---------------------
                       TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 BYRD CURTIS
 EARL C. GILMORE
 FRANCIS J. GOUGH
 ERIC RUDOLF KERBER
 ROSALIND MORRIS
 THOMAS C. ROBERTS
 TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 I.   SPECIAL REPORTS
 
       Minutes - National Wheat Improvement Committee
       Members - National Wheat Improvement Committee
       Wheat Workers Code of Ethics
       Minutes - Wheat Crop Advisory Committee
 
 II. CONTRIBUTIONS
 
 PRIVATE COMPANIES
 
  AGRIPRO BIOSCIENCES
 
       Rob Bruns, John Moffat, Joe Smith, Jim Reeder - Berthoud, CO
       Koy Miskin, G. Holland Beazer - Brookston, IN
       Barton Fogleman, C.K. Taylor - Jonesboro, AR
 
  CARGILL HYBRID SEEDS
 
       D.R. Johnston, S.W. Perry, J.E. Handwerk, Sally R. Clayshulte, D.P.
       Shellberg - Fort Collins, CO
 
       R.P. Daniel, D. Donaldson, M. Materne, M.J.Nowland, C.J. Tyson, J.     
       Wilson, P. Wilson - Tamworth, Australia
 
       Nestor Machado, Pedro Paulucci, Hector Mertinuzzi - Argentina
 
  HYBRITECH SEED INTERNATIONAL, INC.
       John Erickson, Jerry Wilson, Steve Kuhr, Bud Hardesty, Karolyn Ely -
       Wichita, KS; Gordon Cisar - Lafayette, IN
 
       Dennis Dunphy, Sam Wallance, Richard Evans - Lafayette IN; Leon        
       Fischer, Kent Baker - Mt. Hope, KS
 
  NICKERSON
 
  NORTHRUP KING COMPANY
       Fred Collins, June Hancock, Craig Allen - Bay, AR
 
  PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC.
       Johnston, IA - I.B. Edwards
       Windfall, IN - G.C. Marshall, W.J. Laskar, K.J. Lively
       St. Mathews, SC - B.E. Edge, P. L. Shields
       Frouville, France - G. Dorencourt, R. Marchand, Q. Vanderpol
       Sevilla, Spain - J.M. Urbano, I. Edwards, M. Hidalgo, M. Peinado
       Sissa (Parma), Italy - M. Tanzi
       Parndorf, Austria - G. Reichenberger
       Woodland, CA - A. Young, I. Edwards
 
  TRIO RESEARCH, INC.
       J. Wilson - Wichita, KS
 
  WEIBULL
       J. P. Jossett et al. - Poinville, France
       J. Johsson et al. - Landskrona, Sweden
 
  WESTERN PLANT BREEDERS
       D. Clark, Craig Cook, Amy Baroch - Bozernan, MT; K. Shantz, M. DeVries 
       - Tempe, AZ
 
 ARGENTINA
       M.L. Appendino, G.M.P. Camargo, N. Zelener, M. Argeaga, Enrique        
       Suarez, Laura Bullrich, G. Tranquilli - Buenos Aires
 
       R.A. Heinz, Mariana Del Vas, L.C. Moratinos, H. E. Hopp - Castellar
 
       F. Salvagiotti, S.E. Beas, N.C. Guzman, C.A. Ripoll, J. Casati, R.     
       Roldan, W. Londero, J.C.Funes, J.C. Miranda, M.J. Miarka, D. Bonelli,  
       A. Glade, G. Manera, E. Yanacon, R. Maich, O. Pagani, M. Canovas -     
       Cordoba
 
 AUSTRALIA
 
  NEW SOUTH WALES
      C.W. Wrigley, F. MacRitchie, I.L. Batey, F. Bekes, A.S. Hill, J.A.       
      Ronalds, R. Gupta, S. Rahman, J.H. Skerritt, J.L. Andrews, M.L. Bason,   
      P.W. Gras - CSIRO, Sydney
 
      J. Bell, G.N. Brown, D. Backhouse, N.L. Darvey, L.W. Burgess, R.A.       
      McIntosh, J.D. Oates, R. Park, R. Roake, J. Sharp, D. The, C.R. Wellings 
      - Sydney and Cobbitty
 
      B. Ballantyne, J. Fisher, A. Khan, L. Penrose - Wagga Wagga
 
      L. O'Brien, F.W. Ellison, R.M. Trethowan, A.B. Pattison, D.J. Mares,     
      S.G. Moore - Narrabri
 
 QUEENSLAND
      G.B. Wildermuth. R.B. McNamara - Toowoomba
 
      P.S. Brennan, L.R. Mason, J.A. Sheppard, R. W. Uebergang, M.L. Fiske,
      I.C. Haak, P.I. Hocroft
 
      R.G. Reese, P.S. Brennan, G.J. Platz, K.C.M. Blaikie - Toowoomba
 
 BANGLADESH
      M.A. Hossain et al. - Mymemsingh
 
 
 
 BRAZIL
      J.C.S. Moreira, C.N.A. deSousa, E.P. Gomes, L.J.A. Del Duca, P.L.        
      Scheeren, S.D. dos A. de Silva, et al. - Passo Fundo
 
      A.C.P. Goulart, F. de A. Paiva - Dourados, M.S.
 
                                                    
 BULGARIA
      V. Vassilev, Boyadjieva- Sadovo
 
 
 CANADA
 
  ALBERTA
      R.S. Sadasivaiah
      K.G. Briggs
 
                                                                              
  MANITOBA
      J.A. Kolmer, Steve Haber, O.M. Lukow, P.B.E. McVetty, P. Masojc -        
      Manitoba
 
                                                                              
  ONTARIO
      W.L. Seaman, E.F. Schneider
 
                                                                              
  PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
      H.W. Johnston, H.G. Nass
 
                                                                              
  SASKATCHEWAN
      D.R. Knott
 
 CHINA, PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF
      Zuoji Lin, Shenghui Jie, Zhensheng Lei - Henan
 
      Zhaosu Wu, Shirong Yu, Xizhong Wei, Quimei Xia, Youjia Shen, Yong Xu,
      Zhaoxia Chen, Jiming Wu, Guoliang Jiang - Nanjing
 
      Li Huimin, Zhao Fengwu, Li Hongwa - Heibi
 
                                                                              
 CROATIA
      Slobodan Tomasovic - Zagreb
 
                                                                              
 CZECHOSLOVAKIA
      Z. Stehno, M. Vlasek, J. Smocek
 
                                                                              
 ESTONIA
      O. Priilinn, T. Enno, H. Peusha, M. Tohver - Tallinn
 
                                                                              
 FRANCE
      J. De Buyser, J.L. Marcotte, Y. Henry - Orsay
      G. Doussinault, J. Jahier, J. Pierre, M. Trottet, F. Dedryver - Rennes
      
                                                       
 GERMANY
 
      A. Boerner, J. Plaschke, G. Schlegel, I.M. Ben Amer - Gatersleben
 
                                                      
 HUNGARY
      L. Balla, Z. Bedo, L. Lang, L. Szunics, Lu. Szunics, I. Karsai, Gy.     
      Vida-Martonvasar
      
      J. Sutka, B. Barnabas, O. Veisz, G. Galiba, M. Molnar-Lang, G. Kovacs,  
      E. Szakacs,  B. Koszegi, I. Takacs, G. He, E. Korbulz, G. Kocsy -       
      Martonvasar
 
                                                
 
 INDIA
      P. Bahadur, K.D. Srivastava, S.M.S. Tomar, A. K. Vari, R.S. Yadava,
      Dalmir Singh, B. Singh, M.K. Upadhayay, R.N. Sawhney, D.N. Sharma,
      H.B. Chowdary, J.B. Sharma, D.V. Singh, R. Aggarwal, K.D.
      Srivastava - New Delhi
      M. Kochumadhavan, S.M.S. Tomar, P.N.N. Nambisan - Wellington
      K.S. Singh, G.S. Dhinds - Ludhiana
      M.P. Jha, K.M.P. Singh, B.P. Sinha, A.K. Sinha - Pusa
      P.K. Gupta, H.S. Balyan, D.K. Garg, S. Kumar, N.K. Sharma, Bijendra
      Pal - Meerut
      A.N. Mishra - Indore
 
      G.S. Sethi, Satish C. Sharma, K.S. Thakur, D.L. Sharma, Ashwani Kumar,  
      H.K. Chaudhary - Palampur
 
      R.N. Brahma, R. Asir, A. Saikia - Wellington
 
                                                
 ITALY
     C. RubiesAutonell - Bologna
 
     V. Vallega - Rome
 
     B. Borghi, M. Perenzin, M. Cattaneo, Y.M. Qiao, R. Castagna, P. Gavuzzi,
     N.E. Pogna, R. Redaelli, T. Dachkevitch, G.M. Borrelli, N. DiFonzo,
     E. Luputto, F. Locatelli, G. Bossinger, M. Corbellini, P. Vacino, P.K.W. 
     Ng - Lodigiano
 
 JAPAN                                                  
     A. Oyanagi, A. Sato, M. Wada - Tsukuba
 
     S. Ito, A. Sato, T. Hoshino - Tohuku
 
     S. Oda, K. Komae, T. Yasui, C. Kiribuchi, H. Seko - Karmondai
 
     N. Watanabe - Gifu
 
 MEXICO
     R.A. Fischer, G. Varughese
 
     He Zhong-hu, R.J. Pena, S. Rajaram
 
     P. A. Burnett, R. Ranieri, J. Robinson
 
     A. Morgunov
 
     G. Fuentes-Davila, S. Rajaram, W.H. Pfeiffer, O. Aballa
 
                                                 
 NEPAL
     M.L. Morris. H.J. Dubin, T.P. Polchrel
     
 POLAND
     S. Wegrzyn, H. Grzesik - Krakow
 
 ROMANIA
     N.S. Saulescu, Mariana Ittu, Gh. Ittu - Fundulea
 
 RUSSIA
     Alexandr Federov - Moscow
 
 SOUTH AFRICA
     H.A. Van Niekerk, R. Cilliers, T.G. Paxton, R. Britz, S. Jordaan, T. van
     Bredenkamp, S. Pelser, R. Pretorius, D. Exley, I.B.J. Smit, A. Otto,
     F. Groenewald, F. Koekemoer, A. Grobbelaar, R. Prins, H.A. Smit,
     J.L. Purchase, D. van Lill, P.A. Visser, H.A. van Tonder, A.H. Botha,
     M. Maritz, M.F. Smith, B.S. Wentzel, C. Benson, C. van den Berg,
     C.G. Burbidge, R.C. Lindeque, H.S.C. van der Merwe, W. van der           
     Westhuizen, B.L. deVilliers, H.H. Knobel, C. deWet, A. Rautenbach,
     J. du Plessis, H. du Plessis, J.P. du Toit, S.C. Drijepondt, A. Bamard,
     C.F. Pool, V. Wessels, W.H. Kilian, J. Smith, B.J. Pieterse,
     J.P.C. Tolmay, G.J. Prinsloo, V.L. Tolmay, B. Koen, J.L. Hatting -       
     Bethlehem 
 
     R. de V. Pienaar, G.F. Marais, G.M. Littlejohn, H.S. Roux, J.M. Hay -    
     Stellenbosch
 
     Z.A. Pretorius, F.J. Kloppers, C.S. van Deventer, M.T. Labuschagne,
     M.C.B. Coetzee, E.G. Brink - Bloemfontein
 
     F. du Toit, S.S. Walters, A. Brummer - Pannar, Ltd., Bainsvlei
 
 TURKEY
     H. Braun, T.S. Payne - Ankara
 
 UNITED KINGDOM
 
  NORWICH, Cambridge Laboratory, Institute of Plant Science Research -
      A.J. Worland,
 
      I.P. King, K.A. Purdie, T.E. Miller, C.N. Law, W.J. Rogers
 
      T.E. Miller, S. M. Reader, I.P. King
 
      S.A. Quarrie, A. Mahmood
 
      S.A. Quarrie, A. Steed
 
      M.D. Gale, J.B. Smith, M.D. Atkinson, K.M. Devos, C.N. Chinoy, R.L.     
      Harcourt, T. Millan, D.X. Xie, J. Jizeng, O.A. Rognli
 
      R. Bowrgipour, J.W. Snape
 
      R. Johnson
 
      P. Nicholson, H. N. Rezanoor, T.W. Hollins - PBI, Cambridge
      M.J. Ambrose
 
  NORWICH, John Innes Institute
 
      J.S. Heslop-Harrison, A.R. Leitch, T. Schwarzacher, K.                  
      Anamthawt-Jonsson, I.J. Leitch, G. Moore, Mingli Wang
 
  NICKERSON
 
      W.J. Angus, D.R. Stephenson, R.E. Granger - Bury St. Edmunds
 
 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
 
  ARKANSAS
      R.K. Bacon, B.R. Wells, E.A. Milus, J.T. Kelly, D. Dombeck
 
  CALIFORNIA
      C.A. Curtis, Bahman, Ehdaie, A.J. Lukaszewski, M.S. Moghaddam, S.H.     
      Shah, J.G. Waines
 
  COLORADO
      J.S. Quick, G.H. Ellis, R. Normann, M. Mergoum, S. Haley, K. Ngongolo,
      A. Saidi
 
  GEORGIA
      J.W. Johnson, B.N. Cunfer, P.L. Bruckner, J.J. Roberts, G.D. Buntin,
      R.E. Wilkinson
 
  IDAHO
      R.S. Zemetra, E. Souza, S. Guy, S. Quisenberry, J. Johnson, G.         
      Knudsen, M. Lauver. D. Schotzko, J. Tyler, L. Pierola - Moscow and     
      Aberdeen
 
      Warren Pope - Moscow
 
  ILLINOIS
      F.L. Kolb, E.D. Nafziger, A.D. Hewings, L.L. Domier, W.L. Pedersen,
      C.J. D'Arcy, H.T. Wilkerson, E.M. Bauske, C.E. Eastman, M.E. Irwin,
      W.H. Brink
 
  INDIANA
      H.W. Ohm, H.C. Sharma, I.M. Dweikat, S.A. MacKenzie, D. McFatridge,
      F.L. Patterson, G. Shaner, R.M. Lister, D.M. Huber, G. Buechley,
      R.H. Ratcliffe, R.H. Shukle, G. Safranski, S. Cambron
 
  KANSAS
      T.C. Roberts
                                         
      O.K. Chung, G.L. Lookhart, V.V. Smail, D.B. Bechtel, D.B. Sauer, L.C.  
      Bolte, D.W. Hagstrum, W.S. Kim, L.M. Seitz, M.D. Shogren, J.D. Wilson, 
      C.R. Martin, W.H. McGaughey, M.D. Shogren, J.L. Steele, D.L. Brabec,   
      R.E. Dempster, R. Rouser, I. Zayas, C.S. Chang, H.H. Converse, B.W.    
      Seabourn, A.K. Dowdy, P.L. Flinn, W.D. Lin, K. Tilley, A. Xu
      T.S. Cox, R.G. Sears, B.S. Gill, W.W. Bockus, R.L. Bowden, J. Hatchett
      M.B. Kirkham, G.H. Liang, T. Harvey, T.J. Martin, M.D. Witt, L.C.      
      Coonrod, J.E. Werner, C.H. Carter, T. Endo, B. Freibe, K.S. Gill, L.G. 
      Harrell, A.K. Fritz, J. Jiang, P.D. Chen, R.S. Kota, L.E. Patton, W.J. 
      Raupp, D.L. Wilson,  L. Michelson, D. Miller, D. Delaney, S. Hulbert,  
      G.L. Brown, G. He, G. Shu
 
      T.J. Byram
 
  LOUISIANA
      S.A. Harrison, P. Colyer, S.H. Moore
 
  MARYLAND
      D.J. Sammons
 
  MICHIGAN
      R. Ward, D. Glenn, J. Han, H. Kim, T. Kisha, S. Wang
 
  MINNESOTA
      A.P. Roelfs, D.L. Long, D.H. Casper, M.E. Hughes, J.J. Roberts
 
      R. Busch, R. Wilcoxson
 
      D.V. McVey, R.H. Busch
 
  MISSOURI
      J.P. Gustafson, K.D. Kephart, G. Kimber, A.L. McKendry, H.             
      Aswidinnoor, H. Daud, R. Wilman, B. Winberg, K. Ross, D. Bittel, K.    
      Houchins, J. Berg, D. Tague, S. Madsen, J.V. Monte, M. Wanous, Z.      
      Zhou, J. Chen, P. Goicoechea, F. Kidwaro, J. Mehuys, M.M. Tague
 
  NEBRASKA
      P.S. Baenziger, C.J. Peterson, D.R. Shelton, R.A. Graybosch,
      D.D. Baltensperger, L.A. Nelson, D.J. Lyons, G.L. Hein
 
      P.S. Baenziger, C.J. Peterson, D.R. Shelton, D.D. Baltensperger
 
      B. Moreno-Sevilla, P.S. Baenziger, C.J. Peterson, R.A. Graybosch
 
      W. Stroup, D. Mulitze, P.S. Baenziger
 
      A. Ouassou, P. S. Baenziger, J. Schmidt
 
      A. Masrizal, P.S. Baenziger
 
      C.J. Peterson, R.A. Graybosch, P. S. Baenziger, D.R. Shelton
 
      D.R. Shelton
 
      R.C. French, N.L. Robertson
 
  NEW YORK
      M.E. Sorrells, W.R. Coffman
 
      G.C. Bergstrom, J.E. Carroll, D.W. Kalb, A.M.C. Schilder, D. Shah
 
  NORTH CAROLINA
      R.E. Jarrett, S. Leath, J.P. Murphy
 
  NORTH DAKOTA
      E.M. Elias, D.K. Steiger, O. Olmedo-Arcega, N. Nasarella, A. Stancyk,
      C.M. Rystedt, B.L. D'Appolonia, K. Khan, C.E. McDonald, W.R. Moore, W. 
      Pitz, B. Donnelly, G. Hareland, L.A. Grant
 
  OHIO
      H.N. Lafever, W.A. Berzonsky, R.W. Gooding, L.D. Herald, R.J. Minyo,   
      Jr., T.L. Hoover
  
  OKLAHOMA
      E.L. Smith, G.H. Morgan, R.J. Sidwell, D.L. Jones
 
      R.M. Hunger, G.L. Sherwood, R.E. Pennington, C.K. Evans, J.R. Montana
 
      D.R. Porter, J.A. Webster, C.A. Baker, J.D. Burd, N.C. Elliot, G.J.
      Puterka, D.K. Reed, R.L. Burton, F.J. Gough, E. Levy
 
  OREGON
      R.S. Karow
 
      W.E. Kronstad, C.S. Love, D.K. Kelly, R.W. Knight, M.D. Moore,
      S.E. Rowe, N.H. Scott, M.C. Verhoeven
 
      P.K. Zwer, D.L. Sutherland, S.A. Dunnagan
 
  SOUTH DAKOTA
      F.A. Cholick, C.H. Chen, B. Farber, B. Ruden, S. Shin
 
      G. Buchenau, D.J. Gallenberg, M. Langham, S. Ali
 
      H.J. Woodard, G.W. Buchanan
 
      J.L. Gellner, R.A. Schut, R.W. Kieckhefer, G.W. Buchenau
 
  TEXAS
      L.R. Nelson, Mark Lazar, C.A. Erickson, G.E. Hart, D. Marshall,
      M.E. McDaniel, B. McDonald, Lloyd Rooney, J.E. Slosser, John Sij,
      N.A. Tuleen, W. D. Worrall, R. Suttan, M. Harrington, R. Montandon,
      W.A. Frank, G.L. Peterson. J. Hu
 
  UTAH
      R.S. Albrechtsen
 
      D.J. Hole
 
  VIRGINIA
      C.A. Griffey, D.E. Brann, M.M. Alley, P. Scharf, E. Stromberg, M.K.    
      Das, A. Herbert, C. Hull, J.M. Johnson
 
  WASHINGTON
      R.E. Allan, J.A. Pritchett, L.M. Little
 
      R.F. Line
 
      C.F. Konzak
 
      C.F. Morris, H.C. Jeffers, A.D. Bettge, D. Engle, M.L. Baldridge, B.S.
      Patterson, R. Ader, J. Raykowski
 
      M.K. Walker-Simmons, J.L. Reid, J. Curry, R. Anderberg, L. Holappa
 
  WEST VIRGINIA
      V.C. Baligar, L. Bona, K.D. Ritchey, R.J. Wright
 
  WISCONSIN
      R.A. Forsberg, E.S. Oplinger, R.D. Duerst, J.B. Stevens
 
 YUGOSLOVIA
      M. Jost et al. - Krizevci
 
      M. Kuburovic et al. - Kragujevac
 
 III. CULTIVARS AND GERMPLASM
 
       H.E. Bockelman, G.A. White - New Triticum PI Assignments
 
       H.E. Bockelman - Triticum Accessions, National Small Grains Collection
 
       H.E. Bockelman - Aegilops Accessions, National Small Grains            
       Collection
 
       H.E. Bockelman, D.M. Wesenberg, M.A. Bohning, L.W. Briggle -
       Evaluation of National Small Grains Collection Germplasm
 
       R.E. Allan - CSSA Cultivar and Germplasm Registration
 
       Weed Science Announcement
 
  IV. CATALOGUE OF GENE SYMBOLS, 1992 SUPPLEMENT
 
       R.A. McIntosh, G.E. Hart, M.D. Gale
 
   V. ANNUAL WHEAT NEWSLETTER FUND
 
  VI. VOLUME 39 MANUSCRIPT GUIDELINES
 
 VII. MAILING LIST
 
 ---------------------
 I.   SPECIAL REPORTS
 
 
      Minutes of the National Wheat Improvement Committee (NWIC) Meeting
                             November 22-23, 1991
                                 Reno, Nevada
 ATTENDANCE
 
      Committee Members, I.B Edwards, Chair, R.H. Busch, Secretary, R.E.
 Allan,  H.F. Bockleman, R. Bruns, F.A. Cholick, T.S. Cox, G. Hareland, S.A.
 Harris (R. Bacon), R.F. Line, C.J. Peterson, C. Qualset, D.J. Sammonds, J.A.
 Smith, G. Statler, R. Stuckey, D. A. Van Sandford, W.D. Worrall, R.S.
 Zemetra.  Absent: C. Haugeberg (ex-officio member).
 
      Non-Committee Members:  O. Anderson, ARS, WRRC Albany, CA;  K. Briggs, 
 University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada;  J.P. Gustafson, ARS-University of
 Missouri;  W. Martinez, ARS-NPS Beltsville, MD;  D. McVey ARS-Cereal Rust
 Laboratory, St. Paul, MN;  C.F. Murphy, ARS-NPS Beltsville, MD; R. Sears,
 Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS;  Bent Skovmand, CIMMYT, Mexico; G.
 Waines, University of California, CA.
 
 PRELIMINARIES
 
      Chairman Edwards called the meeting to order and made announcements
 regarding meeting arrangements.
 
 MINUTES OF THE 1990 MEETING
 
      Minutes were published in AWN 37, Busch asked for a motion to waive
 reading them.  Motion was made and passed.
 
 WHEAT NEWSLETTER
 
      The following reports are included by J.S. Quick , Editor, and I.
 Edwards, Treasurer, of the Annual Wheat Newsletter:
 
                          ANNUAL WHEAT NEWSLETTER
 
               1991 Annual Report to NWIC, J.S. Quick, Editor
 
      The editing and publishing of Volume 37 of the Annual Wheat Newsletter
 (AWN) followed the format of previous newsletters except that Volume 37 was
 the first volume directly printed in reduced font size almost entirely from 
 computer files.  There were 440 copies printed and each copy had 235 pages.
 Ten copies of Volume 37 and about 20 of Volume 35 are still available.  A
 summary of information about each volume printed since 1954 (Volume 1) was
 published in the AWN, Volume 32 (1986).  The number of pages has increased
 by 100 since 1980, the number of contributors increased considerably, and
 the cost of publication increased until 1988.  Due to rising costs, an
 effort was made to reduce the number of copies printed by encouraging
 multiple use.  Cost of production was reduced from about $4500 in 1987 to
 about $3900 in 1988, increased to $5416 in 1989, and decreased to $4690 in
 1991 due to limited distribution.  Cost per copy is about $9.50.
 
 
      In addition to the total cost of production, Colorado State University
 Agronomy Department has contributed part of my time, computer facilities,
 and some occasional letter typing.  An Agronomy Department secretary,
 Carolyn Schultz, has done an excellent job of manuscript preparation since
 1983.
 
      All AWN address lists are computerized, and mailing and sorting has
 become simple and routine.  We are requesting that all workers provide their
 manuscripts on computer diskettes if at all possible. All text will be
 entered into computer files and laser printed with reduced font size to save
 space.  Manuscripts can also be provided through the BITNET  system.  About
 500 requests for manuscripts and financial assistance are sent to U.S.,
 Australian and Canadian wheat workers each January.  The requests for
 manuscripts and financial contributions from other foreign scientists are
 included as an insert in the Newsletter mailing in June.  Additionally
 regional manuscript and financial solicitation and coordination are done by
 scientists in other counties.
 
     The cost of producing Volume 38 will probably be similar to that of
 Volume 37.  I believe it is now feasible and perhaps financially necessary
 to consider AWN distribution by diskette to some overseas and other
 locations.  Suggestions from the NWIC would be appreciated.  Ian Edwards,
 AWN treasurer, has done an excellent job of securing cooperative and
 institutional financial contributions allowing us to maintain a sound
 financial position.
 
               ANNUAL WHEAT NEWSLETTER TREASURER'S REPORT
                       1991 Annual Report to NWIC
                        I.B. Edwards, Treasurer
 
 ITEM                            DEBIT        CREDIT      BALANCE
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.  Balance reported          
     June 1, 1990 AWN                                     $4065.65 
 
 2.  Mailing Request Letters    $62.20                    4003.45
 
 3.  Envelopes                   11.00                    3992.45
 
 4.  Photocopy Charges           12.50                    3979.95
 
 5.  Mailing,Vol.37 July,1991   896.00                    3083.95
 
 6.  Printing and Binding      3175.21                     <91.26>
 
 7.  Mailing Bags & Envelopes    30.50                    <121.76>
 
 8.  Typing Editing(C. Schultz) 500.00                    <621.76>
 
 9.  Misc. Bank Charges          20.00                    <641.76>
 
 10. New Contributions                       $318.00      <323.76>
     (Since June 1)
 
 11. Interest on  Checking                     76.54      <247.22>
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Comments:      
 
 1.     The total cost of Volume 37 was $4,687.41.  This cost divided by 440
 copies printed is about $10.65/copy.  Volume 37 is 40 pages shorter than
 Volume 36 (235 vs 275), and 40 more copies of Volume 37 were printed.  The
 total printed pages of Volume 37 was 87% of volume 36, and the total cost
 was 9% higher.  Volume 37 was printed in slightly smaller font size than
 Volume 36, so direct page number comparisons are not useful.  The
 distribution increased slightly from last year.  Volume 37 was the first
 volume printed almost entirely from computer files.
 
 
 2.      Current fund balance, at the present time, is $[247.22] compared
 with $[70.25] a year ago.  It must be noted that there is still an
 outstanding balance owing for production costs in the amount of $300.00.  In
 the past three years contributions have not matched the rising costs, and
 this is an area of concern.
 
 3.     Although corporate contributions have increased in recent years, this
 past year showed a decline.  A number of institutions and companies require
 an invoice in order to make payments.  We ae encouraging them to notify your
 treasurer as to the amount they wish to donate, and we will gladly furnish
 an invoice.  Private contributions remain our major source of revenue.  We
 will need a very strong appeal in 1992 to keep the Annual Wheat Newsletter
 solvent.
 
      Discussion of possible solutions to the financial problem of the Annual
 Wheat Newsletter followed the above reports.  Agreement was reached by a
 majority of the NWIC members to suggest including an invoice (suggested
 donation) for each copy of the Annual Wheat Newsletter of $20.00 to allow
 choice of payment either through project billing or private donation. 
 Distribution by diskette was not thought to be a viable alternative at the
 present time.
 
 RESPONSE TO 1990 RESOLUTIONS
 
      Chairman Edwards summarized responses received to the 1990 resolutions
 regarding increased support for Russian wheat aphid and leaf rust research,
 funding for genetic mapping of wheat, and princi;les relating to test weight
 as a measurement of wheat quality.  Dr. Plowman acknowledged and thanked the
 NWIC as resolutions would be given serious consideration is discussions of
 future program directions to provide proper balance in the ARS research
 programs.  Dr. Plowman indicated that the Russian wheat aphid research has
 obtained increased funding.  The funding increase will be partially used to
 support the area of biological controls for this insect.  The NWIC this
 reply to be encouraging and positive.  John Foltz, Administrator of Federal
 Grain Inspection Service, replied to the test weight resolution also in a
 positive manner thanking the NWIC for our support to FGIS on the test weight
 issue and looking forward to further inaction and work with the NWIC.
 
 
 REVIEW OF CROP ADVISORY COMMITTEE MEETING
 
      Chairman P. Gustafson added three new members (see CAC minutes) to the
 CAC.  Key issues at this meeting were as follows: 1)  The entire collection
 will be screened, at this time, not just cores.  Core information is felt to
 be less valuable.  2)  Quality traits were discussed for inclusion into the
 data base of the collection and especially alien segments. Suggested traits
 were: hardness, protein, and glutenins.3)  Plant collection is needed badly
 in Turkey because of large scale irrigation development which will eliminate
 many of the natural habitats of related species of wheat.  Proposal for this
 needed collection trip are being prepared.  4)  Funds for Dr. R. Morris's
 genetic stocks are needed to ensure their avialablity.  5)  CIMMYT is
 attempting to continue the International Winter Wheat Performance Nursery
 which University of Nebraska-ARS had to be dropped due to lack of funding. 
 6) Update on GRIN system was presented and its use, ultility and traits
 evaluated were discussed.  Concluded that it is more user friendly and is
 beginning to be used by breeders as needed.  7) No change in quarintine on
 seed from Mexico.  Cost of phytopathological clearance ($30) in Missouri was
 discussed since about 500 requests for genetic stocks are filled per year
 from ARS-Univ. of Missouri.
 
 LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS
 
 Report of Legislative Subcommittee
 
      Sammons reported that no trip was conducted during 1991 due to the War
 in Iraq.  Several things are needed before the next trip; problems with
 widespread needs which can be documented, and a champion in the legislature. 
 Other committee members (Cholick, Sears, Zemetra) suggested that: a) Name
 recognition is need at Congress, so trips should be conducted each year,  b)
 a committee is needed to  respond on key legislative issues,  c) No
 professional lobbist outside nor major support outside the public sector are
 major problems. Sammons indicated that this must be a continuous effort with
 no high expectation immediately since skills need improving, d) Certain
 congressmen are being approached in the southeast to support a plant
 pathologist position, and e) strong support was needed from researchers and
 seed-growers.
 
     Murphy suggested the following approach:  Choose a few specific problems
 (example: Kansas State University federal positions funding and Grain
 Quality Laboratory); plan to work several years atleast so set the goal and
 work toward it.  It is important to identify issues for Congress.  Line
 suggest that visitation is very important but other contact are as
 well.Stuckey suggested that the needed items be sent to the NAWG for
 inclusion into their list.  Lobbyist from NWAG primarily works on economic
 problems but suggested that issues be coordinated through their office,
 possibly directly through the lobbyist, for input.
 
 
      In summary:
      1.  Need the committee to visit Congress annually.
      2.  Need a response committee.
      3.  Name recognition needs establishment.
      4.  Need economic impact of wheat on a state by state basis.
      5.  Send needs in the form of resolutions to NAWG and tie issues more   
          closely with their concerns if possible.  
      6.  Need prime users support to better obtain research funding.
      7.  When presenting needs to the legislature, it needs to be tied into  
          dollar return in constant dollars.
      8.  Maintain contact with ARS and CSRS to inform and support their      
          programs.
      9.  The Legislative Sub-Committee needs a funding source if it is to be 
          effective.
 
 RESEARCH FUNDING
 
 ARS Grain Crop Production and Quality Review
 
      I. Edwards reported that this conference provided an excellent forum to
 allow input and review of ongoing grain crop research in ARS.  It identified
 areas of weakness but state research supplied important support in these
 areas.  A letter commending this review as an excellent method of informing
 and obtaining input into the ARS research program was suggested with the
 motion made by Cholick and seconded by Bruns.  Motion passed, Busch will
 draft a letter to Dr. Plowman (Administrator of ARS) commending ARS-NPS for
 conducting this meeting.
 
 Leaf Rust Research
 
      R. Sears indicated that leaf rust appears to be the disease causing
 most economic loss in the Great Plains.  Browder's old position (leaf rust
 pathologist ARS) has been collapsed to provide support funding for the unit. 
 This position is critical for cooperation with T.S. Cox to provide better
 adapted, leaf rust resistant wheats.  A discussion followed indicating a
 need for an integrated leaf rust strategy on a national basis.  This
 position was suggested as being linked to a general support package for
 Kansas State University ARS units as part of the Legislative Committees
 lobbying effort for $400,000 support.
 
 Smut Position
 
      R. Line updated the committee on a potential national smut position to
 be tentatively established at Montana State University  when a retirement
 takes place.
 
 Eastern Small Grains Pathologist
 
      D. Van Sanford indicated the number of diseases which attacked
 southeastern wheat in 1991.  No pathologist works of `minor' diseases such
 as Septoria nodorum, bacteria leaf blight and others.  After discussion by
 the committee it was decided that the Eastern wheat workers put together a
 package with requirements ,location and other important factors before it
 becomes a lobby issue.
 
 Scab Research 
 
      R. Busch discussed R. Wilcoxson's retirement indicating that this is
 the only active research program in the USA on Fusarium head blight. 
 University of Minnesota hiring freeze is now in place.  A position was also
 discussed for eastern wheats which are also affected by scab.  No decision
 was reached following discussion.
 
 
 
 Missouri Cytogenetics Position
 
      P. Gustafson discussed the problems of maintaining and distributing E.
 Sears genetic stocks.  A technician is employed to send out seed stocks as
 requested, which amount to about 500-700 per year.  The demand for stocks as
 increased as molecular geneticists require them for genetic analysis.  There
 is a need for more genetic stocks but several cytogenetists are retiring in
 both the USA and Canada.  A cytogenetics position was obtained once, but
 funding was diverted to other research.  Why?  Possibly because it lacked a
 `champion' from Missouri.  This issue was deferred to the Legislative
 Committee.
 
 Winterhardiness in Western Winter Wheat
 
      R. Allan addressed the issue of a serious lack of winterhardiness
 research in the USA.  This problem has been emphasized by the 70-80% winter
 kill in both 1989 and 1991 in Washington.  Losses exceeded the total ARS
 budget for a year.  Only one researcher is devoting much effort to the
 problem and is poorly funded.  Germplasm needs to be evaluated for
 winterhardiness before release.  R. Bruns suggested contacting B. Fowler in
 Canada since he has done most work recently on this problem.  Perhaps a
 joint screening effort could be negotiated.
 
 GERMPLASM ENHANCEMENT, NURSERIES, EXCHANGE
 
 Trait Evaluation Selection for Small Grain Collection
 
      H. Bockelman presented the progress of the trait evaluation for the
 germplasm in the Small Grains Collection.  Over eleven different pathogens
 and insect pest are/or have been/ being used to screen for resistant
 germplasm.  Over 15,000 accessions have been evaluated for  11 agronomic
 descriptors and over 8,000 for spike traits and shattering.  Other
 descriptors discussed related to quality traits and the possibility of
 evaluating protein and glutenins.  Sensitivity to daylength was also
 discussed as another trait to evaluate.
 
 Design of Wheat Database
 
      O. Anderson discussed the wheat database as a part of the Plant Genome
 Initiative.  The objective is to provide a master database for all crops of
 their genetic maps.  Each crop is designing its own, but compatibility is
 important.  Needed are: 1) Software to run information; 2) Repository of
 markers and free distribution; 3) Main database must have reference to GRIN
 descriptors.  O. Anderson is the coordinator among crops for the database. 
 Coordination with the ITMI for linkage groups to enter as well as barley
 groups.  Enough data is hoped to be entered by late spring to begin to
 access and provide demonstrations.  Wheat has much lower funding that other
 crops, such as corn, beans, and pine.  The National Research Initiative was
 briefly discussed as to its lack of funding for major crop plants.
 
 International Winter Wheat Performance Nursery (IWWPN) and CIMMYT
 
      J. Peterson indicated that the IWWPN is not being conducted from the
 Nebraska location because of lack of funding.  CIMMYT has began to try to
 continue the nursery, although they are also not additionally funded. U.S.
 participation in this nursery is yet to be determined.  D. Worrall reported
 that he attended a meeting in Mexico.  Kronstad will increase Turkish
 material and distribute to the U.S.  A Yuma, AZ increase of material by
 Worrall and Peterson is a possibility.  Clearance by APHIS and AZ APHIS is
 pending.  Next fall would be the earliest possible depending upon finances.
 
 Germplasm Exchange in Public Sector
 
      F. Cholick initiated the discussion of potential problems of obtaining
 germplasm in the future from other public programs as patenting becomes more
 common. Intellectual rights allows discoverer about 30% of the profits back
 directly.  This will lead directly to a lack of willingness to exchange
 germplasm.  I. Edwards indicated that the Florida program takes the
 royalties back to the program, not to the individual. D. Worrall indicated
 that greed must be managed in plant breeding for the public good.  Team
 research is vital and must be continued.  Relationships need to re-evolve
 and become more structured in the future, but germplasm will continue to be
 exchanged.
 
 Germplasm Exchange Internationally
 
      R. Sears indicated the need for a germplasm contact person and the lack
 there of in wheat.  R. Busch asked about international exchange other than
 on an individual basis.  No structure exists for obtaining on a systematic
 basis new releases in the world.  It was suggested that Foreign Agricultural
 Service (FAS) and H. Bockelman could possibly work to obtain new releases
 from around the world.  W. Martinez indicated FAS has a meeting with her
 soon and the problem of obtaining new releases would be approached. A
 subcommittee of R. Busch, chair, I. Edwards, J. Peterson, and H. Bockelman
 would be available to document the need for this type of system.  Certainly
 with this type of germplasm available in the Small Grains Collection, the
 use of GRIN would increase dramatically.
 
 Documentation for Wheat Variety Survey
 
      W. Martinez indicated the need for documentation for a national wheat
 variety survey.  R. Sears and R. Bruns will jointly coordinate a letter to
 be sent documenting the need of a national survey and its uses.
 
 PRIORITIES FOR LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE
 
 Immediate Concerns
 
      1)  Leaf Rust Project - National in scope, funding level of about
 $500,000 for Plant Science Unit, based at Kansas State to allow interaction
 with geneticists for testing and incorporation into useful germplasm. R.
 Sears and S. Cox subcommittee.  Champion in the Legislature needs to be
 identified.
 
      2)  Genetics Stocks Position -  P. Gustafson to supply old job
 description.  Position is for: maintaining, development, and distribution of
 genetic stocks.  Need a local Champion in the Legislature for this position.
 
 
 
 Long Term Strategic Needs
 
 1)  National need on Fusarium head blight.
 2)  Eastern Region needs a foliar plant pathologist.  
 3)  Cold hardiness basic and applied research.
 
 Time Table
 
 1)  February 10-14 appears to be the best time to avoid overlap with Oat and
 Barley Workers.  
 2)  Visited approximately 25 members of the House and Senate on who serve on
 either Appropriations or Agricultural Committees last  visit (1990). 
 3)  It would be helpful to have a grower with each group of researchers. 
 Lobbyist at NWAG would review the potential list   and make suggestions.
 4)  Also visit APHIS, ARS, and CSRS.
 
 -------------------------
 CANADA BREEDING AND RESEARCH
 
      K. Briggs gave a general report on research status in Canada on wheat.
 Detailed information can be obtained on this research report by writing for: 
 Agricultural Canada Publication 5252, Communications Branch, Agric. Canada,
 Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A OC7
 
                     WHEAT QUALITY AND MARKETING
 
 Wheat Classification 
 
      R. Sears discussed the status if wheat classification, mostly in regard
 to the new machines being developed to allow differentiation between soft
 and hard wheats.  The ARS\GMRL machines appear to offer the best suited.  It
 measurements are based on crushing factoring in both kernel weight and size. 
 It can evaluate about 300 kernels in 3 minutes.  Testing in 1992 will
 include: 1) calibration of all units, 2) adjustment to temperature
 variations, and 3) instrument definition of hard.  FGIS hopes to have
 implemented this new technology by 1994, but 1995 is more likely.
 
 Soft Wheat Quality Issues
 
      D. Van Sandford presented and led the discussion of quality
 recommendations made by Mennel Milling Co. sent to wheat suppliers.  The
 Eastern Soft Wheat Quality Council is not yet operating to allow easy
 communications with breeders and millers to discuss what is wanted in
 quality.  Fusarium head blight, septorias, and bacteria leaf blight were
 serious problems in 1991.  Test weights were low and very severe dockage was
 applied to lower test weight wheats.
 
      D. Sammons reviewed the test weight issue for soft wheat which began
 with the NWIC in 1987.  NWIC sent resolutions and letters of support
 encouraging further research on this issue in 1988, 1989, and 1990.  The
 domestic issue of test weight is not dead among the producers since
 discounts for lower test weight wheat are large and are seen as unfair.  
 
      
      R. Allan explained the western soft wheat concerns about removing test
 weight as a evaluative tool or lowering its level because of the potential
 effect on the export market.  Whatever is suggested to replace it must be
 well accepted.  Test weight has been shown to have high heritability. 
 Semidwarf wheat had lower test weight but this has been overcome with
 selection.  Discussion followed as to whether more stringent selection would
 help overcome the problem in the East.
 
      R. Stuckey indicated that there was little support for lowering the
 test weight standards from a NAWG perspective.  The eastern states have
 restless growers and need progress on the marketing issues.  Discussion
 followed with eastern wheat breeders indicating that heritabilities of test
 weight appeared much lower in their conditions. C. Murphy indicated the need
 in the east for better communication among breeders, millers and bakers
 since they are consumers of the wheat.  A firm commitment to quality is
 important on the part of the breeders which would be aided by a Soft Wheat
 Quality Council.  W. Martinez indicated that there is good agreement of low
 test weight with increasing physical defects.  Test weight is also  useful
 information in the export trade because it gives packing density.  Problems
 result with test weight when it is used as an indicator of milling yield. 
 Genotype X environment interaction also has a major effect of test weight.  
 
      Sammonds summarized the discussion as follows:
      1)  Breeders do consider quality in their new varieties,
      2)  Test weight is not a consistantly reliable measure of flour yield   
          or quality, especially in sound wheat
      3)  Soft Wheat Quality Council is important to establish needed links   
          among interested parties and provide a forum for discussion.
 
 
 
 Definition of Wheat Quality
 
      R. Bruns (NWIC representative on the Grain Quality Workshop) has been
 involved in working on the definition of quality.  He presented a schematic
 of grain quality, dividing it into Physical and Compositional Quality. 
 These together form the grain quality performance.  This schematic as
 presented was discussed as a possible visual for use at meetings and to
 orient everyone to similar thought process when quality is mentioned.
 
 ------------------------- 
 January 2, 1992
 
 Dr. R. D. Plowman, Administrator
 USDA-ARS
 Room 302A Administration Building
 Department of Agriculture
 Washington, D.C. 20250
 
 
 Dear Dr. Plowman:
 
 The National Wheat Improvement Committee wishes to express our appreciation
 and thanks to Dr. Charles Murphy, National Program Staff for Cereal Crops,
 for developing and executing the highly informative ARS Grain Crop
 Production and Quality Review, held in May, 1991 in St. Louis, MO.  This
 review allowed invited specialists from both the public and the industry to
 have an overall, integrated picture of small grains research in the United
 States as conducted by the Agricultural Research Service.  Areas of research
 which may need more emphasis in the future were suggested and, although
 funds are limited, the overall research effort is impressive.  The
 willingness of Dr. Murphy to initiate and conduct this review is greatly
 appreciated especially considering the large amount of work it required.
 
 Dr. Murphy's input at the National Wheat Improvement Committee meetings is
 quite valuable and his attendance is of considerable  importance to the
 success of the meetings.  Dr. Wilda Martinez (National Program Staff,
 Quality) contributes greatly to the discussions on wheat quality aspects and
 to issues regarding wheat classification with the Federal Grain Inspection
 Service.  Clearer national perspectives are obtained on many issues when
 National Program Staff personnel are present and the committee would like to
 acknowledge their contributions.
 
 
 Sincerely, signed:  I. Edwards, Chairman, NWIC
 cc:  E. B. Knipling
     
                           RESOLUTIONS
 
 RESOLUTION ADOPTED AT THE NATIONAL WHEAT IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE MEETING,
 RENO, NEVADA, NOVEMBER, 22-23, 1991
 
 SUBJECT:  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF HOSTS
 
 WHEREAS, the Circus Circus Hotel served as an excellent host of the 1991
 National Wheat Improvement Committee and the Wheat Crop Advisory Committee,
 and;
 
 WHEREAS, the hosts have expended time and effort to insure that the meetings
 were successful,
 THEREFORE, be it resolved that the members of the NWIC sincerely thank Dr.
 C. Qualset and the Department of Agronomy and Range Science, University
 ofCalifornia, and management and staff of the Circus Circus Hotel, Reno, 
 Nevada.
 
 
 RESOLUTION ADOPTED AT THE NATIONAL WHEAT IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE MEETING,
 RENO, NEVADA, NOVEMBER 22-23, 1991
 
 
 SUBJECT:  ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF DR. IAN EDWARDS' CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 
           NATIONAL WHEAT IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE, 1985-1991  
 
 WHEREAS, Dr. I. Edwards has given 7 years of dedicated service to the wheat
 research community through his position as Chairman of the National Wheat
 Improvement Committee, and;
 
 WHEREAS, during this period many significant changes and activities have
 occurred which have required the Chairman's efforts in political and
 research areas beyond normal duty, and;
 
 WHEREAS, his leadership and vision have made significant contributions to
 the effectiveness and future directions of the NWIC's activities;
 
 THEREFORE, be it resolved that the NWIC express their collective
 appreciation to Dr. Ian Edwards for his distinguished service.
  
 -------------------------
        MEMBERS OF NATIONAL WHEAT IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE
                       January 1992
 
 Dr. R.G. Sears, Chair
 Dept. of Agronomy
 Kansas State Unversity
 Manhattan, KS 66506
 (913) 532-7245
 
 Dr. R.H. Busch, Secretary
 USDA-ARS
 411 Borlaug Hall
 University of Minnesota
 St. Paul, MN  55108
 (612) 625-1975
 FAX: (612) 625-1268
 
 EASTERN WHEAT REGION
 
 Dr. D.J. Sammons, Chair
 Department of Agronomy
 University of Maryland
 College Park, MD  20742
 (301) 454-3715
 FAX: (301) 454-5680
 
 Dr. H.E.Bockelman, Secretary
 Univ. of Idaho Res. & Ext. Ctr.
 P.O. Box AA
 Aberdeen, ID  83210
 (208) 397-4162
 FAX: (208) 397-4162
 
 Dr. D. VanSanford
 Dept. of Agronomy
 University of Kentucky
 Lexington, KY  40506
 (606) 257-5811
 FAX: (606) 258-5842
 
 Dr. R. Bacon
 115 Plant Science
 University of Arkansas
 Fayetteville, AR  72701
 (501) 575-5725
 FAX: (501) 575-7465
 
 NATIONAL ASSOC. OF WHEAT GROWERS
 
 Dr. Richard Stuckey
 Director, NAWG Foundation
 415 Second St. NE Suite 300
 Washington, DC  20002
 (202) 547-7800
 FAX: (202) 546-2638
 
 GREAT PLAINS SPRING WHEAT REGION
 
 Dr. Glen Statler, Chair
 Dept. of Plant Pathology
 North Dakota State University
 Fargo, ND  58105
 (701) 237-7058
 FAX: (701) 237-7851
 
 Dr. Leonard Joppa, Secretary
 USDA-ARS-NPA
 Northern Crop Science Lab
 1307 N 18th St
 P.O. Box 5677--Univ. Sta.
 Fargo, ND  58105
 (701) 239-1339
 FAX:
 
 Dr. Gary Hareland
 USDA-ARS-NPA
 Northern Crop Science Lab
 P.O. Box 5677--Univ. Sta.
 Fargo, ND  58105
 (701) 237-7728
 
 Dr. R. Frohberg
 Dept. of Crop and Weed Science
 North Dakota State University
 Fargo, ND  58105
 (701) 237-7971
 FAX:
 
 GREAT PLAINS WINTER WHEAT REGION
 
 Dr. W.D. Worrall, Chair
 P.O. Box 1658
 Vernon, TX  76384
 (817) 552-9941
 FAX: (817) 553-4657
 
 Dr. C.J. Peterson, Secretary
 USDA-ARS
 Dept. of Agronomy
 University of Nebraska
 Lincoln, NE  68583
 (402) 472-5191
 FAX: (402) 437-5254
 
 Dr. R. Bruns
 Agripro Bioscience, Inc.
 806 N. Second St., P.O. Box 30
 Berthaud, CO  80513
 (303) 532-3721
 FAX: (303) 532-2035
 
 Dr. T.S. Cox
 USDA-ARS
 Throckmorton Hall, Rm. 421
 Kansas State University
 Manhattan, KS  66506
 (913) 532-5692
 FAX:
 
 WESTERN WHEAT REGION
 
 Dr. R.S. Zemetra, Chair
 Dept. of Plant, Soil & Ent. Sci.
 University of Idaho
 Moscow, ID  83843
 (208) 885-7810
 FAX: (208) 885-7760
 
 Dr. R.F. Line, Secretary
 USDA-ARS
 361 Johnson Hall
 Washington State University
 Pullman, WA  99164
 (509) 335-3755
 FAX: (509) 335-7674
 
 Dr. C.O. Qualset
 Dept. of Agronomy & Range Science
 University of California - Davis
 Davis, CA  95616
 (916) 752-3265
 FAX:
 
 Dr. R.E. Allan
 USDA-ARS
 Johnson Hall
 Washington State University
 Pullman, WA  99164
 (509) 335-3632
 FAX: (509) 335-8674
 
 
 The National Wheat Improvement Committee requests that wheat workers use the
 following guidelines when distributing seed:
   
                       WHEAT WORKERS CODE OF ETHICS
 
      "This seed is being distributed in accordance with the 'Wheat Workers
      Code of Ethics for Distribution of Germplasm' developed by the National
      Wheat Improvement Committee 10/27/76.  Acceptance of this seed
      constitutes Agreement."
 
      1.   The originating breeder, station or company has certain rights to
 the unreleased material.  These rights are not waived with the distribution
 of seeds or plant materials but remain with the originator for disposal at
 his initiative.
 
      2.   The recipient of unreleased seeds or plant material shall make no
 secondary distributions of the germplasm without the permission of the
 owner/breeder.
 
      3.   The owner/breeder in distributing unreleased seeds or other
 propagating material, grants permission for use (1) in tests under the
 recipient's control, (2) as a parent for making crosses from which
 selections will be made, and (3) for induction of mutations.  All other
 uses, such as testing in regional nurseries, increase and release as a
 cultivar, selection from the stock, use as parents in commercial F1 hybrids
 or synthetic or multiline cultivars, require the written approval of the
 owner/breeder.
 
      4.   Plant materials of this nature entered in crop cultivar trials
 shall not be used for seed increase.  Reasonable precautions to insure
 retention or recovery of plant materials at harvest shall be taken.
 
      5.   The distributor of wheat germplasm stocks may impose additional
 restrictions on use or may waiver any of the above.
 
 -------------------------
                                 MINUTES
 
                   Wheat Crop Advisory Committee
 
                 Thursday, Nov. 21, 1991 - Reno, NV
 
 
      Committee members in attendance were J. P. Gustafson (Chair), T. S.
 Cox, (Vice-chair), J. G. Waines, R. Bruns (proxy for J. S. Quick), B.
 Skovmand, O. Anderson, R. Line, K. Briggs, R. Busch, D. McVey, I. B.
 Edwards, C. F. Murphy (ex-officio), and H. Bockelman (ex-officio).
 
      Minutes of the 1990 meeting, as published in the Annual Wheat
 Newsletter, were approved by voice vote.
 
      Dr. Gustafson noted that the by-laws permit 16 committee members,
 whereas there are now only 12.  He agreed to solicit nominations for new
 members on which the committee can vote later.
 
      Dr. Gustafson distributed 1992 USDA guidelines for plant exploration
 proposals and encouraged participation in the program.
      A discussion of the "core collection" concept as it might apply to
 wheat brought out the following points.  There would be two possible types
 of cores.  The first, a simple, geographically representative sample to be
 sent to wheat workers making nonspecific requests or for "prescreening,"
 could be identified relatively simply.  However, theory notwithstanding, it
 was considered doubtful that any core could adequately capture a significant
 amount of the variability in the wheat collection.  The second type of core,
 one enriched for genes affecting target traits, was considered infeasible.
 
