed SY23
      3EB - J. Valentine
      Plant Breeding International Cambridge Ltd., Maris Lane,
      Trumpington, Cambridge CB2 2QL - P.I. Payne
 UNITED STATES
     ARIZONA
      Farmers Marketting Corp., P.O. Box 60578, Phoenix 85040 - R.K.
 Thompson 
      Western Plant Breeders, P. O. Box 1110, Phoenix, AZ  82501 - Kim C.
      Shantz
     ARKANSAS
      University of Arkansas, Agronomy Dep., Fayetteville 72701 - Robert
      Bacon     
      Plant Pathology Dept. - Gene Milus 
      Northrup King Seed Co., P.O. Box 729, Hwy 158 E., Bay 72411 - Fred
      Collins
      Agripro, Jonesboro - B. Fogelman, E. Ridge
     CALIFORNIA
      Resource Seeds Inc., P.O. Box 165, Zamora 95698 - R. Matchett
      University of California, Agronomy and Range Science, Davis 95616 -
       C. O. Qualset
      University of California, Dep. Botany & Plant Sciences, Riverside
      92521 - A.J. Lewkaszewski, J.G. Waines
     COLORADO
      Colorado State University, Agronomy Department, Fort Collins  80523
      - J.S. Quick, G. H. Ellis, R. N. Normann, M. Mergoum, S. Haley, K.
      Nkongolo, A. Saidi
      Agripro, P. O. Box 30, 806 N. 2nd St., Berthoud,  80513 - Robert F.
 Bruns, Joe A. Smith, J. Reeder, J. Moffat 
      Cargill Wheat Research, 2540 E Drake Rd., Fort Collins 80525 - D.
 Johnston, Sid Perry, Jill Handwerk, Sally Clayshulte, D. Shellberg
     CONNECTICUT
      The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, P. O. Box 1106,
 New Haven 06504 - R. K. Kiyomoto 
     FLORIDA
      Agricultural Research and Educ. Center, Rt. 3, Box 4370, Quincy
 32351 - R. D. Barnett
     GEORGIA
      Coastal Plain Exp. Station, Dept. of Agronomy, Tifton, 31794 - P.
 Bruckner
      Georgia Exp. Station, Experiment 30212
      Agronomy Department - Jerry W. Johnston, John Roberts
     IDAHO
      Agricultural Exp. Station, P. O. Box AA, Aberdeen 83210 - D. W.
 Sunderman, H. E. Bockelman, Ed Souza
      University of Idaho, Plant & Soil Science Dept., Moscow  83343 -
      Bob Zemetra, S. Guy
     ILLINOIS
      Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801 - Fred
      Kolb
     INDIANA
      Agripro, Brookston 47923 - Koy E. Miskin, C. Beazer
      Hybritech Seeds, 6025 W. 300 South, W. Lafayette 47905 - Gordon
      Cisar, D. Dunphy
      Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Windfall 46076 - G.C. Marshall 
      Purdue University, West Lafayette 47901 
      Agronomy Department - H. W. Ohm,I.M. Dweikat, H.C. Sharma
      Botany and Plant Pathology Department - G. E. Shaner
      Grain Insect Pest Research, ARS-USDA, Agric. Admin. Bldg. - R.H.
      Ratcliffe
     IOWA
      Pioneer Hybrid International, 6800 Pioneer Parkway, P. O. Box 316,
 Johnston 50131 -  Ian Edwards
      Iowa State University, Agronomy Department, Ames 50011 - R. E.
      Atkins
      Mike Brayton Seeds., Inc., P. O. Box 308, Ames  50010 - Gary
      Smelzer
     KANSAS
      Kansas Crop Improvement Assoc., 205 Call Hall, Kansas State
      University, Manhattan 66506 - Lowell Burchett
      Kansas Crop & Livestock Reporting Service, 444 S. Quincy, Rm. 290,
      Topeka 66683 - T.J. Byram
      Kansas State University, Manhattan  66506
      Agronomy Department, Throckmorton Hall - T. S. Cox, R.G. Sears, E.
      G. Heyne, M. B. Kirkham, G. H. Liang, J.P. Shroyer, J.H. Hatchett,
      D. Fjell, G.M. Paulsen
      Plant Pathology Department, Throckmorton Hall - B. S. Gill
      Hybritech Seed, 5912 N. Meridian, Wichita 67204 - John R. Erickson,
      Jerry Wilson, Steve Kuhr, B. Hardesty, K. Ely, Leon Fischer
      Trio Research, Inc., 6414 N. Sheridan, Wichita 67212 - J. A. Wilson
      U. S. Grain Marketing Research Center, 1515 College Avenue,
      Manhattan 66502 - M. D. Shogren, O. K. Chung, G.L. Lookhart
      Kansas State University, Fort Hays Experiment Station, Hays 67601 -
       Joe Martin, Tom  Harvey
      Wheat Quality Council, 404 Humboldt, Manhattan 66506 - Tom Roberts
     KENTUCKY
      University of Kentucky, Department of Agronomy, Lexington 40546 -
 D. A. Van Sanford
     LOUISIANA
      Louisiana State University, Dep. of Agronomy, Baton Rouge 70803 -
      Steve Harrison, Patrick Colyer, Clayton Hollier
     MARYLAND
      University of Maryland, Agronomy Department, College Park 20742 -
      David J. Sammons
      USDA-ARS, NPS, 331-A, Bldg. 005, BARC-W, Beltsville 20705 
      Plant Genetics and Germplasm Inst. - C. F. Murphy
      National Association of Wheat Growers, 425 Second St., NE, Suite
      300, Washington, D. C.  20002 - Dick Stucky
     MICHIGAN
      Michigan State University, Department of Botany/Plant Pathology, E.