      Dr. Steve Harrison presented a proposal to screen for the bacterial
 streak disease, for endorsement by the CAC before submitting it to USDA. 
 This disease, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv translucens, causes
 serious yield losses, especially in the Deep South of the U.S.  The
 experiences of several committee members confirmed that the disease is
 becoming more common.  Although no vote was taken, committee members urged
 Dr. Harrison to submit the proposal for funding from Dr. Henry Shands'
 program.
      
      Dr. Waines described an emergency in southeast Turkey, where several
 wild wheat species are widely threatened by a huge irrigation project.  He
 proposed collecting in the area soon.  Dr. Waines was appointed to chair a
 subcommittee that will write up a proposal to USDA for funding such a trip. 
 A copy will be sent to Plant Genetic Resources of Canada.
 
      In response to a request from Dr. Rosalind Morris for funding to
 regenerate substitution, monosomic, and other genetic stocks for deposition
 in the collection, Dr. Gustafson was approved to transfer $4,000 of the
 genetic stocks funds to Lincoln.  Dr. Gustafson announced that Dr. E. R.
 Sears' stocks are still being maintained and distributed, but no other work
 is being done on his collection.  The stocks were well-catalogued by Dr.
 Sears on cards, and it is hoped to computerize that file.
 
      Dr. Jim Peterson noted that CIMMYT is organizing a nursery to replace
 partially the now-defunct International Winter Wheat Performance Nursery,
 once run by the USDA.  There are questions about how seed can be widely
 distributed by CIMMYT from either Turkey or Mexico, because of quarantine
 regulations.  It was generally agreed that CIMMYT is going beyond the call
 of duty in taking over this nursery.
 
      Dr. Briggs summarized current wheat germplasm activities in Canada. 
 Since, of the small grains, Plant Genetic Resources of Canada has primary
 responsibility for barley and oats, they intend to maintain only a limited
 number of wheat accessions:  registered Canadian cultivars, failed but
 "good" entries in national trials, related species, amphiploids and evolved
 relatives, single-gene resistance stocks, standard differentials, lines with
 unique traits, and items collected by Canadian expeditions.  Aneuploids and
 other genetic stocks will have lower priority.  Material not kept will be
 offered to the USDA collection.
 
      Dr. Skovmand described a new CIMMYT germplasm database that has
 connections to its breeding database but is independent and more suited to
 germplasm management.  It handles field books, cluster analyses, "Mendelian
 contributions," coefficients of parentage, and abbreviations, but no other
 statistical analyses.  The abbreviation list is described in CIMMYT Wheat
 Special Report No. 4.
 
      Dr. Anderson described the new wheat database that is part of the USDA
 Plant Genome project; wheat is one of four species serving as models for an
 eventual "superbase" at the National Agricultural Library.  It will contain
 genetic mapping data and information on genetic stocks (wheat and probes). 
 The system is accessible by phone or INTERNET by any system with X-terminal
 capacity.  However, only the leaders for wheat's seven homoeologous groups
 (as designated by ITME) will be authorized to modify data.  The database is
 on a SUN computer at the Lawrence Berkeley Lab but eventually will be moved
 to the Western Regional Research Center at Albany, CA.
 
      Dr. Anderson agreed to provide funds from the wheat genome database
 project to assist in computerization of Dr. Gibler's card index of 21,000
 wheat pedigrees, with CIMMYT cooperation.
 
      Dr. Skovmand noted that quarantine regulations for bringing seed from
 Mexico to the U.S. have not changed.  Dr. Briggs announced new regulations
 for sending seed into Canada that will facilitate germplasm exchange [see
 regulations printed in this volume].
 
      Dr. Mark Bohning of the USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network
 attended the meeting and told the committee that GRIN has a new, much larger
 and faster computer.  GRIN is now on INTERNET and CGNET.  They also are now
 sending out more information on diskettes rather than hard copy.  Seven
 hundred logon ID's have been issued, and use has increased.  Possibilities
 for connections between GRIN and the Plant Genome database were discussed.
 
      There was a discussion of comments made concerning GRIN at the "ARS
 Grain Crop Production and Quality Review" in May, 1991.  There was agreement
 within the CAC on several points:
      -    "Success" of a system such as GRIN need not be measured by
           frequency of logons.
 
      -    Because breeders, etc., do log on infrequently, GRIN must be more
           user-friendly than most programs.
 
      -    A GRIN user group would be helpful.
 
      -    Wheat quality data loaded into GRIN should be limited to (1)
           description of HMW glutenin subunits, (2) grain color, (3)
           presence and description of alien chromatin known to be present
           in a line, (4) hardness, and (5) protein level.  Items (4) and
           (5) should be entered as "High", "Medium", or "Low" only, with
           proper consideration given to environmental influences.
 
      Dr. Gustafson informed the committee of the increased charges now
 attached to issuance of phytosanitary certificates.  There was a discussion
 of the potential impact on germplasm exchange.
 
      The meeting was adjourned at 11:00 p.m.
 
 -------------------------
             National Association of Wheat Growers Foundation
                     Summary Programs, January, 1992
                             Jennifer L. Moog 
 
 
 A. NEW PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS
 
      1. WHEAT UTILIZATION COMMITTEE.  The Wheat Utilization Committee is
 comprised of fifteen state wheat commissions.  Their purpose is to develop
 and support national research projects in order to increase the utilization
 of wheat in both food and industrial areas.  The first organizational
 meeting was held in July, 1991.  Currently, the committee funds two research
 proposals entitled "Small Wheat Starch Granules for Tableting and Cosmetics"
 and "Biodegradable Packaging from Starch to Enable Naval Compliance with the
 Marpol Treaty."
 
      2.  FARMER-TO-FARMER.  The NAWG Foundation(NAWGF) and Winrock
 International have been selected by the Agency for International Development 
 to administer the Farmer-to-Farmer(FTF) program, a program designed to
 provide technical assistance overseas to middle income countries, emerging
 democracies, and developing countries.
 In response to U.S. Congressional legislation, the goal of the proposed FTF
 program is to increase productivity, income, and the well-being of male and
 female farmers in countries where there is a potential for substantial
 increases in food production, processing, and marketing and where there is
 opportunity for stimulating private enterprise and/or enhancing the
 democratic process.  The stated goal will be accomplished through the
 transfer of technology, knowledge, skills, and information to groups of
 beneficiary farmers by volunteer U.S. farmers, extensionists,
 agriculturalists, university staff, agribusiness and private-sector
 specialists, and nonprofit organizations's staffs.  Technical expertise will
 be provided in five broad areas of agriculture -- environment, forestry,
 crop production, animal agriculture and agribusiness.
 Winrock International with the NAWGF as a subgrantee has been granted 1.3
 million for a three year period.  Together NAWGF and Winrock will establish
 and maintain an extensive network of U.S. Volunteers who will travel to the
 established beneficiary farmer networks in Eastern Europe, Mexico/Central
 America, and Southern Africa.  
 
      3.  FARM SAFETY PROGRAM.  The Farm Safety program has become a reality
 for The NAWG Foundation.  The Foundation was delighted with the positive
 response through program and financial support from Dow Elanco, Deere and
 Company and Case International.  In early December the Foundation sponsored
 a pilot day camp conducted in Fort Collins Colorado.  One-hundred-sixty kids
 participated in the camp which was deemed a huge success by all those who
 attended.  Based on the positive results, the Foundation will encourage
 other states to conduct similar
 programs.  The Farm Safety Committee has agreed to feature safety in the
 program at each convention.  At the summer leadership conference, a
 children's session was conducted by C.W. Lawrence from "4 Just Kids".  Mr.
 Lawrence also spoke on the importance of safety at a general session.  A
 video library is available to all states at the NAWG office in D.C.
 
      4.  1991 SOFT RED WINTER WHEAT QUALITY: ISSUES FOR PRODUCERS,
 MERCHANTS, AND MILLERS.  At the request of wheat growers from state
 associations in the soft red winter wheat production areas, the NAWG
 Foundation contacted various agencies of USDA to request their assistance in
 meeting with wheat producers at the summer leadership conference in July,
 1991.  With the assistance of USDA agencies, ARS, ES, FGIS, ERS, ASCS, the
 Wheat Industry Resource Committee, the Southern Extension and Southern Grain
 Marketing Committees, Virginia Tech, University of Missouri, Farm Foundation
 and many private and public individuals, 257 samples from 14 states and 52
 market samples from 10 commercial mills were analyzed.  All samples were
 analyzed for test weight, total digestible nutrients, damage and scab
 content, vomitoxin content, and alpha amylase content.  Flour yield and
 composition and flour performance were also determined.  The results of this
 study were presented in a national video satellite teleconference Sept. 4
 from Virginia Tech.  A video tape and printed copies of the teleconference
 as well as a shortened highlight video have been produced and are available.
 
      5.  RESEARCH PROJECT FUNDED AND SOURCE OF FUNDING
 
 a. Wheat Marketing Logistics Program; $29,000.  Burlington Northern Railroad
 Foundation, Red River Valley and Western Railroad, Montana Wheat and Barley
 Committee.
 b. Small Wheat Starch Granules as Fat Mimics; $22,800. Nebraska Wheat Board.
 c. Small Wheat Starch Granules for Tableting and Cosmetics; $16,000. Wheat
 Utilization Committee.
 d. Biodegradable Packaging from Starch to Enable Naval Compliance with the
 MARPOL Treaty; $5,000. Wheat Utilization Committee.
 e. Utilization of Polyvinyl Alcohol in Wheat Starch-Based Foam Insulation;
 $15,000. Wheat Utilization Committee and Agricultural Utilization Research
 Institute.
 f. International Triticeae Mapping Initiative Project; $2,500.  Kansas Wheat
 Commission. 
 
 
 B. CURRENT AND ON-GOING PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS
 
      1. WHEAT MARKETING LOGISTICS PROGRAM.  The Foundation has embarked on a
 U.S. Wheat Industry Logistics project provided through grants from
 Burlington Northern Foundation, Red River Valley and Western Railroad, and
 Montana Wheat and Barley Committee.  The Upper Great Plains Transportation
 Institute at North Dakota State University is nearing completion of research
 papers in four specific areas:  a) historical elements of wheat industry
 logistics, b) description of today's wheat industry logistics system, c)
 pricing transportation services, and d) wheat transportation and
 merchandising relationships.  The Wheat Industry Resource Committee will
 develop educational materials from the research and prepare the information
 for dissemination.  Completion of this project is anticipated by late 1992
 or early 1993.
 
 
      2.  MARKETING ALTERNATIVES WORKSHOP.  These workshops, now in their
 third year, are co-sponsored by the Foundation and the Chicago Board of
 Trade.  The workshops are intended to increase grower awareness on marketing
 alternatives, the benefits and risk of futures and options trading, and
 methods to provide income protection.  The workshop is available to any
 interested state associations or commissions and requires a 40 person
 minimum attendance.  To date, workshops have been conducted in Oregon,
 Washington, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, and Colorado.
 
      3.  CONSERVATION RECOGNITION PROGRAM.  The conservation recognition
 program, intended to promote greater awareness and more prolific use of
 conservation practices in farming will be sponsored for a third year by The
 NAWG Foundation and ICI Americas.  The program format will remain the same. 
 Four wheat producers are selected from four regions which are comprised of
 all NAWG member states.  The selected growers travel within their regions to
 gain and share information on conservation practices and communicate this
 knowledge to other growers.  Growers will also inform the nonagricultural
 community of continuing efforts by farmers to preserve soil and water
 resources.  The winners also receive a free trip to the NAWG annual
 convention where they participate in the Conservation workshop.  Candidates
 for this program are nominated by the states.  The states are responsible
 for helping the candidate submit an application with references. 
 Applications are available at the NAWG Foundation.
 
      4.  YOUNG LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT AWARDS PROGRAM.  For the seventh year,
 the NAWG Foundation and Monsanto Agricultural Company are sponsoring a
 nationwide program which provides farmers under the age of 35 an opportunity
 to attend the NAWG Annual Convention or Summer Leadership conference.  This
 year the competition for awards has increased as the number of awards have
 been reduced from 60 to 40.  Accordingly, the grant awarded has increased
 from $500 to $750.  The program is designed to establish young leaders
 within the organization and in the wheat communities of America.  In the
 past years, the participants have proven the merit of the program, as many
 have become involved in their state and national associations.
 
      5.  WHEAT YIELD CHALLENGE EVALUATION.  In conjunction with "The Wheat
 Grower" and "Farm Journal," and with the support of Ciba-Geigy, the
 Foundation judged the national yield contest to select winners in each of 5
 irrigated and 5 non-irrigated wheat classes.  The program is designed to add
 competition to the task of introducing wheat farmers to the latest and most
 effective methods to produce high quality, economic wheat yields.  By
 experimenting with a small portion of their acreage, growers may discover
 production practices that increase wheat profitability for their remaining
 acreage, while improving good economic production in the U.S.  Contest
 results were announced and national winners will participate at the 1992
 Annual Convention in Reno, Nevada.  The Yield Challenge Contest will be
 conducted a third year with slightly modified rules. 
 
      6.  LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM.  State associations seeking
 concentrated leadership training in specific areas can request the
 Leadership Development Program, a half-day to two-day workshop sponsored by
 the Rhone-Poulenc Agricultural Company.  State associations can choose from
 19 different topics related to leadership, allowing trainers to focus on
 areas most beneficial to each state.  Training can center on building more
 effective committees, exercising parliamentary procedure, employing
 different techniques of leadership, using successful communications and
 media relations, motivating membership involvement, or lobbying and
 understanding Congress among others.  Programs were conducted this year in
 Washington and Idaho and are scheduled for Colorado and Wyoming for next
 year. 
 
      7.  SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM.  The Sustainable Agriculture
 program sponsored by ICI Americas Inc. is designed to provide a leadership
 and educational role in understanding sustainable agriculture.  The six
 commodity programs (corn, cotton, rice, sorghum, soybeans, and wheat) and
 the National Association of Conservation Districts are cooperating in the
 project.  Demonstration plots with varying levels of inputs were established
 the last two years at Agricenter International in Memphis, Tennessee.  Test
 plots are available for tours throughout the summer and were part of a media
 day held on July 26, 1991, at the Center.  A favorable review of the project
 has led to plans for continuation of a third year with an emphasis on
 another symposium and a showcase of demonstration plots July 20-22, 1992.
 
      8.  EXCELLENCE IN EXTENSION.  The Foundation, in cooperation with the
 Wheat Industry Resource Committee, has established a national "Excellence in
 Extension" awards program to recognize Cooperative Extension System workers
 at the county, multi-county and state levels for their work to improve the
 U.S. wheat industry.  Recipients of the award receive $250 to support their
 wheat-related programs for the benefit of U.S. wheat producers, as well as a
 plaque in recognition of their contributions.  This program is currently in
 its third year.
 
      9. DEVELOPING OPPORTUNITIES FOR U.S. AGRICULTURE.  The Developing
 World: Opportunities for U.S. Agriculture is a three year development
 education program funded, in part, by the State Department's Agency for
 International Development.  The objective of the program is to increase the
 public's awareness of the potential growth demand for U.S. exports in Less
 Developed Countries (LDCs).  The program trains 68 wheat growers to become
 spokespersons on issues of aid, trade, and development with LDCs. 
 Spokespersons participate in initial issue and media skills training in
 Washington, D.C.  During the second year, spokespersons are exposed to U.S.
 development assistance strategies while at Winrock International Institute
 for Agricultural Development.  Spokespersons are then eligible for
 specialized individual learning experiences and for participation on a
 smaller international development and trade team, which will make
 presentations to national and international audiences.  Throughout
 participation in this program, all spokespersons communicate the goals of
 the program and related issues to audiences on local and state levels. 
 Representatives from other commodity groups and national Extensions agents'
 associations are invited to attend training sessions and are encouraged to
 implement similar training programs for their membership.
 
      10. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE AWARENESS PROGRAM.  Funded by Monsanto
 Agricultural Company, this project is designed to help the U.S. wheat
 industry take a positive approach to environmental issues.  The project has
 15 participants from member states.  The participants are now providing
 leadership within their state associations related to environmental issues,
 including soil conservation, pesticide residues and wetlands preservation. 
 Many have had a number of speaking engagements before state association
 conventions, other farm groups, as well as community organizations, and are
 actively monitoring state environmental legislation and regulation.  By
 recruiting spokespersons from around the country to educate farmers and the
 public about conservation practices and chemical use, the project will serve
 to improve awareness of environmental concern.
 
      11.  WHEAT TECHNOLOGY.  The newsletter features the latest
 breakthroughs in wheat research, production and marketing technology.  It
 provides in depth coverage of issues affecting all aspects of the industry;
 informative production practices, meetings, new publications and products. 
 Four regional editors bring news from the various wheat producing regions in
 every issue; NAWG Foundation Development Committee members contribute a
 feature article to each publication; and, a recent feature, the wheat
 quality labs are reporting their current work, projects, problems, and
 future goals and direction.  Wheat Technology will continue to feature the
 unique agencies, companies, and persons influencing the wheat industry and
 helping to secure its successful future.  We encourage articles from
 representatives of the U.S. wheat industry.
 
 -------------------------
 ITMI Management Office, Genetic Resources Conservation Program, University
 of California, Davis, CA 95616 USA
 
      The International Triticeae Mapping Initiative
 
      The International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI) concept was
 developed in 1988 by Jan Dvorak and Cal Qualset (University of California,
 Davis), Gary Hart (Texas A&M University) and Bikram Gill (Kansas State
 University). They saw a need to coordinate and strengthen international
 scientific efforts on genome mapping of wheat and related species. The
 primary purpose of ITMI is to facilitate strong international collaboration
 among investigators by division of labor among the participants, reducing
 repetition of work, and thus maximizing the rate of progress in RFLP mapping
 of the various Triticeae genomes. The aims of ITMI were clarified by a small
 group at a workshop in Davis in June, 1989:
 
 
 1) To develop linkage and metaphase chromosome maps utilizing RFLP markers
 of the chromosomes of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) and common wheat (T.
 aestivum).
 2) To develop a comparative map of barley (Hordeum vulgare) utilizing RFLP
 markers.
 3) To develop a comparative map of rye (Secale cereale) utilizing RFLP
 markers.
 4) To develop comparative maps of representative diploid species of the
 genera in the Triticeae.
 5) To construct comparative linkage maps of the diploid ancestors of the
 wheat A, B, and D genomes.
 6) To determine linkage between RFLP markers and genes controlling specific
 agronomically important traits.
 
      Scientists who took on the responsibility for coordination of a
 particular chromosome group in wheat, or for the map of another related
 species, or for other particular functions (such as database development),
 are called ITMI Coordinators. This responsibility implies the coordination
 of linkage and physical map development for the assigned chromosomes or
 genome. Presently, the ITMI Coordinators comprise Olin Anderson (USDA/ARS,
 Albany, California) - database development; Rudi Appels (CSIRO, Canberra) -
 Group 1; Jan Dvorak - Group 4; Michael Gale (Cambridge Laboratory, Norwich,
 England) - Group 7; Bikram Gill - Group 5; Perry Gustafson (USDA/ARS,
 University of Missouri) - R genome; Gary Hart - Group 6; David Hoisington
 (CIMMYT, Mexico) - Group 3 (joint); Rafiqul Islam, Peter Langridge and Ken
 Shepherd (University of Adelaide) - Group 1 (joint); Peter Sharp (University
 of Sydney) - Group 2; and Mark Sorrells and Steven Tanksley (Cornell
 University) - Group 3 (joint). ITMI is coordinated at the University of
 California, Davis, by Calvin Qualset. 
 
 
      ITMI Investigators are scientists not necessarily involved in mapping,
 but are active in cereal genetics,  wish to be associated with ITMI, and can
 contribute stocks and probes to the mapping effort or utilize mapped probes
 for application to wheat improvement. ITMI Affiliate Members are
 organizations not necessarily actively developing maps but who will utilize
 or benefit from the results of genome mapping. At present these
 organizations financially supporting ITMI are Sogetal, Inc. (Hayward, CA),
 CIMMYT and ICRISAT. Also, INTA of Argentina have sent a visiting scientist
 to work in Jan Dvorak's lab to contribute to the objectives of ITMI. ITMI
 Coordinators, Investigators, and Affiliate Member representatives, and
 others interested in mapping meet each year at a Public Workshop. This helps
 to ensure close ties between researchers and the cereal industry, and
 assures that genome mapping results are readily available to public or
 private organizations.
  
      The first ITMI Public Workshop, was held in Sacramento, California in
 1990, the second in Manhattan, Kansas in 1991, and the third is planned to
 be hosted by CIMMYT, Mexico in September 1992. The workshop proceedings are
 published. Rapid progress in being made, with some maps presented at the
 meetings doubling in the number of mapped probes between 1990 and 1991. 
 
      ITMI emphasizes the free exchange of information, materials, probes,
 and genetic stocks. As mapping progress advances, masses of data accumulate.
 As a result, the communication role of ITMI has become increasingly
 important in facilitating information flow. The USDA Plant Genome Research
 Program recognizes the importance of computer database development in making
 the results of mapping efforts available to all researchers. Olin Anderson
 is leading work on the wheat database project, in collaboration with
 programmers at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and staff of the National
 Agricultural Library. A wheat database group meeting was held just before
 the ITMI Public Workshop in September 1991 in Manhattan, Kansas. A prototype
 database with  a user-friendly graphic interface was shown by John McCarthy
 of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Researchers were able to discuss their
 needs and expectations of the database. The ITMI Management Office also
 functions as an information resource, and is developing, with financial
 support from Olin Anderson's program, an ITMI newsletter.
 
      Further information about ITMI may be obtained from the ITMI Management
 Office, Genetic Resources Conservation Program, University of California,
 Davis, CA 95616 USA, phone (916) 757-8920, fax (916) 757-8755.
 
 -------------------------
 AGRIPRO BIOSCIENCES, INC.
 
      Koy E. Miskin*, Gregory J. Holland*, Curtis L. Beazer -- Brookston, IN; 
         317/563-3111
      J. Barton Fogleman*, C. Keith Taylor  -- Jonesboro, AR; 501/935-3941
      Rob Bruns*, John Moffatt*, Joe Smith*, Jim Reeder* -- Berthoud, CO;     
          303/532-3721
 
      Northern Soft Red Winter Wheat.  This 1991 crop season for soft red
 winter wheat was a very severe year.  The very wet conditions during heading
 and flowering caused extremely severe levels of head scab and the Septorias. 
 This was coupled with a very hot, dry grain filling period and resulting in
 lower yields with very low test weights.  Many commercial fields had test
 weights in the low 50's and upper 40's.  
 
      We conducted a study comparing yields of SRW wheat lines when planted
 by weight and adjusted to account for differences in TKW.   Eight lines were
 used with TKW's ranging from 26 to 42. When seeded by weight each packet of
 each line contained 59 grams of seed.  This is equal to 30K/square foot
 (323K/square meter) if the average TKW is equal to 35.  Thus, low TKW lines
 will have more K/square foot and high TKW lines will have fewer K/square
 foot than desired when planted by weight.  When seeded by TKW the correct
 numbers of kernels were planted so that all lines were planted at
 323K/square meter.  Three reps were planted at three locations.  Regardless
 of which method of determining seeding rate was used the relative ranking of
 the varieties was exactly the same.  Perhaps it is not necessary to go to
 all the labor expense of counting TKW's to determine relative yield.    
 
 
 Table 1.  1991 Packeting Study; Packet by Weight vs. packet by TKW
 
                                                 Three loc.
           Var.      Grams/Packet             Yield (bu/a)   
 Variety   TKW       by Wght    by TKW     % Diff    by Wght    by TKW 
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 89M-447     42        59         71         120       53.5      51.0
 88M-3143    26        59         44          75       52.7      50.7
 89I-4581    31        59         52          88       48.0      49.9 
 88M*2451    42        59         71         120       46.6      47.9 
 89M-4194    31        59         52          88       45.0      45.3
 E86*302-7   30        59         51          86       44.4      43.7
 E86*302-12  36        59         61         103       41.4      40.6
 89M*4307    26        59         44          75       39.0      35.9
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 MEANS                                                 46.3      45.6
      
      AgriPro Sawyer (formerly ABI 85-81) was released in 1991 and certified
 seed will be available for the 1992-93 season.   AgriPro Sawyer is a soft
 red winter wheat bred and developed by AgriPro Biosciences Inc.  It
 originated from the cross Timwin/Monon//Fredrick/Oasis.  AgriPro Sawyer is
 adapted to the area from eastern Kansas to the east coast and from North
 Carolina back to  Arkansas and to Wisconsin.  AgriPro Sawyer is high
 yielding, strong strawed, early maturing and very broadly adapted to the
 SRWW region.  AgriPro Sawyer provided excellent protection against wheat
 spindle streak virus and stem rust; very good protection against powdery
 mildew, Septoria nodorum, Rhizoctonia and soilborne mosaic virus.  Good
 protection is provided against barley yellow dwarf virus, wheat streak
 virus, Septoria tritici and leaf rust.  AgriPro Sawyer has no known genes
 for Hessian fly resistance.  Milling quality is very good and baking quality
 is rated good.  Juvenile growth habit is semi-erect.  Coleoptiles are red. 
 Plant color at boot stage is green with a twisted recurved flag leaf.  Head
 shape is tapering to strap, mid-dense, and  awnletted.  Auricles are purple
 and pubescence is present.  Glumes are midlong and midwide with square to
 oblique shoulders  and obtuse beaks.  Seed is red, ovate in shape with
 rounded cheeks.  Seed crease width is narrow and depth is shallow. Brush is
 large, non-collared and medium long.  The germ is medium sized.  AgriPro
 Biosciences Inc. maintains seed stock and certified classes of foundation,
 registered and certified.  Application for Plant Variety Protection has been
 made and AgriPro Sawyer may only be sold as a class of certified seed.
 
      Dr. Gregory J. Holland has joined AgriPro Biosciences Inc. as the soft
 wheat breeder.  Dr. Holland comes to us from the University of Minnesota
 where his research involved evaluation of a maize recurrent selection
 program, the evaluation of maize tissue culture regenerants and the
 utilization of RFLP's to investigate DNA methylation patterns in maize.  He
 is also well trained in genetics, pathology, statistics and quantitative
 genetics.  We are especially pleased with Dr. Holland's training and hybrid
 experience and look forward to the contributions he will make in our
 company.      
      
      Southern Soft Winter Wheat.  Plague and pestilence due to excessive
 rainfall devastated the region.  Soil viruses, a freak Easter snowstorm and
 freeze, a myriad of foliar and head diseases, head scab due to heavy rains
 (four or more inches per week during heading and anthesis), army worms, low
 wheat prices and heavy discounts (some TW's <40 lb./bu) combined to produce
 the worst wheat year we've ever seen.  On the bright side, selection
 pressures were superb.
 
      AgriPro Mallard (formerly ABI 86-5941) will be available as certified
 seed for the 1992-93 season.  Mallard is a soft red winter wheat bred and
 developed by AgriPro Biosciences Inc.  It is high yielding, has medium
 maturity and has short, very strong straw.  Mallard provides excellent
 protection against stem rust and good protection against leaf rust, scab,
 Septoria nodorum and wheat spindle streak virus.  It also gives good
 protection to soilborne mosaic virus, powdery mildew, Septoria tritici and
 barley yellow dwarf virus.  It has the H6 gene for Hessian fly which gives
 protection against biotypes A, B, E, H, I, J  and M.  Mallard offers little
 protection against Rhizoctonia.  The milling quality is excellent and baking
 quality is very good based on several years of testing.  Mallard is best
 adapted to the mid south soft wheat region of the United States.
 
      Charles Keith Taylor, assistant wheat breeder, is a welcome addition to
 our southern breeding team.  Keith (MS'88) has experience in rice breeding,
 large farm operations and is a past assistant county supervisor for the
 FmHA.
 
      The wet season provided opportunity to get soil virus notes at
 Jonesboro, AR, Sikeston, MO and Rutherford, TN.  Our speculation is that
 Sikeston is primarily SBMV and Rutherford is primarily WSSMV but this was
 not assayed.  A few trials at Cleveland, MS were heavily infected with downy
 mildew.  Data are reported below with all ratings on a 1-9 scale (1 =
 disease free; 9 = total devastation).
 
 
 Table 2.   1990-91 Trial Data 
 
                            SBMV?      BOTH?     WSSMV?      DOWNY MILDEW
 Cultivar                    MO         AR         TN             MS        
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 ABI 87-6646                4.5         3         5.5            1.0
 AgriPro Cherokee           2.5         3         3.0            7.0
 AgriPro Hunter             4.5         6         5.5            2.5
 AgriPro Magnum             5.0         5         6.0            4.5
 AgriPro Mallard            5.5         4         7.0            7.0
 AgriPro Savannah           5.5         4         5.5            2.0
 AgriPro Sawyer             4.5         6         6.0            5.5
 AgriPro Traveler           3.5         8         7.5            4.5
 AgriPro Twain              3.0         3         2.5            4.0
 Bayles                     5.5         7         7.0            2.5
 FFR 525W                   4.5         4         6.5            4.0
 Florida 302                4.0         6         7.0            3.5
 Georgia 100                3.5         2         4.0            2.5
 Keiser                     3.5         3         2.5            2.5
 Madison                    2.5         3         2.0            3.0
 NK/Coker 9024              5.0         4         2.0            7.0
 NK/Coker 9227              4.0         7         6.5            1.0
 NK/Coker 9803              5.5         7         4.5            4.5
 NK/Coker 9835              5.0         4         4.5            5.0
 NK/Coker 9877              2.0         2         3.0            4.0
 Pioneer 2548               6.5         7         7.0            5.0
 Pioneer 2555               2.5         3         2.0            6.0
 Saluda                     4.5         7         7.0            7.0
 Terral 101                 2.0         2         3.5            2.5
 Verne                      7.0         7         3.0            5.5
 Wakefield                  4.0         5         5.0            5.0
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Hard Red Winter Wheat.  Assistant Plant Breeder Scott Dorsch resigned
 effective August 18, 1991.  Scott moved on to a position with Anheuser Busch
 Inc. working in their International Barley Division.  We want to acknowledge
 the tremendous contribution that Scott made to our program and wish him well
 in his new endeavor. 
 
      The 1990/91 crop year provided relatively good yield information from
 nine of twelve locations planted with trial means ranging from 38.9 bu/a at
 Nardin, OK to 111.0 bu/a at Berthoud, CO.  We experienced significant levels
 of leaf rust at every test site and heavy stem rust at our northern and
 western sites.  Two locations, Everest, KS and Geneva, NE, were lost to hail
 damage.  Cattle grazing preference for experimental materials over TAM 200
 resulted in the loss of several experiments at Garden City, KS.  Yield
 performance under stress conditions at various stages of crop development in
 conjunction with good notes for leaf rust, stem rust, tan spot, Septoria,
 spindle streak mosaic virus and shattering helped to move the program
 forward.
 
      Two varieties, "Tomahawk" and "Longhorn", were released to our
 associate system in 1991 and will be available to the farmer in the fall of
 1992.  Tomahawk is best described as an improved Victory with broad
 adaptation for the southern Great Plains.  Tomahawk was previously tested as
 WI88-083.  It has improved resistances to tan spot, glume blotch, powdery
 mildew, and leaf rust over Victory with slightly heavier test weight
 patterns.  
 
 Longhorn, formerly tested as WI88-024, is an awnless, tall semidwarf  with
 long coleoptile expression and good grazing characteristics.  It is
 susceptible to soilborne mosaic and spindle streak mosaic viruses and has
 been targeted for the western region as a graze-out wheat.  Longhorn also
 has acceptable to good bread baking characteristics offering the option to
 harvest for grain.
 
      Hard Red Spring Wheat.   The hard red spring wheat project personnel
 consist of Joe A. Smith, Breeder; John Martin, Assistant Breeder; Barb Cook,
 Technician; Linda Sizemore, Technician.
 
      All of our testing sites in 1991 were located in the Red River Valley. 
 We experienced a very abnormal season for disease, insects and temperature
 related problems.  This was especially true for areas south of Grand Forks,
 ND.  Xanthomonas and Fusarium were the primary diseases.  Other problems
 included high early season temperatures, heat stress at grain filling,
 greenbugs, Hessian fly and barley yellow dwarf virus.  Trial results in
 these areas were highly variable and varietal performance did not correlate
 with our long term averages.  Early varieties such as 2375 and Butte 86 had
 the best performance.  At our northern site in Stephen, MN, yields and
 diseases more closely resembled past results.  It was a very difficult
 season for making progress in all stages of the breeding program. 
 
      We will be releasing a new hard red spring wheat cultivar in 1992 named
 Krona.  It was previously tested as N86-0542.  Krona is a strong strawed
 semidwarf with medium maturity.  It has very good protection to leaf and
 stem rust, tan spot and Septoria.  Its protein levels are low, similar to
 Wheaton.  Krona will be recommended for the high production areas of the
 spring wheat region.
 
      Hybrid Wheat Development.  The Hard Wheat Hybrid Development Project
 includes Jim Reeder, Manager, and Steve Askelson - Assistant Plant Breeder.
 
      Over 800 HRWW hybrids were made in 1991 at Berthoud, CO, Garden City,
 KS and Dumas, TX.  Chemical hybridizing agent technology was used to produce
 these hybrids.  The top 500+ that proved to be producible will be yield
 tested in 1992 throughout the region.  The yield advantages of previously
 made hybrids were very encouraging.  The yield stability of hybrids over
 locations and over years continues to be high.  It is also encouraging to
 note that the increase in yield of our hybrids is increasing faster than
 that of our varieties.  During the 1992 season, out-location test hybrid
 production will be done at either Dumas or Hereford, TX in anticipation of
 full production as CHA's become registered.
 
      Approximately 450 HRSW hybrids were made at Berthoud using CHA
 technology.  These will be tested for heterosis in the Red River Valley of
 North Dakota and Minnesota.  The heterosis observed in 1991 was very
 encouraging.  Approximately 100 of these hybrids will be retested in 1992. 
 The purification of inbreds is progressing so that pilot production can be
 done as soon as a CHA is registered.
 
 -------------------------
      CARGILL HYBRID SEEDS, Fort Collins, Colorado
 
      Sid Perry, Dave Johnston, Sally Clayshulte, Jill Handwerk and Dana      
      Shellberg
 
      1990-91 Season.  Above normal winter survival differential was obtained
 in both Colorado and Nebraska nurseries.  Heavy leaf rust infection occurred
 late in Fort Collins.  Our location in Western Missouri had extremely severe
 glume blotch.  The Texas panhandle provided a very good environment for
 hybrid performance.
 
      Production.  CHA and CMS hybrids were produced in Colorado.  CHA
 hybrids were also produced in Argentina, including WxW, SxW, and SxS.  The
 effectiveness of hybrid production and consolidation of our production
 efforts among our international programs may make Argentina in strategic
 test hybrid production area for Cargill in the future.
 
      Testing.  We are testing large numbers of F1 and F2 hybrids.  While the
 F1 remains the premium product, some F2 combinations are giving surprising
 results, with a corresponding "cheaper to produce" advantage.  We will
 continue evaluating this possibility.  We are utilizing several public and
 private programs to provide additional testing over more environments.
 
 -------------------------
      CARGILL HYBRID SEEDS, Tamworth, N.S.W., Australia
 
      Richard Daniel, David Donaldson, Michael Materne, Michael Nowland,      
      Chris Tyson, Jane and Peter Wilson      
 
      Low Wheat Prices.  The low wheat prices secured by growers for their
 crop harvested November/December, 1990, and the depressed price expectation
 at planting (April/July, 1991) forced growers to:
      1)  sow alternative crops
      2)  reduce wheat areas
      3)  reduce wheat crop inputs
 
      This had the effect of severely reducing the quantity of hybrid seed
 purchased by growers.
 
      These events illustrate the impact of grain price on the profitability
 of growing F1 hybrid wheat compared to growing varieties.
 
      Planting Time.  The major planting period for wheat in northwest N.S.W.
 is between April and July but regardless of planting time, it is highly
 desirable that the crops flower in early October.  Earlier flowering greatly
 increases the risk of frost damage to the peduncle and inflorescence and
 later flowering increases the likelihood of yield loss due to high
 temperatures and moisture stress during flowering and grain development. 
 Breeders manipulate the genes for vernalization and photoperiod response to
 control the flowering time of their varieties.  Inadequate moisture for
 planting or prolonged periods of wet weather inhibiting planting generally
 determine the actual planting time(s) each season.  In some years, farmers
 are unable to sow varieties of particular maturity groups as suitable
 planting conditions do not occur at the optimum sowing time for those
 varieties.
 
      As a consequence, some of the more progressive growers retain up to
 200% of their expected wheat varietal seed requirements in order to ensure
 they have adequate seed of a suitable variety, or varieties, to plant when
 conditions allow.  This uncertainty of sowing time also has the effect, that
 if growers consider growing F1 hybrid varieties, they only purchase seed
 immediately prior to sowing, and hybrid in certain maturity groups may not
 be sown at all in some years.  This creates an inventory problem for hybrid
 seed companies.
 
      In order to alleviate this problem, we have attempted to develop
 hybrids that include a wider range of maturity groups, and to better
 manipulate the genes for vernalization response to produce hybrid with no
 increased planting window.
 
      Specific Incompatibility for Fertility Restoration.  The expression
 difficult to restore females has previously been used to describe
 cytoplasmically sterile lines (timpoheevi cytoplasm) that are not as
 effectively restored by particular restorer lines(s) as others.  One very
 high yielding A-line was poorly restored by what were considered to be good
 restorer lines and was about to be discarded as being too difficult to
 restore.  However, other equally good restorer lines were inadvertently
 found to adequately restore the line in question.  Furthermore, crosses
 between restorer lines (carrying timpoheevi cytoplasm) each having been
 selected for their ability to restore one or more A-lines, produced F1
 progeny that varied in fertility nearly sterile to completely fertile. 
 These evens serve to illustrate our poor understanding of fertility
 restoration for the timpoheevi cytoplasm, and are being further
 investigated.
 
 -------------------------
 CARGILL ARGENTINE - Hybrid Wheat Program
 
 Nestor G. Machado - Pedro M. Paulucci - Hector J. Martinuzzi
 
 General environmental conditions we had in our nurseries were fairly
 representative of what happened on farmer's plots.  During winter time,
 excessive rains delayed plantings 30 to 45 days.  This was quite restrictive
 for some winter types and for some long cycle springs.  Fortunately, weather
 during spring time was cooler than normal allowing acceptable tillering and
 very good head fertility.  As a result of all these factors, good yield were
 obtained in almost all areas.  At harvesting time some areas were severely
 damaged by heavy hail and wind storms.
 
 Diseases were present and diversified.  Fusarium sp., P. graminis, P.
 recondita and Septoria tritici were the ost commonly present diseases. 
 Lodging and shattering at harvesting time were also causes of discarding. 
 As a result of these adversities a good selection was accomplished for the
 breeding material and a good evaluation was done on the hybrid yield trials.
 
 In spite of the presence of diseases, yields were not affected as expected. 
 Except for the very susceptible ones, many varieties and hybrids performed
 very well at a level of historical records for each location. 
 
 Considering our Advanced Yield Trial #1, we found:
 
 Location                Pergamino      9 de Julio      Necochea                                                                          
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                         
 Hybrids Avg.           4623    122     6934     112    8009    106
 
 Varieties Avg.         3169     83     5627      91    7281     96
 
 Yield Trial Avg.       3809    100     6208     100    7604    100
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                            
 
 Averages of 20 commercial varieties and 16 hybrids.
 Pergamino can be described as an environment with high disease infection and
 medium fertility soil, 9 de Julio as a medium disease infection and high
 fertility soil and Necochea as a low disease infection and high fertility
 soil.
 
 Hybrids production  408 cms hybrids were produced in 23 isolated plots that
 produced good amount of seed.  Two new experimental A lines achieved 100%
 seed set being the first time we have this in our lines.  Our commercial
 production plots also had outstanding yields on those plots with good
 nicking.  1167 chemical hybrids were produced using the gametocide Monsanto
 21200.  Combinations of winter/winter, winter/spring and spring/spring were
 done including advance dlines from different origins and breeding material
 as well.  Using different planting dates for male and females, very
 different growth habits can be outcrossed under our conditions.
 
 Hybrids evaluation:  391 cms hybrids were evaluated in 3 research stations
 and 5 precommercial hybrids were tested in 12 locations.  We have just
 finished the statistical analysis of these trials and have selected 1 more
 hybrid as a new commercial for 1992 season, and 2 more will probably be
 released in 1993.  1832 chemical hybrids were evaluated in 2 locations and
 we are now processing the obtained data.  Some winter/winter and
 winter/spring that were planted too late did not express their total
 potential.  The information we will get from these trials will be useful to
 know and classify the lines and germplasm according to their combining
 ability.
 
 -------------------------
      GOERTZEN SEED RESEARCH
 
      Kenneth, Betty, and Kevin Goertzen
 
 
      A few hard red winter wheat varieties were identified to be used in
 identity preserved production programs.  All are high protein, high quality,
 good yielding, bread wheats which can be used where wheats of outstanding
 bread quality are desired.
 
      One hard white winter wheat with excellent bread making characteristics
 and good yield capability is being increased for use.
 
      A winter hardy forage Triticale developed in the GSR program was
 marketed in 1991.
 
      Our breeding goals continue to emphasize characteristics of greatest
 economic importance.
 
      Breeders seed cleaning facilities were added in 1991.  Additional seed
 storage, cleaning and warehousing facilities were leased for use in 1992. 
 Additional bins have been installed for breeders seed storage.
 
      A new company was formed by Goertzen Seed Research employees to serve
 as a marketing organization for GSR developments.  President is Kenbe D.
 Goertzen.  Roy Lanning is Vice President and Manager.  Vice President for
 technology is Kenneth L. Goertzen.  Betty L. Goertzen is secretary and Kevin
 W. Goertzen is Treasurer. Goertzen Quality Wheat, Inc., will work with
 present identity preserved programs for contract grain production and sales.
 
      Goertzen Seed Research will increase its contract research and will
 increase parents for identify preserved hybrids.
 
 -------------------------
      HYBRITECH SEED INTERNATIONAL, INC.
 
      John Erickson, Steve Kuhr, Jerry Wilson, Bud Hardesty, Karolyn Ely -
 Wichita, KS; Gordon Cisar - Lafayette, IN
 
      Hybrid Evaluation.    Analyses of five years of data from the SRPN and
 NRPN regional nurseries are shown in Tables 1 and 2.  The hybrids yielded
 from 7 to 13 percent above public or private pure lines.  Hybrids were also
 more responsive to changes in environment and were more stable than pure
 line entries.  Data from HybriTech trials confirm the response and stability
 comparisons.
 
      Hybrid performance has been gaining compared to varietal checks at a
 rate of about 2% per year.  Current levels of performance are about 12%
 above the best check variety and 22% above the average of several good
 varieties.  Two experimental hybrids in Montana have been about 28% better
 than the best check averaged over two years.
 
      A new hybrid for irrigated areas, Quantum 588A, was released in 1991. 
 It has been about 6 bu/A higher yielding than Quantum 588, which it will
 replace.
 
 Table 1. Performance data from the SRPN
 
 Yield (% of Checks)                                    
 Source    1986(#)   1987(#)   1988(#)   1989(#)    1990(#)  avg(sum)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Public     118(27)   114(27)   116(28)   103(24)  120 (26)  114(132)
 Private    116 (7)   115 (6)   119 (9)   104 (12) 108 (4)   112(38)
 Hybrid     127 (8)   119 (7)   119 (5)   113 (6)  126 (4)   121(30)
 
 Response (b)
 Public     1.01      0.99       1.00     1.01     1.00    1.00
 Private    0.98      1.03       1.03     0.97     0.98    1.00
 Hybrid     1.04      1.08       1.09     1.12     1.07    1.08
 
 
 Stability (r2)
 Public     0.88      0.90       0.88     0.89     0.92    0.89
 Private    0.86      0.91       0.91     0.90     0.93    0.90
 Hybrid     0.92      0.94       0.93     0.94     0.95    0.93
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Table 2.  Performance data from the NRPN
 
 Yield (% of Checks)
 Source   1986(#)    1987(#)   1988(#)    1989(#)    1990(#)   avg(sum)
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Public   111 (20)   108 (24)  107 (20)   108 (13)   110 (18)  109(95)
 Private  121 (1)    102 (5)   127 (1)    100 (2)     - (0)    106(9)
 Hybrid   116 (6)    124 (4)   118 (2)    117 (4)    119 (4)   119(20)
 
 Response (b)
 Public   1.03      0.99       0.99       0.97        0.99    1.00
 Private  1.15      0.91       1.16       0.94         -      0.97
 Hybrid   1.00      1.31       1.24       1.11        1.23    1.15
 
 Stability (r2)
 Public   0.83      0.86       0.90       0.89        0.94    0.88
 Private  0.91      0.83       0.88       0.89         -      0.86
 Hybrid   0.83      0.93       0.89       0.95        0.96    0.91
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Male Project.  Restorer lines may be evaluated in hybrid form by using
 them as females in GHA (Genesis hybridizing agent) crossing blocks, using
 B-line males.  Hybrids produced are performance tested and evaluated for
 restoration in replicated trials at four sites.  In three such southern
 trials in 1991, the mean of the best five hybrids vs. the check mean was
 108%, 119%, and 123% respectively.  We have now generated three years of
 this type of data in our southern program based in Wichita and two years
 from the northern program based in Billings.
 
      Line yield testing continues.  Two-hundred thirty-six and 82 advanced
 lines were tested respectively from the southern and northern programs in
 1991.  Data from 92 station years from 1987 through 1991 indicates an 18%
 yield improvement over older restorer lines used as checks.  The same data
 shows a slight but not significant increase over new varieties used as
 checks.
 
       Results from 1991 crossing blocks at Wichita and Halstead, Kansas were
 similar to the long term.  CMS female yield levels across 14 males at
 Wichita were 94% of the male with male test weights averaging 60.4% pounds
 per bushel.  The blocks are irrigated and treated with fungicide.
 
      Female Project.  Weather for the 1990/91 crop year generally was
 favorable throughout the Great Plains.  The crop went into winter in good
 shape although conditions turned relatively dry in late fall.  Survival was
 very good in our southern nursery sites at Wichita, Mt. Hope, and Leoti,
 Kansas.  Some winter-killing occurred at Hastings, Nebraska, especially in
 the headrow nurseries where stand densities were low.  The Pryor, Montana
 site was totally lost to high winds which desiccated the plants and drifted
 the dry soil.
 
      Some leaf rust was observed at Wichita and Mt. Hope as well as some
 SBMV.  However, the rust developed too late to be of much use in making
 selections.  Stem rust expression was excellent at Hastings and Sidney,
 Nebraska.
 
      Three relatively late-maturing A-lines were sent to our foundation seed
 division for initial seed increase.  They have shown hybrid potential for
 the northern plains.  An earlier dwarf A-line was retained for further
 purification of height differences.
 
      Adaptation Project.  In an effort to keep abreast of the major problem
 affecting the southern Great Plains, eight inbreds were sent to the Cereal
 Rust Lab in St. Paul, Minnesota.  Initial tests indicate good levels of leaf
 rust resistance in most of these lines.  A continual effort will be made by
 this project to pyramid genes for resistance into all parental lines that
 will be used in hybrid combination.
 
      Several lines have been developed with Russian Wheat Aphid tolerance (a
 low level of resistance) when tested at this facility.  In an effort to
 bolster our level of resistance a crossing program will be initiated this
 spring with the crossing of these lines to the Colorado RWA resistant
 germplasm line CORWA 1.
 
      Quality Lab.  We finished the 1990 crop with slightly over 11,000
 samples tested.  Because of the large numbers, we did not bake as many of
 the Hard Winter samples as we would have liked.  Baking tests were continued
 until mid-July, overlapping testing of the 1991 early generation and
 observation samples which began in early July.  A major goal for this season
 is to complete the bread baking tests by mid-June.
 
      The total number of samples being tested for the 1991 crop is down
 slightly from last year.  We have processed approximately 9,400 samples thus
 far and will not have many more before the end of the season.  Testing at
 all levels (early generation, preliminary and advanced) is down for the Hard
 Winter wheats but numbers for preliminary and advanced testing for the Soft
 Winter program are up sharply; approximately 2 1/2 times more samples than
 last year.
 
      Because of the large number of samples being processed, much of our
 effort this past year went into finding ways to be faster and more
 efficient.  New computer methods have helped considerably in this regard. 
 We now receive a computer list from the breeder when he submits samples to
 the lab.  This list can be transferred directly into the quality file and
 lab numbers are then assigned by the computer.  This saves the time of
 recording the samples by hand, stamping the lab numbers on the paper and
 typing the information into the computer.  We have also started sending the
 quality reports back to the breeder on the computer.  In this way he can
 transfer the data directly into his files even before he receives the
 printed copy of the report.
 
      Soft Red Winter Project.  Hybrid Testing and Heterosis
      A total of 1530 single-cross hybrids were evaluated over eight test
 locations in the Corn Belt region of the U.S.A. in 1991.  A number of our
 hybrid trials have one or both parents included in the test in an attempt to
 monitor the amount of heterosis we are observing in our soft red winter
 wheat germplasm.  This information is also used to assign breeding lines to
 our germplasm pools.  The average amount of best parent heterosis [(F-1
 yield/Best Parent yield) x 100] for grain yield, and the number of hybrids
 the average is based on, is presented below for each of eight crop years:
 
                Average
           Best Parent Heterosis               Number of
 Year       for Grain Yield (%)                 Hybrids
  ------------------------------------------------------------
 1984              99                             50
 1985             103                             91
 1986             111                            127
 1987             103                             37
 1988             102                             57
 1989             103                            114
 1990             104                            427
 1991             112                           1204
  ------------------------------------------------------------
 Average:         104.6
 
      We've also evaluated best parent heterosis for test weight for several
 years, though with fewer hybrids.  Test weight of the hybrid is frequently
 equal to test weight of the better parent.  Average best parent heterosis
 for test weight, and the number of hybrids evaluated, is given below for
 five crop years:
 
 
                         Average
                   Best Parent Heterosis         Number of
 Year               for Test Weight (%)          Hybrids
  -------------------------------------------------------------
 1984                100.3                         61
 1986                 99.8                         18
 1989                 99.0                         36
 1990                100.0                         24
 1991                102.1                        112
  -------------------------------------------------------------
 Average:            100.2
 
      Hybrid Production.  A total of 453 females and 25 males were used in an
 attempt to produce 2400 unique hybrid combinations with the hybridizing
 agent 'Genesis" (MON 21250).  We were successful in producing 2249 hybrids,
 abandoning 151 hybrids (6.3%) due to poor sterility or unacceptable nick. 
 Average percent hybrid seed on the 2249 successful hybrids was 98.1%.
 
      Although we achieved good sterility in 1991, seed yields were the
 lowest on record.  This was due to several factors, including a critical
 lack of wind during the early days of the flowering season, and also due to
 the scab epiphytotic which occurred throughout much of the soft wheat region
 in 1991.  Average seed yield from our crossing block program is presented
 below.  For comparison purposes, the average yield of all entries in our
 elite line test, which is grown on the same farm, is also presented.  Our
 long-term seed yield average is approaching 50% of the yield from our elite
 line trials:
 
                          Average Hybrid        Average Yield
              Number of    Seed Yield           Elite Line Test
 Year         Hybrids        (Bu/A)
 (Bu/A)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 1984          290           23.5                   49.8
 1985          334           40.9                   63.7
 1986           62           22.1                   38.2
 1989         1433           28.1                   91.0
 1990         2111           40.2                   64.8
 1991         2249           14.9                   54.5
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 Averages:    28.3           60.3
 
      We are continuing to develop wheat hybrids with the goal of entering
 the commercial market in the mid-90's.  Our better hybrids which we continue
 to test and develop are approaching a 15-20% yield advantage over the
 average performance of four competitive regional check varieties.
 
 -------------------------
      HYBRITECH SEED INTERNATIONAL - CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT
 
      Dennis Dunphy*, Sam Wallace, Richard Evans - Lafayette, IN; Leon
 Fischer, Kent Baker* - Mt. Hope, KS
 
      Performance of MON 21200 in 1991.  MON 21200 is being developed as a
 hybridizing agent for wheat.  MON 21200 again performed very well over a
 wide range of environments and genotypes in 1991.  Excellent sterility was
 obtained in all regions.  Seed yield in the SRW region was lower than
 normal.  Warm, rainy weather at pollination time reduced outcrossing in seed
 production tests, and also favored a high incidence of head scab which
 further reduced seed yields.  Seed yields of the long term check line in
 research plots averaged 50 to 73 percent outcrossing, compared to the six
 year average for this region of 79%.  Seed set in the western HRW region was
 outstanding at all locations, averaging 78 to 99%.  The five year average
 for this region is 87%.
 
     Commercialization.  HybriTech will use the trademark name Genesisr for
 marketing commercially the compound MON 21200.  Registration of Genesisr is
 proceeding on schedule, and we anticipate obtaining full registration for
 this compound.  We are continuing to provide technical support for
 cooperating breeding programs that license this hybridization technology,
 with a goal of being able to place wheat hybrids produced with Genesisr on
 the market by the mid-1990's.
 
 -------------------------
      NICKERSON S. A. Chartainvilliers - France
 
      Since October 1989 the share-holding company has changed from SHELL to
 LIMAGRAIN.  This for the moment has no direct effects on the wheat breeding
 programme for France.  The objective of the program remains the same - to
 breed wheat for France, particularly North of the Loire Valley with the main
 selection objectives being yield and quality, disease resistance,
 agronomics.  Two varieties were listed recently:  ARCHE, C1 with high
 productivity (89), and ARUM, a feed wheat with high productivity (90); both
 are available if any colleagues are interested.
 
 -------------------------
      NORTHRUP KING COMPANY
 
      Fred Collins*, June Hancock*, and Craig Allen* - Bay, AR
 
      Production Season.  The 1992 season will go down in infamy for most
 soft red winter wheat growers.  Generally the crop potential was good to
 excellent until grain fill at which time weather conditions deteriorated and
 head blight diseases exploded.  Along the Gulf Coast, farmers had excellent
 crops but many were never able to harvest due to an extended rainy period. 
 In the Mid-South and Mid-West regions, yield and grain quality were
 devastated by a complex of bacterial black chaff, Septoria nodorum, and
 scab.  Black chaff was worse in southern areas while scab was more severe in
 the northern part, particularly behind no-till corn.  Farmers in the
 Southeast ended up with a fairly good crop but they experienced losses from
 powdery mildew and hessian fly.
 
 
      New Releases.  Two varieties were released to seed growers in 1991. 
 Coker 9105 is positioned for the Gulf Coastal area based on its short
 vernalization, medium maturity and resistance to leaf and stem rust.  Coker
 9543 should fit the niche that had been occupied by Coker 747; it has high
 test weight grain, resistance to the prevalent foliar diseases and biotype E
 of hessian fly, and the most winter hardiness present in the line-up of
 Coker varieties.
 
      Two experimental lines have been named and turned over to production. 
 Coker 9134 was tested as C87-13wh; it will be positioned generally south of
 Interstate highway 40.  Coker 9904 was tested as CL850643 and will be sold
 primarily in the region from Maryland to S.Carolina where the new powdery
 mildew race is attacking existing varieties.
 
 
      Low Soil pH Tolerance.  A screening nursery was grown in Northeast
 Arkansas on an acid (pH of 4.7 to 4.9) soil which was high in manganese. 
 Varieties were grown as paired plots (limed versus unlimed) using two
 replications.  Dramatic differences were observed.  Varietal entries
 represented a broad cross section of presently available soft red winter
 wheats.  Preliminary data has been shared with breeders and extension
 specialists in the region.
 
 -------------------------
      PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC.
 
      Dept. of Wheat Breeding, Johnston, Iowa, Ian B. Edwards
 
           Pioneer's wheat research operations include breeding stations at
 Windfall, Indiana; St. Matthews, South Carolina; Frouville, France; and
 Sevilla, Spain.  In addition, screening nurseries and/or field trials are
 conducted in ten other countries, primarily Europe.  Support is provided
 from Johnston, IA, in the areas of data management, plant pathology,
 entomology, biotechnology, biochemistry laboratory support, and quality
 analyses.
 
 
      Varietal Releases.  a) U.S.:Pioneer Soft Red Winter varieties, 2510 and
 2545, received commercial numbers and will be marketed in 1992.  Our first
 Soft White Winter wheat variety, 2737W, received a commercial number and
 will be marketed in Michigan in 1992.  b) Spain: Pioneer Hard Red Winter
 wheat variety, Trento, was officially registered and will be marketed in
 northern Spain.
 
      Quality Evaluation.  Our laboratory at Johnston is currently handling
 all soft wheat quality analysis for our U.S. wheat stations.  Lisa Hagen,
 formerly spring wheat research technician for Pioneer at Glyndon, Minnesota,
 is in charge of the program.
 
      In France our station at Frouville conducts protein, SDS sedimentation,
 milling, and mixograph tests.  Alveograph and baking tests are contracted. 
 The quality laboratory at Aussonne provides support with high molecular
 weight glutenin sub-unit analyses.  Our laboratories in France are also
 evaluating samples from other European countries.  In Spain our program
 currently conducts NIR protein, and the remaining tests are contracted
 locally. 
 
      Staff.  Jose-Maria Urbano was appointed wheat breeder and project
 leader for Pioneer in Spain in June 1991.  He is from Cordoba, Spain, and
 will shortly submit his doctoral thesis at the University of Cordoba.
 
      Tina Marshall was appointed data coordinator for the wheat department
 and is providing support to both our U.S. and European wheat stations.  She
 is based in Windfall, Indiana, and also conducts several projects supporting
 our soft wheat research.
 
      Bill Laskar, staff breeder at Windfall, IN, has broadened his germplasm
 and special project responsibilities.  He will coordinate germplasm movement
 between our U.S. and European programs.
 
 -------------------------
     Windfall, IN - Gregory C. Marshall, William J. Laskar, and 
                    Kyle J. Lively
 
      The 1990-91 Season.  Late harvests of corn and soybeans, accompanied by
 frequent rains, significantly reduced the total acreage of Soft Red Winter
 wheat planted in the fall of 1990.  Fortunately, we had few difficulties in
 getting all of our nursery and yield tests planted.  The wheat crop and our
 plots generally looked excellent with the spring green-up through to
 heading.  In fact, as the wheat was heading, many crop reports
 optimistically predicted the best soft wheat crop in years in much of the
 "corn belt" region.  Within a matter of days, however, the picture changed
 drastically.  Light showers, unseasonably warm temperatures, and high
 humidity, while much of the wheat crop was flowering, caused a veritable
 explosion of Fusarium head scab in much of the area of southern Ohio,
 Kentucky, southern Indiana, southern Illinois, and Missouri.  Levels of head
 scab were higher than ever seen before, destroying many fields, and severely
 damaging most other fields.  The damage to the crop was further compounded
 by Septoria nodorum glume blotch, bacterial leaf blight, leaf rust, and the
 abnormal heat and drought that pushed the crop to early maturity as well. 
 The resulting crop was of very poor quality, and farmers received little for
 the grain in the worst areas, if they were able to sell it at all.  In more
 northern parts of the soft wheat region, the crop was much better, though
 still adversely affected by moderate scab, other diseases, and the short,
 hot growing season.
 
      Selection and Yield Testing.  The extreme levels of head scab rendered
 most of our yield and selection nurseries nearly useless in the southern
 part of our testing region, however, we did collect some interesting
 information on cultivar reaction to the head scab.  While the level of scab
 infection in soft wheat is almost entirely due to environmental conditions,
 and the soft wheat is almost entirely due to environmental conditions, and
 the maturity of specific cultivars at the time of infection, there did
 appear to be some slight differences in tolerance to the disease within
 maturity groups. 
 The following table contains yield data and scores for head scab ranked by
 heading date, as noted for our commercial test, entries grown at our Ft.
 Branch, IN, test location. 
 
 Scab Scores and Grain Yields of Commercial Cultivars Ranked by Heading Date 
 
                                                                              
                       Scab               Heading             Grain
 Cultivar              Score              Date                Yield           
                       (1-9)*                                (bu/ac)
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Auburn                 6.0               129.0              41.6
 Cardinal               7.0               127.0              53.9
 2510                   7.0               127.0              51.7
 Becker                 5.5               126.0              37.1
 Dynasty                3.5               126.0              25.9
 2545                   5.0               125.0              40.3
 2550                   5.0               124.0              38.6
 Caldwell               4.0               123.5              28.8
 2551                   4.5               123.5              29.9
 Pacer                  4.5               123.0              36.2
 Wakefield              5.5               123.0              50.2
 2548                   5.0               121.5              38.0
 2555                   2.0               121.0              37.2
 Madison                4.0               119.5              55.1
 Twain                  4.5               119.5              54.0
 Clark                  4.5               119.0              45.5
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                       
 * 9 = no symptoms, 1 = severe symptoms            
                      
      New Releases.  In August of 1991, Pioneer released two new Soft Red
 Winter wheats and a new Soft White Winter wheat for fall 1992 sales. 
 Pioneer cultivar "2510" is an awnless, late maturity Soft Red Winter wheat,
 with outstanding yield potential and disease resistance.  It has shown an
 average 4% yield advantage over 2548 the last 4 years in the soft wheat
 region, with greater advantages in the northern portion of the region. 
 Pioneer cultivar "2545" is also an awnless Soft Red Winter wheat, with
 medium maturity, winterhardiness, and an excellent yield potential.  It has
 averaged about a 1% yield advantage over 2548 the last 4 years, but is less
 adapted to areas in the south due to its high vernalization requirement. 
 Pioneer cultivar "2737W" is an awnless Soft White Winter wheat which is much
 earlier maturity than other white wheats sold in the region.  At about 7
 days earlier maturity, 2737W has shown average 14% and 17% yield advantages
 over Augusta and Frankenmuth, respectively, the last 5 years.
 
 -------------------------
      St. Mathews, SC - Benjamin E. Edge and Phil L. Shields
 
      The 1990-91 Season.  Excessive rainfall was the over-riding
 environmental influence in the 1990-91 wheat growing season in the
 southeastern U.S.  Wet weather caused problems in planting with waterlogged
 soils during the season, delayed top-dressing, and created ideal conditions
 for disease development.
 
      We saw considerable amounts of leaf rust and powdery mildew on wheat
 along the East Coast.  Lines with the Lr26 and Pm8 genes associated with
 1B/1R were widely susceptible in this area for the first time.  Leaf
 blights, particularly tan spot and Septoria nodorum, were very severe.  The
 diseases and wet weather during grain fill and harvest led to very low test
 weights.  Southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina, which were
 drier than other areas, had respectable yields and test weights.
 
      We initiated a leaf blight screening nursery for our elite yield test. 
 The results of the study are reported below for the commercial cultivars in
 the test.  The predominant pathogen present was tan spot.  We inoculated two
 replications of headrows with wheat straw from the previous season.  Pioneer
 2548 and 2510 had the highest level of resistance at the juvenile stage;
 while Florida 302, Coker 916, and Coker 9766, had resistance equal to 2548
 and 2510 at the adult plant stage.
 
 
 Tan Spot Resistance Scores
          
 Cultivar        Juvenile Plant        Adult Plant
   Name             Score*               Score*              
  --------------------------------------------------                                                           
 2510                 8.0                  6.5 
 2548                 7.0                  6.5  
 2555                 5.5                  6.0 
 Coker 916            5.0                  6.5 
 Coker 983            5.0                  4.0
 Coker 9766           6.0                  6.5
 Florida 302          6.0                  7.0 
 Florida 303          5.0                  5.0
  --------------------------------------------------                                                           
 * 9 = no symptoms, 1 = severe symptoms
 
 
      The mid-South area suffered from excess water from planting to harvest. 
 Some fields were essentially drowned, and much acreage just did not get
 planted.  Bacterial leaf blight reached epidemic levels under these
 conditions, and Septoria tritici added to the problem.  Then, after
 flowering, Fusarium head scab destroyed most of the yield potential
 remaining.  Farmers had a difficult time selling their wheat due to the low
 test weights and toxin concerns.
 
       Selection Nursery.  All of the disease pressure actually made for a
 productive selection season.  Despite heavy infection levels, our F2 nursery
 contained some very promising material, and F3 headrows for 1991-92 will be
 at a new high for us of 53,000 rows.  Our mini-plot observation nursery for
 the F4 and F5 generations worked very well, and our F6 numbers for 1991-92
 will be up.  We feel this should help feed our yield testing program, where
 numbers will be down due to the severe disease pressure this year.  Our
 biggest concern is that early maturity provided a distinct yield advantage
 this year, whereas, it may not be desirable for wide adaptation in most
 years.  Therefore, we have retained some later-maturing lines that performed
 well at our northern testing locations.
 
      Equipment.  We installed a cell counter on our mini-plot planter, which
 makes it much easier to calibrate plot length.  For our headrow trays, we
 built metal racks that can be loaded onto a truck as a unit, eliminating
 some of the lifting work and much of the wear and tear on the trays.  We
 tried drip irrigation in our greenhouse, but we had more success with weekly
 soakings by spray nozzles.
 
      Personnel.  Mark Jumper and Bob Williamson joined our staff as
 technicians during the latter part of 1990.  Mark has experience in metal
 fabrication, and Bob was a farmer and seed salesman before joining Pioneer.
 
 -------------------------
 Frouville, France,  Guy Dorlencourt, Robert Marchand, and Quitterie
 Vanderpol
 
 The 1990-91 Season.  Normal January conditions were followed by a very cold
 February with snow -17o for a three-day period following moderate frosts. 
 Good winterhardiness observations were made at our test locations. 
 Precipitation remained well below normal overall, and this was the third
 successive year of moisture deficits.  However, cool temperatures and some
 timely rain around flowering helped the crop through.  The main nursery was
 planted at Frouville, with additional test locations at Reims, Peronne, and
 Beauvais.  Yields were good in most parts of France, with an average of 7
 tons/hectare.  While yields in southern France were above the 1990 harvest,
 in northern France early-maturing varieties were adversely affected by
 temperatures of -8o on April 28, and frost also occurred at anthesis.  Under
 these conditions, the late-maturing lines, Apollo, Thesee, and Soissons,
 performed very well, while Recital (early) was 10% lower in yield.  Powdery
 mildew (Erysiphe graminis) was present at a high level and provided a good
 screening. In contrast, the levels of stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) and
 Septoria were below normal.
 
 Hybrid Wheat.  Fifteen yield trials of 30 entries each were  conducted. 
 Entries were selected on the basis of preliminary test performance and/or
 productability with the chemical hybridizing agent.  With the season
 favoring late-maturing varieties, the yield advantage of the top hybrids was
 slightly lower than in previous years, ranging from 9-16 percent above the
 top check cultivars.  Each year, we evaluate the top five lines from each of
 our germplasm pools for per se yield performance.  The mean yields in our
 1991 experiment were as follows:
 
 Germplasm Pool           Mean Yield (qu/ha)         %
  -------------------------------------------------------
 1.  France               92.8                     100
 2.  U.K.                 89.8                      97
 3.  Pioneer (U.S.)       88.0                      95
 4.  Northern Europe      87.6                      94
 5.  Eastern Europe       84.7                      91
 6.  Mediterranean        79.4                      86
  -------------------------------------------------------
 
     Varietal Development.  The elite test was grown at four locations, and
 the overall mean yield was 88.1 quintals/hectare (CV. 5.0%).  Apollo was the
 top-yielding check, with a mean yield of 100.2 qu/ha compared with 97.5,
 92.8, and 88.3 qu/ha for Soissons, Thesee, and Recital, respectively.  Three
 top-yielding Pioneer lines are currently undergoing seed purification and
 increase for registration.  Three generations per year of single seed
 descent have been achieved on specifically targeted crosses.  The program is
 also developing lines targeted for the U.K. and northern Europe; and the
 seed purification and increase program in France is handling lines for
 registration in other EC countries.
 
 -------------------------
 Sevilla, Spain: Jose-Maria Urbano, Ian Edwards, Maximiliano Hidalgo and
 Manuel Peinado
 
      Spring Wheat Varietal Development.  The elite spring wheat variety test
 was grown at 6 locations and had a mean yield of 43.7 qu/ha (CV 8.1%).  The
 top-yielding variety, RBI0104, outyielded the top check (Cartaya) by 11% and
 Anza by 21%.  It is currently undergoing seed purification and increase. 
 Two new spring wheats passed first year registration.  They are:
 
 ESTERO -A Hard White dwarf wheat of very high baking quality.  In five years
 of testing, it has
 outyielded Yecora rojo by 10% and has better resistance to leaf rust,
 powdery mildew, and Septoria.  It is 4 days later-maturing as a result of
 better leaf survival.
 
 
 MULERO -A HRS wheat with broad adaptability.  It has a 4% yield advantage
 over Anza in northern Spain and a3% yield advantage over Cartaya in southern
 Spain, with superior test weight and good overall disease resistance.
 
      Winter Wheat Varietal Development.  Testing is conducted at four
 locations in northern Spain.  One location, Huesca, could not be planted in
 1990-91.  Our program in France supports the winter wheat testing, and
 Pioneer HRW wheats are also evaluated.  Our first winter wheat was
 registered in Spain in 1991:
 TRENTO - A HRW wheat that has undergone five years of testing in Spain.  Its
 yield is equivalent to the top check cultivars, but Trento has superior
 milling and baking quality.  It will save on the transportation of quality
 wheat to northern Spain and will command a premium price.
 
      Durum Wheat Development.  A program to develop spring and facultative
 wheats for the Mediterranean region is underway, and the first products from
 this program are yield-tested in 1991-92.  The durum wheat acreage in Spain
 has increased in recent years.
 
      Hybrid Wheat.  Three hybrid yield tests were grown during 1990-91, and
 12 hybrid production blocks were used to produce new and advanced hybrids
 for testing.  The elite hybrid test was grown at three locations and
 produced a mean yield of 35.5 quintals/hectare (CV 8.7%).  There was a
 relatively narrow bracketing of yields from 31.6 qu/ha (Yecora rojo check)
 to 40.5 qu/ha (hybrid RHL0026).  The top 5 hybrids out-yielded the check
 mean (Cartaya, Anza, Yecora rojo) by 12-18 percent.  High parent heterosis
 in the top hybrid was 11%.
 
      New Varieties.  Three new varieties entered first year registration in
 1991-92.  Trueno is a HRW wheat with short straw and resistance to powdery
 mildew.  Mercero and Usero are HRS wheats with resistance to Septoria and
 powdery mildew; both have a significant yield advantage over Anza in
 northern Spain.
 
 Our program in Spain is now producing varieties for several countries, and
 these lines are at various stages of registration and seed multiplication. 
 The program has benefited from conducting two full breeding cycles per year.
 
 -------------------------
 Sissa (Parna), Italy - Mauro Tanzi
 
 Three durum wheat and three bread wheat experiments were conducted at four
 locations in Italy during 1990-91.  In the advanced durum trial, the leading
 experimental line outyielded the top check, Appio, by 10%.  Yield advantages
 of up to 12% above Appio were obtained in the preliminary  tests.  Our
 French and Spanish durum programs are currently supporting our efforts in
 Italy, and seed purification and multiplication is being undertaken at the
 present time.
 
 -------------------------
 Parndorf, Austria - Gunther Reichenberger
 
 Our program in Austria is focussed primarily on the quality and milling
 wheat markets, although a limited number of winter durum wheats are
 evaluated.  In 1990-91 two yield tests were grown.  Six new lines were
 indentified with yield advantages over the check cultivars, Perlo and
 Expert, of 6-13 percent.  Quality classes in Austria are very clearly
 defined based upon the wet gluten and gluten-swelling tests.  The SDS
 sedimentation test can be used as a quick screen to eliminate poor quality
 feed wheats.  Percent protein is assigned a low level of importance in the
 official tests.
 
 Three new wheat varieties completed first year registration in Austria in
 1991.  They were: PGL0144 and PVM0007 (bread wheats) and FDJ003 (a durum
 wheat).  They are in second year registration tests in 1991-92.
 
 -------------------------
 Woodland, California:  Adam Young and Ian Edwards
 
 Selection Nursery.  5,000 headrows comprising of winter and spring wheats
 (F4-F6) were grown during 1991.  The selected lines were shipped to Spain
 for introgression into our program.  Segregating populations of HRW and HRS
 wheats (F2/F3) were grown, and selected bulks were targeted for France and
 Spain.
 
 Single Replicate Yield Test.  A single replicate yield test was grown
 consisting of 510 entries in 17 sets of 30 lines each, including 3 checks,
 arranged in a nested design.  Selection within each set was based upon the
 check mean.
 
 Yield Tests.  Advanced spring and winter wheat yield tests were grown side-
 by-side.  The mean yield of the spring and winter wheat tests were 79.9 and
 85.2 quintals/hectare, respectively, and average heading date was ten days
 later in the winter wheat test.  Among the spring wheats, key pedigrees have
 emerged that have performed very well in both the Sacramento Valley of
 California and in Andalucia, Spain.  Two varieties, RBI0104 and RBI0161,
 completed two years in the California State Trials.  Both are Hard White
 Spring wheats.  Both have performed very well, with RBI0104 being the top-
 yielding variety in the Sacramento Valley over two years of testing. 
 RBI0161 was also one of the varieties least affected by Russian Wheat,
 Aphid.  Seed of both lines is being increased for release in California.  We
 are also increasing Estero (ex. Spain and Woodland) for release, since it
 has the potential to replace significant Yecora Rojo acreage.
 
      Hybrid Production.  Eight hybrid production blocks were grown, and the
 females were treated with CHA.  Hybrids exceeding 90% seed purity have been
 routed to Spain for evaluation in 1992.
 
 -------------------------
      TRIO RESEARCH INC.
 
      James A. Wilson -  Wichita, KS
 
      A decision has been made to seek the establishment of parent stocks of
 singlecross hybrids on farms in the southern plains region prior to the
 marketing of hybrid seed.  This decision is based on the economic
 requirements for the production of hybrid seed.  Isolation could be obtained
 more easily for the production of male sterile seed and hybrid seed.  The
 male sterile seed would be produced in the areas where the B line is
 established and the hybrid seed in areas where the R line is established. 
 This demands that the characteristics that led to superior yield performance
 be fixed in the inbreds.  Currently, we have identified very high yielding R
 lines that could be used as cultivars.  At the present time no R lines have
 been utilized alone in field grain production in the U.S.  With lines
 established on the basis of their own production merits, a hybrid seed
 production contract with growers should be readily accomplished with a fair
 and equitable contract for both parties.  Farm use of the parent stocks will
 be arranged under grower contract agreements.
 
      We have increased the number of crosses involving white wheat parents
 and were able to start our first increase of a HWW selection made in the
 breeding nursery this year.  We are utilizing modified backcrossing to
 increase the gene frequency for white kernels in the segregating
 populations.
 
      We are continuing with the development of red winter wheats having soft
 and hard endosperm.  Intercrossing the hard red and soft red classes has
 been emphasized over the years and some potentially successful lines have
 been derived that carry genetic traits from both classes.  Lines having
 standard hard endosperm are now available that have a soft wheat parent.
 
 ------------------------- 
 WEIBULL
 
      J. P. Jossett, E. Menager, S. Martinon, Semonville - Poinville, France
      Jo. Jonsson, I. Happstadius, P. Henriksson - Landskrona, Sweden
 
      The national 1991 yield average reached 6 800 kg/ha on an area of about
 4,800,000 hectares accounting for a total production of 32.6 million tons. 
 Leading cultivars were Soissons, Thesee, Apollo, Recital, Scipion, Festival,
 Sleipner, Baroudeur, Campremy, Arminda.  All these cultivars are of winter
 or semi-winter type insofar as there is practically no more true spring
 wheat grown in France.
 
      Our winter wheat `Sleipner' which has been successful in a number of
 European countries is now stable in France, being multiplied on about 2,500
 ha for seed production.
 
      A new winter wheat `Champetre' was released in the fall of 1991.  It is
 high yielding, medium-early, has good levels of disease resistance and
 acceptable quality for French bread making.  Preliminary tests tend to
 demonstrate that it also possesses some resistance to W S B M V.  Breeders
 seed and certified seed is under production.  Two new cultivars not yet
 named were entered into the first year of official trials.  For the third
 year in succession, the season has been hot and dry with the exception of a
 cold spell during the period april 15 - May 15 - June was also cool and wet
 until the 22nd. The summer was hot and dry from July through September. 
 Although later than in the exceptional years of 1990 and 1989, the harvest
 was on the early side with excellent conditions prevailing from the
 beginning up to the end.  There was less penalty than usual from diseases. 
 The cooperation between the various Weibull's stations in Europe has been
 reinforced and shuttle breeding with the Southern hemisphere intensified to
 accelerate our facultative wheat program.
 
      A joint program, involving Sweden, France and Chile is described below.
 
      The two wheat breeding teams, at the Resistance Breeding Department at
 W. Weibull AB in Sweden and at the Station de Selection Weibull in France,
 cooperate very closely in a project with the objectives to introduce new
 resistance genes into high yielding winter wheat adapted for France.
 
      The initial resistance breeding work has been focused on resistance
 genes against mildew (Erysiphe graminis), yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis)
 and leaf rust (Piccinia recondita).  Resistance sources originating from
 China, Ethiopia, South America and old cultivars from France and Scandinavia
 have been used against mildew and leaf rust.  Minor genes with incomplete
 resistance at adult plant stage and no expression at seedling stage have
 been used against yellow rust.  Major genes with overall resistance to
 yellow rust or genes with very strong expression at adult plant stage have
 been avoided as this type of resistance by experience is less durable
 against yellow rust.
 
      The resistance genes were first transferred by back-crossing from the
 original low yielding and unadapted sources, to high yielding Scandinavian
 spring wheat lines of good baking quality.  Intercrossing resulted in spring
 wheat lines with resistance to several diseases and hopefully oligogenic
 resistance to each pathogen.  These lines were used as crossing parents when
 the resistance genes finally were transferred to French winter wheat.  Two
 or three backcrosses with high yielding French winter wheat lines resulted
 in populations with interesting variation and with reasonable chances to
 find plants of good agronomic type with resistance were made at the 2-3 leaf
 stage in F2 in glasshouse in Sweden.   Further selections for adult plant
 resistance to yellow and leaf rust were made in field plots in France.
 
      The most advanced lines from this crossing program have now advanced to
 preliminary and advanced yield trials in France.  Simultaneously with yield
 and quality evaluation in France the lines are tested with key races of
 mildew and leaf rust at 2-3 leaf stage in Sweden for evaluation of the
 resistance gene combination in each line.  After evaluation and further
 selection the lines will continue the breeding scheme in France, hopefully
 to a final variety and/or be included in new crossing blocks in the winter
 wheat breeding program in France and/or be recycled in the Swedish crossing
 program.
 
 
      A shuttle-breeding program has been organized and carried out for the
 first time in 1991 between Sweden, Chile and France, to accelerate the
 breeding project described above and improve the selection especially for
 adult plant resistance to yellow rust and leaf rust.  F1 and F2 are grown in
 glasshouse in Sweden.  F2 plants are harvested in June and sent to Chile for
 planting in June/July.  The F3 plant progeny plots grown in Chile are
 evaluated for agronomic type and diseases and the best F3 lines are
 harvested.  The harvest is finished in the end of January and the F4 plots
 are sown in France in the middle of February.  The F4 plots are later than
 normal because of late sowing but ripen early enough to produce a good grain
 yield for the next year preliminary yield trial planted in normal time in
 France.
 
      A new F3 generation will be send to Chile in June 1992.  The trial
 field is located close to San Carlos and are carried out in an excellent way
 by ANASAC in Chile.
 
 -------------------------
 WESTERN PLANT BREEDERS
 
 Dale Clark*, Craig Cook, Amy Baroch - Bozeman, MT; Kim Shantz*, Michael
 DeVries - Tempe, AZ
 
 Western Plant Breeders has recently been acquired by Barkley Seed Company of
 Yuma, AZ.  The Barkley Seed Company is a major exporter of wheat and barley
 seed to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  Western Plant Breeders is now a wholly
 owned subsidiary of Barkley Seed.  The northern research and business office
 will remain in Bozeman, MT and the southern research office will remain in
 Tempe, AZ.
 
 Research will continue on developing superior inbreds of durum, soft white
 winter, soft white spring, and hard red spring wheat for the Pacific
 Northwest, the Southwest Desert, and the Central Valleys of California.
 
 Our most recent release for California, WestBred Express, performed very
 well last year in the Sacramento Valley under large scale testing.  The
 grain quality of WestBred Express is superior to that of locally grown Anza
 and Yolo and is currently being sought after by the local milling
 industries.
 
 -------------------------
                               ITEMS FROM ARGENTINA
 
      Institute of Biological Resources - INTA - Castelar and Cathedra of
 Genetics, Faculty of Agronomy, University    of          Buenos Aires 
 
      M. L. Appendino and G. M. Petez Camargo
 
      Heterotic expression in reconstituted euploids of Chinese Spring
 
      Reconstituted euploid of wheat can be obtained after crossing
 reciprocal balanced Nulli-Tetrasomics (i.e., Nulli 1A-Tetra 1B and Nulli 1B-
 Tetra 1A). Reciprocal Chinese Spring Nulli-Tetrasomics belonging to
 chromosome groups 1 and 7 were crossed in order to obtain the six
 reconstituted euploids.  After cytological analysis, 2n=42 plants from the
 six reconstituted euploid were compared in a field experiment to normal
 euploid Chinese Spring and the six Nulli-Tetrasomics of chromosome groups 1
 and 7.  Ear emergence time and plant height were measured.  Precocity and
 tallness are always associated to heterotic expression in wheat.  Here
 Heterotic expression is considered when the reconstituted euploid are
 earlier and taller than normal euploid Chinese Spring and the corresponding
 Nulli-Tetrasomics.  Strikingly heterotic expression was observed for every
 reconstituted euploid for plant height and ear-emergence time (Table 1).
 
 
 Table 1.  Ear emergence time and plant height for reconstituted          
           euploid, normal euploid and parent Nulli-Tetrasomics of             
           Chinese Spring (CS).
                                                                    
                                                Nulli-Tetrasomics 
 Reciprocal       CS (eup)       Reconstituted          (Parents)
 Nulli-Tetraso-  Normal var.   vs   CS euploids   vs
 mics crosses    Heading time  Pl. Height  Heading time   Pl. Height
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1A-1B/1B-1A        +*           - ns         -*            +*
 1A-1D/1D-1A        + ns         -*           - ns          +*
 1B-1D/1D-1B        +*           -*           -*            +*
 7A-7B/7B-7A        + ns         -*           - ns          +*
 7A-7D/7D-7A        +*           -*           -*            +*
 7B-7D/7D-7B        + ns         - ns         - ns          + ns
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                  
 
      Since no phenotypic variation associated to mayor genes like disease
 reaction, spike morphology or awn characteristics, were observed, the
 phenotypic expression of reconstituted euploid could be associated to minor
 changes in the DNA, producing little variation in gene expression (Flavell,
 et al., 1988) or a similar process.
 
 -------------------------
      L.  Bullrich, N. Zelener, M. Argeaga, G. Tranquilli, M. Appendino, G.
 Perez Camargo and E. Suarez
 
 Dosage effect of Rht1 and Rht2 on plant height in wheat
 
      Hormones like gibberellins associate to particular "active sites" in
 the cell in order to effect their bilogical action.  In wheat probably such
 "active sites" are in excess of those needed for the normal amount of
 gibberellins produced naturally by the cells, since variable response is
 observed when gibberellic acid is added.
 
      However genotypes carrying Rht1, Rht2, kRht3 and Rht10 show no response
 (or very little) to gibberellic acid addition.  From the previous situation
 it can be suspected that these Rht alleles, known to be actives, are
 responsible for the production of molecules that in some way interfere with
 the normal response to gibberellic acid, probably by blocking a number of
 "active sites" in the cells.
 
      Reduced plant height is always observed when Rht1 or Rht2 is
 incorporated into different backgrounds and also a recessive (or near
 recessive) effect is mentioned for plant height and a dominant (or near
 dominant) effect for gibberellic acid response.
 
      The behaviour of Rht genotypes and pleiotropic opposite expressions can
 be explained by considering those free "active sites" mentioned previously. 
 Thus the effect of one Rht allele (like in a monohybrid F1) is partially
 matched by the free "active sites", producing little plant height reduction
 (about 5% observed in different experiments) and little response to the
 addition of gibberellic acid.
 
      On the other hand when more than one Rht allele is present a further
 plant height reduction is observed, but in this case the plant height
 reduction is approximately 15% for every Rht1 or Rht2 allele added. 
 (percentage of plant height reduction is referred always to original
 genotype plant height without any Rht allele).
 
      Based on this assumption, the expected and observed plant height for
 different allelic dosage belong to different experiments are shown in Table
 1.
 
 
 Table 1.  Expected and observed plant height for various Rht
           allelic dosage in different field experiments.           
                                                                              
                     Rht Allelic     # of       Plant height (cm)
 Exp. Line or Cross      Dosage     plants    Expected  Observed  Diff.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
     Maringa(Mar)          0          27          --    100.77      --
     MarxMar Rht1          1          48        95.73    93.36    2.37
  
     Mar Rht1;Mar Rht2  
 I   MarxMar Rht1+2        2          95        80.62    82.90   -2.29
     Mar Rht1xMar Rht2
 
     Mar Rht1xMar Rht1+2   3          46        65.50    63.38    2.12
     Mar Rht2xMar Rht1+2          
 
     Mar Rht1+2            4          26        50.38    53.55   -3.17
 
     Maringa x Pampa       0          --       105.00     --        --
        INTA (without Rht)
 
     Maringa x Pampa       1          25        99.75    98.04    1.71
        INTA (Rht2)
 
 II  Mar Rht1xPampa INTA   
     Mar Rht2xPampa I NTA  2          50        84.00    87.88   -3.88
 
     Mar Rht1+2 Pampa INTA 3          23        68.25    62.6     5.65
 
     Maringa               0          48          --    127.5       --
 
 III Mar Rht1              2          96       101.38   103.46   -2.08
     Mar Rht2    
 
     Mar Rht1+2            4          48        63.75    56.33    7.42
 
     Maringa               0          48          --    108.17      --
     
     Mar Rht1              2          96        86.54    87.78   -1.24
 IV  Mar Rht2    
 
     Mar Rht1+2            4          48        54.08    48.29    5.79
 
     Maringa
     Mar Sib Rht1          0         120          --    113.54      --
     Mar Sib Rht2
 
 V   Mar Rht1              2          80        90.83    89.45    1.38
     Mar Rht2     
 
     Mar Rht1+2            4          40        56.77    59.10   -2.33
 
     Maringa               0          13          --    105.15      --
 
     Mar Rht1              2          25        84.12    89.17   -5.05
 VI  Mar Rht2 
 
     Mar Rht1+2            4          10        52.58    51.34    1.24
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 -------------------------
      G. Tranquilli and E. Suarez
 
           Allelic dosage effect on host-pathogen interaction
 
      Using Sinvalocho M. A. (carrying probably an allelic form of Lr3),
 Chinese Spring (susceptible and three clones of Puccinia recondita differing
 in virulent allelic dosage for the corresponding Sinvalocho M. allele, the
 following seedling raction were observed when confronted both organisms.
 
                                    Corresponding Pathogen Genotype
                                  Clone 20   Clone 66    New Clone
 Line/Cross          Genotype      Po  Po     Po   po     po    po
  --------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 Chinese Spring      A1 A1           1           1           1
    CS (eupl)
 
 (CS x Sinvalocho)   Ao  A1          0           1           1
    F1 (Sin)
       
 Sin Mono 6B         Ao  -           0           1           1
 Sin (euploid)       Ao  Ao          0           0           1
 Sin (Tetra 6 B)     AoAoAoAo        0           0           0
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------  
     1  = Compatible interaction     0 = Incompatible interaction
 
      A clear example of seedling resistance obtained by increasing allelic
 dosage can be observed for every clone.  Clone 20 shows phenotypic reaction
 change when Ao doses increase form 0 to 1.  Clone 66 shows phenotypic
 reaction change when Ao doses increase from 1 to 2.  New Clone shows
 phenotypic reactijon change when Ao doses increase from 2 to 4 (probably
 also from 2 to 3).  The last interaction is very interesting, since the only
 way the pathogen can overcome the incompatible interaction is by additioning
 a new gene with virulent alleles corresponding to Ao.
 
 -------------------------
      G. Tranquilli and E. Suarez
 
                 Preferential Chromosome Pairing in Wheat 
 
      Trisomics derived crossing tetrasomics of a variety by normal disomics
 of another variety has proven very buseful material for analyzing
 preferential chromosome pairing, when markets are included.
 
      Preferential pairing strength allows to understand the basic mechanisms
 associated to pairing and recombination.
 
      Three chromosomes have been evaluated through this methodology,
 including one case showing different chromosome estructure (1RS/1BL-1B) and
 2 cases showing similar or near identical chromosome estructure (1A and 6B).
 
 
 
      Chromosome 1B:  Very clear preferential pairing was observed for this
 combination.  Test was performed by crossing Chinese Spring tetrasomic 1B by
 Cruz Alta INTA (1RS/1BL).  The trisomic "F1" so obtained showed 2n=43
 chromosomes and only 4 satellite chromosomes since 1RS/1BL does not express
 its satellite in wheat background.  Backcrossing by Chinese Spring previous
 trisomic and analyzing chromosome and satellite number in the progeny
 preferential pairing can be tested.  (Table 1).
 
 
 Table 1.  Chromosome and satellite number at first backcross for 1B          
           chromosome     
                                                                   
                                      Chromosome Number 
                       2 n = 42     ChiSq(1:2)    2 n  = 43  ChiSq(2:1)
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Chromosome with  
    satellites         3               4             4          5
  
 Number of 
   individuals         6     40      8.5**      17     0     8.5*8
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                              
 **: P < 0.01
 
      Chromosome 1A.  Test was performed by crossing Chinese Spring
 tetrasomic 1A by Chul (resistant by Erysiphe graminis of Argentinian
 population).  Trisomic "F1" (resistant phenotype) was backcrossed by euploid
 Chinese Spring.  B1 shoed a clear result implying preferential pairing only
 for disomic plants (Table 2).  On the other hand when increased homozygous
 was achieved in successive backcrosses to euploid Chinese Sprring of "F1"
 like plants, preferential pairing was eliminated in most families.  No
 hypothesis has been advanced in order to explain the absence of preferential
 pairing among trisomic individuals.
 
 
 Table 2.  Chromosome number and powdery mildew reaction progenies 
           B1-B3 and B4 for chromosome 1A.                            
                                                                     
                                       Chromosome Number
                           2 n = 42  ChiSq(2:1)  2 n = 43  ChiSq(1:2)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                     
 Powdery mildew reaction    S     R               S     R
 
 Backcross 1                83    14   16.6**     13    34    0.7 ns
 
 Backcrosses 2 and 3       121    36    7.6**     34    74    0.2 ns
    (3 progenies)
 
 Backcrosses 3 and 4       203    97    0.1 ns    56    89    0.8 ns
    (4 progenies)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                     
 **: P < 0.01
 
      Chromosome 6B.  Using alternatively Chinese Spring tetrasomic 6B or
 Sinvalocho M. A. tetrasomic 6B and crossing by Sinvalocho M. A. or Chinese
 Spring, respectively, both reciprocal "F1" trisomics were obtained.  First
 backcrosses were derived crossing by Sinvalocho M. A. in both cases.
 
      The gene marker from Sinvalocho M. A. is probably al allele of Lr3
 showing resistance to Argentinian clone 66 or Puccinia recondita. 
 Expression of this allele shows dosage effect.  Thus 1 doses shows
 compatible reaction, while 2 or more doses show incompatible reaction in any
 allelic combination.
 
      Table 3 shows the results obtained when B1 are analyzed, implying a
 clear reciprocal preferential pairing.
 
 
 Table 3.  Chromosome number and rust reaction for reciprocal                 
           progenies B1 for chromosome 6B.
                    
                                     Chromosome Number
                            2n = 42                 2n = 43
 Rust Reaction               S    R      ChiSq      S   R   ChiSq *1:2)
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 Backcross 
 (CS T6B x Sinv.) x Sinv.   106   8   (2:1)=35.5**  3   35    11.1**
 
 (Sinv. T6B x CS) x Sinv.     4  22   (1:2)=3.7*    1?   8      -
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                    
  *: P < 0.06
 **: P < 0.01
 
 -------------------------
      M. Artgeaga and L. Bullrich
 
           Pleiotropic Expressions in different Environments
 
      Recombinant lines for chromosomes 2D from Mara (Ppd1-Rht8-Yr16) and
 Cappelle Desprez (ppd1-rht8-Yr16) on Cappelle Desprez background, were
 evaluated for autumn and spring or early and late sowing time at Cambridge,
 England (Worland and Law, 1986) and Castelar, Argentina (1990-1991).
 
      Primary or main effects of Ppd1 vs ppd1 genotypes showed bigger
 differences for ear-emergence time at Castelar after both sowing times
 (Table 1).
 
      Plant height differences between Rht8 and rht8 genotypes were similar
 at both localities after early sowing.  Late sowing showed no differences at
 Castelar, while at Cambridge they were similar to autumn sowing (Table 1).
 
      Yr16 vs yr16 differences were observed only at Cambridge. Puccinia
 striiformis does not affect wheat at Castelar latitud, however heavy
 infection of P. recondita and P. gramins was observed.
 
      Pleiotropic or secondary effects showed a very different expression at
 both localities. Thus at Castelar ear-emergbence time was shortened for
 about 8 days by Rht8 alleles only in Ppd1 genotypes, after late sowing
 (Table 1), while no effects was observed at Cambridge.
 
     Plant height was reduced by Ppd1 after both sowing time at Cambridge. 
 Strikingly autumn sowing at Castelar showed a clear opposite effect of Ppd1
 on plant height (Table 1).  Even this contrasting result could be more
 evident if one genotype (Ppd1- rht8- Yr16) is not considered at Castelar
 experiment, where it showed an abnormally ? short phenotype:
 
 
 
 Table 1.  Primary or main and pleiotropic effects for 2D 
           recombinant genotypes  
               Ear Emergence time (days)      Plant height (cm)
              Cambridge(1)   Castelar(2)   Cambridge)    Castelar 
 Genotypes    Early  Late  Early   Late   Early  Late   Early  Late
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Ppd1 vs ppd1   -5    -3   -23     -12    -4.5  -2.2   +4.9(3)  -(6)
 
 Rht8 vs rht8    -    -     -      -8(4)  -9    -9     -6.7(5)    -  
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------         
    (1)       : 52deg NL
    (2)       : 34deg SL
    (3)and 5) : Eliminating Ppd1- rht8- Yr16 abnormal(?)phenotypes
                the differences are +11.2 and -9.5, respectively
    (4)       : Expressed only among Ppd1 genotypes
    (6)       : Non significant differences.
                                                                        
 -------------------------
      L. Bullrich and N. Zelener
 
                 Artificial and Natural Aging Effects on Seed
                     Germinability and Chromosome Damage
 
      Artificial aging using combinations of temperature and seed moisture
 content during different periods has been considered as equivalent to
 natural seed aging process.
 
      In wheat natural seed aging is always associated to chromosome damage
 at early stages of the process.  Chromosome damage are expressed at
 anaphase, metaphase or interphase (micronuclei).  It shows a steady increase
 for 1 or 2 years once initiated, occurring finally the embryo dead.
 
      However, contrary to the previous process, when seeds are subjected to
 different artificial aging processes, no chromosomal damage occurs although
 germinability decrease drastically at the beginning of the treatments. 
 Results shown in Table 1 suggest that both processes are not based on the
 same physiological phenomena and consequently are not comparable.
 
 
 Table 1.  Artificial and Natural Aging Effects in Wheat         
                                                                      
 
       Artificial Aging                    Natural Aging 
 (Average of different treatments    (Average of different varieties          
 and varieties)                      and 2 harvest times)
  
 Germinability and Micronuclei       Germinability and Micronuclei
     (Percentages)                           (Percentages)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Initial       24 day      52 days      Initial         42 months
 98.25  < 1     87.00  <1   86.12  <2    98.25  <1    84.20  22.29
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                   
 
 -------------------------
 Ruth A. Heinz, Mariana Del Vas, Laura C. Moratinos H. Esteban Hopp*.
    
              Molecular Biology Institute-CICV-INTA-Castelar
 
      Host pathogen specific cDNA clones from wheat leaves infected with leaf
 rust.  The interaction between Triticum aestivum and Puccinia recondita
 tritici provides an excellent model to analyze specific relationships due to
 the well established knowledge on the involved genes in the context of
 genetically related genotypes of both host and pathogen. A criss-cross
 host-pathogen interaction system has been developed in which wheat lines
 with very homogeneous genetic backgrounds carry genes that react
 differentially with closely related clones of P. recondita tritici. 
 
      We have previously shown an association between synthesis of
 polypeptides and specific interactions in wheat seedlings infected with
 these characterized pathogenic races of wheat rust Eight day old seedlings
 grown in hydroponia were inoculated with spores or solely with talc
 (controls) in humid chambers. Messenger RNA was isolated towards the third
 day of the infection process and checked by translation using a commercial
 rabbit lysate.
 
      A cDNA clone likely involved in race specific induction was detected
 from mRNA of Gamma 1R inoculated with F0(1)pathogen race. It is induced in
 both Gamma 1R and Sinvalocho plants inoculated with this pathogen race. This
 result confirms the induction of race specific mRNAs detected in in vitro
 translation experiments which was previously reported (Annual Wheat
 Newsletter 35 (1991): 35.
 
 -------------------------
      F.Salvagiotti, S.E.Beas and R.H.Maich; Facultad de Ciencias
 Agropecuarias (UNC), Cordoba
 
      Relationship between seed size and response to selection in segregating
 populations of wheat
 
      Mechanical classification of seeds have the finality to procure
 material, from a physiological point of view, suitable to produce vigorous
 seedlings; however, doesn't imply to increase the efficiency of visual
 selection when we work with segregating populations. A F(2) bulk of seeds
 was classified using a 2.5 mm diameter sieve in three classes: larger,
 intermediate and lesser. During 1989 the material was grown in two sowing
 dates. From each experimental unit a F(2) plant was selected, wich progeny
 (F(2:3)) was evaluated for grain yield in 1990 in three dates of seeding
 without replication per date. Only sowing date had a significant effect on
 efficiency of visual selection, where the progenies of the plant selected in
 june (normal) produced higher grain yield than those selected in may. The
 non-significant yield differences between F(2:3) lines, whose F(2) plants
 were originated from seed with different size indicate that mechanical
 classification of seeds before sowing was not beneficial in increasing the
 genetic progress.
 
 -------------------------
      R.H.Maich, N.C.Guzman, C.A.Ripoll and G.A.Manera; Facultad de Ciencias
 Agropecuarias (UNC)
 
      Alternative strategies of recurrent selection for grain yield in wheat.
 
 
      Studies were conducted to measure the efficiency of three recurrent
 selection strategies in wheat in one cycle of selection. During 1986 83 F(1)
 or S(0) progenies were evaluated (P(0)), the best fifteen progenies were
 selected and intermated to constitute P(1)filial population. In 1987, the
 F(2) or S(1) progenies product of selfing the correspondingly and above
 mentioned 83 S(0) were tested, twelve of them were selected and intercrossed
 to constitute P(4) filial population. During 1988 and 1989 (summer crop)
 nearly four handred F(2:3) or S(1:2) lines selected from each one of the 83
 segregating populations were grown, the best 20 lines were intercrossed to
 constitute P(6) filial population. During 1989, 160 S(0) progenies (a random
 sample of 40 per population) were evaluated, in 1990 the same was performed
 testing the S(1) progenies. Significant differences between  mean values of
 population samples were found, after one cycle of recurrent
 
 selection the response was 23.9% (P(1)), 25.4% (P(4)) and 4.9% (P(6)).
 Selection for earweight during S(0) progenies evaluation was an effective
 method for increasing the yield of the base population.
 
 -------------------------
      G.A.Manera, E.Yanacon and R.H.Maich; Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias
 (UNC)
 
      Influence of selection environment x length of biological cycle
 Interactions on genetic progress in wheat. The efficiency of selection is
 also affected by environmental conditions (EC). The objective of this study
 was to determine the effect of EC on the genetic progress in segregating
 populations of wheat with different biological cycles (BC). During 1988, two
 groups of six wheat F(2) populations each one (short and long-season
 materials) were cultivated in three locations (Ferreyra-CE, Ordonez-ON and
 Casilda-CA). One plant was selected from each plot. In 1990, the yield of
 F(2:4) lines was tested at CE, Marcos Juarez and CA. There was abundant
 evidence of EC x BC interactions. Significant differences were found between
 long-season lines selected under different EC, where the highest yield lines
 were selected under optimal EC (ON and CA). Even though there were not
 significant differences between short-season lines, those lines selected
 under marginal EC (CE) showed a highest yield performance.
 
 -------------------------
      R.H.Maich, J.Casati, R.Rold n and G.A.Manera; Facultad de Ciencias
 Agropecuarias (UNC), Cordoba, Argentina.
 
      The effect of spatial arrangement and seeding rate on response to
 Selection in wheat and barley 
 
      To determine the effects of plant density (25, 50 and 100 seeds/m(2)
 and spatial arrangament (equidistance: 10x10, 15x15 and 20x20, and rows:
 5x20, 10x20 and 10x40 cm within and between rows respectively) on gain from
 selection for yield, four wheat and two barley F(2) populations were
 cultivated during 1989 under the above mentionated environmental conditions.
 From each experimental unit a plant was selected, wich progeny (F(2:3)) was
 evaluated during 1990 in one-row plots in four sowing dates. Significant
 species x density and species x spatial arrangament interactions existed for
 grain yield. In wheat, the highest response to selection was obtained
 selecting under equidistance and with 25 seeds/m(2); on the other hand, in
 barley, that aim was achieved selecting in rows and with a density of 50
 seeds/m(2). The efficiency of phenotypic selection depended on biological
 characteristics of the material as well as of the environment conditions
 under they were selected.
 -------------------------
      W.Londero, J.C.Funes and R.H.Maich; Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias
 (UNC)
 
      Relationship between grid characteristics and genetic progress in wheat
 
 
      The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between
 grain yield of F(3:4) lines of wheat and the agricultural characteristics of
 the grids from wich the correspondingly F(3) plants were selected. During
 1989 a bulk of F(3) seeds was cultivated on an area of 900 m(2). It was
 subdivided in 80 grids characterized through the final plant population,
 height and yield. A plant was selected from each grid. In 1990, in three
 sowing dates, two groups (superior and inferior) of 13 F(3:4) lines each one
 were tested. The classification of the lines were performed on the basis of
 the agronomical characteristics of the grids from wich they derived.
 Significant differences (10%) were found between groups of lines, where the
 material selected from agronomically inferior grids yielded more than those
 superior ones. The data suggest may be merit in the characerizing the field
 after gridding if we would improve the mass selection efficiency.
 
 -------------------------
      J.C.Miranda, M.J.Miarka, D.Bonelli and R.H.Maich; Facultad de Ciencias
 Agropecuarias (UNC)
 
 
      Selection during early generations under interspecific and intergeneric
 competition conditions in bread wheat 
 
      Studies were conducted to measure the effect of competition on the
 response to selection in segregating populations of bread wheat (Triticum
 aestivum L.). Two F(2) populations of bread wheat were grown in alternated
 rows with others of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) and barley (Hordeum
 vulgare L.). The materials were cultivated during 1989 in two sowing dates.
 From each experimental unit a plant was selected. During 1990 the F(2:3)
 lines of bread wheat were evaluated for grain yield in one-row plots and in
 three sowing dates. The selection under intergeneric competition conditions
 affected significantly and negatively the efficiency of selection. On the
 other hand, there were not significant differences between means of the
 material selected under intraspecific and interspecific competition
 conditions; even though the material selected under intraspecific
 competition conditions performed better. The phenotypic superior plants
 selected under intergeneric or interspecific competition conditions were not
 necessarely so from an agronomic point of view when tested under
 intraspecific competition conditions in the corresponding progeny tests.
 
 -------------------------
      O.Pagani, M.Canovas, A.Glade and R.H.Maich; Facultad de Ciencias
 Agropecuarias (UNC)
 
      Indirect selection for grain yield in wheat 
 
      The objective of the present work was to measure the response to
 indirect selection for grain yield using the harvest index (HI) and
 earweight (PSP) as selection criteria. In 1988, 437 F(2:3) lines of wheat
 were evaluated through HI and PSP. Two groups (superior and inferior) of ten
 lines from each selection criteria were performed, each one constituted in
 similar proportion by material with different biological cycles (BC). During
 1990 in three sowing dates, 40 F(2:5) lines were evaluated. No significant
 differences between superior and inferior group means were observed;
 however, as a consequence of a significant biological cycle x group
 interactions a statistical analysis of variance was conducted according to
 the BC of the materials. Significant differences were observed in the short-
 season material when HI was used as indirect selection criteria.
 
 -------------------------
                            ITEMS FROM AUSTRALIA
 
 NEW SOUTH WALES
 
      CSIRO Grain Quality Research Laboratory (formerly Wheat Research Unit)
      Division of Plant Industry, P.O. Box 7, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Sydney)
 
      C.W. Wrigley,  F. MacRitchie,  I.L. Batey,  J.H. Skerritt, J.L.         
      Andrews, M.L. Bason, F. Bekes, P.W. Gras, R. Gupta, A.S.Hill, S.        
      Rahman, J.A. Ronalds
 
      The name of the Wheat Research Unit has been changed to Grain Quality
 Research Laboratory, to reflect a wider interest in grain research extending
 beyond wheat.   Nevertheless, the Laboratory's major accent is on quality
 aspects relating to wheat processing and providing an understanding of this
 in chemical and genetic terms.   These results have provided a sound basis
 for devising more efficient tests for grain quality to use in breeding and
 at grain receival during the harvest.
 
      Improved testing of wheat quality at receival.   In Australia,
 evaluation of wheat quality on receival at the silo depends mainly on
 testing for protein content and checking variety specification, having first
 established that the grain is plump, sound and largely free of contaminants. 
  Recent introduction of payment for protein content has focused attention on
 the need for accuracy in this aspect of silo-based testing.   All aspects of
 this task have been thoroughly reviewed for all states in a collaborative
 project undertaken with the Bread Research Institute at the request of the
 Wheat Research Council.   The resulting report provides recommendations on
 improving procedures at many stages of the process, including sampling,
 calibration of protein testing (NIR) instruments, through to auditing of
 performance.   Separate publications focus on problems of calibration of
 near infrared instruments, possibilities for further evaluation of baking
 quality with this technique, and prospects for genetic improvement in
 protein accumulation.
 