      Lansing, 48823 - Joe Clayton, Rick Ward, E. Everson
     MINNESOTA
      University of Minnesota, Department of Agronomy & Plant Genetics,
 St. Paul, 55108 - Robert H. Busch
      Cooperative Rust Laboratory, USDA/ARS - D. H. Casper, Alan Roelfs,
      J. F. Schafer, D. McVey, M. Hughes
     MISSOURI
      Monsanto, TIE, 800 N. Lindbergh, St. Louis 63167 - A. Ciha, G.
 Keyes
      University of Missouri, Agronomy Department, Curtis Hall, Columbia
      65201 - J. P. Gustafson, Gordon Kimber, A. L. McKendry
     MONTANA
      Montana State University, Bozeman  59715
      Plant/Soil Science Department - E.A. Hockett
      Western Triangle Agric. Research Center, P. O. Box 1474, Conrad 
      59425 - Greg Kushnak
      Western Plant Breeders, P. O. Box 1409, Bozeman  59715 - Dan
      Biggerstaff, D. Clark
     NEBRASKA
      University of Nebraska, Agronomy Department, Keim Hall, East
      Campus, Lincoln 68583 - P.S. Baenziger, D. R. Shelton, Rosalind
      Morris, C. J. Peterson, L. A. Nelson, D.J. Lyons
      Plant Pathology Department - R. A. Graybosch
      Panhandle Res/Ext Center, 4502 Avenue I, Scottsbluff 69361 - David
      Baltensperger, Gary Hein
     NEW YORK
      Cornell University, Dept. of Plant Breeding & Biometry, 420
      Bradfield Hall, Ithaca 14853 - W. Ronnie Coffman, Mark Sorrells, M.
      Heun
      Dept. of Plant Pathology - Gary Bergstrom
     NORTH CAROLINA
      N. C. State University, Dep. Plant Pathology, Box 7616, Raleigh
      27695 - Steven Leath, J. P. Murphy, R. E. Jarrett
     NORTH DAKOTA
      North Dakota State University, Fargo 58105
      Agronomy Department - N. D. Williams, D. K. Steiger, D. Cox
      Cereal Chemistry & Technology Dept. - B. L. D'Appolonia, C. E.
      McDonald, G. Hareland, K. Khan, D. Klindworth
     OHIO
      Department of Agronomy - Ohio State University, Wooster 44691 - H.
      N. Lafever, W.A. Berzonsky
     OKLAHOMA
      Oklahoma State University - Stillwater  74074
      Agronomy Department - Brett Carver, E. L. Smith
      Plant Pathology Dept. - R. Hunger, L. L. Singleton, C. C. Russell
      USDA-ARS, Plant Science Research Lab., 1301 N. Western St.,
      Stillwater 74474 - David Porter, R. L. Burton, J. A. Webster, J.
      Burd, F. G. Gough
     OREGON
      Oregon State University, Corvallis  97330
      Crop Science Department - Warren E. Kronstad, R. Karow
      Columbia Basin Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 370,
      Pendleton 97801 - M. F. Kolding, Pam Zwer
     PENNSYLVANIA
      Agronomy Department, Penn State University, University Park 16802 -
       M.L. Risius
     SOUTH CAROLINA
      Pioneer Hybrid Int., Rt. 3, Box 181-B, St. Mathews 29135 - B. E.
      Edge
     SOUTH DAKOTA
      South Dakota State University, Plant Science Department, Brookings
      57007 - G. W. Buchenau, Fred A. Cholick, J. L. Gellner, D. Rickerl,
      J.J. Bonneman
     TEXAS
      Texas A&M University 
      Southwestern Great Plains Research Center, Bushland 79012 - Mark
      Lazar, Gary Peterson
      Agric. Res. Center, Drawer E. Overton  75684 - L. R. Nelson
      Soil & Crop Science Dept., College Station 77843 - M. E. McDaniel,
      N. A. Tuleen, C. A. Erickson, G. Hart, L. W. Rooney, S. Serna-
      Saldivar
      Plant Pathology Dep. - B. McDonald
      Research & Extension Center, 17360 Coit Road, Dallas  75252 - D.
      Marshall, Brian Shafer, M. Harrington
      Research Center, P. O. Box 1658, Vernon  76384 - E. C. Gilmore,
      Jr., W. David Worrall, J. E. Slosser
      Research Center, Rt. 7, Box 999, Beaumont 77713 - John Sij
            Res. & Ext. Center, 6500 Amarillo Blvd. W., Amarillo 79106 -
 C. M. Rush, K.B. Porter
     UTAH
      Utah State University, Plant Science Dept., Logan 84321 - Rulon S.
 Albrechtsen 
     VIRGINIA
      Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Agronomy Department, Blacksburg 24061 -
  Carl Griffey, Mark Alley
     WASHINGTON
      Washington State University, Pullman  99163
      Agronomy & Soils Department - Robert E. Allen, Calvin Konzak, C. J.
      Peterson, M. Walker-Simmons
      Plant Pathology Department - Roland F. Line
      Dryland Research Unit - P. O. Box 276, Lind  99341 - M. Nagamitsu,
      Ed Donaldson
      Wheat Quality Laboratory, Wilson 7 - Craig F. Morris
      WISCONSIN
      Agronomy Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison  53706 - R.
 A. Forsberg, E. Oplinger
 YUGOSLAVIA
      Poljoprivredni Institut Zagreb, Marulicev trg 5/1, Box 309, 41000
      Zagreb - Slobodan Tomasovic, B. Koric