      More efficient methods of identifying wheat grain according to variety
 have been developed, and passed on to user laboratories where they are now
 in use.   These include rapid electrophoresis in small gel cassettes (being
 manufactured as the Micrograd range by Gradipore Ltd, Sydney),
 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of grain proteins, and
 software (Patmatch) to provide automatic identification of HPLC profiles.  
 A further software program (WhatWheat) assists in choosing the most
 efficient approach to a particular problem of identification.
 
      More efficient analysis for pesticide residues.   In response to the
 need for more careful monitoring of the use of grain protectants, we are
 developing a series of test kits that will provide more efficient testing
 for the presence of the major insecticides on Australia's grain crop.  
 Rapid-test versions of these kits are designed for on-the-spot field use
 (e.g. at the silo and export terminal), while the lab-test versions will
 permit quantitative analysis of large numbers of samples.
 
      The development of these tests has involved the production of specific
 antibodies to pesticide-protein conjugates, evaluation of sensitivity and
 specificity, streamlining of the test procedure and checking for adequate
 stability of all reagents.
 
      A commercialisation agreement has been signed with Millipore Australia
 Pty Ltd to facilitate the final development, manufacture and marketing
 (world wide) of kits as part of the Millipore Corporation's EnviroGard
 range.   This will ensure that the results of this research are promptly
 available to the grain industry.   The initial set of kits from this
 agreement will provide test methods for fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos-methyl
 and pirimiphos-methyl.   Tests for other grain protectants and agrochemicals
 are in the process of development.
 
      Antibody-based tests for wheat quality.   In addition to its use for
 pesticide analysis, antibody technology is proving valuable in screening for
 aspects of wheat quality.   The first of these test methods, now being made
 available to Australian wheat breeders for evaluation, provides prediction
 of dough strength based on the reaction of a wheatmeal extract with
 antibodies that bind selectively to key glutenin proteins.   Further
 quality-evaluation procedures being developed, based on antibody reaction,
 include detection of grain-softness protein and of rye proteins,
 localisation of specific endosperm components and identification of
 homologies between groups of endosperm proteins.   Many aspects of this work
 have been covered in a provisional patent.
 
      Gluten chemistry and processing quality.   Studies of gluten in
 relation to processing quality have also concentrated on molecular aspects.  
 Attention has focused on the polypeptides of glutenin, the portion of gluten
 that forms large disulfide-bonded aggregates.   An improved method was
 devised for studying the degree of aggregation of the gluten proteins, based
 on size exclusion HPLC and the application of this approach to predicting
 dough properties.   This degree of aggregative interaction appears to be
 determined by the allelic composition of high- and low-molecular-weight
 (HMW, LMW) glutenin subunits and the ratio of HMW to LMW subunits.   An
 improved one-step method of electrophoretic analysis and a software program
 have facilitated attempts to rank individual HMW and LMW alleles to permit
 better prediction of dough properties in breeding.   This information has
 been passed on to breeders at conferences, has been implemented in some
 breeding programs, is being used in the Unit's antibody-based testing, and
 is being used to overcome dough-stickiness problems arising from the use of
 wheat-rye translocation lines in breeding.
 
      Additional studies have included chemical and genetic characterisation
 of certain high-molecular-weight albumin proteins (mainly beta-amylases),
 and detailed analysis of the amino acid sequences of gliadins 42 and 45
 whose presence correlates with pasta-making quality in durum wheat.
 
      Identification of polypeptides correlating with dough strength has led
 to the isolation of the corresponding genes.   Clones for HMW glutenin
 subunits have been used as probes in developing a test system, based on
 restriction fragment
 
 length polymorphisms (RFLP), to permit breeders to predict dough strength
 potential of a seedling based on the analysis of leaf DNA.
 
      Direct-drive micro Mixograph.   While these biochemical tests are
 proving to have predictive value, direct testing of dough properties is
 needed for definitive evaluation of new breeding lines or for isolated flour
 fractions.   The direct-drive Mixograph is proving capable of providing such
 information as this (the reasons for its development).   The first batch of
 two-gram Mixographs is being manufactured under licence by TMCO-National
 Manufacturing (Nebraska), holders of the Mixograph trade mark.   Interaction
 with breeders has shown that the Mixograph can be used to select for dough
 properties as early as the second and third generations after an initial
 cross, with high heritability for properties such as time to mixing peak and
 rate of breakdown.
 
      The two-gram and 35-g models have been tested in parallel with large
 commercial mixers to demonstrate the relevance of the small-scale testing
 and to evaluate the new software for analysing the full range of mixing
 curves.
 
      Starch properties and wheat quality.   The Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA),
 originally developed to detect rain damage in wheat, is also being used to
 evaluate starch properties suited to noodle-making quality.   In parallel,
 the structure of starches of contrasting quality is being examined to
 further understand the chemical basis of noodle quality.   The amylose
 content of starch from good noodle-making wheats was 22%.   However, other
 aspects of starch structure must also be involved, since not all starches
 with this amylose content come from wheats suited to noodle manufacture.
 
      Chemical markers of grain hardness.   Study of a 15,000-dalton
 polypeptide from starch granules has led to the elucidation of an amino-acid
 sequence that may relate to a major gene for grain softness.   However, this
 sequence appears to also be prominent in protein extracted from the
 endosperm of hard wheats.   An RFLP test, developed from a DNA clone
 relating to this sequence, has been shown to distinguish between hard and
 soft isogenic lines.   Antibodies have also been used extensively in this
 project to distinguish between members of the family of 15,000-dalton
 peptides and to examine their homologies to gluten proteins.
 
 -------------------------
      B. Ballantyne, J. Fisher, A. Khan, L. Penrose
 
      NSW Agriculture, Agricultural Research Institute, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650
 
      1991 Season. The drought affecting Queensland and Northern NSW did not
 severely affect southern NSW.  Opening rains were unusually late, but
 permitted seeding by late May in most areas.  Above average rainfall in
 winter, with a cool though dry spring, enabled achievement of average grain
 yields in the main wheat belt in southern NSW.  However yields were more
 variable than usual, very high yields (>8t/ha) were achieved in some trials
 in the eastern part of the wheat belt and in irrigated trials, in the
 western wheat belt some sites only averaged 0.4 t/ha. 
 
      Diseases were not important in 1991, with very little stripe rust and
 little Septoria tritici following delayed sowing times.  Sowings of winter
 wheats were restricted by the late break to the season.
 
      Sowings of wheat were considerably down in acreage, independently of
 the season, due to depressed wheat prices.  Recent improvements in varieties
 of Canola was also a factor.
 
      Wheat breeding.  Delayed sowing time restricted representative
 assessment of wheats suited to early sowings.  Truly early sown trials were
 restricted to irrigated areas.  Selection for rust resistance was also
 restricted by seasonal conditions, though some Septoria developed in
 nurseries.
 
      Rosella was the highest yielding cultivar in early sown trials in 1991. 
 This agrees with the results of previous trials.  Rosella is a soft white
 winter wheat, in 1990 13% of the wheat in silogroup 4 and 24% of the wheat
 in silogroup 5 was
 
 Rosella.  Unfortunately Rosella is susceptible to the Sr30 attacking
 pathotype of P. graminis, so it needs to be replaced before this pathotype
 becomes more common.  
 
      In the mid/late sown trial series, the Queensland variety Janz was the
 highest yielding cultivar.  In 1991, Dollarbird was about 3% lower yielding
 than Janz, however in trials since 1988 these two varieties have the same
 average yield.  Dollarbird has good tolerance to acid soils, and performs
 well in the eastern part of the wheat belt.  It has not perform as well at
 sites where there is severe moisture stress during grain filling, K1939 has
 the same pattern of adaptation.
 
      At sites with severe moisture stress, the varieties which perform
 relatively better are Kiata and Sunbird.  Both these varieties are derived
 from Condor.  Vulcan is still the most popular variety for mid/late sowing,
 but it is being displaced by Janz and Dollarbird.
 
      Release of Shrike.  The quick maturing winter cultivar Shrike (formerly
 M3856) was released for commercial sowings in 1991 as a replacement for
 Osprey.  Shrike has Sr26 conferring resistance to all P. graminis pathotypes
 in Australia, and is now the only recommended main season winter cultivar in
 NSW with resistance to the Sr30 attacking pathotype.  Shrike has adult plant
 resistance to P. striiformis and P. recondida, and is moderately resistant
 to Septoria tritici and flagsmut.  Shrike is about 3 days earlier than
 Osprey with 1% higher yield overall, and 2% more yield than Osprey in silo
 group 3 west, its main areas of adaptation.
 
      Advanced crossbreds.  K1939 (NS732/Pima//K2023).  Mainseason hard
 grained white wheat. Similar maturity to Dollarbird, good acid soils
 tolerance, resistant to stripe and stem rusts.  There is no consensus on the
 acceptability of it's grain quality, a semi-commercial scale pilot milling
 is planned to clarify the issue.
 
      WW1203 (Cleo-Inia/Sundor).  Mainseason hard grained white wheat,
 suitable for Australian Standard White grade.  Excellent resistance to
 Septoria tritici blotch, resistant to stripe and stem rusts.  Shorter
 stronger straw than alternative cultivars.  Expected to have an advantage in
 higher rainfall and irrigation environments, it has however performed well
 over all environments.
 
      WW879 (Condor/3Ag14//Romany/4189).  Mainseason hard grained white
 wheat.  Good resistance to Septoria tritici blotch, resistant to stripe and
 stem rusts.  Short straw, moderate acid soils tolerance.  It's performance
 has been variable, there are some regions where it appears to be well
 adapted, however it's future will depend on whether we are able to identify
 the reason for this apparent adaptation.  It has desirable grain qualities
 for this region.
 
 -------------------------
      L. Penrose
 
      Evaluation of winter habit.  Selection for both spring and winter
 habits is undertaken at the ARI.  Winter habit permits early sowings of
 wheat in Autumn, with greater flexibility than is possible with photoperiod
 sensitive spring wheats.  Early sowings are frequently possible following
 March/April rain from tropical airmasses, before the arrival of temperate
 air masses from the south-west.  Early sowings enhance flexibility of
 farming operations, and may also provide higher yield potential.
 
      A research project has been undertaken to quantify degree of winter
 habit in local cultivars and breeding material, and its control of
 development in conjunction with effects of photoperiod and intrinsic rate of
 development.  Cultivars with winter habit suitable for general sowings in
 the main wheat belt in NSW have been developed relatively recently (first
 being cvs. Osprey and Quarrion in 1983), and configuration of developmental
 controls in maximising yield has not been thoroughly explored.
 
 
 
 
                               Publication
 
 Penrose LDJ, Martin RH & Landers CF. (1991).  Measurement of response to
 vernalization in Australian wheats with winter habit.  Euphytica 57,9-17.
 
 -------------------------
      The University of Sydney, Plant Breeding Institute
 
      Plant Pathology, Sydney and PBI, Cobbitty
 
      D. Backhouse, J. Bell, G.N. Brown, L.W. Burgess, N.L. Darvey, R.A.      
      McIntosh, J.D. Oates, R.F. Park, J.Roake, P.J. Sharp, D. The, C.R.      
      Wellings.
 
      Professor D.R. Marshall has taken up the appointment of Professor of
 Plant Breeding and Director of the Plant Breeding Institute.  His office is
 located at the main campus in Sydney. Settling in at Cobbitty is proving to
 be a long process.  Many of the greenhouse rooms for research are still to
 be assembled and some problems continue to affect the control systems of
 those that are operating.  Unreliable rust infections were overcome by
 changing the potting mix.  It appears that the spent mushroom compost that
 was being used as a component, had very high pH.
 
      Due to resistant cultivars in more rust-prone areas and drought
 conditions over much of eastern Australia during the second half of the 1991
 wheat season, stem rust on wheat and triticale reached historically low
 levels.  Less than 10 samples were received for the entire country.  Leaf
 rust also occurred at low levels, the main pathotypes being 104-2,3,6,(7),11
 and 104-1,2,3,6,7,11.  These Lr16-virulent forms now occur throughout the
 country.  Lr16 is not present in any current or recent Australian cultivar. 
 Early reports of natural infections of stripe rust came from research
 centres in northern N.S.W., but dry conditions precluded significant spread
 to more resistant commercial crops.  Stripe rust was more widespread in the
 south and losses, if any, were restricted to more susceptible cultivars. 
 Pt. 104 E137 A- continued to prevail, but Yr6 virulence was recovered from
 border areas of N.S.W. and Victoria, indicating localized carryover from the
 previous season.  For future surveys we have adopted Kalyansona and
 Federation*4/Kavkaz as replacement genotypes for Heines VII (Yr2) and
 Clement (Yr9) and have added Selkirk (unnamed gene) and a VPM1 derivative
 (Yr17) as bearers of genes not present in the previous survey set.  A line
 with Yr15 will be added in 1992.
 
       A second P. recondita pathotype with avirulence for Lr22b in Thatcher
 has been identified.  Pt. 64-11 was first isolated in Queensland in 1990. 
 It appears to have no relationship with 53-1,6,(7),10,11 which is also
 avirulent for Lr22b.  Multipathotype adult plant tests of Thatcher and
 various near-isogenic derivatives established that we have pathogenic
 variability for Lr12 and Lr3ka.  Isolates identified as pathotypes 104-
 2,3,5,6,(7),11 and 104-1,2,3,5,6,(7),11 recorded as virulent on seedlings of
 Klein Titan (Lr3ka) in 1990 proved virulent on adult plants of Tc + Lr3ka,
 but were avirulent on Tc + Lr13.  From other studies we concluded that Klein
 Titan carries at least Lr3ka and Lr13.  These results confirmed that
 combinations of Lr13 and genes such as Lr1, Lr2a alleles, Lr3 and Lr14a will
 continue to provide resistance in Australia.
 
      Further work has confirmed the presence of two adult plant resistance
 genes in Hartog (= Pavon 'S') and the close genetic association of Lr34 and
 Yr18.  Attempts to locate the chromosome bearing the second complementary
 gene comprising the "Avocet" resistance to stripe rust were unsuccessful. 
 Yr15 mapped in chromosome 1BS about 10 units from the centromere; it readily
 recombines with Yr10.  Genetic studies of adult plant stripe rust resistance
 in several Australian wheats, using selections of Avocet as susceptible
 parents, indicated 2-5 genes depending on the particular cross.  We are now
 attempting to isolate genes segregating at single loci from F3-F4
 populations.  The behaviour of these genes will be studied in intercrosses
 and later, they will be subjected to monosomic analysis using a set of
 monosomic stocks currently being produced in a highly susceptible Avocet
 selection.
 
 
      Funding for the international collaborative wheat rust program was
 terminated in June 1991.  Some testing of SSD lines developed for the
 genetic studies is continuing.  Some studies have been initiated to follow
 up on findings and research papers reporting results are in preparation.
 
      More than 14,000 lines were screened for Australian wheat breeders as
 part of the National Wheat Rust Control Program.  One hundred advanced lines
 and 12 controls were entered in the Disease Progress 
 
      Nursery which was subjected to multipathotype and multilocation rust
 tests and also screened for response to several additional diseases and
 stresses.
 
      Screening of Australian lines for anther culture response indicated an
 amenability to culture among materials from the Queensland Wheat Research
 Institute (particularly Hartog derivatives and their F1 hybrids), Waite
 Agricultural Research Institute and sprouting-resistant lines N72-72 and
 AUS1490 from the I. A. Watson Wheat Research Centre.  Among triticales,
 Juanillo was particularly responsive and gave many green regenerants.  Using
 a membrane raft technique for ease of transfer, a 2,4-D and Kinetin medium
 was very effective for the first induction phase (14 days) which was
 followed by the use of IBA and Zeatin.  Direct regeneration of embryoids
 into plants then occurred on the membrane.
 
      The dual-purpose triticale cultivar "Madonna" was released in 1991.
 
 In 1991 the tan spot resistance breeding program moved to Cobbitty, enabling
 seedling screening of early generation material.  F2 populations using Fink
 and Vicam as resistant parents were screened in 1991 with BC1F2 crosses to
 be screened in 1992.  Drought conditions precluded field surveys and
 screening of advanced lines.
 
 -------------------------
      I. A. Watson Wheat Research Centre, Narrabri
 
      L. O'Brien, F.W. Ellison, R.M. Trethowan, D.J. Mares, S.G. Moore and    
      A.B. Pattison
 
      Seasonal conditions: A protracted dry spell from January to April
 demanded nursery areas to be pre-irrigated in order that winter and long
 season wheats could be planted at the correct time.  Flights of plague
 locusts in April and early May "ate-off" early planted nurseries. 
 Irrigation revived them, only for further locust flights to arrive and
 finish them off.  All of these nurseries had to be replanted after their
 optimum time. Substantial rains in late May interrupted planting operations. 
 Regular rains in June and July allowed frequent but limited planting
 opportunities.  Planting was not completed until late July.
 
      From early August until mid-December, low rainfall demanded that all
 nursery areas be regularly irrigated to promote growth and enable single
 plant selection for height and straw strength. Stripe rust developed on
 infection rows in late July but failed to move through the nursery areas
 despite irrigation.  Heavy rains in mid-December followed by overcast and
 showery conditions resulted in sprouting damage to all materials still to be
 harvested.  Some material will have to be replanted from residue seed.
 
      Recent releases:  Growers who purchased Sunbri in 1991 were pleased
 with its performance in the dry season.  Yields were above expectation and
 grain was mostly prime hard quality.  Miskle continued to perform well in
 mid-season plantings.  It has been reselected for homogeneity of its stem
 rust resistance genes (Sr13 + Sr30) and rapid seed increase will allow a re-
 release in 1993.
 
      Advanced lines:  SUN155C (Cook//Lr28/Combination III) which had been
 approved for registration will be released early in 1994.  Seed production
 was interrupted because of the discovery of segregation for degrees of
 stripe rust resistance.  All plants possessed resistance to stripe rust, but
 varied in the amount of sporulation. Plants with the Cook level of adult
 plant resistance were selected and these will form the basis of the seed to
 be released for commercial production.
 
      Advanced lines with potential prime hard quality characteristics
 include SUN146F, SUN148L and SUN231A.  Two promising lines with shorter
 dough-mixing times and dough strength suited to the domestic market are
 SUN190A and SUN231A.  Two long season lines, SUN224A and SUN225A, are
 showing promise for early plantings (April-early May).
 
      Pure seed production:  The delay in pure seed production of SUN155C
 will be minimised using summer generations combined with winter increases in
 1992 and 1993.  This should result in more than 20,000 bags being available
 for commercial plantings in 1994, only one year later than originally
 planned.
 
      Sprouting tolerance:  Research on sprouting tolerance is now being
 directed at the factors involved in the development, expression, chromosomal
 location and inheritance of dormancy.  The accumulation of à-amylase in some
 wheat lines during grain ripening is also a problem under investigation. 
 This phenomenon is associated with grain samples of sound appearance but
 unacceptably low falling numbers and has been identified in germplasm from
 most Australian breeding programs.
 
      Biochemical and molecular markers are being developed for the selection
 of important characteristics, especially environmentally mediated traits
 such as dormancy and late maturity à-amylase production.
 
      Root and crown diseases: Screening of advanced lines for tolerance to
 crown rot (Fusarium) and root lesion nematode (RLN) continued in 1991. 
 Surveys for RLN in northern N.S.W. suggested that the nematode is more
 widespread than previously realised.  Studies on environmental factors
 influencing nematode populations, and interactions between nematodes and
 other root pathogens are underway.    
 
 -------------------------
      QUEENSLAND
 
      Queensland Wheat Research Institute, Toowoomba    
      G.B. Wildermuth and R.B. McNamara
 
      Crown rot.   Incidence and severity of crown rot caused by Fusarium
 graminearum Group 1 was less in 1991 than in 1990.  Whilst incidence
 decreased from 45 to 32% in a tillage and stubble treatment experiment, the
 incidence of deadheads was reduced from 24 to 10%.  The winter season of
 1991 was an extremely dry one even in the early part of
 
 the season.  For this reason, infection by F. graminearum was lower and
 incidence of deadheads also lower than in the previous year.
 
      Cultivar resistance is the most desirable means of controlling crown
 rot although crop rotation is also practised.  Eleven of the thirteen
 cultivars recommended for planting in Queensland in 1991, are susceptible to
 the disease.  Lines with partial resistance to crown rot have been
 identified and one of the aims of the breeding program is to incorporate
 this resistance into adapted cultivars.  One hindrance to breeding for
 resistance has been the screening method.  Previously, lines and cultivars
 have been screened by growing plants to maturity in the field and rating
 these plants for severity of the disease.  This procedure would be time
 consuming and tedious in a breeding program.  A seedling technique has been
 developed to overcome this problem.  Plants are grown in inoculated soil for
 21 days at 25degC and the leaf sheaths of leaves 1, 2 and 3 examined for
 severity of browning.  The correlation between the rating of leaf sheaths 1,
 2 and an index of susceptibility based on field experiments was significant
 (r=0.78).  It is hoped that use of screening for resistance with seedlings
 will enable faster progress to be made in breeding for resistance to this
 disease.
 
      Common root rot.  Incidence and severity of common root rot caused by
 Bipolaris sorokiniana was similar to the levels of previous seasons. 
 Incorporation of resistance into adapted cultivars in association with Dr P.
 Brennan is continuing.  The most advanced crosses are in the preliminary
 stages of yield evaluation.
 
 -------------------------
      P.S. Brennan, J.A. Sheppard, L.R. Mason, R.W. Uebergang, M.L. Fiske.    
      I.C. Haak and P.I. Hocroft
 
                               Wheat Breeding
 
      Season.  The 1991 wheat growing season coincided with an extremely
 severe drought.  Planting intentions were well below average due to low
 wheat price expectation.  The drought reduced planting options dramatically
 and an undefined portion of the crop was cut for hay to feed drought
 affected cattle and sheep.  The net result was a harvest roughly 10% of that
 obtained in 1990.
 
      Varietal release.  The variety Batavia was released in September
 1991.  This variety was derived from the cross between the CIMMYT line
 Brochis's' and Banks.  Batavia has high yield and excellent straw strength
 from Brochis and very good quality (high milling extraction, low flour
 colour grade and long dough extensibility) from Banks.
 
      The poor seasonal conditions reduced seed multiplication to less than
 half the target.
 
      In 1992 three lines will be considered for release.  QT5360 developed
 in collaboration with Dr Rees is discussed elsewhere.  QT4636 is an awnless
 Hartog type (Jarral/Gamut//4*Hartog).  Jarral/Gamut (QT2338) was used as a
 source of awnlessness to produce a variety that, in the event of crop
 failure, would be more acceptable for stock feed.  This line also has a
 higher level of yellow spot resistance than the recurrent parent Hartog
 which must be derived from QT2338.  The possibility that the gene(s) for
 yellow spot resistance are linked to one of the genes for awnlessness should
 be investigated.
 
      The third line, QT4336, is very high yielding and is derived from the
 cross Brochis's'/Hartog.
 
      RFLP tagging of genes for high protein
 
      Research Activities.   Five crosses involving the low protein achiever
 Hartog and putative high protein achievers (QT2200-20, Laura, Atlas 66
 derivative, Plainsman V derivative, Cunningham) have been produced.  About
 100 random inbred lines from each cross are being generated using single
 seed descent.
 
 
      The use of pollination with maize coupled with 2,4-D treatment to
 generate haploids, is being investigated.  Seed sets range from 1 to 5%.  A
 number of options will be explored to produce higher seed sets.
 
      The object of the study is to determine the protein content and RFLP
 profile for each random inbred line to identify RFLPs closely linked to
 gene(s) for high protein.
 
      This project is being carried out in conjunction with Dr P.J. Sharp,
 Sydney University.
 
 -------------------------
      R.G. Rees, P.S. Brennan, G.J. Platz and K.C.M. Blaikie
 
      Resistance to Pyrenophora tritici-repentis.  Severe drought for much of
 the 1991 winter crop season greatly reduced crops and yellow or tan spot was
 not a problem.
 
       The backcrossing program to incorporate resistance to P. tritici-
 repentis into adapted cultivars continued.  Resistance sources such as Vicam
 71, Fink 'S', Red Chief and lines from CIMMYT nurseries such as Fourth
 Aluminium Screening Nursery entry 29 (single plant selection) are being
 used.  Recurrent parents are popular adapted cultivars or advanced lines
 from the Queensland wheat breeding program.  Resistant lines based on Hartog
 performed best in yield evaluation trials, largely reflecting the high
 yielding ability of Hartog under our conditions.  One Vicam/3*Hartog line
 (QT5360) again performed well in evaluation trials at 18 sites with an
 average yield advantage over Hartog of about 4%.  Seed has been increased
 and this line is to be considered for release in 1992.
 
      In a greenhouse trial, the massive effects of yellow spot on root
 development measured previously were confirmed.  Severe yellow spot
 throughout the plant life reduced root weight by 76% while weight of plant
 tops and grain yield were reduced by 43 and 62% respectively.
 
 -------------------------
                          ITEM FROM BANGLADESH
 
      Research Progress on alien variation into Bandladeshi Wheat
 
      M. Azhar Hossain, M. Bahadur Meah, Alya Momotaz, Pear Mohammad, N.
 Pezaul Hag, H. Imam Akand, Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh
 Agricultural University, Mymemsingh, Department of Plant Pathology
 
      Bangladesh is basically a tropical rice producing country.  The
 cultivation of wheat in Bangladesh started in mid seventies and it is
 estimated that 1.02 million metric tons of wheat have been produced on
 560,000 ha of land in 1990 (BBS, 1990).  By now, wheat has become the second
 important cereal crop in Bangladesh.  This is due to wide acceptability of
 wheat for "Route" and the short time span required for its cultivation. 
 Except for some legume and brassica crops, no other cash crops could be
 cultivated with residual moisture.  Generally, wheat is cultivated after the
 harvest of "Amam" and when the land is kept fallow.  Farmers want to plant
 wheat as an additional cereal crop.  With the passage of time, the yield of
 wheat has increased with the increase in total wheat cultivation area. 
 However, further expansion of wheat production areas has suddenly ceased due
 to leaf blight disease and unusual sterility.  It has been estimated, based
 on various prevailing environmental conditions, that the leaf blight disease
 alone can reduce yield from 25% to 40% (Dr. Saunders, personal
 communication).  The combinations of both sterility and leaf blight disease
 further reduce the yield. Presently, it is thought that boron deficiency in
 the wheat might be one of the factors for sterility.   Application of boron
 has increased grain setting (Dr. Jahiruddin, personal communication).
 However, more complicated factors might be involved in failure of grain
 setting. Rerkasem et al., (1989) reported that boron application in wheat
 improved the grain setting in Thailand.  However, thorough and comprehensive
 research is going on this aspects.  A three year's period will help to
 clarify the causes of sterility.
 
      Since leaf blight is a major and a very devastating disease in many
 tropical wheat producing countries such as Thailand, Nepal, Pakistan,
 Brazil, Zambia and the Eastern part of India, search for leaf blight
 resistance genes in wheat was made.  A few hundred promising wheat cultivars
 were tested against the pathogen in several seasons at their various growth
 stages.  None was found to possess resistance.  This is in confirmation with
 Dr. Lapis of Philippines who could not get a single wheat cultivar resistant
 to this pathogen after screening 40,000 wheats.  This has necessitated the
 introduction of alien leaf blight resistance gene(s) into Bangladeshi
 wheats.  The most important and available accessions of all the species of
 Triticeae under Triticinae and Hordeinae listed by Feldman and Sears (1981),
 Kimber and Sears (1987), and Kimber and Feldman (1987) including various
 wheat-secale, wheat-Agropyron, wheat-umbellulatum and wheat-Haynaldia
 addition lines were screened at their various growth stage both in
 controlled and natural environmental conditions for 3 to 5 growing seasons. 
 Only T. tauschii, T. ventricosum and A. elongatum showed tolerant reactions. 
 Fifteen accessions of Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L., 2n=24) were also tested
 against the pathogen.  Three accessions were resistant.  The most powerful
 and useful resistance gene source was found in Haynaldia villosa syn.
 Dasypyrum villosum.   Three accessions of H. villosa, originally kindly
 supplied by the late E. R. Sears, showed a unique resistant reaction from
 seedling to mature stage both in controlled and natural conditions. 
 However, wide genetic variation for disease reaction among the species
 listed by those authors has been found in various growth stages and
 environmental conditions.  (Hossain, in preparation).  Also, except for the
 3 Hv. addition line, the remaining six wheat-Haynaldia addition lines were
 tested.  Except for the wheat-7 Hv addition line, all other five addition
 lines were susceptible to leaf blight disease indicating that the resistant
 gene(s) is located in chromosome 7 of H. villosa.  Some wheat-7 Hv. addition
 plants displayed chimeral behavior for disease reaction.  The critical arm
 of 7 Hv. might be lost due to mis-division of centromere.  The six wheat-
 Haynaldia addition lines were karyotype analyzed by C-banding (Hossain,
 1985).  Since wheat-3 Hv. addition is not available at the present time, its
 karyotype was made from the C-banded karyotype of H. villosa perpared from
 its root tip and comparison was made with addition lines and finally 3 Hv.
 was sorted out.  The C-banded karyotype of H. villosa is as follows:
 
      1 Hv. is a heterobrachial chromosome.  The short arm possesses a faint
 terminal band.  The nucleolar band is also faint.  The long arm possesses a
 prominent heavy terminal band.  Occasionally , an interstitial very faint
 band is found in the middle of the long arm in some preparations.  2 Hv. is
 a submedian chromosome with almost equal terminal bands at both arms.  A
 distinct band is found in close proximity to the centromere of the long arm. 
 Sometimes a faint band is noticed near the terminal band of the long arm.  3
 Hv. is a median type chromosome.  The long arm has a more prominent terminal
 band than the short arm.  4 Hv. is a submedian chromosome with a distinct
 terminal C-band in the short arm than long arm.  This arm possesses a faint
 terminal band.  Occasionally, a massive sub-terminal C-band in the long arm
 is noticed.  5 Hv. is the most heterobrachial chromosome in the complement. 
 The short arm possesses a distinctive terminal C-band and the long arm
 possesses a very faint terminal band.  In some preparations a prominent C-
 band is found in the long arm.  6 Hv. is a second heterobrachial chromosome
 with equal amount of terminal bands in both arms.  7 Hv. is a median type
 chromosome.  The short arm possesses a fainter band than the long arm.  One
 interstitial band is found in the middle of the short arm.  Also, a small
 faint band is noticed near the terminal end of the long arm.  All the
 chromosomes possess distinctive centromeric bands.
 
       Both A. elonogatum and H. villosa were separately crossed to Sears phI
 mutant.  The amphiploid produced showed tolerant and resistant reactions,
 respectively.  Meiotic study was made on several wheat-Haynaldia amphiploids
 in Sears' ph mutant background.  Very poor chromosome pairing was observed
 indicating that H. villosa chromosomes might have undergone some
 modifications and differentiation during evolution resulting in no further
 homoeology retained, or the wrong seed stock used as Sears' ph mutant. 
 However, a new program has been initiated. Authentic Sears' ph mutants on 5B
 and 3D have separately been crossed to H. villosa.  The chromosome pairing
 behavior in the amphiploids will be studied next season.  Alternately, both
 5B and 3D mutants have been crossed together to produce homozygous stock for
 both loci in a single background.  F(1) plants are being selfed for F(2)
 seeds.
 
      Three accessions of tritordeums were evaluated for their performances
 in Bangladesh.  The three accessions produced a segregating population.  
 The main problem of tritordeum is its male sterility.  The early tillers
 produced very tiny anthers.   Some of the anthers were transformed into
 feathery stigmas.  These tillers do not produce any seeds at all.  However,
 late tillers produce normal anthers with viable pollen grains and these
 tillers produce 2 to 3 seeds per spike.  These tritordeums have been crossed
 to local wheats and four triticales to induce translocations among the
 chromosomes for wheat, barley and rye through centric fusion.  Application
 of gibberellic acid following pollination, and embryo culture are the
 prerequisites for successful amphiploid production.  All tritideums are very
 late in flowering and maturity.
 
 -------------------------
              Md. Sultan Uddin Bhuiya, Department of Agronomy
 
                 Study on Growth Phases and Stages of Wheat 
 
      Field experiments were set up at the Bangladesh Agricultural University
 farm at Mymemsingh during the rabi season of 1988-89 and 1989-90 to identify
 the developmental phases and stages and their duration in five cultivars and
 two advanced lines of wheat.  Six phases and their durations were:
 germination and emergence (0-8 days), tillering (9-43 days), stem elongation
 (33-65 days), heading (56 to 75 days), flowering (61-81 days) and grain
 formation and ripening (65-115 days).  Each of these phases was further sub-
 divided into one or more stages depending on morphological characters and
 developmental events.   Thus, 12 stages under six phases were identified
 with their durations which were: emergence (0-8 days), seedling (9-18 days),
 crown root (17-29 days), tillering (22-43 days), jointing (33-51 days,
 shooting (42-59 days), booting (51-65 days), heading (65-75 days), flowering
 (61-88 days), dough (79-98 days) and ripening (92-115 days).
 
 -------------------------
                               ITEMS FROM BRAZIL
 
      Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS
 
      C.N.A. de Sousa
 
     Resistance to aluminum toxicity.  The resistance to aluminum toxicity is
 a general objective in most wheat breeding programs in Brazil because there
 are aluminum problem in a great part of all states where this cereal is
 grown in Brazil.  A nursery has been evaluated every year under field
 conditions in soil with aluminum toxicity in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul,
 Brazil in order to know the reaction of wheat cutivars.  The reaction of the
 cultivar is the information of one or more years.  The cultivars under
 recommendatoin in Brazil in 1991 (more than 100) that presented better
 reaction (tolerant) to aluminum toxicity are listed: BH 1146, CEP 19-Jatai,
 CEP 21-Campos, IAC 5-Maringa, IAC 18-Xavantes, IAC 21-Iguacu, IAC 27-
 Pantaneiro, IAPAR 18-Marumbi, IAPAR 34-Guaraji, Minuano 82, RS 4-Ibiraiaras,
 RS 8-Whestphalen, Trigo BR 4, Trigo BR 14, Trigo BR 15, Trigo BR 20-Guato,
 Trigo BR 25, Trigo BR 28, Trigo BR 32, Trigo BR 35, Trigo BR 37, Trigo BR
 38, Trigo BR 41-Ofaie e Trigo BR 43.
 
 -------------------------
 S. D. dos A. Silva, C. N. A. de Sousa and P. L. Scheeren
 
 Screening of wheat cultivars for soilborne wheat mosaic virus.  Soilborne
 wheat mosaic virus (SWMV) is a disease that causes losses in the yield of
 wheat in the State of Rio Grande do Sul in South Brazil.  A wheat cultivar
 nursery was organized to survey for SWMV resistance in 1991.  The nursery
 was located in three different places in the experimental area of the
 National Research Center for Wheat/EMBRAPA in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do
 Sul, Brazil.  Although the disease was not important in Passo Fundo in 1991,
 there was good infection of SWMV in one of the places.  The disease was
 severe and widespread in the experimental field in 1990.  The cultivars that
 presented good reaction to SWMV (resistant or moderately resistant) in 1991
 and also in 1990 are listed.
 
      I - Brazilian cultivars that are descendant from Londrina:  BR 38, PF
 83438, PF 839085, PF 85491, PF 859232, PF 859244, PF 859248, and PF 859255.
 
      II - Other Brazilian cultivars:  BR 32, CPAC 8597, IAS 54, IAPAR 6-
 Tapejara, PF 79583, PF 8237, PF 83349, PF 839197, PF 84316, PF 84330, PF
 858, PF 8545, PF 85119, PF 85130, PF 85137, PF 85159, PF 85161, PF 85175, PF
 85229, PF 85235, PF 85363, PF 85434, PF 85631, PF 8619, PF 86236, PF 86238,
 PF 86509, PF 86771, Pf 86780, PF 86801, Pf 8722, PF 87107, PF 87949, PF
 88490, PF 88501, PF 88521, PF 88543, PF 891, PF 895, PF 897, Pf 8933, PF
 8944, and PF 89263.
 
      III - Non-Braqzilian cultivars:  Ariano (from Italy), Century (USA),
 CPAC 841218 (Mex), IPF 41644 (Mex), IPF 43544 (Mex), IPF 43548 (Mex), IPF
 43550 (Mex), IPF 49865 (Mex), IPF 57277 (Mex) and PF 801034 (Mex).
 
 -------------------------
      J. C. S. Moreira and C. N. A. de Sousa
 
      1991 Wheat Cultivar Yield Trials in Passo Fundo, Brazil
 
      About 460 wheat genotypes were tested in 22 yield trials in the
 National Research Center for Wheat of EMBRAPA in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do
 Sul, Brazil, during 1991.  The process for releasing a new cultivar in Rio
 Grande do Sul, the farthest south state in Brazil, was described in the 1986
 Annual Wheat Newsletter, 32:38-39.
 
      The precipitation in August, September and November was inferior to the
 normal and the humidity from August to November was also inferior.  However,
 the year was good for the wheat development.   The disease that causes more
 damages during the vegetative phase was the leaf rust.  The yield in 1991
 were superior to that obtained in the year before.  Several genotypes
 reached yield above 3000 kg/ha.
 
      Trials were carried out in a rotation area (2 years without wheat) and
 the fertilizer application was 15 kg/ha N, 65 kg/ha P205, 65 kg/ha K20 and
 45 kg/ha N as top-dressing.  No fungicide was used in most trials.  However,
 some trials are conducted in Passo Fundo with and without fungicide in order
 to know the reaction of different cultivars.
 
      The best check in 1991 was BR 23 the main cultivar in Rio Grande do Sul
 occupying about 350.000 ha (53%) of the wheat area in this state.
 
      Cultivars having outstanding yield in trials carried out in Passo
 Fundo-RS are shown below.
 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 CULTIVAR              CROSS                    YIELD (kg/ha) in Passo Fundo
                                                No fungicide   With fungicide
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                1. Cultivar State Trial
                    (22 locals in RS)
 
 BR 35         IAC 5*2/3/CNT 7*3/LD//IAC 5/HADDEN     3581            3918
 BR 37         MAZOE/F13279//PELADO MARAU             3512            3940
 BR 23-(Check) CC/ALONDRA SIB/3/IAS 54-20/COP//CNT 8  3487            3959
 BR 43          PF 833007/JACUI                       3472            3967
 RS 8-Westphalen   CNT 10/BURGAS 2//JACUI             3322            2967
 RS 1-FENIX    PF 70100/J 15157-69                    3294            3867
 BR 34         ALZ 110/2/IAS 54//F 5530               3264            3527
 BR 38         IAS 55*4/AGENT//IAS 55*4/CI 14123      3163            3816
 TRIAL MEAN              -                            2975            3959
 
                2. South Brazilian Trial
                    (22 locals in RS)
 
 PF 869120     PF 83743//PF 83182/F 25716             4375            3865
 PF 869107     PF 83743//PF 83182/F/25716             4103            4265
 PF 87107      ENC/PF 79768//PF 80284                 4097            3875
 PF 86238      HLN/CNT 7//AMIGO/CNT 7                 3986            3985
 PF 87103      SL 5200/PAT 7219//TIFTON               3920            3728
 PF 87116      ENC/PF 79768//PF 80284                 3776            3755
 BR 23 (Check) CC/ALD SIB/3/IAS 54-20/COP//CNT 8      3393            4085
 TRIAL MEAN                                           3496            3578
 
 
                3. Regional Yield Trial
                     (12 locals in RS)
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 CULTIVAR              CROSS                                   YIELD (kg/ha) 
                                                               With fungicide
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 PF 88566      AMIGO/JACUI//PF 7673/CANDIOTA                          4209
 PF 87453      COKER 762/BR 14                                        4100
 CEP 8878      CEP 8057/BUTUI//CEP 8324                               4063
 PF 88603      TIFTON SEL/PF 79763/3/N BOZU/3*LD//8 7902              3972
 PF 889199     PF 839197/5/F 16946/3/N BAY*2//LD*2/ALD SIB/4/F 16955  3911
 BR 23 (Check) CC/ALD SIB/3/IAS 54-20/COP//CNT 8                      3254
 
 
                4. Multilocated Preliminar Trials (5 locals with lines
                    in 2nd year of test)
 
                            1st M.P.T.
 
 PF 883188     PF 839278/MNO 82//PF 839278/PF 79547                   4175
 PF 891        CEP 14/PF 79782//CEP 14                                4173
 PF 8946       PF 839197/5/F 16946/3/N BAY*2//LD*2//ALD SIB/4/F 16955 4144
 PF 892        COKER 762/PF 81172//PF 79782                           4117
 BR 23 (Check) CC/ALD SIB/3/IAS 54-20/COP//CNT 8                      4079
 
                            2nd M.P.T.
 
 PF 89142      COKER 762/PF 81172//PF 79782                           4916
 PF 89292      PF 8515/PF 85271//PF 82252/BR 35                       4873
 PF 89231      COKER 762/2*PF 79547                                   4773
 PF 89232      CI 14119/2*PF 8237                                     4725
 PF 89230      COKER 762/2*PF 79547                                   4696
 BR 32 (Check) CC/ALD SIB/3/IAS 54-20/COP/CNT 8                       4608
 
                5. Preliminar Trials (1st year trials)
                   Wheat genotypes yielding more than 4000 kg/ha
                   out of 260 lines, in preliminar trials in Passo
                   Fundo, 1991
 
 PF 87373      -                                                      4298
 PF 89626      PF 79547//AMIGO/PAT 7219                               4282
 PF 889299     BR 35//COKER 762/IAC 5                                 4254
 PF 9099       PF 82252/BR 35//IA 7998/PF 8550                        4017
 PF 9078       COKER 762/CEP 82114//BR 14                             4015
 PF 889300     BR 35//COKER 762/IAC 5                                 4000
 
 
                6. 27th International Spring Wheat Yield Trial - CIMMYT
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 CULTIVAR      Origin                                 YIELD (kg/ha) 
                                                No fungicide   With fungicide 
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 PVN           MEXICO                                 2978            2953
 BR 16         BRASIL                                 2792            2475
 FALKE         MEXICO                                 2511            2875
 PAPAGO 86     MEXICO                                 2473            2462
 QUIAN/FENG#2  CHINA                                  2176            2506
 BR 23 (Check) BRASIL                                 3186            3341
 
                7. 12th Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trial - CIMMYT
 
 FALKE         MEXICO                                 2732            3550
 PGO/SERI      MEXICO                                 2682            3573
 HE 1/2*CNO 79 MEXICO                                 2593            2777
 PGO/SERI      MEXICO                                 2515            2840
 TUI           MEXICO                                 2467            3357
 CUMPAS 86     MEXICO                                 2440            3503
 BR 23 (Check) BRASIL                                 3440            4243   
 
 
 -------------------------
      Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS
 
      P. L. Scheeren, C.N.A. de Sousa, L.de J.A. Del Duca, S.D. dos A. e      
      Silva, E.P. Gomes, J.F. Sartori, W.I. Linhares, J.C.S. Moreira, J.R.    
      Salvadori, M.C. Medeiros, J.S. Sobrinho, M.I.B. de Moraes-Fernandez, L. 
      A. Staudt, V. da R. Caetano
 
        Development of wheat germplasm through the backcross method
 
      Disease and insect resistance.  This work is being conducted by a
 multidisciplinary team at CNPT/EMBRAPA in Passo fundo since 1975.  This
 project tries to correct defects of wheat cultivars that show good
 adaptation at several wheat regions in Brazil and that require correction of
 some problems related to disease or insect resistance or improvement of
 agronomic characteristics and industrial quality.  Hundreds of backcrosses
 are made every year in order to achieve such objectives.  The descendants of
 these crosses are tested under both field and controlled conditions
 (greenhouse, growth chamber, screen house and lab) with artificial
 inoculation of diseases and pests.  Hundreds of lines bearing desired
 characteristics have been produced among which nine (BR 20, BR 24, BR 25, BR
 27, BR 35, BR 36, BR 38, BR 41, and BR 42) were released for growing in
 different Brazilian wheat regions.  Several lines were placed in the Active
 Germplasm Bank in Passo Fundo in 1991 and among them there are lines
 resistant to rust (Puccinia recondita and Puccinia graminis tritici),
 powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis tritici), and/or greenbug (Schizaphis
 graminum).  Information on some resistances that were incorporated into the
 lines descending from the recurrent parents CNT 10, BR 14, BR 35 and CEP 11
 is shown in Table 1.
 
 Table 1.  Cross, height and resistance in lines obtained through             
           backcross at CNPR, Passo Fundo, RS.          
                                               Resistance (R)
                                          -------------------------
                                  Height  P.R.  P.g.t. E.g.t. S.g.
 Line       Cross                   (cm)   (1)   (2)    (3)   (4) 
  ------------------------------------------------------------------  
 PF969107  PF83743/PF 83182/4/CNT    85     R     R      R     -
           10*4//LV*5/AGA/3/DL*4/AGENT
           //LD*3/N. BAY             
 PF869120  PF83743/5/PF 83182/4/CNT  90     R     R      R     -
           10*4/LV 5/AGA/LD 84/AGENT
           /LD*3N. BAY
 PF889268  BR14*4/LD*6/FB 6627      100     R     R      R     -
 PF889273  BR14*5/3/BH 1146*6/ALD    95     R     R      R     -
           SIB//PAR 214*6/FB 6631
 PF889279  BR14*6//LD*6/CI 14123    100     R     R      R     -
 PF889283  BR14*5//LD*6/CI 14123     95     -     R      -     R
 PF 89349  BR35*3//BR14*2/LARGO     100     -     R      -     R
 PF89353   BR35*3//BR14*2/LARGO     100     -     R      -     R
 PF89361   BR35*3//BR14*2/LARGO     100     -     R      -     R
 PF89364   BR14*3/CI 17959          100     -     R      -     R
 PF89374   BR14//JUP73*4/AMIGO SEL   90     -     R      -     R
 PF89383   BR14*4/LARGO             100     -     R      -     R
 PF89389   BR14*4/LARGO             110     -     R      -     R
 PF89396   BR14*4/CI 17959          100     -     R      -     R
 PF89411   BR14*3/CI 17959          100     -     R      -     R
 PF89422   CNT10*5/ST 1/3/CNT       100     R     R      R     -
           10*6//IAS54-21*2/CI14123
 PF89427   CEP 11*3/3/BH 1146*2//   105     R     R      -     R
           JUP 73*3/AMIGO SEL
 PF89468   BR14*4//LD*6/CI 14123     90     -     R      R     -
 PF89473   BR14*5//LD*6/CI 14123    100     -     R      R     -
 PF89476   BR14*4//LD*6/FB 6629     100     -     R      R     -
  * --------------------------------------------------------------------
 Note:  (1)  Puccinia recondita
        (2)  Puccinia grammis tritici
        (3)  Erysiphe graminis tritici
        (4)  Schizaphis graminum
 
      Agronomic characteristics.  A study on agronomic characteristics
 through the backcross method conducted from 1980 up to now is centered on
 getting short lines using the recurrent parents BH 1146, BR 2, NNT 1, CNT 8, 
 CNT 10, IAC 5-Maringa, and Jacui, better straw in relation to BR 2, IAS 58,
 and Jacui, in the incorporation of earliness in CNT 8, CNT 10, and Jacui and
 shattering resistance in IAC 5-Maringa.    The objectives were realized in
 most cases and several lines from this work are now available.  The level of
 difficulty was higher in relation to the improvement of straw and lower in
 relation to the incorporation of earliness.  Information on days to heading,
 height, and culm diameter of some of the lines and their recurrent parent is
 shown in Table 2.
 
 
 Table 2.  Cross, days to heading, height, culm diameter, and                 
           special characteristics of lines obtained through backcross 
           in relation to the recurrent parent in 1990 at Passo Fundo         
                                 Culm
 Line/                     Days to    Height diameter   Special     
 Cultivar    Cross         heading     (cm)   (mm)   characteristics
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 BH 1146       -               99       90    3.50  Recurrent parent
 PF 86780  ALD SIB/4*BH1146   101       95    3.57  Good type/spike
 PF89313   BH1146*5/H567-71    97       65    3.44  Short
 PF89315   MS7851/4*BH1146     99       45    3.44  Dwarf
 PF89316   BH1146*5/H567-71    97       70    3.27  Short
 
 BR2          -               101       90    3.02  Recurrent parent
 PF89317   ITL/2*BR2          109       90    3.61  Good straw
 
 CNT 1        -               100      100    3.62  Recurrent parent
 PF88623   CNT1*3//TETRA/
           CM 1577            109       70    2.99  Short
 PF89319   CNT1*6/JUP 73       99       55    3.16  Short
 
 CNT 8        -               109      105    3.53  Recurrent parent
 PF88629   PF772003//CNT
           8*3/SON 64          89       80    3.18  Very early
 PF88638   PF772003*2/PF813   101       60    3.16  Short
 
 PF782021     -               113       90    3.43  Recurrent parent
 Pf84409   IAS52/SOLO//JUP73/3/
           CNT10/4/PF 782021  109       70    3.60  Short
 PF8535    CNT10/RC7205//3*
           PF 782021          101       70    3.21  Short
 PF89324   CNT9*2/PF8614//CNT
           10/3/3*PF 782021    89       85    3.21  Very early
 IAC 5-
 Maringa          -           101       -     3.84  Recurrent parent
 PF89326   S948A1/SE//3*IAC5   99       60    3.60  Short
 PF89327   PF782023*2/MS 7851//
           IAC 5/3/PF 782023   99       55    3.85  Short
 PF89330   JUP 73/3*IAC 5//3*
           PF 782023           99       65    3.58  Short
 GD 8840   IAC5/NOBRE//PF 
           782023               -        -      -   Shat. resistance
 GD 88138  IAC5*2/NOBRE//PF
           782023               -        -      -   Shat. resistance 
 
 IAS 58        -               99        85   3.08  Recurrent parent
 PF 8545   FB6632/2*IAS58     101        70   3.50  Good type/spike
 PF 8776   ALD SIB/4*IAS 58   107       115   4.35  Good straw
 PF 88647  ALD SIB/4*IAS 58   106        85   3.99  Good type
 
 Jacui         -              108       100   3.36  Recurrent parent 
 PF 89333  ITL/2*Jacui                   97        90   3.98  Good straw
 PF 89334  Jacui*4/CMH 
           75A-919            112        50   3.24  Dwarf
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Note:  PF 772003 = CNT 8 Cit
        PF 782021 = CNT 10 Cit
        PF 782023 = IAC 5 Cit
   
 -------------------------
      M. I. B. de Moraes-Fernandes
 
      New Brazilian wheat cultivars.  Four new wheat cultivars from lines
 produced at EMBRAPA (National Research Center for Wheat, in Passo Fundo, Rio
 Grande do Sul and UEPAE-Dourados, in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul), were
 released for cultivation in 1991.
 
 Cultivar         Line      Cross                             State
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 BR 40-TUIUCA     MS208-84  ANAHUAC 75/HUACAMAYO SIB            MS
 BR 41-OFAIE      GD 833    BH 1146*6/ALONDRA SIB               MS
 BR 42-NAMBIQUARA PF 85634  JAPATECO 73*5//LAGOA VERMELHA*5/
                            AGATHA                              MS
 BR 43            PF 853031 PF 833007/JACUI                     RS
  -------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 Note:  MS - Mato Grosso do Sul; RS = Rio Grande do Sul.
 
      All these cultivars have a spring type and erect leaves. BR 40 is short
 while the others are intermediate (mid-tall).  BR 40, BR 41, and BR 42 are
 awned, while BR 43 is awnless. BR 41 and BR 43 are tolerant to soil acidity
 (aluminum toxicity) and susceptible to some races of Puccinia recondita
 (leaf rust), while BR 40 and 42 are susceptible to soil acidity and
 resistant to leaf rust. All of them are resistant to all races of Puccinia
 graminis tritici (stem rust) and susceptible to Erysiphe graminis tritici
 (powdery mildew), except BR 43, which is moderately resistant to powdery
 mildew.  BR 43 is the first Brazilian wheat cultivar, released in Brazil,
 which was bred through the anther culture method.
 
 -------------------------
      Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS
 
      L.J.A. Del Duca, A.M. Araujo, E.P. Gomes, L.C. Federizzi, J.F.          
      Philipousky, C.N.A. Souza, S.A. Silva and Pl.L. Scheeren
 
                   Evaluating Research Breeding Procedures
 
      A more consistent support to research activities, besides other
 favorable aspects, led to self-sufficiency in 1987, and to increased yield
 levels for the wheat crop.  Among the technologies used the genetic breeding
 performed a prominent role, enabling the release of new outstanding
 cultivars.
 
      The time, work and economic losses due to a few efficient selection
 procedures are very difficult to estimate, but would certainly have a strong
 adverse impact in a country with economic difficulties like Brazil.  A great
 number of references comparing early generations are relevant to compare
 homozygous advanced lines from different breeding methodologies.
 
      In order to obtain more efficiency in the selection procedures,
 experiments with segregating populations of wheat were conducted over the
 1978-87 period, with the objective to determine: a) the effects of natural
 selection and environmental factors on the population structure of bulk
 crosses; b) the efficiency of different breeding methods to select higher
 yielding lines with resistance to diseases and good agronomic
 characteristics; c) and the efficiency of early yield tests to identify
 populations and subpopulations from which higher yielding lines can be
 obtained.
 
      Natural selection on bulk hybrid crosses.  Natural selection affects
 both genic and genotypic frequencies, acting upon important characters like
 grain yield, test weight, plant height, and cycle maturity.  This study was
 carried out because the competition among genotypes can play a noticeable
 role, and the survival of the best agronomic plant types in heterogeneous
 bulk populations is not clear under Rio Grande do Sul conditions.  The
 better knowledge of natural selection action is essential, when bulk methods
 and their modifications are contemplated.  Five populations were analyzed
 for natural selection and the generation effect was not uniform for grain
 yield, test weight (TW), kernel weight (KW), plant height, and very early
 cycle (PP), early (P), intermediate (PT) and late cycle (T).  Natural
 selection effect was dependent on the population and parameters analyzed. 
 In order to obtain a broader interpretation, population means were compared
 in only one year (Table 1).  There was positive variation by increasing the
 generations on grain yield, TW, KW, and P cycle, and negative variation on
 plant height (short type) and PP, PT and T cycles.  The tendency of
 reduction in the number of short plants in the population can be an
 indication that natural selection does not necessarily lead to the best
 agronomic types.  However, these shifts did not show enough magnitude to
 affect the possibilities to select shorter genotypes.  The slow and
 relatively small shifts in characters like grain yield and KW, show that the
 period in which the populations were under selection could have been too
 short to concentrate superior genotypes at significant levels.   However,
 significant effects of generation were obtained for TW and P cycle, with 53
 and 73%, respectively, of the variation in the two characters explained by
 generation and natural selection.
 
 Table 1.Simple regression analysis of means of the five populations for the
 studied characters (dependent variables) and generation (independent
 variable) in 1983.
                                                                   
  Y            a       B    S(b)     P      r-sq       Y       s 
  ------------------------------------------------------------------    
 Yield       5.82    0.01   0.01    0.07    0.23     5.90    0.05
 TW (Test
 weight)     4.28    0.00   0.00    0.00    0.53     4.30    0.01
 KW (Kernel
 weight)     3.37    0.00   0.01    0.85    0.00     3.39    0.06
 Plant
  height    23.23   -0.54   0.56    0.34    0.07    20.48    3.06
 Cycle PP   30.01   -1.52   0.74    0.06    0.25    22.37    4.85
 Cycle P    27.97    2.87   0.48    0.00    0.73    42.30    4.90
 Cycle PT-T 44.27   -1.22   0.61    0.07    0.24    38.14    3.70  
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 Data obtained in the F(3-F)7 generation in 1983.
 
 Y = dependent variable; a = intercept; B = regression coefficient; S(b) =
 standard error of B; p = probability level (t-statistics); r-sq =
 coefficient of determination; Y = mean of y; s = standard
 deviation of Y.
 
      Influence of environmental parameters on the structure of bulk
 populations.  In order to formulate operational decisions, it is necessary
 to know the environmental factors that interfere in the phenotypic
 expression of selected characters.  A better comprehension of the action of
 such climatic parameters could help to improve breeding procedures.
 
      The analysis of the data obtained over the 1978-83 period clearly shows
 the environmental effect on the phenotypic expression of the studied
 characters.  The stepwise multiple regression analysis, acting together with
 generation, allowed to identify, the environmental parameters playing a more
 remarkable role (Table 2).  The significant influence of the average
 temperature in August, rainfall and solar radiation in October, as well as
 generation, accounted for, approximately 87% of the variation in grain
 yield.   Similarly, rainfall in October, average temperature in July (test
 weight-TW) or September (kernel weight-KW), and generation accounted for
 approximately 98 and 82% of the TW and KW variations, respectively.   The
 analysis among the papulation averages obtained in 1983 and the climatic
 parameters occurring in the previous generation showed a greater effect of
 generation on grain yield and TW due to the comparison of the different
 generations in a single year.  The rainfall of October affected directly the
 grain yield obtained from that generation while cycle and plant height were
 affected in the next generation.
 
 Table 2.   Stepwise regression analysis of characters studied (dependent
 variables) on generation and environmental parameters (independent
 variables) in the 1978-83 period.
                                                                             
 Y               X        X      B     B     r-sq  rsq-ad    P 
  --------------------------------------------------------------------   
 Grain yield
 Y = 5.20     Prec(10-) 212.62  -0.00 -0.43  0.56   0.13   <0.0001
 s = 0.65     Temp X(8)  14.47  -0.41 -0.51  0.86   0.10   <0.0001
              INS(10)     6.19   0.37  0.36  0.86   0.10   <0.0001
              F           4.19   0.05  0.12  0.87   0.13    0.0473
     a = 9.33
 TW (Test Weight)
 Y = 4.30     Prec(10X) 187.62  -0.00 -0.73  0.10   0.50   <0.0001
 s = 0.03     Temp  7    12.23   0.02  0.63  0.95   0.29   <0.0001
              F           4.08   0.00  0.19  0.98   0.02   <0.0001
     a = 4.05
 KW (Kernel weight)
 Y = 3.30     Prec(10-) 212.61  -0.00 -0.71  0.57   0.48   <0.0001
 s = 0.21     Temp X(9)  14.68  -0.07 -0.47  0.76   0.21   <0.0001
              F           4.19  -0.04 -0.26  0.82   0.06   <0.0002
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
     a = 4.92
                                                                     
 
 * Data obtained in g/plot and transformed in log(e)(correction factor for
 yield = 5.56) - average for the five replications.        
 Y = dependent variable (grain yield; test weight; kernel weight); X =
 independent variables (Prec(10) = amount of rainfall in (ctober; Temp. X(7),
 X(8m), X(9)= temperatures averages/July, August, September; INS(10) = dairy
 solar radiation average/October; F = generation; X = average of X; Y =
 average of Y; a = intercept; s = standard deviation of Y; B = regression
 coefficient; B = standardized regression coefficient; r-sq= sequential R-
 squared; rsq-ad = the amount that would be added to (or removed from) R-
 squared if this variable were included in (or removed from) the model; P =
 probability level for t-test.
 
      Pedigree and modified bulk methods comparisons.  Considering the
 methods used to breed wheat in Brazil, the pedigree method has predominated
 in most research institutions.  However, over the last years, some programs
 have conducted the populations under more than one system or processed deep
 modifications in the methodology of selection.  
      
      These changes could be due to attempts to save time and labor or a
 consequence of insecurity regarding the adequate methodology for specific
 conditions of selection in the different regions.  Inadequate selection
 procedures can reduce the effect of efforts on the selection of superior
 genotypes.
 
      The efficiency of six selection methods was evaluated using eight
 segregating populations. The six methods were: (1) pedigree; (2) modified
 bulk; (3) natural selection under low density; (4) natural selection under
 normal density; (5) bulk method with grain selection; (6) bulk method with
 clipping of the taller plants.  By comparing the methods through the
 selected lines, significant differences were observed among the populations
 for all the characteristics evaluated in the F7 and F8 generations: grain
 yield, test weight (TW), kernel weight (KW), cycle, plant height, reaction
 to diseases, and kernel score (KN).   These differences occurred among
 methods for grain yield, plant height, reaction to disease and cycle,
 identifying characters that can be more efficiently used, depending on the
 adopted selection procedure.  Significant interactions among populations and
 methods were observed for most of the parameters evaluated, characterizing
 differential response of populations to the methods employed.
 
      Methods 1 and 2 showed the best performance on the averages of the
 lines for grain yield, while method 5 showed the worst (Table 3) result. 
 Nevertheless, considering only the line with the highest grain yield, method
 6 also was outstanding.  This method produced lines with shorter plants,
 while method 5 produced lines with the tallest and the latest plants.  No
 significant differences were observed among methods for TW and KW.  Method 1
 showed the best performance in relation to diseases, and method 5 had the
 worst.  
 
      Greater progress on characteristics such as grain yield and plant
 height was obtained by methods that used artificial selection (1, 2 and 6)
 in relation to those where only natural selection was employed (3 and 4). 
 Natural selection pressure seems to be weaker than artificial selection to
 promote remarkable shifts in wheat plant adaptability.  The constant
 selection pressure, such as on characters like plant height, was efficient
 and may have promoted a genetic gain for grain yield.  On the other hand,
 grain selection apparently strengthened unfavorable effects of the natural
 selection, leading to more competitive and lower yielding genotypes.
 
       Considering the results, it seems unreasonable to look upon the
 possibility of more generalized use of method 2, alone or in combination
 with methods 1 and 6.
 
 Table 3. Comparison of the effects of six selection methods on five          
    studied characters in the F8 selected lines (LM) from eight            
 segregant populations.  CNPT, Passo Fundo, RS, 1987.
                                                                   
                                      Lines means (LM)             
                         Grain Yield    
                               % rela-    Test   Kernel
                                tive to  weight  weight        Plant
                       (kg/      CNT8      TW     KW   Cycle  height
 Methods           N    ha)    (check)   (kg/ha)  (g)   (days)  (cm)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 Pedigree          95  3.617  115.3A  74.1A   31.4A  104.4AB  90.0A
 Bulk modified     33  3.754  116.2A  74.7A   31.4A  101.3BC  89.7A
 Nat'l selection   12  3.463  109.9AB 74.3A   31.2A  105.4AB  93.3A
   - LD
 Nat'l selection   18  3.411  107.4BC 75.3A   31.4A  103.8AB  93.9A
   - ND
 Bulk method with  10  3.115   97.2D  75.8A   29.4A  106.2A   94.5A
   grain selection
 Bulk method with  19  3.181  102.3CD 73.7A   29.8C   98.8C   81.8B
   dipping
 Duncan 5%
 CV (%)               15.39    15.44   4.4    10.6     6.0     8.9  
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 N = number of the evaluated lines for each method; Means with a column
 followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P = 0.05,
 according to Duncan's test; CNT 8 - check cultivar in all trials (randomized
 block design); Cycle = days to flowering; LM = means of lines studied; LD =
 low density; ND = normal density.
 
      Early generation tests on bulk populations and derived subpopulations. 
 In Brazil, the yield tests for wheat cultivar selection are normally carried
 out after the lines are bulked (from F7 or F8 generations) and show good
 uniformity for practical purposes.  Before these tests are performed, visual
 selections are realized in the first generations, although references about
 low efficiency of such procedures are reported.  However, the among-lines
 variability in the most advanced generations is reduced and promising
 segregants visually classified as poor can be lost.  Early yield tests could
 be an alternative solution, because most of the variability would still be
 present.  Furthermore, it would allow us to reduce the number of populations
 and to concentrate on more promising genotypes, in spite of the problems
 represented by the low heritability of the grain yield character and the
 climatic instability prevailing in the state of Rio Grande do Sul.
 
     To estimate the efficiency of selecting lines with higher grain yield,
 early yield test were performed in 13 bulk populations and derived
 subpopulations.  The highly significant differences observed on grain yield
 and kernel weight (KW) among selected F4 genotypes (high and low yields) and
 between F4 and F8 generations identify comparisons that could be used as
 selection criteria in early yield tests.
 
     The interaction cross x type, cross x generation, and cross x type x
 generation were significant for all evaluated characters.  However, the type
 x generation interaction was not significant for grain yield and KW, showing
 that the selected types had a consistent performance in all the generations
 evaluated.
 
     By comparing F4 with F8 and F9 generations, the population means seem to
 indicate that effective gains were obtained by reselection within
 subpopulations, and that efficiency appeared to be obtained in
 discriminating F4 genotypes according to their grain yield potential.
 
     Significant and positive associations between the generations among 78
 subpopulations and lines for grain yield were obtained in all but one
 comparison.  The highest phenotypic correlation coefficients among different
 generations in the same year in relation to the same generation in different
 years for grain yield and KW, indicate that the environmental influence must
 be greatly considered when decisions for early yield tests are made,
 especially under unstable environments like those in the State of Rio Grande
 do Sul.  The lack of association or low values of the correlation
 coefficients among subpopulations and lines with the bulk populations for
 grain yield and test weight (TW) lead to the hypothesis of the inefficiency
 of bulk population evaluations for these parameters.  Highly significant
 associations were observed for KW, and in contrast with those for grain
 yield, the correlations with bulk populations were generally high. 
 Therefore, bulk population tests do not seem to be indicated for grain
 yield, but could be useful for KW.
 
 
     In spite of the low associations found in bulk populations for grain yield
 tests, higher and significant correlations among F4 subpopulations and F8 or
 F9 advanced lines, can be considered to be an encouraging result, since they
 imply the possibility of the breeder reducing the number or size of the
 populations in order to concentrate in the best subpopulations.
 
      An alternative wheat ecoideotype for Southern Brazil.  In the Southern
 of Brazil regions that comprise the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa
 Catarina, and southern-Center of Parana, serious damages from erosion,
 fertility losses and environmental contamination negatively interfere in the
 economy and ecological balance.  This occurs particularly in periods that
 the soil is uncovered, after soybean harvest (March-April) and before
 planting the winter crops (from June in most areas) or in fallow areas. 
 Depending on harvesting and planting dates specified, there is a period from
 one to two months of soil exposure to losses caused by rains.  Furthermore,
 rainfall in the most preferred periods to sow can delay the soil preparation
 and sowing activities, especially in higher clay-soils.
 
     Besides soil considerations, some farmers have anticipated the sowing due
 to increased grain yields, lower disease incidence and consequently higher
 economic return of fungicides.  This is encouraged by some farmer's
 cooperatives that have required the anticipation of sowing date. 
 Nevertheless, this practice, using the available cultivars, implies high
 risks of losses caused by frosts.
 
     The different problems and difficulties to be solved (as soil
 conservation, nutrient losses, ecological equilibrium, better plant
 development, frost losses, increasing grain yield potential, diversification
 of cultivars and sowing dates, utilization for double purpose, adaptation to
 wheat-soybean succession) lead to a comprehensive view trying to gather the
 solutions, anticipating the sowing time and by the conception of an
 alternative ecoideotype for the crop.
 
     By obtaining cultivars adapted to early sowing, with a long vegetative
 phase and a short reproductive phase and with good agronomic type and
 resistance to prevalent diseases, it would be possible to:  a) reduce soil
 losses caused by erosion and smaller nutrient losses due to a better soil
 covering; b) increase grain yield potential due to better crop development
 (increasing root development and best agronomic type) and to the possibility
 of enhancing nitrogen absorption, resulting from extending the vegetative
 phase; c) escape the frost damage at flowering, due to extending the
 vegetative stage; d) fit the wheat-soybean succession as a consequence of
 the shorter flowering-maturity stage; e) reduce grain yield losses and
 achieve greater stability in crop production, due to the diversification of
 cultivars and periods of sowing; f) favor potential use of wheat cultivars
 for double purpose (pasture and grain), only made feasible by anticipated
 sowing and by delaying the ear initiation, and making possible the
 enlargement of the pasture period during the winter months when nourishment
 needs are critical.
 
     Certain genotypes from the southeast areas of the USA (lines from Georgia,
 Florida, and Coker, especially C762) are particularly adapted and suitable
 for the objectives described.   Therefore, this germplasm has been used
 extensively in crosses, and derived populations are being selected in a
 specific breeding project.
 
 -------------------------
 Unidade de jExecucao de Pesquisa de Ambito Estadual de Dourados, EMBRAPA-
 UEPAE de Dourados. MS
 
 A. C. P. Goulart and F. de A. Paiva
 
         Control of brown spot (Helminthosporium sativum) and blast
                      (Pyricularia oryzae in wheat)
 
      The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of several
 fungicides in the control of brown spot (Helminthosporium sativum) and blast
 (Pyricularia oryzae) in wheat, under field conditions, in 1990.  For brown
 spot, the  cultivar used was IAPAR 6-Tapejara and for blast, Anahuac.  The
 fungicides spraying were made with CO(2), presurrized-sprayer (rate of flow-
 240 l/ha).  The best control of brown spot was obtained with propiconazole
 and tebuconazole, followed by mancozeb + flusilazole, flusilazole and
 flutriafol.  These fungicides reduced more than 92% of brown spot symptoms. 
 The propiconazole (62.5 g a.i./ha) and propiconazole + cancozeb (62.5 +
 2,000 g a.i./ha) gave lower control than propiconazole (125 g a.i./ha). 
 Best results on the control of wheat blast were obtained with tricyclazole +
 mancozeb (44% of control efficiency), tricyclazole (38%), fembuconazole
 (38%), fembuconazole + mancozeb (37%) and tebuconazole (31%).  In general,
 treatments with mancozeb showed lowest percentage of spikelets infected. 
 Higher yields were obtained with the fungicide treatments for both diseases.
 
                                Publications
 
 Goulart, A.C.P., and Paiva, F. de A.  Controle da helmintosporiose do trigo
 pela aplicacao foliar de fungicidas.  In: Reuniao Nacional de Pesquiza De
 Trigo, 16, Dourados, 1991.  Resumos: Dourados, EMBRAPA-UEPAE Dourados, 1991. 
 p. 88.
 
 Goulart, A.C.P, and Paiva, F. de A.  Chemical control of wheat blast
 (Pyricularia oryzae).  In: International Plant Protection Congress, 12, Rio
 de Janeiro, 1991.  Contributed papers: oral and poster sessions programs and
 abstracts.  s.l., 1991.  n.p.
 
 -------------------------
      Incidence of fungi in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds produced in
                  Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, 1990
 
      Samples of wheat seeds of several cultivars, from six counties
 (Dourados, Itapora, Amambai, Maracaju, Ponta Pora and Rio Brilhante) were
 analyzed using the blotter test, with the aim to determine the fungi
 incidence in wheat seeds produced in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil,
 during 1990.  Twenty-eight genera of fungi were detected.  The most
 prevalent fungus and the most important pathogen associated with the seeds
 was Helminthosporium sativum, detected in 100% of the analyzed samples.  The
 average incidence of H. sativum in the seeds was 27.1% (min = 20.5%; max =
 95.5%).  P. oryzae was registered in 8% of the analyzed samples, in low
 levels with average of 0.4%.  Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were
 detected at high levels.  Fungi of Fusarium genera were detected in 36% of
 the analyzed samples, with average of 5.2%.
 
                                Publication
 
 Goulart, A.C.P. and Paiva, F. de A.  Fungos associados as sementes de trigo
 (Triticum aestivum L.) produzidas em Mato Grosso do Sul, 1990.  In:
 Congresso Brasileiro de Sementes, 7, Campo Grande, MS.  Resumo dos trabalhos
 tecnicos.  Brasilia, Abrates, 1991.  p. 56.
 
 -------------------------
 Wheat seeds chemical treatment for the control of Helminthosporium sativum
                           and Pyricularia oryzae
 
     The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of fungicides
 applied as seed dressing in the control of Helminthosporium sativum and
 Pyricularia oryzae.  In lab (blotter test) and field tests, seeds of the
 cultivar "Anahuac" with 9% and 60% of natural contamination with P. oryzae
 and H. sativum, respectively, were used.  All chemical treatments reduced
 the incidence of both pathogens in the seeds.  Iprodione + thiram, carboxin
 + thiram, guazatine + imazalil, iminoctadine, prochloraz and carboxin +
 prochloraz were the best in the control of P. oryzae, eliminating this
 pathogen on the treated seeds.  The best control of H. sativum in the seeds
 was obtained with iprodione + thiram, guazatine + imazailil, iminoctadine,
 NF-128 and NF-114.  In the field, besides these fungicides, CGA-169374
 (difenoconazole), prochloraz, tebuconazole + tolyfluanid and triadimenol
 were the best for controlling H. sativum.  P. oryzae was not detected on the
 seedling in the field.
 
 
                                Publication
 
 Goulart, A.C.P. and Paiva, F. de A.  Control of Helminthosporium sativum and
 Pyricularia oryzae by wheat seed treatment.  In: International Plant
 Protection Congress, 12, Rio de Janeiro, 1991.  Contributed papers: oral and
 poster sessions programs and abstracts. s.l., 1991.  n.p.
 
 -------------------------
     Efficiency of several fungicides in the wheat seeds chemical treatments
                with different levels of Helminthosporium sativum
 
      This work was carried out with the aim to determine the level of
 Helminthosporium sativum in wheat seeds that justify the seed chemical
 treatment.  In lab (blotter test) and greenhouse tests (growing on test),
 seeds of cv. "Anahuac" with eight natural contamination levels of H. sativum
 (3.0; 11.5; 16.0; 29.5; 33.5; 46.0; 53.7 and 70.0%) were used.  The
 fungicides and dose (g a.i./100 kg of seeds) evaluated were as follows: 
 iprodione + thiram, 50 + 150; iprodione, 50; thiram, 210; tebuconazole, 5;
 carboxin + thiram, 94 + 94 and iminoctadine, 62.5, besides the control
 untreated.  The efficiency of fungicide in lab, emergency, transmission and
 number of source primary inoculum/ha were evaluated.  The best results were
 obtained with the fungicides iprodione + thiram and iminoctadein.  These
 fungicides erradicating the pathogen when the seeds showed maximum level of
 29.5%; above this level, the fungus was not controlled completely.  When the
 seeds were treated with chemicals, the emergency was affected when the level
 was higher than 33.5% of H. sativum; without the fungicides, this level was
 29.5%, with the germination decaying below of standard.  The transmission of
 the pathogen was demonstrated by its stablishment on the coleoptils.  The
 transmission index was variable (average = 1.6:1), with higher values
 corresponding to higher seed contamination indices.
 
                                Publication
 
 Goulart, A.C.P. and Paiva, F. de A.  Efficiencia de alguns fungicidas no
 tratamento quimico de sementes de trigo com difedrentes niveis de
 Helminthosporium sativum.  In: Reuniao Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo, 16,
 Dourados, 1991.  Resumos...Dourados, EMBRAPA-UEPAE Dourados, 1991.  p. 97.
 
 
 -------------------------
          Association of Helminthosporium sativum with wheat seeds 
                             with "black point"
 
      This work was done with the aim to evaluate the acting degree of
 Helminthosporium sativum in the darken process of wheat seeds and their
 effects on emergency, germination and incidence on coleoptils.  Lab tests
 (blotter test and germination) and greenhouse tests (growing on test) were
 made, using five samples of seeds of the cultivars BR 20 L-64, BR 20 L-69,
 BR 20-R, BR 31 L-109 and BR 31 L-112.  These samples were classified in
 three categories: N (Normal = samples of seeds with and without "black
 point"; Ne (neat) = samples of seeds without "black point" and BP (black
 point) = samples of seeds with "black point".  In average, considering the
 five cultivars analyzed, was observed that 95% of darken process ("black
 point") in wheat seeds is caused by H. sativum.  The number of seedlings
 with H. sativum was always bigger in the seed category "BP". The
 transmission of the pathogen from seeds to wheat coleoptils was detected in
 all cultivars and category, with higher values corresponding to higher seed
 contamination indices.  The germination and emergency decreased due to the
 increase of incidence of H. sativum in the seeds.  Correlation coefficient
 (r = 0.80, in average) was observed among seeds with "black point" and
 occurrence of H. sativum in the seeds and transmission of pathogen. 
 Correlation coefficient (r = 0.75, in average) was registered among seeds
 with "black point", germination and emergency.
 
 TABLE 1.   Incidence of Helminthosporium sativum, seedlings with 
            H. sativum, transmission and rate of transmission, emergency
            in greenhouse and germination in laboratory, of different
            cultivars and of 5 replications).  EMBRAPA-UEPAE de 
            Dourados, MS, 1990.
 
 Incidence of      Seedlings                                   Emergency  
 H. sativum (%)    with H.      Transmission    Rate of          in green-  
 (blotter rate)    sativum (%)      (%)        transmission      house(%)   
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 N* Ne** BP***     N  Ne  BP     N  Ne  BP     N    Ne    BP     N  Ne  BP 
 54  49  95        25 20  51     50 49  55  2.2:1  2.4:1 1.9:1   61 71  47
  
 
 Germination
 in labora-
 tory (%)
  -----------
 N  Ne  BP
 67 75  54
 
 *N - Normal;  **Ne - Neat;  ***BP - Black point.
 
 
                                Publication
 
 Goulart, A.C.P., and Paiva, F. de A.  Associacao de Helminthosporium sativum
 com sementes de trigo com "ponta preta".  In: REUNIAO NATIONAL DE PESQUISA
 DE TRIGO, 16, Dourados, 1991.  Resumos ... Dourados, EMBRPAPA-UEPAE
 Dourados, 1991.  p. 85.
 
 -------------------------
        Response of wheat cultivars due the blast (Pyricularia oryzae)
                            in field conditions
 
      The objective of this work was to evaluate the reponse of wheat
 cultivars due the blast (Pyricularia oryzae) in field conditions.  The
 experiment was conducted at Itapora county, Mato Grosso do Sul State,
 Brazil, in 1990.  The evaluations were made in laboratory and only the
 spikes that showed the characteristic blast symptoms (infection black point
 in the rachis) were considered infected.  The cultivars were classified
 using the following scale which was related with percentage of blanched
 heads: R (resistant) = 1 to 5%; MR (moderately resistant) = 6 to 25%; MS
 (moderately susceptible) = 26 to 50%; S (susceptible) = 51 to 75% and HS
 (highly susceptible) = more than 75%. The results obtained showed different
 behavior among the cultivars.  Only the cv. BH 1146 was resistant (R).  The
 cultivars BR 18-Terena and BR 21-Nhandeva were moderately resistant (MR) and
 the cultivars IAC 18-Xavantes, BR 30-Cadiueu, BR 20-Guato and IAC 5-Maringa
 were moderately susceptible (MS).  The cutivars BR 17-Caiua, BR 29-Javae, BR
 11-Guarani and BR 31-Miriti were susceptibles (S).  The cultivars highly
 susceptibles (HS), with more than 90% of blanched heads were: IAPAR 6-
 Tapejara, BR 10-Formosa, IAPAR 17-Caete, IAC 24-Tucurui, INIA 66, IAC 13-
 Lorena, Jupateco 73, Anahuac, OCEPAR 7-Batuira and Cocoraque.   The
 correlation analysis showed a correlation coefficient (r = 0.70) among
 spikes with P. oryzae and yield.
 
 
 TABLE 1. Percentage of blanched heads (Pyricularia oryzae), type of response
 and yield of wheat. EMBRAPA-UEPAE de Dourados, MS, 1990.
 
                   Blanched        
 Cultivar          heads*           Type of       Yield 
                   (%)             response**    (kg/ha)
  ---------------------------------------------------------
 BHl 1146           4.7 f              R       3,043 def
 BR 18-Terena      24.0 e             MR       4,604 a
 BR 21-Nhandeva    25.0 e             MR       4,155 ab
 IAC 18-Xavantes   42.0 d             MS       3,412 bcde
 BR 30-Cadiueu     45.6 cd            MS       4,020 abc
 BR 20-Guato       48.7 cd            MS       3,319 cde
 IAC 5-Maringa     49.6 cd            MS       3,071 def
 BR 17-Caiua       58.0 bc             S       3,314 cde
 BR 29-Javae       64.7 b              S       3,476 bcde
 BR 11-Guarani     67.0 b              S       3,912 abc
 BR 31-Miriti      72.3 b              S       3,720 bcd
 IAPAR 6-Tapejara  91.6 a             HS       2,078 g
 BR 10-Formosa     92.3 a             HS       2,387 fg
 IAPAR 17-Caete    93.0 a             HS       2,276 fg
 IAC 24-Tucurui    93.7 a             HS       2,350 fg
 INIA 66           93.7 a             HS       2,201 g
 IAC 13-Lorena     95.0 a             HS       2,137 g
 Jupateco 73       95.3 a             HS       2,196 g
 Anahuac           96.3 a             HS       2,039 g
 OCEPAR 7-Batuira  97.0 a             HS       2,087 g
 Cocoraque         98.3 a             HS       2,154 g
  --------------------------------------------------------
 * Transformation used: arc sen sqrt(x/100). ** R = resistant; MR =
 moderately resistant; MS = moderately susceptible; S = susceptible; HS =
 highly susceptible. Means followers by the same letter are not significantly
 different (Duncan, 5 %).
 
                                Publication
 
 Goulart, A.C.P. and Paiva, F. de A.  Reacao de cultivares de trigo a brusone
 (Pyricularia oryzae) en campo.  In" REUNIAO NACIONAL DE PESQUISA DE TRIGO,
 16, Dourados, 1991.  Resumos...Dourados, EMBRAPA-UEPAE Dourados, 1991.  p.
 116.
 -------------------------
                            ITEMS FROM BULGARIA
 
      Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, 4122 Sadovo-Plovdiv
 
      V. Vassilev
 
      Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens (PSA) and Fusarium culmorum (FC)
 cause the most harmful diseases of the group of facultative pathogens in
 Bulgaria.  We have evaluated the infectivity titration and checked the "dose
 response" type reaction since 1982.  The median effective dose (Ed(50)) at
 which 50% of the inoculated plants exhibited a sensitive reaction, was
 calculated by the method of moving acreages. Ear scab (FC) was estimated
 twice-first appearance of symptoms (7-10th day) and secondary spreading of
 the disease (30-40th day) before the yellowing of ears.  We counted the
 necrotic spikelets and the total number of ear spikelets atomized with
 fungus.  The controls were treated with sterilized distilled water.  ED(50)
 at which 50% of the spikelets were infected, was calculated by the
 regression analysis (Vassilev & Dechevska 1989) for the first and second
 estimations.  The evaluation of wheat resistance to the corresponding
 pathogens was made by comparing ED50.  Our results confirm the quantitative
 character of wheat resistance to the studied facultative pathogens.  In the
 wheat-PSA and whet-FC systems, irrespective of the different methods of
 inoculation - either PSA infection or FC spraying, the relative frequency of
 the infected plants or spikelets increases with the increase of the inoculum
 level.  The advantages of the injection are in the precise inoculum dosage,
 the certainty in the infective process, and less dependence on the
 environment factors.  Its disadvantage lies in the breaking of resistance
 barriers before the realization of the infective process, i.e., only the
 active plant resistance is observed.  The FC spraying allows the rating of
 the primary fungal penetration into the wheat tissue as well as the
 secondary spreading of the disease development.   The process is highly
 dependent on the environment factors, and it is more difficult to spray
 uniform inoculum amounts.  The variability is compensated for by the
 increased number of the tested plants - 10 to 15 plants at infection vs. 600
 to 1000 spikelets at spraying.
 
      The methods applied allowed us to precisely evaluate the resistance of
 cultivars used.  Their estimations coincide with their reaction to the
 corresponding pathogens at a slight, moderate and severe natural attack by
 PSA and FC in the field.  They give the possibility to check a sufficient
 number of accessions in all phases of the selection process.
 
                                REFERENCES
 
 Vassilev, V. and Dechevska, M.   1989.  Evaluation of the quantitative
 resistance of winter soft wheat cultivars to fusariose in the ears through
 infectivity titration with Fusarium culmorum.  Plant Science 26(7):74-80.
 
 Vassilev, V.  1990.  On the quantitative evaluation of wheat resistance to
 facultative pathogens.  Genetics and Breeding 23(5):409-415.
 
 -------------------------
      K. Malkov Institute of Introduction and Plant Genetic Resources -       
      Sadovo
 
      D. Boyadjieva
 
      Bread wheat breeding programme.  The wheat breeding work in Sadovo was
 started during early 1900.  At first it was at Sadovdo agricultural
 experimental station and since 1979 in IIPGR.  Some valuable traditions of
 the past has been inherited.  Many practical cultivars were created.
 
      The wheat production in Bulgaria is basically formed by Bulgarian
 cultivars and 40% of them are IIPGR cultivars.  As a result of these created
 and introduced into production during the last 20 years, the average yields
 have increased by 14 t/ha.  The highest average yield for the country was
 47.7t/ha obtained in 1988 when according to FAO's information about European
 countries having considerable wheat areas,  Bulgaria ranks fourth after
 England, Germany and France. IIPGR - Sadovo cultivars in production now are: 
 Sadovo-1, Katya, Pobeda and Momchil.  Sadovo-1 is one of the basic
 cultivars.  It covers one fifth of the wheat sown areas and it is a complex
 standard.  Pobeda is a strong wheat, flour improver and a standard for
 strong wheats.  IIPGR cultivars have a great ecological plasticity.  The
 results from the IWWPN are proof for that, where Sadovo-1, Sadovo-super and
 Katya have taken leading positions.
 
      Breeding methods.  Basic method in breeding work is intervarietal
 hybridization.  During the past two decades through this method were
 consecutively created the cultivars: "SADOVSKA RANOZREIKA", "NADEZDA-2",
 "SADOVO-1", "SADOVO SUPER", "LADA", "KATYA", "MOMCHIL", and "BONONIA".  
 Some cultivars from European selections participate in the hybridization
 program:  Russia, Great Britain, France, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia,
 as well as cultivars from Mexico, USA and other countries.  A great role was
 especially played by Russian cultivars.  Hybrids between two cultivars are
 also used, as well as backcross hybridization with a third parent or more
 complicated schemes of hybridization.
 
 
      Basic achievements in wheat breeding through these methods are -
 cultivars having great productive potentials like Sadovo-1, Katya, Sadovo
 Super and Bononia.  The productive potential of these cultivars is 100-120
 t/ha; cultivars having very good technological properties, suitable for
 independent baking like: Sadovo-1, Katya, Bononia and strong wheats like
 Momchil and Pobeda; cultivars having high drought resistance and wide
 adaptive possibilities like Sadovo-1, Katya, etc; cultivars having excellent
 cold resistance, nearing the level of Bezostaya are Sadodo-1, Momchil.
 
      The remote hybridization is used in parallel to this.  Intensive work
 has been carried out especially on crossing of T. sphaerococcum with T.
 aestivum and tetraploid species T. durum  and T. dicoccum.   As a result of
 complex interspecific hybridization, Pobeda cultivar was selected.  It has
 the best cold resistance in comparison with all other Bulgarian wheats. 
 Other modern methods are also used: experimental mutagenesis with
 hybridization, amphiploidy, anther and embryo cultures.  The productivity of
 120-150 t/ha and, creation of cultivars resistant to economically most
 important diseases, leaf and stem rust, powdery mildew, loose smut fusarium
 and basal glume in wheat, etc.  In this connection some sources are
 discovered for resistance to these diseases.  For the first time in our
 country we identified wheat dwarf virus and streak mosaic in wheat and the
 agent of the basal glume.  We also create drought resistant, winter and cold
 resistant cultivrs.  These physiological examinations are oriented to
 solution of the most actual problems in the country: drought influence on
 the wheat yields.  The influence of the soil drought upon a number of
 physiological processes connected with productivity are studied. Another
 trend is studying the winter and cold resistance of triticale and other
 wheat cultivars.
 
      We also create high baking quality cultivars.  An assessment is
 performed on the grain and flour properties in the laboratory "Grain
 Technology", which provides a possibility for a purposeful screening when
 creating high technological quality cultivars.
 
      Harvest index as a criterian of selection for productivity.  A study of
 the harvest index including P1, P2, F1, F2, F3 and F4 of the crosses Sadovo
 1 x Hobbit, C-885 x Mini Mano and 2Fr x K 660 was made during 1985-1989. 
 Selection effectiveness of the harvest index was assessed by use of mean
 values for the groups with lowest (L) and highest (H) value (Alexander et
 al., 1984), by the realized heritability (Falconer 1960), and by the
 significant differences between groups with H and L value of the character
 in F2 and the following F3 and F4 generations.
 
      It was found that the harvest index could be a promising criterion of
 selection of higher producing forms, mainly in crosses between cultivars
 with contrasting plant height.  Taking into account that in dry years, which
 limit normal grain filling, the harvest index cannot distinguish the forms
 of differing in productivity, it should not be recommended as the only
 criterion of selection for productivity in hybrid generations, but should be
 used in combination with direct selection for grain yield.
 
      The bread wheat breeding program personnel are:
           B. Boyadjieva, Ph.D., DSc - wheat breeder by intervarietal
                hybridization
           I. Stankov, PhD., DSc - wheat breeder by intervarietal and
                interspecies hybridization and triticale
           Iv. Govedarov, Ph.D. - wheat breeder by intervarietal
                hybridization
           P. Boyadjiev, Ph.D.  - wheat breeder by anther and embryo
                cultures
           G. Rachovska - wheat breeder by mutagenesis
           As. Dimov, Ph.D., DSc - Phytopathologist
           P.  Stankova, Ph.D. - Physiologist
           V. Vassilev, Ph.D. - Phytopathologist
           M. Mangova - grain technologist
 
 -------------------------
                            ITEMS FROM CANADA
 
            Prairie Wheat Variety Survey and Production
 
      The 1991 Prairie Wheat Variety Survey was conducted jointly by Alberta
 Wheat Pool, Manitoba Pool Elevators and Saskatchewan Wheat Pool.  Percentage
 of area is indicated with the 1991 figures in brackets.
 
      Common - Katepwa 37.3 (44.3), Neepawa 11.4 (13.5), Columbus 14.5
 (16.1), Conway 4.6 (4.4), Park 1.5 (1.9), Laura 15.6 (9.5), Roblin 5.7
 (4.3), Leader 1.0 (0.9), Kenyon 0.2 (0.7), Biggar 3.3 (0.5), Genesis 1.6
 (0.9), Lancer 1.2 (0.9), Glenlea 0.7 (0.3), Oslo 0.2 (0.1), unlicensed 0.5
 (0.5), and others 0.8 (1.0) of 12.3 (11.1) million hectares.
 
      Durum - Kyle 52.2 (47.0), Wakooma 11.3 ( 16.3), Medora 9.1 (12.3),
 Wascana 9.4 (9.0), Sceptre 11.3 (8.8), Arcola 2.1 (2.5), Pelissier 3.6
 (2.2), Coulter 0.1 (0.9), and others 0.9 (1.0) of 2.05 (2.26) million
 hectares.
 
      Winter -Norstar 95.9 (95.0), Norwin 2.9 (3.2), others 1.2 (1.8) of 0.07
 (.15) million hectares.
 
      Statistics Canada's November estimates of 1991 wheat production on the
 prairies:
 
                                  1000 Hectares  1000 Metric Tonnes
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
   Manitoba            Spring        2124.0           4682.0
        		      Durum          113.0            253.0
                       Winter           8.1             19.1
 
   Saskatchewan        Spring        7082.0           15131.0
                       Durum         1578.0           3592.0
                       Winter          32.4             65.3
 
   Alberta             Spring        2913.0            7213.0
                       Durum          308.0            751.0
                       Winter          36.4             93.0
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------                                        
 -------------------------
 ALBERTA
           
      Agriculture Canada Research Station, Lethbridge
           
      Breeding for Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance in Soft White Spring
 Wheat. - R. S. Sadasivaiah
 
      Pre-harvest sprouting is one of the major agronomic limitations
 associated with soft white spring wheat production in southern Alberta. 
 Lack of dormancy in soft white spring wheat cultivars contributes to
 widespread sprouting when prolonged periods of rain delay harvest. 
 Increased alpha-amylase activity accompanies sprouting and detrimentally
 affects the grade, marketability, milling and baking quality of wheat, thus
 affecting the net return to the producer.  The major soft white spring wheat
 cultivar Fielder, grown extensively in southern Alberta, is highly
 susceptible to sprouting.  In 1985, for example, about 80% of the harvested
 soft wheat crop in southern Alberta was downgraded to feed grade.  Pre-
 harvest sprouting resistance has thus become one of the major objectives of
 the soft white spring wheat breeding program at Lethbridge.
 
      Pre-harvest sprouting in cereals is a complex trait involving a number
 of factors such as seed dormancy, starch sensitivity, alpha-amylase
 synthesis, response to gibberellic acid, physical characteristics of the
 spike etc.  However, breeders usually have associated pre-harvest sprouting
 resistance with dormancy. In wheat, although seed dormancy appears to be
 closely associated with red grain color, the findings of several workers
 indicate that the white-grained wheats also possess varying degrees of
 sprouting resistance.  This suggests that dormancy can be effected by
 factors
 
 independent of the red kernel color loci.  Grain dormancy identified in
 white-kernelled wheats may thus provide the basis for wheat improvement
 programs where pre-harvest sprouting resistance is considered.
 
      In the breeding program at Lethbridge, the white-grained spring wheat
 cultivars Kenya 321, Ford, 8021V2 (DePauw, Swift Current Research Station)
 and RL 4555 (Czarnecki, Winnipeg Research Station) have been used as sources
 of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting.  Although these cultivars seem to be
 useful as sources of dormancy among white-kernelled wheats, their agronomic
 performance and kernel quality are inferior.  Hence they are used either in
 backcross programs as donors, non-recurrent parents or in three or four-way
 crosses with adapted parents.  A number of promising lines with moderate
 resistance to pre-harvest sprouting (based on rain simulator studies) have
 been developed following both backcross and modified pedigree breeding
 methods.  Studies are currently underway to evaluate the agronomic and
 quality traits, and the level of pre-harvest sprouting resistance in these
 lines as determined by the Hagberg falling number and alpha-amylase
 activities.  Promising lines identified in the study will be useful as
 potential cultivars or as germplasm in the soft wheat breeding program.
 
 -------------------------
    University of Alberta, Dept of Plant Science, Edmonton
 
    The following two items will be of interest to wheat researchers sending
 wheat samples to Canada - K. G. Briggs
 
      Item 1.  Code of Ethics for Plant Breeders and Operators of Co-
 operative cultivar tests of small grains, oilseeds and special crops (Canada
 Committee on Grain Breeding, 1987)
 
      The mutual interests of all engaged in cultivar development are served
 by a climate which engenders the greatest freedom of communication and
 exchange of breeding material, while at the same time providing adequate
 safeguards to the originator of the material.  It is the desire of all
 breeding institutions to receive credit for their discoveries and to
 recognize the discoveries of other institutions, both privately and publicly
 funded.  For this reason, the breeders and institutions which enter lines
 into the co-operative cultivar tests in order to obtain data for the
 registration of new crop cultivars subscribe to the following code of
 conduct:
 
 1.  We recognize the existence of the genetic property which belongs to the
 "breeder" who is free to do as he wishes with his property.
 
 2.  Breeders, and co-operators shall respect the property rights of the
 originator of any material that comes into their possession.
 
 3.  Unregistered plant strains in co-operative trials, may be used in a
 breeding program only with the written consent of the breeder.
 
 4.  No secondary distribution or seed increase of unregistered cultivars can
 be made without the expressed written approval of the breeder.
 
 5.  Reasonable precautions to ensure retention, recovery, and disposal of
 plant material at harvest shall be taken.
 
 6.  Once a cultivar has been marketed it is in the public domain and can be
 used freely as genetic material (unless restricted by Patents or contractual
 agreements).
 
 7.  Use of proprietary varieties for germplasm will be limited to making
 crosses and can be used as either the male or female parent unless
 specifically limited by the originator.
 
 8.  The isolation and any use of parental lines of hybrids is not ethical.
 
 9.  The re-selection of self-pollinated cultivars is not considered as
 breeding as is no ethical.
 
      Item 2.  New Canadian Import System for Seed for Plant Breeding
 Purposes and for Plant Gene Resources of Canada (September, 1991).
 
      1.    Introduction.  This memorandum describes the import system which
 regulates the importation of seed intended for plant breeding purposes and
 seed required to service the gene bank of the Plant Gene Resources of Canada
 (PGRC), Research Branch, Ottawa.
 
      A special procedure is developed to expedite the entry of valuable germ
 plasm for use by plant breeders and the PGRC.  The quantity of seed imported
 under this procedure must be limited to seed lots of 5 kg as the procedure
 is developed primarily to accommodate small quantities of germ plasm
 normally imported by plant breeders.  Seed of prohibited species may not be
 imported under this import system.
 
 2.  The Import System.
 
 2.1Regular Requirements.  The importation of seed is normally subject to the
 following requirements:
 
 A.  Import Permit.  A permit to import is a general requirement for seeds
 for propagation.  It is also required for seeds for plant breeding purposes
 and the PGRC.  A permit to import will be issued to a plant breeder or PGRC
 under Section 8 of the Plant Quarantine Regulations which governs
 importations for scientific, research and industrial purposes and will be
 valid for a period of three years.
 
 B.  Phytosanitary Certificate.  A phytosanitary certificate issued by the
 country of origin is a general and normal requirement for seeds imported for
 propagation.  Seeds under "winter increase" programs come under normal
 import requirements, i.e. they require phytosanitary certificates to enter
 Canada.  Regular seed imports are subject to Canada Customs screening and
 referral to Agriculture Canada for inspection and release.
 
 2.2 Special Procedure.  The following procedure is offered as an option to
 plant breeders and the PGRC when they are unable to obtain a phytosanitary
 certificate.  (Note:  a permit to import is required in all cases.) 
 Exemptions from the phytosanitary certificate requirement apply only to
 small quantities of seed, i.e. less than 5 kg.  Exemptions will be confined
 to germ plasm not readily available in Canada, and shall not include seed
 intended for commercial sale and propagation.  Exemption will be provided to
 qualified importers only (see Section 6).
 
 A.    Routing to Diagnostic Service Phytopathology Laboratory.  All
 importations of seed for plant breeding purposes and the PGRC must be routed
 to the Diagnostic Service Phytopathology (DSP) Laboratory, Nepean, Ontario
 for examination prior to release to the importer.
 
 B.    Pre-Addressed Mailing Label.  Automatic routing to the DSP Laboratory
 will be facilitated by a special pre-addressed mailing label to be included
 with the import permit.  This should be applied to the package only when the
 importer wishes to bypass the normal channel of Canada Customs screening and
 referral to Agriculture Canada for inspection and release.
 
 C.    Laboratory Examination and Release of Seed Consignment.  At the
 Diagnostic Services Phytopathology (DSP) Laboratory the seeds will be
 examined for the presence of new or regulated plant pest organisms
 considered to be of significance to Canada.   Following the examination, one
 of the following decisions will be taken:
 
      a.  The seed will be released unconditionally, if found free of pest
 organisms;
 
      b.  The seed may be released with condition that may require treatment
 at the laboratory or by the importer or                   grown in a
 greenhouse or isolated location for a prescribed period of time;
 
      c.  For seed that is refused entry, the importer has the option of
 either returning the material to origin at his/her own           expense, or
 having the material destroyed at the DSP Laboratory.  Follow up by an
 Agriculture Canada inspector may also be required.
 
      3.    Regulated Commodities.  These include seed of all genera, species
 and varieties or cultivars of plants that may   vector plant pests that are
 considered to be of economic significance to Canadian agricultural and
 forestry industries.
 
      4.    Regulated Areas.  All geographic areas of the world.  However,
 particular attention and emphasis will be given to seed from off-continent
 sources (i.e. from areas outside North America).
 
      5.    Quantity Restrictions.  The quantity of seed in any consignment
 must be limited to seed lots of 5 kg.  This system is primarily designed to
 accommodate small quantities of germ plasm normally imported by plant
 breeders.  Larger quantities of seeds, e.g. from "winter increase" programs
 will be imported, inspected and released in accordance with standard
 operating procedures, i.e. via Customs clearance and reference to
 Agriculture Canada inspectors.
 
      6.    Qualified Importers.  Well established organizations and firms
 actively engaged in plant breeding work in Canada, such as members of the
 Canadian Seed Growers' Association and the gene bank of the Plant Gene
 Resources of Canada (PGRC), may use this system.
 
      Individual plant breeders may also apply to this Division for
 consideration as importers of exotic seed under this system.  A list of
 plant breeders approved to import seeds under this system will be maintained
 by the Permit Unit of this Division.  The Permit Unit will screen all
 applications and issue permits to those plant breeders that qualify to
 import seed under this special program.
 
   The major criteria required to qualify for a permit to import under
   this system are the following:
 
   A.  The company must be well established and known for plant breeding
   and development work.
 
   B.  Membership in the Canadian Seed Growers' Association (CSGA).
 
     7.     Unsolicited Shipments.  Unsolicited shipments of seed are
 normally refused entry.  This seed may, in special cases, such as when
 destined for the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC), be routed by
 Agriculture Canada inspectors to the Diagnostic Services Phytopathology
 (DSP) Laboratory for examination.  The Import Section of the Plant
 Protection Division will then decide on the appropriate action.
 
      8.    Special Mailing Label.  A quantity of special mailing labels
 (Form Agr 3876) will be issued with the import permit.  The label (see
 Appendix A) bears the address of the Diagnostic Services Phytopathology
 (DSP) Laboratory, Nepean, Ontario and when used by the exporter, as
 directed, will ensure routing directly to this laboratory.  Plant breeders
 should apply for a permit to import using the permit application (Form Agr.
 1274, Appendix B) and the supplementary information (Form Agr. 3721,
 Appendix C).
 
      9.    Permit Processing.  The importer must forward these labels to the
 foreign exporter with instructions to affix the label to the outside of the
 seed package(s).  The shipper must also provide the name and address of the
 Canadian plant breeder or other importer on a separate document and include
 this inside the package.  This will enable the seed examiners to forward the
 seed to the intended destination following the laboratory examination.  The
 parcel with the label will be automatically addressed to the Diagnostic
 Services Phytopathology (DSP) Laboratory, Nepean, Ontario.  The label will
 instruct Canada Customs at the first International Mail Sortation Centre to
 forward all such packages to this laboratory for processing without delay. 
 Under this system, applicants approved to import seed from foreign
 countries shall receive a permit to import, a quantity of mailing labels
 (Form Agr. 3876) and one or more technical letters advising of prohibitions
 or special restrictions that may apply for any specific seed species.
 
      10.   Obligations.  The importer may be required to carry out certain
 precautions or safeguard the seed in isolation from other similar plants or
 apply specified treatments as may be deemed necessary by the Director of the
 Plant Protection Division.  The plant breeder will be obliged to report any
 sign or symptom of a plant disease that may develop on the growing seedlings
 or plants in the greenhouse, growth chamber or on the test plots in the
 field.  Inspectors of this Department must be permitted access to the seed
 plots and propagation facilities at all reasonable times to perform follow
 up inspections where deemed necessary.  All costs involved in the mailing of
 permits and stickers and the routing of breeder seed packages will be the
 responsibility of the shipper or the importer, as the case may be.  After
 examination at the laboratory, seed shipments will be sent `courier collect'
 to the address of the consignee plant breeder, unless the consignee advises
 or request otherwise.
 
      11.   Plant Protection Contacts.  The following office of the Plant
 Protection Division in Ottawa may be contacted should more information
 regarding the new system be required:  Permit Unit Plant Protection
 Division, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (613) 995-7900.
 
 -------------------------
 MANITOBA
 
      Agriculture Canada Research Station - Winnipeg
 
      Rust in Canada In 1991. - J.A. Kolmer
 
      Leaf rust was first observed on June 11 in spring wheat fields in
 southeastern Manitoba.  By the last week in June leaf rust was present in
 light to trace amounts in spring wheat fields throughout southern Manitoba. 
 Leaf rust severities were very high by the end of July throughout Manitoba
 due to the early arrival of rust, and the abundant rainfall in the previous
 two months that provided excellent conditions for rust to increase.  In
 Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan fields of the cultivars Katepwa, Neepawa,
 and Biggar had leaf rust severities from 50-100%, resulting in the loss of
 flag leaves before the heads had completed grain filling.  An average yield
 loss of 10% in these cultivars was expected due to leaf rust. The cultivars
 Roblin, Laura, Columbus, Pasqua, and the American semi-dwarf Marshall were
 resistant to leaf rust, although these  cultivars also had higher leaf rust
 severities than in past years due to the high inoculum pressure.  
 
   PHYSIOLOGIC SPECIALIZATION OF Puccinia recondita ON WHEAT IN CANADA IN
   1991.  PERCENTAGES OF THE MOST COMMON VIRULENCE PHENOTYPES AS
   IDENTIFIED ON THE Prt DIFFERENTIALS.
 
   VIRULENCE                  MANITOBA/
   PHENOTYPE   VIRULENCES     ONTARIO    SASKATCHEWAN    ALBERTA   BC
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
   FBL-B      2c,3,3ka,B       23.5      0.00            0.00      0.00
   KBG-14a    2a,2c,3,11,14a    0.0     31.7             0.00      9.1
   MBB-14a    1,3,14a           2.0      0.0            12.5      54.5
   MBG-14a    1,3,11,14a       25.5      1.8            12.5       0.0
   MFB-14a    1,3,24,26,14a     0.0     25.4             3.1       0.0
   NBB-B,18   1,2c,B,18         0.0      0.0             9.4      27.3
   PBL-B      1,2c,3,3ka,B     47.1      0.0             0.0       0.0
   TBG-14a    1,2a,2c,3,11,14a  2.0     24.1            43.8       0.0
   TDB-14a    1,2a,2c,3,24,14a  0.0      4.5             0.0       0.0
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Number of
   Isolates                      51      224             32       11
 
 
      Effect of cultivar and environment on quality characteristics of spring
 wheat.  O.M. Lukow and P.B.E. McVetty.  Both cultivars and environment had a
 significant effect on quality characteristics.  Cultivar by environment
 effects were statistically significant but relatively small in magnitude for
 most parameters.  Composited samples over locations would be suitable for
 quality assessment of semidwarf wheats grown in western Canada for most of
 the characters studies.  For the quality characteristics which displayed
 large cultivar by environment interaction (test weight, thousand kernel
 weight), samples from several environments should be used for quality
 evaluation, particularly in advanced generation breeding lines.
 
      Use of anther culture to improve spring wheat quality.  O.M. Lukow and
 P. Masojc.  The responsiveness to anther culture of 34 cultivars and 6 F(1)
 crosses representing different quality classes of spring wheat was tested on
 a modified N6 medium.  The ranges of calli induction and green plant
 regeneration frequencies were 1-75% and 0-9%, respectively.  The highest
 numbers of green plants per 100 anthers were derived in the cultivars Leader
 (3.6), BW 15 (1.2), HY 611 (1.1), Blue Sky (0.9) and Roblin (0.9).  The
 cultivars Ning, Sumai 3, Guard, Pasqua and Oslo did not respond.  The
 responsiveness of the crosses was affected by maternal genotype.
 
      `Flame Chlorosis' is increasing in severity in wheat in Manitoba. 
 Steve Haber
 
       Flame chlorosis (FC) is a novel, soil-transmitted, virus-like  disease
 of barley, wheat and oat in Manitoba (1).  Until recently, FC was almost
 exclusively a disease of barley (2).  Although, the first instances of FC in
 wheat were observed in 1988, the disease has been infrequent and at low
 levels compared to its occurrence in barley (1).  In an extensive survey
 carried out in Manitoba in 1990, only 8 of 57 confirmed FC sites were wheat
 fields and disease incidence in wheat never exceeded trace levels (3).
 
      Last year I described in the Wheat Newsletter the evidence that
 confirmed the occurrence of FC in wheat, and noted the possibility that the
 disease outbreak in wheat might be following, with a lag of several years,
 the trend of the disease in barley (4).  In a 1991 survey of Manitoba and
 eastern Saskatchewan that was similar in scope and methodology to the 1990
 survey, FC was confirmed in wheat at 18 sites (2); at 3 sites in western
 Manitoba and 2 in the Red River valley, disease levels were high enough to
 cause economic losses as high as 20%.  However, the total losses in wheat
 due to FC, even in those districts where the disease is readily detected
 every year, are still very small (1,2).  The observations of the 1991 survey
 are nonetheless potentially worrisome, as FC incidence in wheat in 1991 was
 markedly higher than ever observed before.  A trend to higher FC levels in
 wheat, if it continued, would raise the threat posed by FC to cereal grain
 cultivation in Manitoba.
 
      An additional concern arises from the observation in July, 1991 of
 FC-like symptoms and FC-specific RNA in specimens of green foxtail (Setaria
 viridis L.) found near Winnipeg (Haber and Harder, unpublished).  If green
 foxtail and perhaps other grassy weeds prove to be FC hosts, there might be
 additional reservoirs of inoculum to speed the spread and intensification of
 FC in wheat.
                                References
 
 Haber, S., D.J.S. Barr and R. G. Platford. 1991. Observations on the
 distribution of flame `chlorosis in Manitoba and its association with
 certain zoosporic fungi and the intense cultivation of cereals.  Can.  J.
 Pl. Pathol. 13(3):xxx-xxx (in press).
 
 Haber, S., R.G. Platford, K. Bailey and L. Duczek. 1992. 1991 Survey of
 flame chlorosis in Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan. Can. Pl. Dis. Survey
 72(1):xxx (in press).
 
 Haber, S. and R. G. Platford. 1991. 1990 survey of flame chlorosis in
 Manitoba. Can. Pl. Dis. Survey 71(1):79-80.
 
 Haber, S. 1991. Flame chlorosis confirmed in wheat in Manitoba. Wheat
 Newsletter 37:42-43.
 
 -------------------------
 M.I.P. Kovacs, N.K. Howes and D. Leisle.     The effect of high molecular
 weight glutenin subunit composition on tests used to predict durum wheat
 quality.
 
      To evaluate durum wheat quality the relationship between sodium dodecyl
 sulphate sedimentation test (ST), cooked gluten viscoelasticity (CGV) and
 mixing development time (MDT) and the effect of high molecular weight
 glutenin subunits (HMWGS) on these tests was studied.  Durum wheat whole
 meal flours from 143 F(2) derived F(4) families from the Vic   Berillo cross
 were tested for ST, CGV and MDT.  50% 2-propanol extracts were used for SDS-
 PAGE.  Vic (gamma-gliadin 45 and HMWGS 6 + 8) and Berillo (gamma-gliadin 42
 and HMWGS 20) both have the same low molecular weight glutenin group (LMW-2)
 which is believed to be a major contributor of gluten strength, and thus
 should not segregate for this component.  Vic and Berillo both had high CGV. 
 Vic also had high ST and MDT, while Berillo had a relatively lower ST and
 MDT.  CGV was not correlated with ST, HMWGS but was correlated with MDT (r =
 0.53 P<.001) and protein (r = -0.53 P<.001).  St was correlated with HMWGS 6
 + 8 (r = 0.90 P<.001), MDT (r = 0.58 P<.001).  MDT was also correlated with
 HMWGS 6 + 8 (r = 0.69 P<.001).  These results show that ST and CGV measure
 independent quality parameters and that most variation in ST can be
 attributed to HMWGS type.
 
 -------------------------
 ONTARIO
 
      Plant Research Centre, Ottawa
 
      W. L. Seaman and E. F. Schneider 
 
      Diseases.   Survival of soft white winter wheat was satisfactory in
 most areas of Ontario following a mild winter and limited snow cover. 
 However, in the southwest most fields seeded in late October were damaged by
 heaving and many were plowed under. In the north-central portion of the
 wheat producing area, snow mold damage was observed in about one third of
 the commercial fields examined.  The most common pathogens were three
 Typhula species, T. incarnata, T. ishikariensis and T. phacorrhiza, and
 Microdochium nivale; crop damage varied from 2 to 25%.  At Ottawa ice
 encasement severely damaged research plots.  Cool early spring conditions
 again were favorable for development of whet spindle streak mosaic in
 infested soils in the southwest.  Powdery mildew and septoria tritici leaf
 blotch were widespread on the lower canopy early in the season, and although
 mildew progressed to the flag leaf in heavier stands, fewer fields in the
 west-central areas were sprayed with fungicide than in 1990.  Tan spot was
 more widespread and severe than usual in spring wheat in the east and in a
 small acreage in the northwest.  Leaf rust incidence was moderate, and
 yellowing of flag leaves at heading in the Niagara area, especially in
 September seedings, was attributed to barley yellow dwarf virus.  Hot dry
 conditions in most areas in June resulted in very low levels of fusarium
 head blight and no problems with mycotoxin contamination of grain were
 reported.
 
 -------------------------
 PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
 
      Research Station, Agriculture Canada, Charlottetown 
 
      H. G. Nass and H.W. Johnston
 
      New cultivar.   AC Baltic, a new spring wheat cultivar, was registered
 in 1991.  AC Baltic (AW 117) is a high yielding, strong strawed, early
 maturing feed wheat.  AC Baltic is resistant to powdery mildew, moderately
 susceptible to septoria leaf and glume blotch and similar to Belvedere and
 Messier in reaction to fusarium head blight but superior to Max.  It was
 derived from the same cross as Belvedere (Kolibri/Gamenya) and has many of
 the same good characteristics of Belvedere.  AC Baltic has a slightly higher
 yield advantage and matures slightly earlier than Belvedere.  AC Baltic has
 similar test weight and kernel weight as Belvedere.  It is approximately 3
 to 5 cm shorter than Belvedere and Messier, respectively, and has similar
 straw strength to Belvedere and Max and stronger straw than Messier.  It can
 not be distinguished visibly from Belvedere in that it has awns in the top
 third of the spike like Belvedere.  SECAN is responsible for seed
 distribution of this variety in Canada.  
 
      Outcrossing.   Outcrossing in winter wheat is an increasing problem in
 Canadian Maritime Winter Wheat Registration Trials.  Outcrossing is
 genetically controlled and is prevalent in specific cultivars.  Material
 that has outcrossed may take the appearance of a segregating or impure crop
 and/or sterile spikelets are common.  Evidence that outcrossing is likely
 occurring can be seen during pollination by looking against the sun and
 observing open florets which are taking longer in setting seed than other
 florets.  Cultivars such as Absolvent and Fundulea and lines having these
 parents in their pedigree show this phenomenon to varying degree depending
 upon the environment at pollination in the year in which the seed is
 produced.  When a cultivar is grown from outcrossed seed of the previous
 year one can usually expect a decrease in yield.  Breeder seed of such
 material must be produced in an environment where outcrossing is less likely 
 to occur or in isolation from other winter wheat cultivars.  Outcrossing
 does not seem to be a problem in spring wheat in our area.
 
 -------------------------
 SASKATCHEWAN
 
      University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon
 
      D.R. Knott
 
      Genotype-Environment Interactions in Durum Wheat Yield Trials
 
      The 1991 growing season provided an excellent example of genotype-
 environment interactions and their effect on durum wheat yield trials in
 Saskatchewan.  Growing conditions were excellent with ample moisture until
 the middle of July (just around heading) but then were very dry.  These
 conditions were expected to favor early cultivars.
 
      At Saskatoon, 31 preliminary (first year) durum yield trials and 11
 standard (second year) yield trials were in 1991, each with three checks,
 Sceptre, Wascana and Plenty.  Most of the preliminary tests were seeded 1 or
 2 days later than the standard tests and could, therefore, have suffered a
 little more drought stress.  At Saskatoon, Sceptre heads and matures about
 1.5 days earlier than Wascana and Wascana is about 1 day earlier than
 Plenty, although these differences can vary considerably from year to year. 
 In yield, Plenty averages about 10% above Sceptre, while Sceptre averages
 about 2% above Wascana.  In protein concentration the normal order is
 Wascana (highest), Plenty and Sceptre.
 
      In 1991, the yield results were very consistent.  In 40 of the 42
 tests, the order was Sceptre (highest), Plenty and Wascana, with Sceptre
 often significantly above Plenty, while Plenty was often close to Wascana. 
 In one test, Wascana was above Plenty, and in another, Plenty was slightly
 above Sceptre.  As anticipated the drought stress had favored Sceptre over
 Plenty but the swing in yields was surprisingly large.
 
      The figures on protein concentration were even more surprising.  The
 average protein concentrations in the two sets of tests were as follows:
 
                       31 standard tests    31 preliminary tests
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
   Plenty            17.24                   17.16  
   Wascana           17.17                   16.86  
   Sceptre           15.54                   15.16
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 
       Thus, Plenty, which is normally below Wascana and only slightly above
 Sceptre, was slightly above Wascana and 1.70 to 2.00% above Sceptre.
 
      The key question posed by the data is how does one use them to make
 selections.  The only answer seems to be, very cautiously.  What in fact I
 ended up doing was comparing early lines with Sceptre for yield and protein
 concentration and late lines with Plenty, and assuming that intermediate
 lines should be somewhere in between the two.  Pretty subjective!  The
 results illustrate how critical genotype-environment interactions can be,
 and how difficult they can make plant breeding and selection.
 
 -------------------------
                             ITEMS FROM CHINA
 
 
      Wheat Institute, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences - Zhengzhou,
 Henan
 
      Zuoji Lin, Shenhui Jie, Zhensheng Lei
 
      The 1990-1991 season.   This past wheat growing season was dominated by
 abnormal climate, the winter was warmer but high rainfall and short of
 sunshine in early summer especially at grain-filling stage, resulted in the
 decrease of 1000 grain weight.  Although grains were spike and spike per
 m(2) increased a bit, the yield still decreased to compare with last year.
 
      Breeding for widely adapted high-yielding variety.  Yumai 13 (Zhengzhou
 891), a winter wheat, was registered in China as national variety in 1991. 
 It is well adapted to most of Huang-Huai wheat growing area in North China
 (over seven provinces) and its yielding potential was up to 9000 kg/ha. 
 According to its performances and other widely adapted varieties, we suggest
 that the widely adapted high-yielding varieties should have common traits as
 follows:
 
      1.   Moderately high tillering ability and higher shoot survival.  The
           yield components can compensate each other automatically in case
           the other is in deficiency.  To compare with grain weight, the
           number of kernels per unit area is more important.
 
      2.   Insensitive to day length.  The spike develops slowly before
           winter but fast in late spring, endurable to low temperature
           during winter season and booting stage as well as high
           temperature at grain-filling stage.
 
      3.   With better resources to utilize efficiency, such as water,
           sunlight, temperature and fertilizer; and adapted to a range of
           agronomic practices such as sowing date and seeding rate.
 
      4.   Semidwarf, with a higher harvest index; root system should be
           more developed to use the nutrients and moisture in the deeper
           soil.
 
      5.   With a changeable canopy structure, i.e., the upper leaves are
           erect at booting stage, while they are somewhat horizontal
           smaller leaves or curving larger leaves at grain-filling stage. 
           The LAD should be longer.
 
      6.   Resistant or tolerant to natural disasters and main diseases and
           pests such as freeze, drought, dry-hot wind, water-logging,
           rusts, powdery mildew, scab, etc.
 
 -------------------------
      Wheat Breeding Institute, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing
 210014
 
      Zhaosu Wu, Shirong Yu, Xizhong Wei, Youjia Shen, Guoliang Jinag, Jimin
 Wu, Yong Xu, Zhaoxia Chen, Qimei Xia
 
      Studies on the Development of the Gene Pool with Improved Resistance to
 Scab in Wheat.  Five different recurrent selection populations during the
 development of the scab resistant gene pool in wheat were investigated under
 the condition of artificial Fusarium graminearum infection for effects of
 phenotypic recurrent selection during 1988-1989.  It was preliminarily
 demonstrated that the population mean of resistance to scab was
 significantly improved with increased frequency of resistant plants cycle by
 cycle.  The numbers of infected spikelets of male-fertile plants in the
 populations LC1, LC2, RC1 and RC2, representing the long-term and resistance
 resource gene pools after one or two cycles of selection, respectively, were
 less than that of the original population CO.   Recurrent selection for the
 resistance with the resistance resource gene pool showed a more obvious
 effect than that with the long-term pool.  The resistance of male-fertile
 plants might be higher than that of male-sterile ones in all the populations
 observed.  Thus different criteria should be used for the male-sterile and
 fertile plants separately.  The variance of resistance showed no significant
 changes with the long-term gene pool but it tended to decrease obviously
 with the resistance resource pool.  At the same time, the coefficient of
 variation was enlarged significantly, indicating that relative variability
 of resistance was increased under the selection.  The diverse changes in
 plant height, spikes per plant, total and seeded spikelets and kernels per
 spike accompanying the improvement of the resistance were not found in most
 cases.  There was no significant undesirable association between the
 resistance and these agronomic characters.  Moreover, the results of
 experiment with RCO, RC1, RC2 and RC3 populations of the resistance resource
 gene pool during two crop seasons 1988-1990 indicated that probability of
 obtaining superior individuals with both improved scab resistance and other
 desired agronomic characteristics from the selected populations was markedly
 greater than that of the original population.  It could be believed that
 more significant efficiency of improvement would be produced by further
 recurrent selection for the resistance associated with desirable agronomic
 characters.
 
      Breeding Cultivars and Development of Germplasm Resources.  Some
 superior cultivars, strains and genetic resources with the desirable
 characteristics have been bred by utilizing the Taigu genic male-sterile
 gene Ta1 (Ms2), an available tool of genetic improvement in wheat found at
 Taigu County, Shanxi Province, China in 1972.  Changjiang 8809, Changjiang
 8863, Changjiang 8865, Changjiang 9021, TFSL037, etc. developed through
 recurrent selection during the development of the gene pool with improved
 resistance to scab in wheat, have high-yielding potential, semi-dwarf plant
 height, scab resistance and tolerance to other diseases and water logging. 
 A multi-site trial with 3-replicate randomized block was conducted during
 1989-1991.  In comparison with the check Yangmai 5, grown most widely in the
 Mid-Lower Yangtze Region for the last years, Changjiang 8809 was increased
 by about 5% in grain yield per unit area, and showed higher resistance or
 tolerance to scab as well as soilborne mosaic virus, leaf rust and pre-
 harvest sprouting.  It had above 40 g/l higher than Yangmai 5 in test
 weight.  The resistance of Changjiang 8809 to scab spread in spike was
 similar to that of Sumai 3, most-known resistant variety all over the world,
 under artificial infection by single-floret inoculation with ascospore
 suspension of Gibberella zeae.  Most of the other advanced breeding lines
 mentioned above and below presented more or less the same grain yield as
 Yangmai 5.  Changjiang 8802 with white seedcoat and preharvest sprouting
 resistance, Changjiang 8853 with early maturity and good quality, and
 Changjiang 8897 with early maturity, high grain weight and good quality were
 developed from the simple crosses Ta Ningmai 3/Ning 7840, Ta Nimgmai
 6/S.G.D. and Ta Ningmai 4/Mianyang 11, respectively.
 
      In addition to screening and selection of breeding lines and genetic
 resource materials in multi-site trials for agronomic performance,
 assessments of scab resistance were made at naturally epidemic area
 Jianyang, Fujian Province, and under artificial infection conditions in
 Nanjing and Shanghai, respectively, for more than twenty advanced breeding
 lines.
 
      A study on the Variation and Interrelationship of Quality
 Characteristics in Wheat Cultivars Grown in North-Huai Plain and Mid-Lower
 Yangtze Region.    The quality characteristics of 36 and 19 cultivars grown
 in North-Huai Plain and Mid-Lower Yangtze Region respectively were evaluated
 in 1985 and 1986.  The results showed that the means of vitreousness, 1000
 kernel weight, protein and wet gluten content of the cultivars of North-Huai
 Plain were significantly higher than those of Mid-Lower Yangtze Region. 
 Test weight and specific gravity were significantly positively correlated
 with protein content, sedimentation value, major parameters from frinogram
 of flour and steamed bread quality.  Steamed bread quality was significantly
 positively correlated with protein content, sedimentation value, water
 absorption and valorimeter value.  It was suggested that vitreousness, test
 weight and specific gravity of kernel, and protein content and sedimentation
 value should be increased for quality improvement in these two regions.
 
      Study on Value of Wheat Multiline in Mottled-Salt Soil.  The
 experiments were conducted at Tianwangtang village, Binzhou and experimental
 farm of Huimin Agricultural Institute, Shandong Province, during 1989-1991. 
 12 wheat blends were combined with incomplete diallel ways using 3 salt-
 resistant and 4 salt-sensitive wheat cultivars at equal seed rate.  The
 results showed that LD-1 and Lumai 10 were most resistant, while selected
 strain of Shannongfu 63 was most sensitive in salt-resistant diagnoses. 
 Correlate analysis of yield and its related characters showed that the main
 factor affecting wheat yield was spike number, which was determined by
 survival seedling number.  So survival seedling number was much more
 important to wheat yield in strongly mottled-salt soil, while the grain
 weight per spike was main factor in light mottled-salt soil, particularly in
 rainy seasons.
 
      The average yield in wheat blends increased by 23.46 kg/mu (9.1%)
 compared with in the pure stands, and the difference was most significant. 
 So the application of multiline was a more efficient way to increase wheat
 yields in mottled-salt soil.  The ecological combining ability was
 significantly different among the cultivars at the same experiment, and was
 also different among the experiments for the same cultivar.  The component
 cultivars with higher general and specific ecological combining ability
 should be selected when a wheat multiline was combined, thus the multiline
 with strongly ecological combining ability would be easily obtained.  In
 addition, maturing and plant height difference should be coordinated, and
 grain white.
 
      Studies on Pre-Harvest Sprouting Resistance in Wheat Cultivars.  Pre-
 harvest sprouting and its related traits were examined among 22 wheat
 cultivars in 1986-1988.  The plastic sack sprouting test was the most simple
 and reliable one of the four test methods.  The water extracts of glume from
 22 wheat cultivars with germination percentage differed markedly for
 Ningfeng white grains immersed in them.  The glume extracts of Nannong 80566
 and Kenya 321 sib possessed the highest inhibition effect.  Other results
 implied that a direct inhibition of glume leachate on grains in intact ear
 as well as interaction between glume extract and grain germination existed
 possibly.
 
      Significantly negative correlations were shown between grain-coat
 redness and à-amylase activity, falling number and germination percentage. 
 Nonsignificant correlations were found between grain-coat redness and
 sprouting in the field, grain-coat redness and falling number.
 
                               PUBLICATIONS
 
 Wu, Zhaosu, Shaojun Chen and Zhancai Zhu.  1991.  A study on the variation
 and interrelationship of quality characteristics in wheat cultivars grown in
 North-Huai Plain and Mid-Lower Yangtze Region.  J. of Nanjing Agricultural
 University, 14(1):1-5.
 
 Jiang, Guoliang, Zhaoxia Chen and Zhaosu Wu.  1991.  A research on effects
 of recurrent selection of the gene pool with improved resistance to scab in
 wheat.  J. of Nanjing Agricultural University, 14(2):6-11.
 
 Jiang, Guoliang, Zhaosu Wu and Zhaoxia Chen.  1991.  Preliminary report on
 the application of Taigu genic male-sterile gene Ta1 to wheat breeding. 
 Seed 1991,(3):10-15.
 
 Jiang, Guoliang, Zhaoxia Chen and Zhaosu, Wu.  1991.  Studies on the
 development of scab resistant gene pool in wheat.  I.  Analysis of the scab
 resistance and plant height in different recurrent selection populations.
 ACTA AGRONOMICA SINICA, 17(5):346-351.
 
 Jiang, Guoliang.  1991.  A study of recurrent selection for resistance to
 scab (Gibberella zeae) in superior populations and plants in wheat gene
 pool.  J. of Southwest Agricultural University, 13(2):137-141.
 
 Yang, Zhuping, Zhaosu Wu and Yibo Lin.  1991.  Inheritance and selection of
 agronomic characters in an intermating population of wheat.  Acta
 Agriculturae Shaghai, 7(1):23-28.
 
 Xia, Zhonghua, Shirong Yu and Zhaosu Wu.  1991.  Comparison of methods of
 estimating stability and adaptability parameters in wheat varietal trials.
 J. of Nanjing Agricultural University, 14(3):12-15.
 
 Xu, Yong, Shirong Yu and Zhaosu Wu.  1991.  Efficiency comparison of complex
 selection methods in advanced generation lines of wheat.  J. of Nanjing
 Agricultural University, 14(3):16-20.
 
 
 Yu, Shiron and Yong, Xu.  1991.  Studies on multi-check design in cultivar
 regional trial and improvement for adaptability parameter estimations.  J.
 of Nanjing Agricultural University, 14(4):7-12.
 
 Shen, Zhengxing, Shirong Yu and Zhaosu Wu.  1991.  Studies on pre-harvest
 sprouting resistance in wheat cultivars.  Scientia Agricultura Sinica,
 24(5):44-50.
 
 Wei, Xiezhong, Shirong Yu, Hexian Song and Xunwu Shang.  1991.  A
 comparative study on plant type of wheat in three ecological regions. 
 Jiangsu J. of Agr. Sci., 7(1):20-26.
 
 Wu, Jimin, et al., 1992.  Growth analysis on the grain filling in wheat. 
 Jiangsu Agricultural Sciences, 1992. (3).  (In press).
 
 Wei, Xiezhong, Zhaosu Wu, Jimin Wu, Shirong Yu and Yong, Xu.  1991. 
 Analyses of Plant Type and a Consultative System for Yield Breeding in Wheat
 (Monograph).  Southeast University Press, Nanjing.
 
 
 -------------------------
      Dry Farming Institute, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry
 Sciences, PRC.
 
      Li Huimin, Zhao Fengwu*, Li Hongwu
 
                  Preliminary Research on Four CHA in Wheat
 
      The experiment of 70 cultivars/new advanced lines treated with four new
 CHA has shown that the four CHA's emasculated rates (ER) were all up to the
 CHA's criteria.  From the seed set point of view the plant treated with CHA
 EK and CHA EKH whose average seed set rates (SSR) were all over 80% which
 were much superior to treated with CHA ENa and CHA ENH.   There were no
 significant differences for the plant characters among the plant height
 (PH), the length of head neck (LHN), emasculation rate (ER) and seed set
 rate (SSR) between CHA EK and CHA EKH by means of t-test.  The two CHA could
 be used in hybrid seed production in wheat.  Four correlative curves have
 been found for the two CHA affecting the plant characters after spraying
 which could be used to direct hybrid seed production and anticipate female
 performance in the field.
 
      Materials and Methods.  70 cultivars/new advanced lines were randomly
 selected whose flag-time were quite similar but other characters were much
 different, when planted at normal season, i.e., 10th October, 1990.  4 CHA
 were sprayed at flag-time, i.e., 23rd April, whose concentration were:  EK,
 7000 ppm; EKH, 6000 ppm; ENH 6000 ppm; ENa, 6000 ppm individually.  The
 dosages were 1500 kg/ha for all of them in which 1 ppm triconol was added to
 each.  On the 24th April 20, ppm gibberellin acid was sprayed whose dosage
 was 750 kg/ha.  The plot/sprayed area was 100 m(2) (20*5).  Between the
 sprayed areas there was 5 m isolated plot or nonsprayed area called male
 plot which was used as pollinator.  Same amount of water was sprayed on
 check plot which was in the middle of CHA sprayed plots.  After heading time
 10 plants/heads were bagged for counting ER and another 10, for other
 characters.  The formula used in counting ER and SR was:
                                             A
                                ER/SSR % = - - - * 100
                                             B                                
    
 
      A =  Total seeds of basic spikelet of ear per head, and
      B =  Total basic spikelet of ear per head.
 
      Results and Analyses.  The average values for 70 cultivars treated with
 four CH are shown in Table 1.
 
      
      Table 1.    Average Effects of New CHA on Plant Characters
   
                     PH      LHN                   ER     SSR
        Type         cm      cm        PH:LHN       %      %
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
        CK         90.14    32.37      2.78:1
        EK         55.24    14.52      3.88:1     97.25   82.91
        EKH        55.46    14.42      3.85:1     95.82   83.41
        ENH        57.41    13.58      4.23:1     98.65   60.79
        ENa        48.09    12.51      3.85:1     98.96   58.31 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      From Table 1 we can see that the ER were all satisfied which were all
 over 95%. But the SSR treated with ENH and ENa were far lower than those
 treated with EK and EKH.  It seems that the pistil was damaged by both of
 them, so they should be discarded.  Character correlations were also
 conducted.
      
 
      Discussion.  70 cultivars evaluated have shown that the four CHA's ER
 were all satisfied but after spraying, the SSR, i.e., the damage degree were
 different.  CHA EK and EKH could be used in hybrid seed production directly
 which all meet the CHA's criteria.  But from the cost point of view more
 attention should be paid to the CHA EKH whose price was half CHA EK.
 
      The four correlative curves gotten from the experiment could be used to
 advise hybrid seed production workers as well as to anticipate female
 performance in the field.
 
      The two CHA EK and EKH have a side effect on plant height (PH), but
 different cultivars gave different responses.  Generally speaking, the
 higher the PH, the more LHN decreases.  In this experiment, the PH decreased
 from 8.4 to 32.4 cm and LHN decreased from 7.1 to 32.1 in which the
 proportion between the LHN to PH changed from 1:2.3 to 1:3.8 before and
 after spraying.
 
      The LHN is an inherited character, and differences among cultivars were
 observed in this experiment.  The range of PH:LHN is 1:2.04-3.94.  To solve
 the problem that the LHN become shorter after spraying, the longer the
 cultivar's LHN is, the more suitable as a female in the combination
 selected.
 
      *  Address:  Dry Farming Inst., 6 Nan Men Kou Street, East of Bridge,
 Hengshui City, Hebei Province, P.R. C.
 
 -------------------------
                             ITEMS FROM CROATIA
 
      Slobodan Tomasovic, Institute for Breeding and Production of Field
 Crops - Zagreb, Department of Cereal Crops
 
       Some More Important Traits of the New ZG Winter Wheat Varieties
 
      Breeding work on developing wheat varieties in the Zagreb Institute
 represents a part of the program of wheat production advancement in this
 country.  The results of this work are well known to wheat growers both in
 the country and abroad.  The work on developing domestic wheat varieties of
 intensive type has been going on for over 30 years.  In this Institute and
 in other institutes in the country, varieties with high yielding capacity
 have been developed.  Indeed, there are still certain improvements that can
 be made, which have not yet been completely utilized, though further
 progress will be less speedy because even greater efforts will be made to
 develop varieties that combine genes for high yields, good quality,
 resistance to many diseases and different climatic stresses.
 
 
      The principle objective of our breeding program is development of high-
 yielding varieties, with good disease resistance and improved kernel and
 flour quality.  The growing interest in high-yielding wheat varieties and
 improved quality is an incentive to develop varieties that would meet market
 demands through breeding work.  Varieties Marija, Sana, Marina and some
 others are exactly such.  They present a significant progress in overcoming
 the "antagonism" existing between yield and its quality.  The Zagreb
 Institute for Breeding and Production of Field Crops has in it work on wheat
 breeding developed so far an array of varieties that have been accepted by
 the agricultural practice.  By their high yielding ability and good flour
 and bread quality, Sana and Marija have been accepted by the agricultural
 practice both in the country and abroad for several years.  Moreover, the
 trend of their spread is growing.   Owing to their wide adaptability and
 great biological plasticity, the results they give are high yield of grain. 
 For instance, in 1990, on 7,609 has in the region of Slavonia and Baranja
 the variety Sana produced mean yield of 8.44 t/ha of grain.  In the region
 of Bjelovar, on 444 has its average yield was 7.15 t/ha.  Because of its
 high yielding capacity, and its earlier results achieved in agricultural
 production, Sana has been chosen by the Committee for Varietal Registration
 since last fall as a check variety for high yields.  Likewise, variety
 Marija produced mean yield of 7.79 t/ha in the region of Slavonija and
 Baranja on 10,306 ha.  In the Bjelovar region, on 2,271 ha it produced
 average yield of 6.41 t/ha.
 
      Marina (ZG 3021/84).  Winter wheat variety Marina represents a model of
 intensive wheat with moderately high straw that provides possibility to form
 a large number of spikes per unit area.  According to its quality
 characteristics, it belongs to bread wheats.  It was developed from crossing
 high-yielding semidwarf line ZG 2468/74 and a source of resistance to
 
 Septoria spp.,  P-3030, whose distant ancestors are American variety Arthur
 and Brazilian material IAS-20.  It was tested by the Registration Committee
 in 1986-1988 and released in 1989.
 
      In terms of botany, it belongs to Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare var.
 lutescens.  Spikes are pale yellow,k glabrous.  At full maturity, they are
 mostly erect, somewhat dense and tapering.  There are 18-20 spikelets in a
 spike with 3-5 kernels in each.  The kernel has extended form, semi-hard
 consistency, dark red in colour.  Kernel weight is 41-43 mg, hectoliter
 weight 78-80 kg.
 
      At juvenile stage, leaves are bluish green, long and narrow with
 unexpressed nervature.  It tillers as semiprostratum types, productive
 tillering potential is high.  Stem is strong and elastic, with very good
 resistance to lodging, 83-85 cm high.    Marina belongs to mid-early wheats,
 by three days later than Super Zlatna.  It expresses resistance to
 shattering, thus tolerates later planting dates.
 
      Its resistance to stresses such as low temperatures (-17degC without
 snow), drought and high temperatures in grain-fill stage is quite good.  It
 possesses high resistance to leaf and spike Septoria and rust.  Its
 resistance to powdery mildew and scab is satisfactory.  Quality of grain and
 flour is very good.  By its protein content (13.0-13.5%) and sedimentation
 value (35-40 ml) it belongs to quality class I (II).  Its farinograph
 quality number is 56.62-62.8, thus it belongs to the subgroup B(1).  It
 produces high yield of flour and good bread quality.
 
      Prior to its recognition, it was included in numerous large- and small-
 scale trials on the territory of former Yugoslavia.  According to long-term
 data, it expressed high productivity and stability.  Yields of over 9 t/ha
 were recorded at certain locations.  We are speaking about a variety
 effective in terms of economy because of its universality of utilization at
 different soils.  Its spread in production is increasing.  Optimal planting
 date is 10-25 October, planting rate 650-700 viable kernels/m(2).  Under
 favorable conditions it can produce 700-800 fertile spikes/m(2).
 
      Biljana (ZG 343/80).  Winter wheat variety Biljana was developed from
 crossing variety ZG 5994/66 and TP 114/1965 A.  In the trials of the
 Varietal Committee, it was tested in 1985-1987 and released in 1988. 
 Botanically, it belongs to Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare var. lutescens. 
 Spikes are cylindrical, with 18-20 spikelets and 3-4 kernels in each. 
 Kernels are semitransparent, light brown in colour.  Kernel weight is about
 40 mg, hectoliter weight is 79-81 kg. It belongs to quality subgroups B(1)-
 B(2).  
 
      Stem height is about 80 cm, very good resistance to lodging.  Leaves
 are mid-long and mid-wide, spirally attached, intensively green.  Biljana is
 mid-early, by about 2 days later than Super Zlatna.  Possesses very good
 winter hardiness.  It is resistant to powdery mildew, leaf and stem rust,
 and shows tolerance to Septoria spp. and fusarium head blight.  Biljana is a
 very head productive variety with genetic yielding potential above 10 t/ha. 
 It has exhibited great adaptability to different agroecological conditions. 
 Its spread in production is increasing.  Optimal seeding date is October 10-
 25.  Seeding rate 650-700 viable kernels/m(2).  
 
      Alena (ZG 241/84).  Winter wheat variety Alena is high-yielding, white,
 and awnless.  In trials conducted by the Varietal Committee in 1987-1989, in
 all growing regions it gave appreciably higher yields than both standards. 
 It was released in 1990.  Botanically, it belongs to Triticum aestivum ssp.
 vulgare var. lutescens.  Spikes are cylindrical, with 20 spikelets on the
 average and 3-4 kernels in each.  At full maturity spikes are mostly erect. 
 Kernels are semitransparent, light brown in colour.   Kernel weight is about
 43 mg, hectoliter weight 80-82 kg.
 
      Straw is about 85 cm high with good resistance to lodging.  Leaves are
 mid-long and mid-wide with more horizontal growth habit, dark green, later
 they get waxy coating.  Alena belongs to a group of mid-early wheats, by 1-2
 days later than Super Zlatna.  Possesses very good resistance to leaf and
 stem rust, and good resistance to powdery mildew and Septoria spp.  It is a
 very productive variety.  Thus, at some locations in large- and small-scale
 trials, it gave yields exceeding 9.5 t/ha.  Its yielding ability is somewhat
 higher than Sana's.  Its kernel and flour quality is satisfactory, belongs
 to II quality class, subgroup B(1)-B(2).  As we can see, it is a variety
 that can assure substantial profits per square unit.  Optimal planting date
 is October 15-25, seeding rate 600 viable kernels/m(2).  It  shows great
 biological plasticity and adaptability to diverse agroecological conditions. 
 Its production is still experimental.
 
 -------------------------
       The Present Level of Knowledge on How to Improve Wheat Yield 
    Through Increased Production per Spike and Increased Resistance to        
                         Fuasarium spp. on Spikes
 
      Continuous intensification of wheat production requires permanent
 development of new varieties with high genetic yield potential, and adequate
 grain and flour quality.  It presents a task assigned primarily to genetics  
   and breeding.  Given the high genetic yield potential of the varieties
 from the present assortment, and their good grain and flour quality, in
 developing new varieties special attention had to be given to the most
 important traits which play a decisive role in formation of yield and
 quality of grain and flour. 
 
      Kernel weight and number of grain per spike are very important elements
 of yield.  Since these two traits are very interdependent, and it is
 virtually impossible to expect from them to be both expressed to a maximum. 
 In new genotypes it is necessary to find the best relationship between the
 two, in order to obtain as high yielding spikes as possible.  High yield in
 new genotypes is achieved primarily owing to a considerably lower stem,
 somewhat higher kernel weight, greater number of kernels per spike and
 better resistance to diseases.  Very important trait of new intensive
 varieties is their stem height.  Under our agroecological conditions, from
 the view point of resistance to lodging and physiological balance between
 the straw and kernels, the best genotypes seem to be those with straw height
 between 60 and 80 cm (Borojevic 1971).  Shortened straw in new genotypes is
 a result of shortening internode length.  In this way, photosynthetic
 activity in semidwarf and dwarf genotypes is changed.
 
      Wheat yield is a very complex trait because in its formation genetic
 factors of a number of traits take place, for example, factors that
 determine spike fertility, straw height, resistance to lodging, fungal
 disease, intensity and duration of photosynthetic activity, winter hardiness
 and others.  Yielding is a character of a wheat plant as a cultivar, whereas
 yield per square unit is a result of activity of cultivar's yielding ability
 in interaction with its adaptability to a particular habitat and level of
 technology.  In breeding, therefore, one should always aim at developing
 varieties not only high yielding, but with good adaptability, i.e., aim at
 developing varieties capable of producing as high quantity of grain as
 possible under specific conditions of light, heat, moisture and nutrient
 supply (Mac Key 1966).  High yields of a certain variety cannot be obtained
 unless a satisfactory relationship is obtained between factors that
 determine yield (plant density and production per spike) and factors that
 influence yield (climatic conditions, fertilization, tillage intensity and
 other).  They create the so-called optimal yield structure (Heuser 1928,
 Jonard-Koller 1951), Lein-Rosenstiel-Wien-Hues 1954).
 
      Today, new varieties catch up with the best foreign varieties in their
 yield and quality.  Therefore, for further work in breeding one needs to
 have a better insight into genetic constitution of individual traits.  One
 needs to acquire genetic approach in breeding, marked with the gene-trait
 concept (Allard 1960, Borojevic 1966).  Wheat yield can be increased by
 changing and improving plant structure and by increasing photosynthesis
 effectiveness.  Plant structure can be changed by reasonable limitation of
 the vegetative weight growth by and stimulating the development of the
 generative part, especially the components upon which grain yield is
 dependent.  There has been a trend to develop semi-dwarf genotypes in which
 grain and straw ratio is approximately 50:50, because genotypes require less
 water, nutrients and solar energy for production of kernel dry matter unit,
 and in intensive production they exhibit higher yield potential.  The
 advantage of semi-dwarf genotypes lies in considerably larger number of
 grains per spike or spikelet, as compared to tall genotypes.  Genes for
 larger number of spikelets per spike were found in the Italian genotype
 Forlani (Forlani 1953) and in the Moroccan type of spikes (CIMMYT program). 
 The ability to develop 7 kernels per spikelet will in the future probably be
 inherited primarily from Triticum turgidum species.  Other possibilities for
 increasing spike productivity is to develop branching spikes (Bonvicini
 1955, Koric 1966, Cicin 1971) or four-rowing spike types (Koric 1978).  In
 long ears, considerable achievement would be made by increasing glumes using
 T. polonicum genes, rather than to have many long leaves, as suggested by
 MacKey (1980).
 
      It is not only important to develop a variety with high genetic yield
 potential, but it is equally important to provide conditions that would
 permit full exploitation of such potential.  One of the yield limiting
 factors generally are wheat diseases caused by fungi.  In former Yugoslavia,
 work on developing resistant varieties had been in progress for some time. 
 Owing to a well developed breeding program (Borojevic, Potocanac 1966), a
 large number of varieties was developed, many of which were high yielding
 and with good quality, some also with improved disease resistance,
 especially to rusts and powdery mildew.  Work on resistance to other
 pathogens, for example, Fusarium spp. has been less successful.  Semi-dwarf
 genotypes and dense stands have lately caused higher severities of Fusarium
 headblight, most frequently head caused by Fusarium graminearum Schw.
 (Milatovic, Vlahovic, Tomasovic 1982, Tomasovic, Vlahovic, Milatovic 1983). 
 Therefore, work was initiated in 1978 at the Zagreb Institute for Breeding
 and Production of Field Crops on developing varieties resistant to this
 disease.  The program of incorporating resistance to Fusarium on spikes is
 very complex.  Pathogens of the Fusarium species (most often Fusarium
 graminearum Schw.) are permanently present in the soil, and as saprophytes,
 have little requirements in nutrients.  As a contrast, parasites cause
 considerable damages on crops, under conditions favouring their development
 (Tomasovic 1981).  Therefore, further research and improvement of the
 resistance level, requires new techniques and methods, i.e., more effective
 methods of wheat breeding, primarily recurrent selection.  Because by
 improving new techniques and methods, reliability and effectiveness of
 breeding for resistance to Fusaria on spikes would be increased, which in
 terms of economy, are becoming increasingly important diseases in certain
 wheat growing regions.
 
      Carriers of resistance (sources of resistance) to spike Fusaria in
 wheat possess many unfavorable agronomic characters (extensive genotypes,
 taller growth habit, poor resistance to other diseases, susceptibility to
 low temperatures).  Because of that, a task was assigned (1) to breed
 sources of resistance because such do not exist to be incorporated into a
 variety and (2) to improve resistance to spike Fusaria of the newly
 developed intensive wheat lines (varieties) adapted to intensive growing
 conditions.
 
      Because of the growing importance of damages in wheat from attacks of
 spike Fusaria, it is necessary to do the following:
      -    To select sources of resistance to spike Fusaria for intensive
           conditions of production
      -    By mutual crossing of selected sources of resistance develop new
           improved sources with improved resistance to spike Fusaria. 
           During this process, sources of resistance would be compared by
           their degree of resistance with their crosses both from earlier
           and later generations.  Degree of resistance to spike Fusaria
           would be estimated by assessing pathogen's attack severity and
           its influence on yield and its components.
      -    Improved sources of resistance to be combined into the Zg wheat
           breeding program, thus developing new lines (varieties) to meet
           agricultural practice.
 
      Description and method of work.  Genetic material we are studying is
 very rich.  It was obtained from mutual crossing the best genotypes, the
 carriers of traits for the programmed wheat ideotype.  By accumulating
 various polymeric genes, among which are fertility genes, recombination of
 favorable genes took place, which resulted in  obtaining the most fertile
 genotypes.
 
      Multiple combined crossing gave spike forms with elongated rachis and
 increased rows of spikelets and increased number of kernels in them.  Those
 crossings produced spike forms with 33 well-developed spikelets.  Spikes
 were found with over 100 kernels.  These traits largely come from branching
 or four-rowing genes (RmRm and TsTs genes) incorporated into these genotypes
 which stimulate increased production per spike.  Three wheat types were
 developed from this genic complex: branched, four-rowing and normal spike
 wheats which contain branching and four-rowing genic complex.  Normal spike
 forms contain apart form those already mentioned, also inhibitor of
 branching (four-rowing), i.e., normalizer (NrNr) which controls spike form
 without reducing fertility.  In this spike form, increased fertility is
 achieved through increased number of spikelets per spike and higher kernel
 weight.  Many results and knowledge from these investigations have helped to
 develop new genetic population carriers of high grain productivity per
 spike.
 
      In breeding new higher yielding winter wheat lines, the conventional
 crossing methods would be used.  Material from different generations will be
 observed to see how they exhibit the desired traits.  Accordingly, analysis
 of selected spikes would be made as regards of the following traits: ear
 length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grain per spike and total
 production per spike.  So, the following would be made in one research year:
 
      1.   Selection of parental components for crossing
      2.   Selection and analysis of spikes for heterozygous progenies
      3.   Selection of homozygous lines and quality testing (kernel weight,
           hectoliter weight, sedimentation value, crude protein content).
      4.   Testing homozygous lines in preliminary variety testing
      5.   Testing homozygous lines in small-scale variety experiments
 
 
      Throughout the vegetation period the whole material will be observed
 for quality testing, resistance to lodging, diseases, low temperatures and
 so on.
 
      The results of investigations conducted for testing resistance to
 Fusarium scab indicate that by applying adequate crossing methods,
 resistance genes can be accumulated from various sources, and thus lines
 with improved resistance degree obtained which can successfully be used in
 wheat breeding program as new sources.   Because sources of resistance genes
 in wheat are often extensive types, which, as a rule, also carry some
 unfavorable traits, they need to be improved in "pre-selection", so that
 their resistance degree is raised, at the same time eliminating the negative
 factors.   Collected sources of resistance need first to be tested with
 virulent isolates from pure culture.  Since symptoms of infections are best
 seen in adult stage, testing of genetic material will be made at that stage. 
 Infection with a suspension of spores has to be made at flowering stage.
 
      In the first year, selection of sources of resistance is made by
 crossing healthy spikes that will serve as parents for crossing in the
 following year.   Grown F(2) generation is then tested for resistance to
 Fusarium and resistant plants picked out.  The following year, F(3)
 generations with different resistance degrees would be crossed again, in
 order to raise the level of resistance to this disease.  Progenies of F(2)
 generations from these crossings would again be tested for resistance and
 resistant materials picked out to serve as sources of resistance for
 developing new high-yielding wheat varieties resistant to fusarium.
 
 -------------------------
      Improvement of Wheat Yield Through Increased Production Per Spike
 
     Objectives.  The most recently released varieties and lines produce
 yields of more than 10 t/ha.  With permanent reduction of acreage under
 wheat, a need has arisen to increase yield per unit area.  Therefore,
 breeders continue to be facing the principal task to create varieties with
 increased genetic yield potential and satisfactory grain and flour quality. 
 One of the means of increasing yield is through higher grain production per
 spike, which is one of the basic yield components.  Yielding depends on the
 number of spikes per square unit, number of grains in a spike, and kernel
 weight.  The objective of the investigation is to develop new winter wheat
 genotypes superior in genetic yielding potential to the existing varieties. 
 Higher yielding potential would be achieved on the basis of spike
 lengthening, i.e., number of fertile spikelets in a spike and number of
 rains in a spikelet.  Investigations carried out until now have shown that
 most genotypes carriers of hereditary basis for long ear are characteristic
 by their increased plant height, prolonged vegetation and reduced resistance
 to certain diseases.  To make the effects of extended spike become fully
 manifested, it is necessary to screen desirable varieties through breeding,
 finally testing plant density, levels of mineral fertilizer, planting dates
 and so on in agrotechnical trials.
 
      Method of investigations.  Genetic material we are working with is very
 rich.  It is obtained by mutual crossing of the genotypes - the carriers of
 properties for the programmed wheat ideotype.  By accumulating various
 polymeric genes, including yield genes, recombination of desirable genes
 took place, resulting in obtaining the most fertile genotypes.
 
      Repeated continuous crossings have given spike forms with longer
 rachises, increased spikelet nodes and greater grain number in spikelets. 
 These crossings produced a spike form with 33 well-developed spikelets. 
 Spikes with over 100 grains were found.  These traits largely derive from
 branching and four-rowing factors (RmRm and TsTs genes) incorporated into
 these genotypes, stimulating higher spike production.  Three wheat types
 were developed from this genic complex: branched, four-rowing and lines with
 normal spike form containing branching and four-rowing genic complex.  In
 normal spike form, beside the aforesaid genes, there is also branching
 inhibitor, normalizer (NrNr) determining spike form, without affecting its
 fertility.  In this spike forms increased yielding is based on the number of
 spikelets per spike, greater number of kernels per spike and higher kernel
 weight.  Many results and findings from these investigations have helped in
 developing new genetic populations, the carriers of high grain production
 per spike.
 
      In the breeding process at creating new higher yielding winter wheat
 lines, conventional crossing and breeding methods would be used.  Breeding
 materials will be monitored for the manifestation of desirable traits,
 during which the selected spikes would be analyzed for traits such as spike
 length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains in a spike and total
 production per spike.
 
      During the vegetation period, phenological observations of all material
 would be made, as well as testing to evaluate quality, resistance to
 lodging, low temperatures and some more serious wheat diseases.
 
      Justification.  This investigation would provide conditions for
 intensive exchange of ideas and experience, exchange of basic and breeding
 materials, and finally, exploitation of improved genetic material with
 increased production per spike resulting from this work.
 
      The ultimate objective of these investigations is to develop new winter
 wheat genotypes with increased genetic yield potential.  The obtained
 materials would be tested under different agroecological conditions.  The
 results achieved in these investigations would be presented at scientific
 meetings.
 
      Acknowledgement.  Author's would like to thank very much Prof. Jasenka
 Skoblar for her translation into the English language and for her technical
 assistance.
 
                                PUBLICATIONS
 
 Javor, Petar, Martinic-Jercic, Zdravko.  1989.  Programmes of wheat breeding
 in the Institute for Breeding and production of field crops - Zagreb.  XII
 Eucarpia Congress 1989.  Vortrage fur Pflanzenzuchtung Bok of Poster
 Abstracts, 15.
 
 Koric, Bogdan.  1987.  Work on yield stability of Zg-wheats.  II. 
 International Crop Production Symposium Debrecen-Nadudvar, 23-26.  VI.
 
 Koric, Bogdan.  1989.  Importance of Septoria nodorum blotch and its
 chemical control on quantity, quality and sanitary seed condition in seed
 production of winter wheat.  Poljoprivredna znanstvena smotra (Agriculturae
 Conspectus Scientificus), Vol. 55, No. 3-4, 477-484, Zagreb - Proceedings of
 Third International Workshop on Septoria of Cereals, Zurich, 74-76.
 
 Koric, Bogdan.  1989.  Achievement in wheat breeding for resistance to some
 diseases.  Agronomski glasnik (Agronomy Journal), No. 4-5, 47-64.  Zagreb
 (Croatian with English summary).
 
 Koric, Bogdan.  1989.  Five-years investigations of pathological types of
 Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici in western part of Yugoslavia. Zastita
 bilja (Plant Protection), 40(4), 481-486, BEograd (Croatian with English
 summary).
 
 Koric, Bogdan, Mlinar, Rade, Slobodan Tomasovic, Jaovr, Peter and Vlahovic,
 Viktorija.  1989. Wheat breeding for resistance to diseases in Institute for
 Breeding and Production of Field Crops of the Faculty of Agricultural
 Sciences in Zagreb.  Glasnik zastite bilja (Journal of Plant Protection),
 No. 6, 228-233, Zagreb (Croatian with English summary).
 
 Koric, Bogdan, and Tomasovic, Slobodan.  1989.  Effect of Fusarium
 graminearum Schw. on wheat yield. Agronomskiglasnik (Agronomy Journal), No.
 3, 49-53, Zagreb (Croatian with English summary).
 
 Koric, Bogdan.  1991.  Incidence of pathological types of Erysiphe graminis
 DC. f. sp. tritici March. in the western part of Yugoslavia from 1968 to
 1990.  Agronomski glasnik (Agronomy Journal), No. 4-5, 241-253, Zagreb
 (Croatian with English summary).
 
 Matijasevic, Mladen, Mlinar, Rade and Javor, Petar.  1988.  Characteristics
 of the newly registered Zg-winter wheat varieties, Agronomski glasnik
 (Agronomy Journal), No. 2-3, 41-55, Zagreb (Croatian with English summary).
 
 Matijasevic, Mladen,  and Mlinar, Rade.  1989.  Marija - a new high yielding
 and high quality winter wheat variety.  Semenarstvo (Journal of the Yugoslav
 seed society), No. 5, 131-140, Zagreb (Croatian with English summary).
 
 Mlinar, Rade and Matijasevic, Mladen.  1989.  Agronomic traits of some
 foreign winter wheat varieties in relation to domestic ones.  Agronomski
 glasnik (Agronomy Journal), No. 6, 3-9, Zagreb (Croation with English
 summary).
 
 Mlinar, Rade.  1990.  Marina - new winter wheat variety.  Semenarstvo
 (Journal of the Yugoslav seed society), No. 6, 339-343, Zagreb (Croatian
 with English summary).
 
 Mlinar, Rade. 1991.  The results of two-year testings of some foreign wheat
 varieties in relation to the domestic.  Poljoprivredne aktualnosti
 (Agricultural actuality), Vol. 38, No. 1-2, 149-156, Zagreb (Croation with
 English summary).
 
 Tomasovic, Slobodan.  1988.  Fusarium Diseases of Wheat with Particular
 Reference to Fusarium Head Blight (Fusarium graminearum Schw.) Ann. Wheat
 Newsletter, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO., SAD, and Canada
 Dept. of Agriculture, Vol. 34, 170-173.
 
 Tomasovic, Slobodan, Vlahovic, Viktorija, and Matisjasevic, Mladen.  1989. 
 Wheat breeding for resistance to Fusarium diseases, especially to Fusarium
 graminearum Schw.  Wheat Information Service, No. 69, 13-17, Yokohama,
 Japan.
 
 Tomasovic, Slobodan, and Koric, Bogdan.  1990.  Breeding winter wheat in the
 Institute for Breeding and Productiuon of Field Crops - Zagreb - High
 yielding wheat cultivars.  Ann. Wheat Newsletter, Colorado State University,
 Fort Collins, Colorado, SAD, and Canada Department of Agriculture, Vol. 36,
 225-227.
 
 Tomasovic, Slobodan, and Koric, Bogdan.  1990.  Work on breeding winter
 wheat varieties in the Institute for Breeding and Production of Field Crops
 of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Zagreb, High-yielding wheat
 varieties. Wheat Information Service, Number 71, 32-35, Yokohama, Japan.
 
 Tomasovic. Slobodovan.  1991.  Improvement of sources of resistance of new
 wheat lines (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare) to Fusarium Head Blight
 (Fusarium graminearum Schw.) Ph.D. Thesis, University of Novi Sad,
 Agricultural Faculty, Novi Sad. 116 pp. (Croatian with English summary).
 
 Tomasovic, slobodan, Vlahovic, Viktorija, Matijasevic, Mladen and Sesar,
 Branko.  1991.  Breeding wheat for resistance to Fusarium disease on spike
 (Head Blight).  Sjemenar-stvo (Journal of the Croatian Seed Society), No. 2,
 67-76, Zagreb (Croatian with English summary).
 
 -------------------------
                         ITEMS FROM CZECHOSLOVAKIA
 
      Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague - Ruzyne
 
      Z. Stehno, M. Vlasak
 
      Genetic resources evaluation and temporary wheat cultivars released in
 CSFR.  At present 18 cultivars of winter wheat and 4 of spring wheat are
 released in Czechoslovakia.  Another cultivar, `Butin' is released only for
 export.  Among all released cultivars, only Mironovska was not bred in the
 CSFR and it is kept on the list mainly because of its very favorable
 response to late time of sowing and its high baking quality.  Only two
 cultivars `Hana' and `Vlada', have the same quality level as Mironovska.
 
      During 1991 three new cultivars of winter wheat were released:
 
      `Livia' (K 3756-1-76/Kosutka) was bred at Breeding Station Sladkovicovo
 as an early ripening cultivar for feeding purposes.  It is tolerant to
 growing as subsequent crop after cereals.  `Livia' has good resistance to
 Septoria nodorum and stem rust and medium resistance to powdery mildew and 
 leaf rust.  Resistance to race Clement of stripe rust is lower.  It has 
 medium winterhardiness and good resistance to lodging.
 
      `Senta' (Benno/Sava//Mironovska/Artois Desprez) was bred at Breeding
 Station Stupice.  It is a mid-late cultivar for feeding purposes.  Under
 good conditions of growing it has quite good tolerance to growing after
 cereals.  Resistance to stripe and stem rusts and to Septoria nodorum are
 good.  Resistance to powdery mildew and winter hardiness do not reach a high
 level and are practically the same as `Zdar'.  `Senta' has medium resistance
 to lodging and quite good sprouting resistance.
 
      `Simona' (Weihenstephan 378/57/Maris Huntsman//Zdar) was bred at
 Breeding Station Stupice and is a mid-late cultivar for feeding purposes. 
 Growing as subsequent crop after cereals is possible.  Resistances to
 powdery mildew, Septoria nodorum and temporary races of stripe rust are
 good.  Resistance to stem rust is weak to mid level.  Winterhardiness is
 low.  `Simona' has middle resistance to lodging and good resistance to
 kernel sprouting.
 
      `Maja' and `Saxana' spring wheats were released in 1990.  ST 3
 (REna//Mironovska/Siete Cerros) is very promising and will be released as
 `Linda'.  Yield stability and lower baking quality are characteristic for
 this material.
 
      We used some of the earlier released Cs. cultivars as checks in our
 experiments in 1991.  They were `Zdar' and `Regina' winter wheats and `Jara'
 and `Sandra' spring cultivars.  325 winter and 314 spring cultivars were
 evaluated in this experiment in 4 m(2) plots with 4 replications and sowing
 rate of 4.5 million germinative grains per ha.  Table 1 shows only the top
 yielding cultivars among the whole set.
 
      `Julius', `Armur' and `Magnus' outyielded the check Regina under
 suitable conditions of the growing period in 1990/1991.  The spring
 cultivars reached the yield level of the winters.  Only `Cornette' from
 Sweden outyielded the zechoslovak checks.
 
 
 Table 1.    Survey of the best yielding winter and spring wheat  
 cultivars evaluated in 1991 under Prague locality conditions.
                                                                              
                Country                 Number      Plant    Grain
                  of        Yield       of ears     height   weight
 Cultivar       Origin      t.ha(-1)    per m(2)      cm       mg
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------   
 Winter
 Julius          AUT        6.94          288         72       42.0
 Armur           FRA        6.81          348         66       42.0
 Magnus          AUT        6.74          292         67       41.5
 Regina(check)   CSK        6.57          428         61       39.0
 Adular          DEU        6.48          296         74       49.0
 Agron           AUT        6.45          344         69       49.5
 Titus           AUT        6.42          380         66       44.0
 Heiduck         AUT        6.36          272         71       45.0
 Tombola         NLD        6.25          360         62       44.0
 Miller          NLD        6.15          444         60       42.0
 Zdar(check)     CSK        6.03          308         66       43.0
 Hubertus        AUT        6.02          268         70       54.0 
 
 Spring
 Cornette        SWE        7.56          416         96       39.0
 Maja            CSK        7.31          342         90       48.0
 Sandra(check)   CSK        7.16          369         82       39.0
 Jara(check)     CSK        7.00          320         92       40.0
 Seri 82         MEX        6.99          338         73       45.5
 ETA             POL        6.92          329         92       42.5  
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 -------------------------
      Oseva - Cereal Research Institute, Kromer 12
 
      J. Smocek
 
      Genetic resources in a special collection were evaluated on the basis
 of the following traits: (i) spike sink capacity, (ii) adaptation to
 selected environmental agroecological factors causing stress response, and
 (iii) bread-making quality.  The resources developed at the Cereal Research
 Institute were the best except for adaptation (ii).
 
      Table 1 shows the increase of spike sink capacity (ISSC) in 10
 multispikelet, multigrain - multifloret and heavy grain resources.  They
 have the spike of normal morphotype (NS) or spike with vertically sessile
 secondary spikelets on spike rachis node (VSS).
 
      Their spikes are, as a rule, cylinder-pyramidal or pyramidal; sterile
 spikelets occur in apical parts of spikes more frequently.  A lot of
 resources have long spike rachis with productive spikes of the 'gigas' type
 and a stem length of 85-95 cm (Table 2).  Longer stems were observed among
 the resources with heavy grains.  This tendency, expressed during selection,
 is confirmed by correlation coefficients shown in Table 3.  Selections for
 multispikelet and simultaneously multigrain VSS forms are accompanied by
 weight reduction of single grains.  Selected multispikelet and multigrain
 VSS gene resources have sufficient grain weight under Czechoslovak
 conditions.
 
      Most of NS and VSS resources are winter wheats.  On the basis of
 current data, expression of typical structure of VSS spikes in most gene
 resources in F1 is recessive and in some of them - dominant.  Donors with
 gigas spikes are partly dominant and independent of spike structure. 
 Developing new wheat resources with ISSC grain-quality has also been
 improved.
 
 Table 1.  Average values of best winter wheat resources with                 
           increased spike sink capacity.
  --------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                                           Number of         Number of grains per
                  fertile                 spike          Grain
 Spike**         spikelets     fertile   rachis          weight
 morphotype      per spike     spikelet   node    spike   (mg) 
  --------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 Multispikelet:                     
     VSS             29          3.3      4.5      95     41.7
                 (25-32)*  (2.7-4.2)  (3.7-5.4) (82-121) (38.9-57.8)
      NS             26          3.4      3.5      87     40.6
                 (24-29)   (2.8-4.3)  (2.9-4.5) (70-108) (35.8-48.9)
 
 Multigrain:
     VSS            24           4.6      5.5     110      44.5
                 (19-30)   (4.2-5.1)  (4.0-6.7) (97-126) (36.8-53.0)
 
 Multifloret:
     NS             20           5.2      5.4     106      43.7
                 (18-24)   (4.8-5.8)  (5.0-6.1) (94-122) (34.7-52.7)
 
 Heavy grain:
     VSS            23          3.5       4.1      80      53.3
                  (19-31)   (2.0-5.1)  (2.3-5.1) (41-84) (48.7-58.9)
     NS             22          3.5       3.5      77      56.3
                  (16-26)   (2.3-4.9)  (2.8-4.9)(2.9-4.5)(52.7-60.3)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Standard cvs.:
 Hana, Sava          22        3.4       3.5       73      36.5
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                            
  *  in parenthesis (min-max)
    ** VSS is spikes with vertically sessile secondary spikelets on
       the spike rachis node, and NS is the normal morphotype spike.
 
 
 
 Table 2.  Ideotype characteristics of perspective donors.
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                
     Spike            last      spike                 Number of*
    morpho-  Stem    internode   rachis    Spike      spikelets
     type     (cm)      (cm)      (mm)     shape       a      c  
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------  
 Multispikelet:
      VSS      88        38         145   cylindrical-  0     1
            (77-116)  (32-52)   (116-181)  pyramidal   (0)  (0-3)
                                          or pyramidal
 
 
     NS        83        37         174   cylindrical-  0     1
            (68-96)   (27-46)   (148-210)   pyramidal (0-1) (0-2)
 
 Multigrain:
     VSS       85        38         158   cylindrical-  0     1
            (72-97)   (31-46)   (136-181)   pyramidal  (0)  (0-3)
 
 Multifloret:
     NS        79        35         136   cylindrical-  0     0
            (60-100)  (22-49)   (99-179)   pyramidal   (0)  (0-2)
 
 Heavy grain:
     VSS       94       41          128    cylindrical  0     1
            (87-116)  (38-52)  (112-149)  or cylindr.  (0-1) (0-3)
 
     NS       115       49          158    cylindrical  0     2
            (95-119)  (40-58)  (128-179)    pyramidal  (0)   (0-5)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                  
 Standard cvs. 82        37          88    cylindrical   0    1
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------    
  * a= on bottom part of spike and c = on upper part of spike
 
 
 
 Table 3.  Correlations between breeding aims and spike                       
                    productivity.
  --------------------------------------------------------------                       
 Selection       Correlated             Spike morphotype
    for             traits               VSS          NS 
  --------------------------------------------------------------     
 Multispikelet
   Number of fert. spikelets/spike:
     Number of grains/spike            0.475**   0.624**
     Grain weight                     -0.191NS   0.365**
     Spike productivity                0.298**   0.545**
 
 
 
 Multigrain, multispikelet
    Number of grains/spike rachis node +):
      Number of graqins/spike          0.846**      -
      Grain weight                     0.758**      -
      Spike productivity               0.758**
 
    Number of grains/spikelet:
      Number of grains/spike                      0.867**
      Grain weight                                0.295**
      Spike productivity                          0.718**
 
 Heavy grain:
    Grain weight:
      Length of stem                  0.564**     0.650**
      Length of last internode        0.443**     0.550**
      Spike productivity              0.625**     0.705**
 
 Gigas spike:
    Length of spike rachis:
      Number of fertile spikelets     0.224**     0.639**
      Number of grains/spikelet       0.588**     0.243*
      Grain weight                    0.061NS     0.542**
      Spike productivity              0.524**     0.542**
  ---------------------------------------------------------------                                                               
  *, **:  Significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 levels, respectively.  
 
 -------------------------
                           ITEMS FROM ESTONIA
 
      Institute of Experimental Biology of the Estonian Academy of Sciences,
 Department of Plant Genetics, Tallinn/Harku
 
      O. Priilinn, T. Enno, H. Peusha, M. Tohver
 
      Transfer of leaf rust resistance from Triticum timopheevii and T.
 militinae into common wheat.  The important tasks of the cereal geneticists
 and breeders are to increase the yield potential and disease resistance,
 improve the yield stabilities and grain quality.  Several methods are known
 for increasing genetic variation in plant species and we have used in our
 research work such as hybridization and induced mutagenesis.
 
      The method of chemical mutagenesis was used in our experiments for
 inducing genetic variability in spring and winter wheat.  At the beginning
 of the 70's a great number of mutant lines with morphological and
 physiological changes were induced by alkyl ureas and other chemical
 mutagens.   Some of these mutants have the complex of agronomically
 important characters and are of great value for plant breeding.  During the
 following years the collection of wheat mutants was investigated with the
 help of genetical (aneuploid monosomic analysis), biochemical (gel
 electrophoresis), cytological (light- and electronmicroscopic analysis of
 meiosis) and immunogenetical (identification of rust resistance genes)
 methods.
 
      The increase of genetic variability has been achieved by the method of
 wide hybridization using different Triticeae species (T. timopheevii, T.
 militinae, T. dicoccum, T. persicum etc.) as the disease resistance donors.
 
      Genes conferring leaf rust resistance have been transferred to common
 wheat mutant 146-155 from T. timopheevii by conventional crossing and
 backcrossing.  Mutant line 146-155 was induced in spring wheat cultivar
 Norrona after NMU treatment.  The rust resistant derivative, designated as
 146-155-T, has the infection types "O", "1-" with clear manifestation of
 necrotic reaction. Hybridological genetic analysis showed that one or two
 genes provide protection against leaf rust pathogen.  It was ascertained
 that these genes differed from effective Lr genes for this type of
 resistance and were not identical to known effective genes for resistance of
 the isogenic set of wheat cultivar Thatcher.
 
      Cytological analysis of meiosis in resistant line 146-155-T revealed
 the high frequency of ring tetravalent associations at metaphase I (6.4%),
 indicating the chromosome translocation occurrence.
 
      The phenol reaction in wheat is often used as genetic marker to
 distinguish cultivars from each other and classify them with respect to the
 intensity of colour reaction - from "uncoloured" to "dark brown".  It was
 ascertained that kernels of Triticum timopheevii after the treatment by
 phenolic solution had no colour reaction and were classified as
 "uncoloured".   The kernels of mutant 146-155 shoed colour reaction and were
 classified as "brown".  However, kernels of resistant line 146-155-T had no
 colour reaction and were classified as "uncoloured".  This test evidently
 suggested introgression of genetic material from T. Timopheevii to common
 wheat mutant as a result of interspecific hybridization.  We assume that
 chromosome translocation in line 146-155-T may include loci controlling both
 resistance to leaf rust pathogen and phenol reaction in kernels (tyrosinase
 activity).
 
      The results of our investigations have shown that the more effective
 donors of rust resistance were species T. timopheevii, T. militinae and
 hybrid F(1) (T. militinae x T. timopheevii).  Using the scheme of non-
 complete backcrosses with the permanent estimation of wide hybrids on the
 artificial provocative background about 50 lines with phenotypes of common
 wheat and resistance to leaf rust were selected.  The five introgressive
 lines with high resistance to leaf rust and good agronomical characters
 (CMT-5, CMT-24, CMT-27, CMT-28, CMT-36) have been handed over to the world
 wheat collection of N.I. Vavilov's Research Institute of Plant Industry in
 St. Petersburg (catalogue No. U-0121782 - 0121786).  These lines are of
 great value as initial material for wheat breeding.  
 
      For identification of genes controlling rust resistance, the lines CMT-
 5, CMT-11, CMT-14, CMT-16, CMT-26, CMT-28 and CMT-67 were crossed with
 isogenic tester lines of cultivar Thatcher with genes Lr9, Lr19 and Lr24. 
 Hybridological analysis of hybrid populations showed that resistance to leaf
 rust in introgressive lines of wheat was controlled by one or two effective
 gene(s) with complementary or epistatic types of interaction.  The
 segregation in hybrid progenies F(2) revealed the independence of these
 resistance genes from known genes in tester-lines of cultivar Thatcher
 (Table 1).  It was found that wheat introgressive lines possessed new
 resistance genes, different from effective genes Lr9, Lr19 and Lr24.
 
      Effect of ph1 mutation on chromosome pairing in wide hybrids of wheat. 
 It is generally assumed that when the homoeologous pairing prevention system
 of wheat is active, genetic transfer between homoeologous chromosomes of
 wheat and other species of Triticeae extremely limited.  The use of the ph
 mutation as the pairing promoting system allows to increase the levels of
 wheat-alien homoeologous chromosome pairing and recombination frequencies. 
 In our experiments varieties of common wheat, including mutant ph1 of
 cultivar Chinese Spring, were crossed with wheat species (Triticum
 timopheevii, T. militinae, T. persicum), Ae. cylindrica and Secale cereale.  
 The analysis of microsporogenesis has been carried out and the chromosome
 pairing at MI was evaluated on average basis.  The results of our
 investigations showed that in all crosses in which the mutant ph1 was
 involved, the chromosome pairing has been higher as compared with the
 corresponding check hybrids (Table 2).  It was ascertained that effects of
 the mutant ph1 in wide crosses were higher the fewer homoeologous genomes
 were integrated in F(1) hybrids.  The experiments carried out indicated that
 the high level of homoeologous chromosome pairing and, consequently, the
 recombination frequencies obtainable by use of ph1 mutation may be employed
 in plant breeding and genetics for transferring the alien genetic material
 to common wheat genome.
 
 
 Table 1.  Segregation of F(2) hybrids from crosses of wheat resistant
           lines with cv. Thatcher tester-lines of known genes for 
           resistance
 
 Cross combination   No. of    Proportion of resistant  
                     plants    and susceptible plants   X(2)
                               observed  Expected
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
 CMT 5 x Lr 9        100       80 : 20   13 : 3         0,11
 CMT 5 x Lr 24       119       68 : 51    9 : 7         0,03
 CMT 11 x Lr 9       110       89 : 21   13 : 3         0,13
 CMT 11 x Lr 24      100       94 : 6    15 : 1         0,14
 CMT 14 x Lr 9       100       94 : 6    15 : 1         0,14
 CMT 14 x Lr 19      100       95 : 5    15 : 1         0,29
 CMT 14 x Lr 24      110       89 : 21   13 : 3         0,06
 CMT 16 x Lr 9       120      102 : 19   13 : 3         0,30
 CMT 16 x Lr 19      120       98 : 22   13 : 3         0,01
 CMT 16 x Lr 24       87       50 : 37    9 : 7         0,43
 CMT 26 x Lr 9       100       83 : 17   13 : 3         0,19
 CMT 26 x Lr 19      100       91 : 9    15 : 1         1,28
 CMT 28 x Lr 9       100       90 : 10   15 : 1         2,18
 CMT 28 x Lr 19       80       64 : 16   13 : 3         0,07
 CMT 67 x Lr 9       100       80 : 20   13 : 3         0,06
 CMT 67 x Lr 19      100       78 : 22   13 : 3         0,57
 CMT 67 x Lr 24      100       56 : 43    9 : 7         0,03
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Induced instability in wheat mutants.  Genetic instability was detected
 in many wheat mutant lines induced by chemical mutagens (NMU, NEU, DAB),
 particularly in the ones, which were produced by repeated treatment.  Mainly
 genetic instability reveals itself in reversions into the primary type and
 vice versa.  Sometimes up to 30% from induced mutant lines segregate into
 two or more morphological types during ten or more generations.  The
 frequency of appearance of instable forms is genotype specific.
 
      The revertants are very different according to the genetical properties
 of concrete mutants. More frequently the compactoid and squarhead forms are
 unstable and going over to one another.  We suggested that it should be
 connected with easy transition of genes C and c and with different doses of
 factor Q.
 
      Karyotype of mutant sublines and of revertants were analyzed.  Specific
 changes of mutant karyotype were not noticed.  In some mutant and revertant
 sublines small average numbers of rod bivalents and multivalents were
 revealed.
 
 
 Table 2.  Meiotic pairing at MI in the different hybrids F(1)
 
 Hybrid combinations No. of    Bivalents Univalents   Multi- Chiasmata
                     cells                           valents
                     observed       p e r  c e l l           
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Chinese Spring (ABD)     
 x T.persicum (AB)        274       13,6      7,5       0,06      25,2
 
 CS mutant ph1 (ABD)
 x T.persicum (AB)        178       13,0      6,0       0,75      25,9
 
 Chinese Spring (ABD)
 x T.timopheevii (AG)     130       7,2       18,3      0,63      12,0
 
 CS mutant ph1 (ABD) 
 x T.timopheevii (AG)     243       8,3       14,7      1,1       15,4
 
 Chinese Spring (ABD)
 x T.militinae (AG)        32       6,4       21,5      0,25      9,5
 
 CS mutant ph1 (ABD)
 x T.militinae (AG)       313       8,7       14,7      0,85      13,2
 
 Chinese Spring (ABD)
 x Petkus rye (R)         880       0,3       27,4      0         0,3
 
 CS mutant ph1 (ABD)
 x Petkus rye (R)         169       4,6       15,3      0,46      7,2
 
 CS mutant ph1 (ABD)
 x Kc-517/8 rye (R)       217       5,7       13,2      0,94      12,1
 
 Chinese Spring (ABD)
 x Ae.cylindrica (CD)     153       4,8       23,7      0,3       8,4
 
 CS mutant ph1 (ABD)
 x Ae.cylindrica (CD)     86        7,8       16,6      0,8       15,3
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                                PUBLICATIONS
 
 Enno, T., Peusha, H.  1990.  The cytological analysis of meiosis in the
 intergeneric hybrids F(1) Triticum aestivum L. x Aegilops cylindrica L.
 Proceed. Estonian Acad. Sci. Biol., 40:185-192.
 
 Peusha, H., Shnaider, T.  1990.  Genetic control of disease resistance in
 derivatives of Triticum timopheevii.  In: Cytogenetics of cereal crops. 
 Tallinn:97-102.
 
 Priilinn, O.  1991.  Development of plant genetics and genetical basis of
 plant breeding in Estonia.  Journal of Agricultural Sci., Tartu:134-149.
 
 Shnaider, T., Peusha, H.  1989.  Genotypic response to phenol in wheat. 
 Proceed. Estonian Acad. Sci. Biol., 38:316-319.
 
 Tohver, M.  1991.  Genetic instability of wheat mutants induced by chemical
 mutagens.  Proceed. Estonian Acad. Sci. Biol., 40:34-37.
 
 -------------------------
                             ITEMS FROM FRANCE 
 
      Laboratoire de Genetique Vegetale, URA 115 CNRS, Universite Paris XI,
 91405 Orsay
 
      J. De Buyser, J. L. Marcotte and Y. Henry*
 
           Genetic Aspects of Regeneration in Wheat Tissue Culture
 
      Anther culture.  During the anther culture process, embryo induction,
 regeneration capacity and albinism are independent heritable traits (3),
 which are quantitatively controlled.  We have previously demonstrated that
 several chromosome arms were involved in the genetic basis of responsiveness
 to anther culture in wheat (4).  The presence of a parental line having a
 wheat-rye translocated 1BL-1RS chromosome increase the regeneration capacity
 (3).
 
      A comparison was performed using the sexual progeny from the cross
 female 1B/1B x male 1B/1B-1R and the haploid plants regenerated from the
 anther culture of heterozygous 1B/1B-1R plants.  Experiments indicate that a
 preferential transmission of 1BL-1RS chromosomes (compared to 1BL-1BS) was
 exhibited during the anther culture process, on the contrary to male
 transmission 1:1 through sexual crosses.  This provided evidence for major
 nuclear gametophytic gene(s) on 1RS arm acting on regeneration from wheat
 microspore embryos (to be published).
 
      Somatic Embryogenesis.  The spring line Chinese Spring (CS) that
 produce somatic embryogenesis in vitro was tested for its ability to
 sexually transmit the embryogenetic trait.  The F(1) embryos from the
 reciprocal crosses between CS and a non embryogenic variety, do not express
 somatic embryogenesis.  In contrast the F(2) embryos revealed a segregation
 embryogenic: nonembryogenic.  These results demonstrate that the trait for
 somatic embryogenesis in wheat is sexually transmitted (6).
 
      Aneuploid stocks including 36 ditelosomics (DT) and 7 nullisomic-
 tetrasomic (NT) were compared for their ability to produce somatic embryos
 and meristems after two months of in vitro immature embryos culture.  They
 were also observed for their regeneration capacity after 4 and 14 months in
 vitro somatic embryogenesis.  A large range of variation was found between
 the tested aneuploids, suggesting that the genetic determinism of the
 somatic tissue culture ability is polygenic, with a major effect of genes
 located on the long arms of homoeologous group 3 chromosomes.
 
      Moreover, only 12 % of DT or NT regenerants possesses an abnormal
 chromosome complement after 4 months of in vitro somatic embryogenesis,
 instead of 75% after 14 months.  The plants derived directly from somatic
 embryos shows the same frequency of abnormalities than those regenerated
 from meristems.
 
 
                                Publications
 
 Aubry, C., De Buyser, J., Hartmann, C., Henry Y. and Rode A.  1990. 
 Molecular organizations of the mitochondrial genome in albino tissue
 cultures derived from wheat pollen embryos and in plants regenerated from
 these cultures.  Plant Science 65:103-110.
 
 Hartmann, C., Henry, Y., De Buyser, J., Lejeune, B., Quetier, F. and Rode,
 A.  1990.  A comparative study of the mitochondrial DNA organization in
 nonembryogenic and embryogenic somatic tissue cultures of wheat: evidence
 for a differential variability.  Giornalo Botanico Italiano 123:123-132.
 
 Henry, Y. and De Buyser, J.  1985.  Effect of the 1B-1R translocation on
 anther culture ability in wheat.  Plant Cell Reports 4:307-310.
 
 Henry, Y. and De Buyser, J.  1990.  Wheat anther culture.  Agronomic
 performance of doubled haploid lines and the release of a new variety
 "Florin".  In: Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, Vol. 13: Wheat,
 ed., Y. P. S. Bajaj. Springer, 286-352.
 
 Rios, R., De Buyser, J., Henry, Y., Ambard-Bretteville, F. and Remy R. 
 1991.  Two-dimensional electrophoretic comparison of mitochondrial
 polypeptides from different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues.  Plant
 Science 76:159-166.
 
 De Buyser, J., Marcotte, J.-L. and Henry, Y.  Genetic analysis of in vitro
 wheat somatic embryogenesis. Submitted.
 
 Hartmann, C., De Buyser, J., Henry, Y., Morere-Le Paven, M.-C., Dyer, T. and
 Rode, A.  A nuclear genes control changes in the organization of the
 mitochondrial genome in tissue cultures derived from immature embryos of
 wheat.  Submitted.
 
                                
 -------------------------
      INRA Plant Breeding Station of Rennes.
 
      G‚rard Doussinault, Joseph Jahier, Jacqueline Pierre, Maxime Trottet,
 Fran‡oise Dedryver.
 
      Determination of resistance to Septoria nodorum in Aegilops squarrosa. 
 Substitution lines of the 7 chromosomes of Aegilops squarrosa nø33 (D
 genome) in cv. Cappelle have been obtained (3 backcrosses, backcrossing
 programme is still in progress). These lines and Cappelle, AS6 (amphiploid
 Ae. Squarrosa * T. dicoccum) and Ae. squarrosa nø33 have been studied for
 their reaction towards S. nodorum. The tests have been made at three leaf
 growth stage, on detached leaves and on the whole plant, and during stem
 extension and at heading. At least 4 chromosomes of Ae. squarrosa are
 involved in resistance, some chromosomes have a negative effect on
 resistance, none of the substitution line is as resistant as Ae. squarrosa
 nø33 or as the amphiploid AS6, this means that the genetic determinism of
 resistance is not simply inherited. The genetic determinism of resistance of
 leaves is for a part different from the one of the spikes. The 3D chromosome
 seems to be the only one to improve all the aspects of resistance studied.
 
      Resistances to Meloidogyne naasi and to Heterodera avenae transfered
 from Aegilops variabilis. One accession of Aegilops variabilis (2n=28,
 UUSvSv) resistant both to the root knot nematode M. naasi and to the cyst
 nematode H. avenae was hybridized with wheat. In the backcross progenies,
 one disomic addition line (2n=44) and one recombination line resistant to
 root knot nematode were extracted. The gene(s) for resistance on the added
 chromosome (3U or 3Sv) was tansferred to chromosome 3B of the recombination
 line through homoeologous meiotic pairing. An isozyme marker for resistance
 (esterase) was found. It will allow a simple and rapid screening method for
 selecting resistant varieties. Selection of lines resistant to cyst nematode
 is in progress. At least three levels of resistance to Ha12 pathotype of H.
 avenae were distinguished. It was unexpected to find that the two types of
 lines resistant to M. naasi displayed different resistance to H. avenae. It
 suggests that the two genetical systems and the mechanisms of resistance to
 both parasites are partly common.
 
      Improvement of populations by recurrent selection. We have now achieved
 4 cycles of selection for the population of winter wheat PA (created from 16
 parents in the years 1976 - 1978). A multitrait, multilocal and short cycle
 recurrent selection procedure was used to improve the agronomic value and
 bread making quality. The selection cycle includes 2 generations of
 selection and 1 generation of intercrossing of the best genotypes. Selection
 on S0 and S1 plants based on selfing regime was performed with phenotypic
 indices which combine disease resistance, height, yield and bread making
 quality. The analysis of the 2 first cycles of selection shows the
 efficiency of such a scheme with an increase in mean level of most of the
 characters studied except a very important one which is yield. Moreover, the
 intrapopulation variability estimated by phenotypic variances remained
 unchanged except for characters intensively selected and with an oligogenic
 determinism (stripe rust resistance and height). The mean reason for the low
 efficiency of selection for yield is the weak precision of the tests made on
 generation S1. The quantity of seeds produced by a S0 plant do not allow
 large plots (we use 1 row plots with 2 replications in 3 locations). The
 segregation for height in about half the S1 families, due to the presence of
 Rht1 and Rht2 genes, decreases the precision of yield estimation, and the
 tall plants whose contribution to yield of the family is the most important
 are not the ones which will be intercrossed.
 
      In the generation S0 of the fourth cycle 98% of the plants had a very
 high level of resistance to stripe rust, 81% to leaf rust and 67% to powdery
 mildew. These resistances may be due to to a little number of major genes
 efficient towards the races of the pathogens present in the nursery, and
 there is probably a hidden variability. The frequency of the gene Pch1 of
 resistance to Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides which was of 25% in the
 founder lines is of 30% in the fourth cycle of the population.
 
                                Publications. 
 
 Bousquet, J.D., Touraud, G., Piollat, M.T., Bosch, U., Trottet, M. 1990. ABA
 accumulation in wheat heads inoculated with Septoria nodorum in the field
 conditions. J. Agronomy and Crop Sciences. 165 : 297-300.
                                
 Branant, P., Kervella, J., Doussinault, G., Picard, E., Rousset, M. 1991.
 Influence du premier cycle de s‚lection r‚currente appliqu‚e … une
 population de bl‚ tendre d'hiver. Agronomie 11:473-482.
 
 Chen, Q., Jahier, J., Cauderon, Y., 1990. Intergeneric hybrids between
 Triticum aestivum and three crested wheatgrasses: agropyron mongolicum, A.
 michnoi, and A. desertorum. Genome, 33 : 663-667.
 
 Chen, Q., Jahier, J., Cauderon, Y., 1991. Evaluation, en vue
 del'am‚lioration des bl‚s, d'espŠces du complexe Agropyron cristatum
 collect‚es en Chine. C.R. Acad. Agric. Fr., 77 : 1, 65-73.
 
 Lucas, P., Cavelier, N., Pierre, J., Doussinault, G. 1990. Evolution au
 champ de la croissance et ‚laboration du rendement d'un peuplement de bl‚
 d'hiver en fonction des attaques de Rhizocronia cerealis. Agronomie 6 :
 479-486.
 
 Person-Dedryver, F., Jahier, J., Miller, T.E., 1990. Assessing the
 resistance to cereal root-knot nematode, Meloidogynenaasi, in a wheat line
 with the added chromosome arm 1HchS of Hordeum chilense. J. Genet. & Breed.,
 44 : 291-296.
 
 Rivoal, R., Doussinault, G., Hulle, M. 1990. Influence of Heterodera avenae
 on winter wheat in France:experiments with resistant and susceptible
 vaeieties. Ann. appl. Biol. 116 : 537-548.
 
 Saur, L. 1991. Recherche de g‚niteurs de r‚sistance … la fusariose de l'‚pi
 caus‚e par Fusarium culmorum chez le bl‚ et les espŠces voisines. Agronomie
 11 : 535-541.
 
 Thomas, G., Doussinault, G., Trottet, M. 1991. M‚thodologie de
 l'am‚lioration de bl‚ tendre (Triticum aestivum L.). II. Etude et analyse de
 deux premiers cycles de s‚lection r‚currente.  Agronomie 11 : 457-472.
 
 Thomas, G., Rousset, M., Pichon, M., Trottet, M., Douddinault, G., Picard,
 E. 1991. Mthodologie dem‚lioration de bl‚ tendre (Triticum aestivum L.). I.
 Cr‚ation par croisements et analyse d'une population artificielle … 16
 parents, base de cette ‚tude m‚thodologique. Agronomie. 11 : 359-368.
 
 Yu, M.Q., Person-Dedryver, F., Jahier, J., 1990. Resistance to boot knot
 nematode, Meloidogyne naasi Franklin) transferred from Aegilops variabilis
 Eig. to bread wheat. Agronomie, 6 : 451-456.
 
 -------------------------
                            ITEMS FROM GERMANY
 
      Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben
 
      A. Boerner, R. Schlegel, J. Plaschke, and I. M. Ben Amer
 
      GA-insensitivity.  A collection of 28 Libyan wheat accessions showing a
 reduced plant height were screened for gibberellic acid (GA(3))
 insensitivity.  One hexaploid and four tetraploid wheats could be classified
 as non-responsive.  Because the drums were collected in 1981 from cultivated
 areas, it seems to be unlikely that they carry genes for GA insensitivity
 which are different to the widespread `Norin 10' or `Tom Thumb' alleles.  As
 a new source for GA insensitive dwarfing genes the hexaploid wheat line `TRI
 6964' is of particular interest.  It was collected in 1955 from an isolated
 area, called `Al-Kufra' oasis.
 
      The tetrasomics of the homoeologous groups 2, 5 and 7 of `Chinese
 Spring' wheat were, together with the euploid standard, tested at the
 seedling stage for sensitivity to exogenous (GA(3)).  
 Whilst the seedling length of lines tetrasomic for group 2 chromosomes were
 taller and those for chromosome 5A, 5D and 7D shorter in both treatments
 (with and without GA(3)) compared to the euploid control, the remaining
 tetrasomics - 5B, 7A and 7B - were significant shorter than the euploids in
 the GA variant only.  These results suggest the presence of additional
 genetic factors for GA insensitivity on chromosomes of the groups 5 and 7 of
 wheat.  Thus it corresponds with the localization of GA insensitive dwarfing
 genes on the homoeologous chromosomes 5R and 7R of diploid rye.
 
      Tissue culture response.  Immature embryos of F(3) lines, segregating
 for the hybrid dwarfing gene D2 were studied together with their parental
 varieties `Florence' (genotype d1d1 D2D2 d3d3_ and `Chinese Spring'
 (genotype d1d1 d2d2 d3d3) for tissue culture response.  Six out of eight
 F(3) lines were found with a high rate of callus growth similar to the level
 of `Florence', whereas two lines had significant lower callus weights
 corresponding to the level of `Chinese Spring'.  The 3:1 segregation found
 did not match the expected segregation of the D2 gene.  It is suggested that
 there is a different dominant gene (or gene complex) in `Florence' which
 promotes the callus growth, and the hybrid dwarfing gene does not effect
 this trait.
 
      In addition the influence of genes/alleles, affecting the whole plant
 phenotype (Rht8, rht8 and Ppd1, ppd1) on tissue culture response was studied
 by using immature embryos.  Whereas the semi-dwarfing gene Rht8 seems to
 have only a minor promoting effect, the daylength sensitive allele ppd1,
 which promotes the vegetative growth of plants under short day conditions in
 vivo did determine a significant increase in callus growth and regeneration
 ability.  Regarding to their tissue culture efficiency, the four alleles
 studies, could be ranked as follows: ppd1 > Rht8 > rht8 > Ppd1.
 
      Homologous chromosome pairing.  A self-fertile inbred line of diploid
 rye (RR) was used for the production of amphidiploid, hexaploid and
 octoploid, wheat-rye hybrids with an identical rye component to investigate
 the contribution of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat genomes to homologous
 pairing failure of the rye chromosomes.  In addition, the RR, AABBRR and
 AABBDDRR plants were kept under different temperature conditions in
 phytotrons (15, 20 and 25degC) during microsporogenesis in order to study
 effects on the pairing process.  The results demonstrated a reduction of
 bivalent pairing of the rye as well as of the wheat chromosomes due to
 increased temperatures, but much more pronounced in the rye genome, as
 measured by the chiasma frequency per chromosome.  Almost the same effect is
 produced by the addition of the AABB or AABBDD genomes, at least at the 15
 degC level.  Since differential chromosome staining was applied to
 discriminate wheat and rye chromosomes as well as rye chromosomes from each
 other, it could be shown that in the AABBRR and AABBDDRR hybrids the
 univalents and rod bivalents of rye involved predominantly chromosome arms
 carrying heterochromatic telomeres.  The frequency of interstitial chiasmata
 of rye chromosomes is more decreased by the presence of the wheat genomes
 rather than higher temperature.  Thus, pairing reduction due to the presence
 of a tetraploid or hexaploid wheat genome, connected with differences of
 duration of meiotic prophase, should be one of main reasons for genome
 interference in triticale, besides interactions of wheat and rye genes
 controlling chromosome pairing and recombination.
 
      Mineral nutrition and genetical control.  The recognition that
 varieties of cereal crops differ in their response to nutrients and soil
 conditions, induced research directed towards elucidating the specific
 factors involved.  Although soil and fertilizer science try to ameliorate
 unfavourable soil conditions there are soils which represent a continuing
 problem over large areas (acidity, toxicity, salinity etc.).  On the other
 hand, reduction of fertilizers becomes more important by economical and
 environmental reasons.  It is accepted by the breeders that selection for
 adaptation to certain soil conditions is not only possible for the efficient
 utilization of nutrients under high soil fertility but also under mineral
 stress.  It is recorded that varieties and genotypes in cereals show
 differences in their uptake and utilization of macro and micro nutrients as
 well as different tolerance to nutrient excess and to supply with potential
 toxic elements.  A review (Schlegel et al. 1991) revealed that despite
 intensive studies on mineral nutrition in cereals only few results are
 available which clearly demonstrate it genetical determination.  It seems
 that macro nutrition is controlled more complex than the efficiency of trace
 elements, but in both major genes can be involved.  The investigation of the
 inheritance of mineral nutrition was proved most efficient when defined
 genotypes and suitable genetic tester stocks were included.  Genes on
 chromosomes of the homoeologous groups 4 and 5 seem preferentially involved
 in the control of plant nutrition.
 
                                PUBLICATIONS
 
 Borner, A.  1991.  Genetical studies of gibberellic acid insensitivity in
 rye (Secale cereale L.).  Plant Breeding 106:53-57.
 
 Borner, A.  1991.  Genetics of reduced height (Dwarfism) in cereals and its
 significance in breeding.  Proc. Meeting of the Cereal Section of EUCARPIA,
 Schwein, 24-27.6.1991, Vortr. Pflanzezuchtg. 20.79-84.
 
 Houben, A. and R. Schlegel.  1991.  The isolation of individual chromosomes
 of diploid barley by micromanipulation. Proc. 6th Int. Barley Genet. Symp.,
 Helsingborg/Sweden, 1991. 279-280.
 
 Houben, A. and R. Schlegel.  1991.  Chromosome-Transfer bei Pflanzen.  Wiss.
 u. Fortschr. 41.358-360.
 
 Mettin, D., Schlegel, G. and C. Lehmann.  1991.  Instability of the blue
 grain color in a strain of T. aestivum. Genome 34:745-750.
 
 Schlegel, R. and O. Schrader.  1991.  Pairing restriction in homologous rye
 chromosomes of amphidiploid wheat-rye hybrids determined by genome dosage
 and temperature.  Proc. 2nd Int. Triticale Symp., Paso
 Fundo/Brazil, 1991. 359-367.
 
 Schlegel, R., T. Werner and E. Hulgenhof.  1991.  Confirmation of a 4BL/5RL
 wheat-rye chromosome translocation in the wheat variety `Viking' showing
 high copper efficiency.  Plant Breed. 107:226-234.
 
 Schlegel, R., T. Werner and F. Jacob.  1991.  Mineral nutrition and
 genetical control in cereals.  Proc. Meeting of the Cereal Section of
 EUCARPIA, Schwein, 24-27 June 1991, Vortr. Pflanzen zuchtg. 20:85-94.
 
 -------------------------
                            ITEMS FROM HUNGARY
                                  
    Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
 Martonvasar
                                  
    L. Balla, Z. Bedo, L. Szunics, L. Lang, Lu. Szunics, I. Karsai, Gy. Vida
                                  
    The  1990-1991 crop year was favourable until mid-June, when the hot
 weather reduced the grain filling  period.  The unusually long period of
 heavy rain during harvesting caused significant losses in  yield and reduced
 grain  quality.  The national yield average was 5.17 t/ha on 1.15 million
 hectares.
    
      Breeding.  Two new Martonvasar wheat varieties were registered last 
 year.  Martonvasari  22  was  selected  from  the  cross NS
 2568-2//Bezostaya dwarf/Zg 1477-69/3/Zg 4431. This early ripening wheat
 adapted particularly  well  to  the high  temperatures last year. Judging by
 its farinographic value, it has a baking quality of B1  with an average 
 loaf volume.  It has excellent resistance to stem  rust  and powdery mildew, 
 and  its winter  hardiness is also  satisfactory.  The  other  new  variety, 
 Martonvasari  23, was developed from the cross 13A/MvTf//Martonvasari
 5/3/Tiszataj. The main  agronomic advantage of  this medium early wheat  is
 its A2 farinographic  value,  combined  with  large loaf  volume and
 excellent  gluten quality.  It has good stem rust  resistance and winter
 hardiness, and moderate resistance to powdery mildew.
    
      Anther culture. An analysis of the Martonvasar wheat varieties showed
 that the most important of  these,  e.g.  Mv 15, Mv 16, Mv 7,  etc.,  have 
 good  androgenic  ability  either  alone  or in crossing combinations.  When
 anther cultures were  initiated from populations  of  crossing  combinations 
 involving  these wheats, fertile dihaploid plants were obtained with  an
 average frequency of around 2 %. In the majority of cases, uniform,
 non-segregating lines  were  obtained  from  the  progeny  of  DHo  plants.
 After multiplication,   the  agronomic  properties  were  evaluated  in
 experiments with four  replications.  Eight  dihaploid lines were entered 
 for state variety trials  this  autumn  on  the basis of their good
 productivity,  quality and disease resistance. In each case one of the
 parents was a Martonvasar variety or line.
 
      As the  result of research  begun five years  ago, several new doubled
 haploid lines as new agronomic sources are  available for earliness, 
 dwarfness,  resistance and favourable quality traits, especially high
 protein  and gluten content  and excellent baking quality. In many cases the
 new initial breeding stock was created from exotic  x  locally  adapted 
 wheat  crosses.  Among  the new sources,  special mention should be made of
 the DH line MvDH 309, which has purple grains and high protein content.
 
      Two winter wheat cultivars were  used  to study  the effect of repeated 
 anther  cultures  on  in  vitro androgenesis.  In these experiments,  the
 first and second generations of dihaploids were studied in  order to 
 determine the  effect  of  anther cultures; changes in the F1  populations
 produced between the  original and dihaploid plants of the two cultivars
 were also investigated. The results show  that repeated anther  cultures do
 not  increase the frequency of pollen embryogenesis, as there was no
 improvement in the androgenic ability  of the two  dihaploid generations
 tested. The inclusion of  dihaploid  plants  in  crosses  led  to similar
 results.  The populations gave  results  either  identical  to or
 poorer than those found for the F1  populations  of  the original plants. 
 The poorer results were  found when  the dihaploid plant was used as the
 male partner.
 
      Studies  were  made  on  the variability existing between individual
 plants  of the same variety with  respect to  in vitro androgenesis ability, 
 and on the responses given  by the progeny lines  of these plants in  anther
 culture.  The great differences observed between plant individuals,
 especially  with  respect to plant regeneration ability, were generally
 significant.
 
      Variability was even greater in the progeny  generation. The most
 important factor influencing the frequency of anther response and callus
 induction ability was the genotype,  while in the  case of plant
 regeneration, genotype only had a significant effect on the frequency  of
 green  plants.  The effect of environmental factors was significant for all
 four characters studied.  On the basis of parent-progeny  regression,   
 medium  h2   values  (h2=0.60  and h2=0.48) were obtained for Mv 16 with
 respect to the frequency of anther response and callus induction,  and a low 
 (h2=0.39) value for  Fatima  with  respect  to  the  frequency  of   green 
 plant induction,  while in the remaining cases no  correlation could be
 demonstrated between the responses of the original plant  and the progeny
 lines.
                                   
      Disease  resistance.  In 1991,  23  wheat powdery mildew races were
 isolated.  There was no  substantial change in the  ratio of prevalent
 races. The prevalent races and their frequencies are as follows:  51  (24.8 
 %), 75 (12.9 %), 46 (10.9 %), 85 (8.6 %), 72 (8.6  %). Races containing
 virulence genes 5 (33.8 %), 7 (24.7 %) and 6 (21.9 %) were present in the
 greatest proportions. Very few races are virulent to genotypes containing
 the genes Pm 4a and Pm 4b. Gene Pm 17 provides excellent field resistance.
    
      On  the basis of  experimental  data and the  genealogy of the
 varieties it would seem that the varieties Martonvasari 10 and GK Kincs“
 have inherited the resistance genes Pm 2+6  and Sr 36 from Arthur.  Breeders
 have transferred the resistance genes  Pm 8, Lr 26, Sr 31 and Yr 9 from
 Kavkaz into Martonvasari 14, Martonvasari 15,  Martonvasari  16, 
 Martonvasari 17,  Martonvasari 20  and GK Zombor.  In addition to these
 major genes,  other minor genes may also occur.  In the course of the years, 
 the resistance genes Sr 5, Lr 3, Lr 26, Pm 8 and Pm 2+6 have lost their
 effectiveness.    
    
    A  considerable  quantity  of  precipitation  fell  during the harvesting 
 period.   This  not  only  complicated and  delayed harvesting, but also
 promoted the spread of Fusarium fungi. Among the Martonvasar wheat
 varieties,  the following are less prone to infection: Mv 15, Mv 16, Mv 18,
 Mv 19, Mv 20 and Mv 21.
 
    
      In 1991 unusually severe infection was caused by Sclerophthora
 macrospora   (downy  mildew).   Evaluations  were  made   on  the resistance 
 of  nearly  2000  varieties,  83.1  %  of  which were symptom-free,  while 
 8.6  %  were  severely  infected. Among the varieties well-known in Hungary, 
 the following had above-average susceptibility:  Kavkaz,  Avrora,  Bezostaya 
 2,  Martonvasari 4, Martonvasari 5,  Martonvasari 15, GK Othalom, GK Szoke,
 GK Orzse, Bucsanyi  20,  ST 924-79,  F-29, Sbrijanka. Susceptibility to the
 pathogen   may   be  inherited.   Lines   selected   from  hybrid
 combinations  developed  using  the  varieties   Martonvasari  5,
 Martonvasari   15,   F-29   and  Bucsanyi  20   were  subject  to
 above-average infection.
    
      Agronomy research.  The  latest series of  Mv wheat  varieties were
 tested in  herbicide provocation trials   involving  MCPA, icamba,  flurenol
 and bromoxinyl agents.   Mv  19  has  shown  a medium  dicamba 
 susceptibility,  while  Mv 20  was  slightly susceptible   to  bromoxinyl. 
 Both of   them  were  tolerant  to all   the   other substances. Mv 21 
 seems  to  be  resistant  to the herbicides applied.    The peculiar rainy
 weather of 91 Summer has given good chances for harvest date  field tests in 
 our quality program.  Among the varieties  MvM  has  shown  the  highest 
 durability  in  quality figures,  especially in  glutin.  The decrease of
 Hagberg falling number was general for all cultivars in late  harvest,
 except the medium quality wheat Mv 21.
 
 -------------------------
      J.Sutka,   B.Barnabas,   G.Galiba,   O.Veisz,  M.Molnar  Lang,
 G.Kovacs,   B.Koszegi,   E.Szakacs,  I.Takacs,  G.He,  E.Korbuly, G.Kocsy
    
      Genetic and cell biology studies. The  effect  of the temperature was
 studied on  seed  set and  embryo  development  in  producing barley  x 
 wheat  and  the  reciprocal  hybrid.  Among  the  four temperatures studied 
 (12, 15, 18 and 21degC)  the  lower   degrees (12, 15degC) proved to be
 favorouble for seed set in the production of barley  x wheat  hybrids   in  
 both  variety   combinations  (Martonvasari 50  (Mv 50)  x  Chinese  Spring
 (CS), Betzes x CS). But  the  low  temperature  slowed   down   embryo 
 development, so altogether the largest number  of  hybrid plants were
 produced  from heads which were pollinated and kept at 18degC.    However in
 the production  of the reciprocal (wheat  x barley) combination the highest
 temperature (21degC)  was the most suitable for seed set.  The largest
 number of hybrid seeds and plants were obtained at 21degC  in the CS x
 Betzes  combination.  The effect of temperature in  the CS  x Mv  50  cross
 could not be demonstrated because of the  very low number of  seeds.  The
 kr1  recessive gene  was transferred from Chinese Spring into the 
 Martonvasari  9  (Mv  9)  winter wheat variety. According to earlier results
 Mv 9  carries the kr2  gene, so only the kr1 gene had  to  be  transferred. 
 In  the wheat line  created,  the Mv 9 genotype  is  present   in  a  
 proportion  of  87.5%,   but  its crossability with rye and other alien
 species is as  high as that of Chinese Spring.  The use of this line in wide
 crosses makes it easier to introduce alien variation from wild species into
 a good quality, high-yielding winter wheat.
    
      The relationship between frost tolerance and abscisic  acid (ABA)
 accumulation  was  studied  in  callus  cultures  of  four  wheat cultivars,
 and in the 5A and 5D chromosome substitution  lines of the   frost-tolerant 
 variety   "Chyenne"   into  frost-sensitive "Chinese Spring".  Following
 cold hardening,  the increase in ABA level was higher in  the calli of 
 relatively more frost-tolerant cultivars  than  in  sensitive  ones. 
 Similarly,  in  5A  and 5D substitution lines higher  ABA levels  were
 detected than  in the recipient "Chinese Spring".  One week-long ABA
 treatment  at 26øC induced a significantly higher level of frost tolerance
 than cold hardening,  irrespective of the frost sensitivity of the examined
 genotypes.  The  increased frost  tolerance  can  be  due  to the extremely
 high level of ABA (200-500  fold higher than after cold hardening)  in the
 calli following  a   week-long  maintenance on medium containing 40 mg/1
 ABA.  A highly efficient anther culture technique  to produce dihaploid
 wheat plants has been elaborated.  The way of chromosome doubling produced
 by  colchicine  before  the first microspore  mitosis is significantly  
 more  efficient  than   the  conventionally  used techniques.   The  
 fertility   of   the   regenerants  increased significantly and can be
 stabilized in the next progenies by this new  technique.  The dihaploids 
 obtained from this  cultures are phenotipically more stable than the 
 spontaneous or traditionally treated  ones.  According  to  our results the
 success  of genome duplication    with   colchicine   at    uninucleate  
 microspore develomental stage seems to  be  genotype  independent.  With the
 application  of  modified BM culture media we  could  improve the anther
 response up to 42.3%  and the embryogenic callus induction as high as
 153.8%.  In liquid condition the spontaneous frequency of good  quality
 embryogenic friable calli  was  very  high. From this good quality calli we
 have succeeded  in establishing highly regenerable  haploid cell  suspension
 cultures.  This serves as a good basis for the isolation and culture of
 protoplasts. 
 
      Presently,  a protocol for long-term storage of pollen- and young
 xygotic embryos of wheat has been  elaborated. Plant regeneration could  be 
 achieved  from the liquid nitrogen  frozen embryogenic structures.
 
      A method  producing functionable pollen to get mature seeds in in vitro
 cultured wheat florets has been established  too. Culturing detached 
 florets on  a solidified  medium  enables  us  to apply selective
 environment (diverse temperatures,  heavy  metal ions, etc.)  to both  sexes
 from an early stage of  development  and to produce controlled and selected
 offsprings in vitro.  
 
                                Publications
 
 Barnabas,B.,  Pfahler,P.L.  and Kovacs,G.  1991. Direct effect of colchicine 
 on  the  microspore   embryogenesis  to produce dihaploid plants  in  wheat
 (Triticum  aestivum  L.). Theor. Appl. Genet., 81:675-678. Barnabas,B.,  
 Kovacs,G.,  Szakacs,E., Nagy,R. and Takacs,I. 1991. In  vivo  and  in  vitro 
 manipulation  of  the reproductive process  in  cereals.   Report  of  the 
 Commission  of  the European  Communities,  Biological Sciences (EUR 13415
 EN), Loxembourg, pp.  28-29.
 
 Barnabas, B., Kovacs, G., Szakacs, E., Nagy, R. and Takacs, I.  1991.  In
 vivo and in vitro manipulation of the reproductive process in cereals. 
 Report of the Commission of the European Communities.  Biological Sciences
 (EUR 13415 EN).  Loxembourg, pp. 28-29.
 
 Bed“ Z.  -  Karsai I.  - Balla L. (1991): Acceleration of quality breeding
 via  anther  culture  derived  doubled  haploids in wheat (Triticum aestivum 
 L.)  Report of the  Commission  of European Communities,  Biological
 Sciences Report (EUR 13415 EN), Luxembourg pp. 30-31.
 
 Karsai I.  -  Bedo Z.  -  Balla L. (1991): The effect of repeated anther
 culture on  in vitro androgenesis of  wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cereal
 Research Communications 19: 425-430.
 
 Kovacs, G.  1990.  Substitution analysis  of  frost  resistance in wheat  in
 in vitro somatic cultures  and at  seedling level. Acta. Agron. Hung., 39:
 319-326. Molnar-Lang,M.,  Galiba,G.,  Kovacs,G., Sutka,J. 1991. Changes in
 the  fertility  and  meiotic  behaviour  of  barley (Hordeum vulgare  L.)  
 x   wheat  (Triticum  aestivum   L.) hybrids regenerated from tissue
 cultures. Genome, 34: 261-266.
 
 Molnar-Lang, M., Galiba, G., Kovacs, G., Sutka, J.  1991.  Changes in the
 fertility and meiotic behavior of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) x wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.)  hybrids regenerated from tissue cultures.  Genome,
 34:261-266.
 
 Pocsai E.  -  Kobza  S.  -  Muranyi I.  - Szunics L.: 1991. Brome mosaic 
 virus   infection   in  different cereal breeding materials.  Acta
 Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 26, 1-2, 207-212.  Sutka,J., 
 Worland,A.J. and Mayestrenko,O.I. 1991. Slight effect of  the cytoplasm on 
 frost  resistance  in  wheat (Triticum aestivum  L.). Cereal  Res.  Comm., 
 19: 311-317.
 
 Sutka, J., Worland, A. J. and Mayestrenko, O. I.  1991.  Slight effect of
 the cytoplasm on frost resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Cereal
 Res. Comm. 19:311-317.
 
 Szunics, L., Szunics, Lu., Balla, L.  1991.  Termesztett lisztharmat - es
 rozsda rezisztens buzafajtak hatasa a korokozokra.  (Effect on pathogens of
 cultivated wheat varieties resistant to powdery mildew and rust.)            
 Novenytermeles, 40, 5.
 
 
 Szunics L.:  1991.  Fajta, mint a novenyvedelem biologiai alapja. (Variety 
 as  the  biological  basis  of  plant protection.)  Novenyvedelem, XXVII, 8,
 349-352. Szunics  L.   -   Szunics  Lu.  -  Balla  L.:  1991.  Termesztett
 lisztharmat-   es  rozsda  rezisztens  buzafajtak  hatasa  a  korokozokra.  
 (Effect  on  pathogens  of  cultivated  wheat varieties   resistant   to  
 powdery   mildew   and   rust.) Novenytermeles, 40, 5.
 
 Szunics  L.  -  Szunics  Lu.  -  Stehli  L.  -  Pocsai  E.: 1991. Appearance
 of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)  on  wheat in Hungary.  Acta
 Phytopathologica  et  Entomologica Hungarica, 26, 1-2, 87-90.  Trivedi,S., 
 Galiba, G. and Erdei, L.   1991. Responses to osmotic and NaCl stress of
 wheat varieties differing in  drought and salt tolerance in callus cultures.
 Plant Sci., 73: 227-232.
 
 Trivedi, S., Galiba, G. and Erdei, L.  1991.  Responses to osmotic and NaCl
 stress of wheat varieties differing in drought and salt tolerance in callus
 cultures.  Plant Sci., 73:227-232.
                                  
 -------------------------
                              ITEMS FROM INDIA
        
      P. Bahadur, K. D. Srivastava, D. V. Singh and Rashi Aggarwal
 
      Division of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Indian Agricultural Research
 Institute, New Delhi 
 
      Wheat crop health was monitored through mobile surveys and disease trap
 nurseries in different parts of the country during rabi 1990-1991.  Also
 incidence of karnal bunt and black point was noted through post harvest
 surveys.
 
      Wheat Rusts.  Leaf rust (Puccinia recondita tritici) was widely
 prevalent in North western parts (Himachal Pradesh, Haryana).  Cultivars HD
 2285, WH 147 and HD 2329 showed traces of rust, while newly released
 cultivars - PDW 215, VL 614, HD 2428, BW 11, CPAN 3004 and HUW 318 did not
 show any infection.  Mild incidence of stripe rust (P. striiformis was noted
 on HS 295, PDW 215, Kundan, VL 614, and HD 2428 in North western hilly
 areas.  Traces of stem rust (P. graminis tritici) was reported from central
 and Peninsular India.
 
      Speculation of genes for stem rust resistance:  Evaluation of 75 wheat
 entries to 14 stem rust virulences revealed the speculation of following
 genes for resistance by matching technique.  Gene Sr-2 is identified based
 on mottling effect in the seedlings.
      Sr2            Raj 3232, Macs 2496, Sonalika, Lok-1, HW 741, HUW 318,  
                        HP 1633, K 8806
      Sr2 + Sr31     DWR 163, HUW 315, CPAN 3004, K 8804
      Sr9e           PDW 227
      Sr11           BW 1055, UP 262, HDR 132, HUW 366, K 8027, HUW 234,
                        WH 551
      Sr31           HS 207, HS 240, HUW 206
 
      Ninety one entries of wheat were evaluated for seedling and adult plant
 resistance to two selected races 77-1 (109 R 63) and 104B (29R23) of
 Puccinia recondita tritici.  The analysis revealed the presence of 2-3 adult
 plant resistance genes other than Lr13 and Lr23 according to resistance in
 these varieties.
 
      Loose smut:  1-2% incidence of loose smut was noted on cultivars - WH
 147, Sonalika, HD 2329, and HD 2285.  Seed treatment with Bavistin reduced
 loose smut in the state of Haryana during 1990-1991.  Evaluation of pathogen
 variability on Canadian differentials showed the prevalence of races T(1),
 T(3) and T(11) in different areas.
 
      Seed dressing and soil amendment of Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum,
 T. koningii, Gliocladium virens, G. roseum, G. penicilloides, G.
 diliquescens, G. catenulatum and Bascillussubtilis were tried for biocontrol
 of loose smut.  Treatment with T. viride, G. deliquescens and B. subtilis
 reduced loose smut.  Seed treatment with Raxil @0.2 per cent reduced the
 loose smut infection.
 
      Powdery mildew:  Disease (Erysiphe graminis) was reported from hilly
 areas of North western India.  Cultivars - Arjun, HD 2285, HD 2329, HD 2160,
 WL 1562, WL 5023, HD 2204, C 306, HS 240, HS 277, HS 295, WH 147 and WL 410
 showed susceptibility to mildew at several locations.
 
 
      Leaf blight:  Leaf blight and leaf spots (Alternaria triticina and
 Helminthosporium spp.) normally appears in North eastern and Central parts
 of the country.  But severe leaf blight was recorded on HD 2329 and HD 2285
 in North western plains of the country during 1990-1992 and requires careful
 monitoring in the coming years.
 
      Black Point:  Post harvest grain examination of 3079 seed samples
 showed infection of saprophytic fungi in 35% samples in various states.
 
      Information:  Dr. P. Bahadur, Principal Scientist, visited CIMMYT from
 October 2-30, 1991.
 
                                PUBLICATIONS
 
 Bahadur, P., S. Nagarajan and Luthra, J. K.  1991.  Identification of Sr
 genes in wheat variety Charter that accords resistance to certain pathotypes
 of P. graminis tritici. Plant Disease Research, 6, 19-23.
 
 Sharma, R., B. C. Joshi, S. M. S. Tomar and P. Bahadur.  1991.  Inheritance
 and location of leaf rust resistance genes in a wheat rye-recombinant. 
 Abstracts 149-150, Golden Jubilee Symp. on Genetic Research and Education,
 Current Trends and next 50 years.  Feb. 12-15, 1991, New Delhi.
 
 ------------------------- 
      Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
 
      S. M. S. Tomar, Alice K. Vari and R. S. Yadava
 
      Exploitation of Thinopyrum bessarabicum for wheat improvement:  The F1
 hybrid f(Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring monosomic 5B x Thinopyrum
 bessarabicum (Syn. Agropyron junceum, 2n=2x=14, JJ) 2n=27 was backcrossed to
 a number of bread wheat cultivrs.  Only two seeds were obtained in a cross
 involving HD2009 out of which one plant survived.  The plant had 2n=48
 chromosome number.  Meiosis showed, on an average, one trivalent and one
 quadrivalent per cell (20 cells were scored).  The frequency of univalents
 was about 9-11 percell.  Remaining chromosomes had formed ring or rod
 bivalents.  The plant was 120 cm tall and produced 16 effective tillers. 
 The culm was highly pigmented.  Leaves were narrow, rough and dark green in
 colour.  The main spike length was 13 cm with 25 spikelets and the pollen
 fertility was about 33%.  Each spike was crossed. Central florets from each
 spikelet were removed and remaining florets were emasculated and were
 pollinated twice at appropriate stage with the pollen of 10 different
 cultivars.
 
      BC2 progeny showed improvement in spike fertility.  The BC2 generation
 had chromosome number ranging from 38 to 48 and a high degree of phenotypic
 variation (Table 1).  The population generated through these crosses was
 screened against leaf rust races, 77-1, 77-2, and 104B and stem rust races,
 40-1 and 117-1 under artificially inoculated conditions at adult plant
 stage.  Most of the plants were susceptible either to leaf rust or stem
 rust.
 
      Utilization of Aegilops comosa for wheat improvement:  While screening
 wild germplasm of Aegilops and Triticum spp. against leaf rust we observed
 two accessions of Ae. comosa (2n=2x=14, MM) exhibiting a high degree of
 adult plant resistance against prevalent and virulent Indian leaf rust
 races.  Chinese Spring monosomic 5B was crossed to one accession of Ae.
 comosa.  Only two seeds were obtained.  The seeds were germinated on
 artificial medium and were potted into the soil after 25 days.  Chromosome
 number were determined in meiosis.  Meiotic analysis of 2n=27 plant showed,
 on an average, 9.5 univalents, 7.1 bivalents, 0.9 trivalents and 0.1
 quadrivalents per cell (only 19 cells were scored).  The plant produced 44
 tillers.  The culm was thin and pigmented, leaves were medium long and
 narrow.  The F1 hybrid plant was totally free, in adult plant stage, to leaf
 rust races 77-1, 77-2 and 104B and stem rust races 40-1 and 117-1 under
 artificially inoculated conditions. The F1 hybrid was completely male
 sterile.  Four spikes were selfed and remaining spikes were pollinated with
 pollen from six different bread wheat cultivars.  There was no seed setting
 either upon selfing or backcrossing.
 
 
 Table 1.  Percent seed set in BC1 (Chinese Spring monosomic 5B X
           Thinopyrum bessarabicum // HD 2009) X different hexaploid        
 wheat cultivars.
                                                                              
                Number of
                 florets     No. of        Observations in next
 Cross          pollinated   seed set           generation         
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 BC(1) X C306        48        7    5 plants showed hybrid necrosis
                                    1 plant did not survive
                                    1 plant was 2n=48, completely
                                    male sterile, maximum chromo-
                                    some associations: 12 bivalents,
                                    1 trivalent, 1 quadrivalent/cell
 
 BC(1) X C591        68        4
 
 BC(1) X C S         38       14
 
 BC(1) X HD2012      48        8    1 plant 2n=38, maximum chromo-
                                    some associations 16II+6I/cell
 
 BC(1) X HD2009      42        9    Long spikes, in 2 plants 7 
                                    florets per spikelets observed 
 
 BC(1) X HD2329      48        5    1 plant 2n=42 (19II+4I) 
                                    1 plant 2n=43 (20II+3I)
 
 BC(1) X HD2428      45       10    1 plant  2n=39, (17II+5I)
                                    1 plant had solid stem
 
 BC(1) X N15439      42        1    2n=42 (19II+4I)
 
 BC(1) X WH147       42        8    1 plant 2n=42 (17II+8I)
                                    1 plant had compactoid ear head 
 
 BC(1) X WL711       48        4    1 plant produced 44 gms 1000
                                    kernel weight 
                                    1 plant 2n=43 (18II+7I
 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                            
 -------------------------
      D. V. Singh, K. D. Srivastava, R. Aggarwal and P. Bahadur - Division of
 Mycology and Plant Pathology, I.A.R.I, New Delhi 
 
            Karnal Bunt of Wheat in India During 1989 - 1990
 
      In India, an extensive wheat disease survey was initiated in 1967-68
 crop season.  In this program mobile units are regularly sent out for survey
 on scheduled routes in the country to collect information about the status
 of diseases in the farmers fields.  Incidence and distribution of karnal
 bunt disease (Neovossia indica) is monitored by post harvest surveys,
 conducted in the main wheat belt.  In early years, there were some sporadic
 reports of its occurrence but the disease was never considered as
 economically important up to 1968.  But from 1969 onwards, the disease is
 occurring in severe form in all parts of northwestern India, covering almost
 entire Indo-Gangetic plains.
 
      Distribution and prevalence.  During the post harvest surveys conducted
 in 1989-90 crop season, about 5144 wheat seed samples were collected from
 farmers fields, threshing floors, procurement centers, grain markets and
 through the courtesy of individual cooperators.  The samples of 200 mg each
 of known variety from a particular locality were collected.  The seed
 collection was made from different localities/regions in the states of Jammu
 & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh,
 Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka.  A
 working sample of 2000 grains was drawn from the main sample and percent
 infection was calculated based on number of infected grains present in each
 sample.
 
      Analysis of the samples showed high incidence of Karnal bunt during
 1989-90.  Out of 5144 samples, about 21.50% samples were infected, which was
 much more than the last two years.   The data on state-wide analysis are
 presented in Table 1, which showed that 60.53% samples were infected in
 Punjab, followed by 57.89% in Himachal Pradesh, 46.34% in Jammu and Kashmir,
 40.24% in Haryana, 27.41% in uttar Pradesh, 22.20% in Delhi and 5.81% in
 Rajasthan.
 
 Table 1.  Incidence of Karnal bunt during 1989-90.                           
                                            District
                 Total   Infected    Range of    showing high
 State          samples   samples    infection    infection
  ----------------------------------------------------------------     
 Himachal Pradesh   38        22    0.1 - 16.1      Sirmaur
 Punjab            337       204    0.1 -  7.7      Jullundhar
 Haryana          1133       156    0.1 - 19.1      Karnal
 J&K               129        52    0.1 - 24.6      Udhampur
 Delhi             126        28    0.1 -  0.7      Narela
 Uttar Pradesh     994       274    0.1 - 30.1      Sitapur
 Rajasthan        1153        70    0.1 -  4.3      Jaipur
 Madhya Pradesh    779        0         -             -
 Bihar             301        0         0             -
 Gujarat           112        0         -             -
 Maharashtra        27        0         -             -
 Karnataka          15        0         -             -         
                  5144     1106                                 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
      It was observed that in general, the natural infection of Karnal bunt
 was severe in sub mountainous belt of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana and lower
 altitudes of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.
 
      Frequency of infected samples.  Out of 5144 seed samples collected,
 percentage of infected grains in each sample was calculated and the samples
 were grouped into following five categories:
 
      Category I  -  Sample having 0.1 - 0.4% infected grains
      Category II -  Sample having 0.5 - 0.9% infected grains
      Category III - Sample having 1.0 - 5.0% infected grains
      Category IV -  Sample having 5.1 - 10.0% infected grains
      Category V  -  Sample having more than 10% infected grains
 
      Analysis of data (Table 2) indicate that 78.4% samples were free from
 infection.  Among the infected samples 69.71% samples had only 0.1 - 0.4%
 infected grains belonging to category I.  On the other hand 15.82% samples
 belonged to category 2 while 11.2%, 1.89% and 1.35% samples belonged to
 categories 3, 4 and 5, respectively.
 
 
 Table 2.  Frequency of infected grains of Karnal bunt in wheat               
               samples during 1989-90.                  
 
                       Samples
                        free     In-          Categories of
                      of infec- fected    infected samples(%)
 State           Total   tion   samples  I     II    III   IV   V
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------  
 Himachal Pradesh  38     16     22     36.4  13.7   22.7  9.1 18.2
 Jammu & Kashmir  129     77     52     57.7  19.2   21.2   0   1.9
 Punjab           337    133    204     84.3  12.2    2.9  0.5   0
 Haryana         1133    677    456     70.0  17.5    9.0  1.5  0.9
 Western Uttar    556    321    235     55.7  20.0   20.8  3.8  0.4
 Central U.P.     308    278     30     50.0   6.7   16.7  6.7 13.3
 Eastern U.P.     130    121      9     66.7  11.1     0    0  22.2
 Delhi            126     98     28     92.8   7.1     0    0   0
 Rajasthan       1153   1083     70     84.3   5.7   10.0   0   0
 Madhya Pradesh   779      0      0       0     0      0    0   0
 Bihar            301    301      0       0     0      0    0   0
 Gujarat          112    112      0       0     0      0    0   0
 Karnataka         15     15      0       0     0      0    0   0
 Maharashtra       27     27      0       0     0      0    0   0 
  --------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 Total           5144   4038    21.5    69.7  15.8   11.2  1.89 1.3
 
      The frequency of infected samples in last 3 crop seasons was compared
 (Table 3) and it was observed that frequency of infected samples has changed
 during 1989-90.  In earlier seasons the majority of samples were in Category
 I while the percentage of infected grains was quite low in other categories. 
 During previous two crop seasons the infected grains in the samples were not
 noticed beyond Category III, i.e., up to 5% level (Table 3).  But in this
 crop season, the infection moved further to the Category IV and V also.  It
 can be seen from the data of Table 3 that 1.89% and 1.35% samples were in
 Category IV and V, respectively.  In addition to this, the percentage of
 infected samples was 69.71% in Category I, less than previous crop seasons. 
 It is therefore assumed that the soil inoculum of previous years was
 activated this year due to favorable weather resulting in the production of
 more infected grains than 1987-88 and 1988-89 crop seasons.
 
 Table 3.  Comparative data of infected grains of Karnal bunt in 
               wheat samples between 1986-87 to 1989-90.      
                        Categories of infected samples(%)         
 Crop Season           1       2       3       4        5
  ---------------------------------------------------------------     
 1987 - 88          78.63    10.45    10.90    0        0
 1988 - 89          83.97     7.69     8.33    0        0
 1989-90            69.71    15.82    11.21   1.89     1.35   
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Weather in relation to disease development.  The incidence of Karnal
 bunt during 1989-90 crop season was co-related with the weather conditions. 
 A critical appraisal of meteorological factors of selected locations in
 different states revealed that the temperature and relative humidity at
 anthesis stage were favorable for disease development (Table 4). It can be
 seen from Table 4 that prevailing maximum temperature (20.0 - 22.3) and
 minimum temperature (6.6 - 11.4 C), relative humidity (85.0 - 95.0) and
 intermittent rainfall caused high intensity of the disease at Jammu (J&K),
 Dhaula Kuaon (Himachal Pradesh), Ambala (Haryana), Jullundhar (Punjab),
 Dehradun, Haridwar (Uttar Pradesh).  On the other hand meteorological
 conditions were not favorable in some eastern parts of the U.P., Rajasthan,
 Madhya Pradesh and due to that level of the incidence was poor.
 
 
 
 Table 4.  Weather data recorded at different places in relation to           
             Karnal bunt incidence.                           
 
                         Temperature                     Disease
                            (Cdeg)        R.H.           incidence
 State      Location      Max.   Min.    %    Rainfall      %
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------       
 Jammu &
 Kashmir     Jammu      20.17    8.97    85.3    3.35     24.6
 Himachal  Dhaulakuon
 Pradesh                20.37    8.20    95.17   5.87     16.1
 Haryana    Ambala      22.0    10.25    88.17   3.77      8.9
 Punjab   Jullundhar    20.52    7.40    94.22   2.95      7.7
 West     Dehradun      20.05    8.52    87.10
 U.P.     Haridwar      22.15    6.62    95.17   3.22     23.1
 Central   Lucknow      24.72   11.70    87.65   1.50      1.7
 U.P.      Kanpur       25.45    1.97    84.75   2.20      0.5
 East U.P. Allahabad    25.60   12.37    17.72   0.55      0.0
           Varanasi     25.25   12.40    81.37   1.10      0.0
 Delhi     Delhi        22.35   11.40    85.70   4.47      0.7
 Rajasthan Alwar        25.23   12.02    81.72   1.72      0.2  
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------   
 
      Varietal performance.  The performance of various high yielding
 cultivars was assessed through collected samples (Table 5).
 
 Table 5.  Varietal performance in North-western region against               
           Karnal bunt during 1989-90.                      
 
                     Total         % of samples       Highest
 Cultivars          samples          infected        infection     
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 WL 711             126                54.76           8.2
 HD2009             358                53.91          14.3
 HD2329             458                54.30          24.3
 HD2285             293                35.15           8.7
 Sonalika           991                20.28          24.3
 WH147              230                15.65           4.3
 WL1562              74                51.3            4.2
 UP2003              15                60.0            4.0
 WH283               37                27.0            7.7
 UP262               62                24.3            24.3     
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  
      It was found that a number of wheat cultivars got infection under field
 conditions.  In case of susceptible cultivars such as WL 711, HD2009 and UP
 262 the percentage of infectedsamples and severity of infection was quite
 high.  Not only that some newly introduced cultivars such as HD2329, HD2285,
 WL 1562, UP 2003 and WH 283 also had higher percentage of infection as
 compared to previous years.  Comparatively cultivars WH 147 and Sonalika had
 less infection (Table 5).
 
      In conclusion it can be said that the crop season of 1989-90 was
 comparatively an epidemic year for Karnal bunt, where in approximately 21.5%
 of the samples had infection in different wheat growing states.  Among
 different categories of infected samples, the percentage of infected samples
 was not more than 5 in previous years but this year a few samples had more
 than 10% infected grains.  The increased incidence may be attributed to the
 favorable weather conditions (maximum temperature = 20.2 - 22.3, minimum
 temperature = 6.6 - 11.4, RH = 85.0 - 96.00 with intermittent rainfall)
 prevailed at anthesis stage of the crop.  Newly introduced wheat cultivars
 also were infected by Karnal bunt.
 
                                * * * * *
 
      Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
 
      Dalmir Singh, B. Singh and M. K. Upadhayay
 
      Meiotic chromosome pairing in a Bc(1) hybrid of T. timopheevi and
 hexaploid wheat.  Singh et. al., (1991) observed a very high chromosome
 pairing in the F(1) hybrids of T. araraticum (synonyms T. timopheevi) and
 variety C 306.  In the present study, the Bc(1) hybrid plant of variety C
 306 and T. timopheevi also showed similar pattern of high chromosome pairing
 at first meiotic metaphase.
 
      Meiotic chromosome associations were recorded on the Bc(1) hybrid plant
 of variety C 306 and T. timopheevi backcrossed to variety C 306 (Table 1). 
 The chromosome constitution of the hybrid plant was 2n = 39.  The hybrid
 plant received full complement of 21 chromosomes from the hexaploid wheat
 variety C 306 through male gamete and the rest 18 chromosome from its female
 parent (i.e., F(1) hybrid plant).  In the presence of chromosome 5B
 (contributed by male gamete), only homologous chromosomes are expected to
 pair, and homologous are prevented.  If it is presumed that all the 18
 chromosomes transmitted from the female parent, find their homologous
 partners in the Bc(1) hybrid a total of 36 chromosomes are expected to
 participate in chromosome pairing leaving only 3 chromosomes as unpaired
 chromosomes.  However, in the Bc(1) hybrid analyzed it was observed that out
 of 39 chromosomes, on an average 33 chromosomes took part in chromosome
 pairing while 6 chromosomes remained as univalents in some of the cells,
 chromosomes paired were as high as 37 chromosomes, clearly indicating the
 involvement of all the 18 chromosomes contributed by the female gamete. 
 This kind of pairing is expected only on the assumption that the chromosomes
 of T. timopheevi possess substantial amount of homology with the chromosomes
 of aestivum.  The present study thus also support the observations of Singh
 et al (1991) that T. timopheevi (synonyms T. araraticum) may carry AA BB
 genomes rather than AA GG.
 
 
 Table 1.  Meiotic chromosome pairing (mean per cell) in BC(1) hybrid of
           variety C 306 and T. timopheevi.
                                                                              
                   Bivalents   
            Cells   Uni-    Rod      Ring      Tri-    Quadri-
 Parents   Scored  valents  Type     Type     valents  valents   Chiasmata
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------   
 C 306      50   0.1+ 0.1  2.3+0.2  18.7+0.3    0.0      0.0     45.5+1.2
 (2n=42)
 
 T. timo-   50   0.5+0.1   3.1+0.2  10.5+0.2  0.1+0.0    0.0     25.6+0.3
 pheevi (2n=28)
 
 Bc1        50   6.3+0.4   5.8+0.3   9.2+0.2  0.7+0.1  0.2+0.1   31.3+0.4
 (C 306 X T. tim) X C 306                                                
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 ------------------------- 
      Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
 
 
      Dalmir Singh
 
            Mutation and recombination studies in wheat and rye
 
      Induced translocations between Kalyansona and rye chromosomes.     The
 hexaploid wheat cultivar Kalyansona was reported to carry crossability genes
 in dominant condition resulting in about 0.5% crossability with rye (Gordey
 and Gordey, 1983).  Since Kalyansona possesses genes for wider adaptability,
 it was thought to incorporate rust resistance and other desirable traits
 from Secale cereale because lately the cultivar showed susceptibiltiy to
 wheat rusts.  The method adapted was to induce translocations between wheat
 and rye chromosomes.  Crossed seeds were obtained by crossing Kalyansona
 with a smooth peduncle rye mutant (144 seeds, 50% crossability).  These
 seeds were irradiated with 35 Kr. of gamma rays.  All the M(1) hybrid plants
 showed a high amount of chromosome associations.  About 137 seeds were
 produced by these M(1) plants having 452 spikes.  The low seed setting of
 0.7% may be the result of high sterilty in these plants.  In the present
 season there are 64 M(2) plants which will be selfed for further evaluation.
 
      Self compatible mutants of rye.  Seeds of 200 selfed spikes with spike
 fertility between 20% to 89% were planted in the field for M(4) generation
 as single spike progenies.  A large number of spikes were again selfed in
 different spike progenies.  Finally 49 spikes possessing self fertility
 between t0% to 92% were retained from 20 different spike progenies for
 further evaluation.  It was observed that the spikes having higher self
 fertility in M(3) generation, also produced spikes with high self fertility
 in M(4) generation.
 
      One of the self fertile mutant lines with higher self spike fertility
 was crossed with Kalyansona (supposed to carry crossability genes in
 dominant condition) for transferring rust resistance from rye.  A large
 number of crossed seeds were obtained (about 50% crossability).  It
 indicates that for crossability between wheat and rye, it is not only the
 wheat genome but also the genome which affects crossability.
 
      Comparison of the traits of aestivoid mutant with its sphaerococcum
 parent.  A homozygous aestivoid mutant, possessing long spike and long
 grains was compared with its parent variety T. sphaerococcum.  The traits
 compared were, plant height, tiller numbres, peduncle length, spike length
 and spikelet number per spike (Table 1).  The data recorded on these traits
 revealed that in aestivoid mutant, there was positive increase in the
 traits, plant height (39.3%), peduncle length (28.9%), spike length (65.4%)
 and spikelet number (5.3%) decrease in the number of tillers per plant
 (13.3%) over its parent variety.  Since T. sphaerococcum was a native
 cultivar of India it may be carrying useful genes for wider adaptability. 
 The aestovoid mutants obtained from T. sphaerococcum can be exploited for
 their desirable traits for different climatic conditions.
 
 Table 1.  Mean values of morphological traits of aestivoid mutant and
           its parent variety T. sphaerococcum.                         
 
 Parent        Plants    (cm)     Number    (cm)     (cm)    per spike
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 T. spha-       25     93.0+1.1  28.5+1.2 34.2+0.7  6.2+0.2  22.5+0.4
 erococcum
 
 Aestivoid      100   129.5+1.5  23.7+1.4 44.2+1.1  11.5+0.2 23.2+0.4
 mutant
 
 Increase (+) or        + 39.3   - 13.3    + 28.9      65.4   + 5.3
 decrease (-)                      
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                      
                                Publications
 
 Singh, D.  1991.  Gene transfer from rye to wheat and their chromosomal
 location.  Ind. J. Genet. 51:66-70.
 
 Singh, D.  1991.  Chlorophyll synthetic genes in wheat variety Mara.  Golden
 Jubilee Symp. on Genetic Research and Educatiuon: Current Trends and the
 next fifty years.  By Ind. Soc. Genet. and Pl. Breeding, 3:648.
 
 
 Singh, D.  1991.  Self-compatible mutants of Secale cereale.  Golden Jubilee
 Symp. on Genetic Research and Edcucation: Current Trends and the next fifty
 years.  By Ind. Soc. Genet. and Pl. Breeding, 3:656-657.
 
 -------------------------
      Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi
 
      R. N. Sawhney
 
                 Wheat Production:Prospects and Challenges
 
      Wheat is not only the second major staple crop in India but is also
 most dependable in terms of its production capability.  The yield of this
 important cereal in india has crossed the 50 million ton mark in an area of
 23 million hectares under different agro-climatic regions.  Though the
 average productivity of nearly 2,250 kg/ha has more than doubled in a span
 of 25 years, a lot more can be achieved from the existing cultivars because
 realizable potential of available cultivars is estimated to be about 4,000
 kg/ha at the national level where 78% of the area is under assured
 irrigation.  The present average productivity in irrigated areas, even in
 Punjab and Haryana, is about 3,000 kg/ha which produce highest average yield
 in our country.  More than double the production rate of wheat in the last
 two and a half decades was possible due to the identification of cultivars
 capable of responding to good soil fertility and water management. 
 Screening of advance generation breeding material initially developed in an
 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) programme at
 Mexico,led to the identification of two most popular varieties, Kalyansona
 for timely and Sonalika for late sowing.
 
      By crossing the Mexican material with locally adapted wheats, a large
 number of cultivars have been developed since the late 1960s.  Of the number
 of cultivars that have been released under organized system of release since
 1965, only HD 2009 and WL 711 have become popular with the farmers and have
 been grown extensively in northwest region of the country.  The runaway
 success of HD 2329, subsequently developed at the Indian Agricultural
 Research Inst. (IARI), is evident because a total of 70% area is under
 cultivation with this wheat in Punjab, the most progressive state with
 regard to average grain production.  Cultivation of a single wheat on such a
 large area is highly vulnerable to the evolution of new pathogen population.
 
      More recently, another single dwarf wheat Kundan (DL153-2), a cross of
 Tonari 71 X NP 890, also bred at IARI, has become popular with the farmers
 of northwest region.  The popularity of Kundan appears to be due to its
 adaptability which enables it to perform consistently well under wide range
 of conditions from rainfed to limited water input and in optimum irrigation
 as well as from normal to late planting.  This variety is expected to give
 better average yield because it performs well in poor environment and
 demonstrates optimum level of productivity in good environment.  Under water
 stress environment, yield of `Kundan' is comparable with the best drought
 resistant wheat, C 306 in years when no winter rainfall is received. 
 However, in good rainfall years, a frequent occurrence in northwest region,
 `Kundan' produced 50% more yield in comparison to that of C 306.  The high
 yield potential achieved by `Kundan' up to a level of other best wheats for
 high input technology, besides its suitability in water stress environments,
 supports the view point that selection for drought conferring traits do not
 decrease yield in better environment.  Also, suitability of `Kundan' for
 extended dates of planting permits flexibility in its planting time, a
 desirable feature of great importance.
 
      It has been possible to breed a variety of this kind by changing the
 breeding methodology. The most significant change was the selection of
 material under water stress environment in early generations F(4) and F(5)
 followed by concurrent evaluation of progenies under diverse agronomic
 practices, such as rainfed, irrigated timely sown and irrigated late sown
 conditions.  The other major change has been the testing of early generation
 materials in F(3) onwards for yield in commercial planting.  This change was
 motivated by experience which has indicated that selection under space
 planting in early generations can result in poor yielding advanced lines in
 commercial planting.
 
      In subsistence agriculture, stable yields particularly in low rainfall
 years and with minimum of crop failure are obviously important.  In a
 country like India where prices are high in lean years and excess production
 risks exist due to proper storage conditions, stability of yield is more
 relevant.  However, stability in grain production can be achieved only by
 growing cultivars resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses.
 
      Biotic resistance.  The most important biotic stress that decreases
 yield is susceptibility to pathogens, such as leaf and stripe rusts and
 Karnal bunt in northwest region of the country.  Kundan has a good degree of
 resistance to the rusts and karnal bunt while HD 2329 has already become
 susceptible to these pathogens.  Also, a shift in sowing time of wheat up to
 december end is most favorable for inoculum built up of rusts and smuts.  At
 present stem rust appears very late in northwest region to cause any
 epidemic.  However, delayed planting of wheat will extend the active growth
 period when the higher temperature in March and April being favorable for
 stem rust can lead to an epidemic of this pathogen.  The situation with
 regard to leaf rust and loose smut is also similar to that of stem rust. 
 The relatively higher temperatures during the growth of late sown wheat may
 favour the inoculum built up of these pathogens.  Therefore, in order to
 achieve maximum benefits from the change in planting time, it is important
 to have greater disease resistance in wheat cultivars.  Efforts should also
 be made to exploit durable sources of resistance to diseases wherever
 available.  For example Sr2, a stem rust resistance gene and a leaf rust
 resistance gene Lr34, in combination with other genes have been implicated
 in durability of resistance to stem and leaf rust, respectively.
 
      Soil and water use care.  Intensive cropping often leads to soil
 erosion and consequent loss of native fertility.  Therefore, there is a need
 to evolve suitable cropping practices such as minimum tillage to reduce the
 valuable loss of soil resources.  Furthermore, continuous cropping at higher
 productivity levels results in soil exhaustion, particularly of
 micronutrients.  There are increasing reports of Zn, Fe, Mn, S and Cu
 deficiencies in Punjab and other parts of the country.  Many of these
 problems are in part due to decreased organic matter in soil which can be
 rectified to some extent by increased use of farmyard manure.  The use of
 fertilizers with optimal nutrient balance will also help in improving the
 health of soil.
 
      The easy availability of irrigation water in Punjab and Haryana has
 often led to over-irrigation which causes increased problem of water-
 logging, salinity and alkalinity - some of the main abiotic stresses.  It
 is, therefore, necessary that careful use of water and development of
 cultivars that flourish well under lesser water and achieves optimum yield
 productivity at low levels of irrigation is aimed at.  Kundan again fulfills
 this requirement, in contrast to HD 2329 which requires high irrigation and
 higher levels of nitrogenous fertilizer for optimum production.  
 
      The states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar with a fairly large proportion of
 irrigated wheats produce relatively low yield levels.  One of the reasons
 for this is that the proportion of irrigated area with sufficient water
 supply is extremely limited.  Vast areas in these two states that are
 classified as irrigated get water sufficient for one to three irrigations
 only, whereas normal requirement for most irrigated wheats is 5 to 6
 irrigations.  This would mean that cultivar like Kundan that does equally
 well under low levels of irrigation should help in promoting higher yield
 levels in these states.
 
      Economization on production.  The cost on production can be reduced by
 developing cultivars that are characterized by improved nitrogen uptake from
 the soil (uptake efficiency) and/or by increased mobilization of nitrogen
 from vegetative organs to the grains (utilization efficiency).  The
 increased levels of utilization efficiency might not be practical as it is
 likely to induce rapid breakdown of leaf proteins and increase the rate of
 leaf senescence, thus reducing the grain yield.  The uptake efficiency can
 be improved by the root system that extracts the maximum possible nutrients
 from the soil, thus increasing the uptake efficiency.
 
      The better root system, delayed leaf senescence combined with increased
 grain yield at low levels of fertilizers and water is suggestive of the fact
 that possibly Kundan is a wheat that has increased uptake efficiency.
 
      Low requirement for water and fertilizer by Kundan, in contrast to HD
 2329, which requires higher irrigation and higher levels of nitrogenous
 fertilizer for optimum production is most significant.  This not only
 economizes on the cost of production but should be more attractive for small
 and marginal farmers who do not have access to the requisite inputs.
 
      Quality.  Quality requirements in context of consumption in India.  The
 improvement in this aspect needs efforts in three directions.  Since over
 90% of wheat in India is consumed in the form of "chapati" (an unleavened
 pan baked bread), some improvement in the high yielding dwarf wheats has
 been achieved in this respect but a lot more need to be still done to have
 appearance and chapati making properties comparable to that of `desi' wheats
 (Tall indigenous wheats having amber grains and good chapati making
 quality).  Indian public prefers hard, amber/white, lustrous grain over red
 and soft grain wheats.  The qualities for good chapati include white flour
 colour, puffing, soft smooth pliable surface, should be untorn and silky,
 sweet to taste and maintains soft texture for a longer period.  For that, it
 should tear smoothly and should not be brittle or leathery.  To have a non-
 leathery characteristic of chapati, it is desirable that the protein content
 of the wheat should not exceed 12%.  Incidentally, chapati making quality of
 `Kundan' is comparable to that of best `desi' wheats combined with bold,
 hard, lustrous grain and sells at a premium (Rs. 75-100/q) in wholesale
 market.
 
      Next to making chapati, wheat is used in the form of bread. There are
 certain minimum levels of protein and its quality that are required for the
 purpose of bread making.  Based upon the presence of high molecular weight
 subunits of glutenin and mixograph tests, Kundan has been classified as the
 only cultivated common wheat in the northwest region which has outstanding
 bread and chapati making properties.
 
      Kundan has been reported to possess 12% protein whereas Indian wheats
 in general are low in protein content, seldom exceeding 11%.  Higher levels
 of protein coupled with better protein quality in Indian wheats should be
 aimed at which will benefit our consumers and such wheats will also be
 acceptable in the international markets.
 
      Upgrading yield potential.  It is not easy to enhance existing levels
 of grain yield potential in wheat.  Even the grains in grain yield in the
 currently grown wheats like HD 2329 and others is marginal over the yield of
 Kalyansona but gains in productivity per day is substantial because newer
 cultivars are resilient to do well under shorter growing period.
 
      In the entire Indo-Gangetic plains, wheat-rice, wheat-cotton, wheat-
 potato cropping systems have become predominant.  All these rotations have
 led to delay in sowing time of wheat resulting in popularization of wheats
 performing well under short duration.  Since late planting exposes the grain
 filling stage to higher temperatures, varieties having tolerance to higher
 temperatures at the time of grain filling should perform well on delayed
 sowings.  Early flowering followed by early maturity before the onset of
 higher temperature, as in the case of Sonalika, produced reduced tiller
 number in contrast to varieties like HD 2329 and Kundan that flower and
 mature a little late but do not have adverse effect of temperature at the
 grain filling stage in March-April.  Both HD 2329 and Kundan have been
 reported to perform well in Punjab even in late planting, though Kundan has
 an edge over HD 2329 under late planting.  This is perhaps due to the fact
 that HD 2329 shows slight adverse effects on grains when planted late.
 
      Even in a CIMMYT, Mexico breeding program, less than 10% increase in
 grain yield over earlier dwarf varieties, for example Kalyansona, in a
 period of 15 years was recorded.  The increase in yield potential has been
 reported in the derivatives of `Veery' involving 1B/1R translocation from
 rye.  The cultivars originating from this cross have become popular in many
 parts of the world, including Pakistan and Australia.  A number of wheats
 such as WH 534, PBW 166, PBW 212, PBW 258, UP 2286 and CPAN 3004 involving
 1B/1R translocation have been evaluated in the All India Coordinated Program
 in northwest plains zone.  Most of these wheats could not compete with the
 best check.  CPAN 3004 however, has been officially released recently but is
 yet to find favour with the growers.  Most of these cultivars are relatively
 late and generally show reduction in yield at higher temperatures at the
 grain filling stage.  It was therefore, considered important to have
 cultivars with normal days to mature but unaffected by higher temperature at
 the grain filling stage.
 
      Two of the newly evolved wheats DL 802-3 & DL 803-2 bred at IARI
 fulfill these criteria and need special mention in this respect.  These
 wheats have one of the common parents designated HUW 202.  HUW 202 is a
 derivative of Kalyansona and Musela.  In the development of Musela, Kavkaz
 carrying rye translocation (1B/1R) is involved as one of the parents.
 
      DL 802-3 HUW202//KSM-Front-Son64-K1. Rend E4870-S310-S47E3/HD1944) has
 been found promising for yield both in timely and late planting.  It,
 however, excels under late planting conditions.  This wheat has better grain
 appearance with additional advantage of being resistant to all the three
 rusts and karnal bunt.  The presence of 1B/1R translocation carrying Lr26,
 Sr31 and Yr9 has been confirmed by the presence of two satellite chromosomes
 instead of four in wheats lacking 1B/1R translocation.  Its resistance to
 leaf rust pathotypes 77-1 and 12-1 that are pathogenic to Lr26 suggests that
 this wheat is carrying additional gene(s) for resistance at least to leaf
 rust.  Its wide adaptability is evident by its superior performance in
 different agro-climatic regions and under different agronomic practices.
 
      DL 803-2 (HUW 202//K7537/HD216 OM) also performs very well both under
 timely and late plantings.  However, the performance of this wheat is
 excellent under timely sown conditions.  This variety is also resistant to
 all three rusts and karnal bunt against which limited tests have so far been
 made.  This cultivar has again been reported as a wheat of wider
 adaptability in the All India Coordinated tests.  The presence of two
 satellite chromosomes and its resistance to pathotypes attacking Lr26
 suggests that this wheat also h as Lr26 combined with additional resistance,
 at least to leaf rust.
 
 -------------------------
      R. W. Sawhney, J. B. Sharma, D. N. Sharma and H. B. Choudhary
 
                 Adult Plant Leaf Rust Resistance Sources
 
      Genetic Diversity for adult plant resistance to leaf rust in Australian
 wheats.  Most sources of durable rust resistance carry adult plant
 resistance (APR) genes.  The knowledge of genetic diversity with respect to
 APR may, therefore, help in identifying new sources of durable resistance.
 
      A set of 90 wheats received from Australia under ICAR/ACIAR
 collaborative project on, "Genetics and breeding for rust resistance in
 wheat", when studied in field conditions against mixture of pathotypes of
 leaf rust for 3 years, identified certain adult plant leaf rust resistant
 wheats, where resistance could not be explained on the basis of named
 resistance genes identified in seedling tests.
 
      These adult plant leaf rust resistant genotypes wee tested in 1990-1991
 crop season against pathotypes (77, 77-1, 77-2, 104B and 12-2) individually
 in isolated field nurseries.  The results enabled the recognition of two
 distinct types of responses for adult plant resistance. Cultivars comprising
 Banks, Millewa, Hartog and Sunkota possess adult plant resistance against
 all pathotypes suggesting that adult plant resistance in these wheats is
 likely to be due to race-non-specific components that may provide
 longer/lasting resistance.  A similar pattern of APR responses of very low
 level in Banks (Lr13) and Sunkota (Lr17) with the individual as well as with
 mixture of pathotypes suggests that both these cultivars carry the same
 components for adult plant resistance.  The two other wheats (Millewa (Lr13)
 and Hartog (Lr1, Lr13) in this category of resistance also exhibited an
 identical pattern of APR responses but with low levels of resistance which
 distinguishes them from the first group of two cultivars (Banks and
 Sunkota).  Presence of Lr13 both in Millewa and Hartog can also provide
 moderate resistance of low level to 12-2 and 104B whereas by virtue of
 possessing additional Lr1 in Hartog, there has been enhanced resistance to
 12-2 because Lr1 is fully resistant to this pathotype.  Seedlings of all
 these cultivars when tested with the same pathotypes showed susceptibility
 for pathotypes virulent on genes identified in seedlings.
 
      The three wheats identified for specific APR, though all susceptible to
 77-2, each produced distinct APR response with the remaining three
 pathotypes.  This suggests the possibility that each wheat in this category
 carries different specific APR.
 
      A distinct pattern of APR resistance to pathotypes 77, 77-1, 104B and
 12-2 in Oxley with no named seedling genes could be due to a new APR source. 
 Similarly, the different patterns of responses on Sunstar and Egret, both
 carrying Lr13, further suggest that each cultivar carries different specific
 APR source.  Seedling of all the three cultivars, however, produced
 susceptible reactions against pathotypes for which adult plant resistances
 were postulated.
 
      Leaf rust resistance through gene interaction.  Federation backcross
 derivative with Lr26 (Fed*4/Kavkaz and near isogenic Thatcher lines with
 Lr10 (Lr10-Tc(6)) Federation and Lr26 (Kavkaz, Skorospekla) were tested with
 pathotype 77-1 in adult plant stage in field condition.  Both Lr10 and Lr26
 are ineffective to pathotype 77-1.
 
      The stocks that carry either Lr10 (Lr10 + Tc, Federation), or Lr26
 (Kavkaz, Skorospekla) produced highly susceptible reactions (80S-70S), in
 contrast to Fed*4/Kavkaz that had produced resistance reactions to the level
 of 20MS with pathotypes 77-1.  It can, therefore, be inferred that
 resistance in Fed*4/Kavkaz is likely to be due to interaction of Lr10 and
 Lr26, another deviation from the normal gene-for-gene model.
 
 -------------------------
      Divisions of Genetics and Mycology and Plant Pathology
 
      R. N. Sawhney,  J. B.Sharma, D. N. Sharma, H. B. Chowdhary, D. V. Singh
 and K. D. Srivastava
 
             High yielding karnal bunt and rust resistance sources
                                of bread wheat
 
      Karnal bunt caused by Neovossia indica is one of the major diseases in
 the northwest region of India.  The identification of sources resistant to
 Karnal bunt is utmost important as most of the currently grown bread wheat
 cultivars are susceptible to this disease.  Breeding for Karnal bunt
 resistance assumes further importance because even 3% infection in the
 grains renders the wheat unfit for human consumption.
 
      About 150 advance lines from the breeding material were tested for 2-3
 years at Khaula Kuan (Himachal Pradesh) and Delhi under artificial
 epiphytotic conditions for Karnal bunt, respectively.  Two gropus of five
 lines each were identified for carrying high degree of resistance to Karnal
 bunt.  Wheat lines with high yield potential and resistance to leaf and
 stripe rusts prevalent in the zone are given in Table 1.  All wheats in this
 group are/were in advanced stages of coordinated trials.  DL 330-1 and DL
 377-6 were evaluated for three years in the coordinated yield trials and
 found to possess high yield potential at least up to the leve of best check. 
 The wheats listed in Table 2 were, however, found to have reasonable yield
 potential when tested in the coordinated trials.  All these lines also
 confer high degree of resistance to 2-3 rusts.  The genotypes DL 377-8, DL
 802-3, DL 790-1, DL 377-6 and DL 330-1 (Table 1) have proven advantage of
 superior yield potential, established through evaluation under coordinated
 program over years spread over locations.  They have the added advantage of
 resistance to leaf and stripe rusts as well as Karnal bunt.  These wheats,
 therefore, should provide an extremely useful material for direct
 cultivation as well as hybridization program.  Expectation from such a
 program can be viewed for early recovery of superior recombinmants for
 higher yield, combined with resistance to leaf and stripe rust as well as
 Karnal bunt.  However, genotypes DL 484-1, DL 484-2, DL 790-2, DL 770-1 and
 DL 760-1 (Table 2) having high degree of resistance to 2-3 rusts and Karnal
 bunt should prove better sources of simultaneous resistance to these two
 important groups of diseases.
 
 Table 1.  Wheat cultivars of high yield potential with resistance
                     to karnal bunt and rusts.                                
                                                          Yield q/ha 
                                                          and its
                  Karnal bunt                             comparison
 Designated        infection           Rust infection     with the
 number       87/88   88/89   89/90   Stem  Leaf  Stripe  best check
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 DL 377-8(1)    -      0.0      0.0     -    20MR   F      62.0 (=)
 DL 802-3(2)    -      0.0      0.0     -      F    F      54.4 (=)
 DL 790-1(3)    -      0.0      0.0     -    TR     F      54.1 (+)
 DL 377-6(4)   6.2     0.0      0.0     -    TR     F      47.7 (+)
 DL 330-1(5)    -      0.0      0.0     -    TR     5S     44.7 (=)
 WL 711  (6)  43.0    19.1     26.9    50S   90S   30S
  --------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                     
 : Not tested, + : significantly superior to the best check,
               = : Significantly at par to the best check,
 1 & 4 - HI784//Gabo/Nad.Mut/CPAN 1283, 2-HUW202//KSM/Frond/
 Son.64/Klrend/E4870/S310/S47E3/HD1944M, 3-CPAN1401//SKA/YR
 Frond/Son64/Klrend/E4870/S310/S47E3/HD2160M, 5 - Tanori Mut./
 /HD2160M, 6 - (Susceptible cultivar).
  
 
 
 
 Table 2.  Wheat cultivars with resistance to Karnal bunt and rusts
                                                                              
                                                         Yield q/ha
                                                          and its
                Karnal bunt                              comparison
 Designated        infection          Rust infection     with best
 number      87/88   88/89   89/90   Stem  Leaf  Stripe     check 
  --------------------------------------------------------------------  
 DL 484-1(1)    -     0.0     0.0     -    TR    100S     58.7(=)
 DL 484-2(2)   0.0    0.0     0.0    5MR   10R     F      47.4(+)
 DL 790-2(3)   0.0     -      0.0    TR    TR      F      45.4(=)
 DL 770-1(4)    -     0.0     0.0     -    F      5S      38.9*(=)
 DL 760-1(5)    -     0.0     0.6     -    TR      F      37.4**(=)
 WL 711(6)    43.0   19.1    26.9     50S  90S    30S     
  --------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                     
   : Not tested, + : Significantly superior to the best check
   = : Significantly at par to the best check, * : Yield figures
   from timely sown and limited sources, ** : Yield figures from     
   late sown tests
 
 1 & 2 - KSM/Front/Son64/Klrend/E4870/S310/S47E3/IWP503/TR380.27*4/3Ag3
 3-CPAN1401//SKA/YR/Frond/Son64/Klrend/E4870/S310/S47E3/HD2160M,
 4-UP270/HD2160//KL Mut., 5-UP270/HD2160M/K7933//HD2285,
 6-(Susceptible cultivar)
 
 -------------------------
      Directorate of Wheat Research, Regional Station, Wellington, The
 Nilgiris
 
      M. Kochumadhavan, S. M. S. Tomar and P. N. N. Nambisan
 
      Introduction of Agropyron elongatum-derived genes SR26 and LR24 into
 Indian bread wheat cultivars:  Knott transferred the wheat stem rust
 resistance gene Sr26 from A. elongatum (Host) Beauv. to common wheat.  This
 specific resistance gene has been found very effective against a wide range
 of stem rust virulences in several countries including India.  Reports are
 available that the resistance of Sr26 has been successfully utilized in
 Australian wheat breeding program where all strains of stem rust are found
 avirulent on Sr26 and this major gene continues to be an effective source of
 durable resistance.  The genes Lr24 Sr24 have also their origin in A.
 elongatum.  These genes along with the major specific gene Sr26 have been
 incorporated in a single common wheat back ground and thus making it easy
 for transfer of multiple resistance into susceptible genotypes.
 
      In a backcross breeding programme the effective alien genes Sr26 and
 LR24 conferring resistance to all most all the stem and leaf rust races in
 seedling as well as in adult plant stage have been successfully introgressed
 into well adapted Indian bread wheat cultivars Kalyansona (7 backcrosses)
 and WH147 (6 backcrosses) from DARF (DARF X 6/3Ag3/Kite) an amber grained
 wheat.  This programme of backcrossing was undertaken at IARI Regional
 Station, Wellington, where both stem rust and leaf rust perpetuate all round
 the year.  Also majority of the pathotypes of these two rusts are present. 
 The selection and simultaneous backcrossing are easily monitored and hence
 time taken in giving desirable number of backcrosses is reduced to half. 
 Adult plant reactions of improved backcross lines against all the three
 wheat rusts are given in Table 1. A field trial consisting of eleven
 improved lines carrying resistance genes Sr24 Lr24 and Sr26 Lr24 has been
 laid out at New Delhi farm to assess the yield potential.
 
 
 
 
 Table 1. Adult plant response of backcross improved lines to rust     
 pathogens at Wellington                                   
                                                                    
                                         Reactions to               
                                 Stem          Leaf        Stripe
       Lines                     rust          rust        rust            
      ---------------------------------------------------------------- 
      HW 2021                   20MR*          F            60S
          (Kalyansona *7/DARF)
      Kalyansona             60S-80S       60S-90S       40S-90S
      HW 2022                   20MR*          F            60S
          (WH 147*6/DARF)  
      WH 147                 70S--90S      70S-90S        60S-90S     
      ----------------------------------------------------------------                                   
 * Appears very late at maturity
 
 -------------------------
      Khem Singh Gill and G. S. Dhinds
 
      Department of Plant Breeding, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana
 
        Triticale Variety - TL 1210 - A Karnal Bunt Resistant Source
 
      India is predominantly a cereal consuming country.  Wheat is the main
 staple food of the people in north India, particularly in the Punjab.  Wheat
 has low protein content (11 to 12%) and has particularly low lysine content
 which is an essential amino acid.  Triticale, with higher protein and lysine
 content than wheat, can go a long way in solving the protein deficiency
 problem.   Triticale can also serve as a nutritive cattle and poultry feed. 
 During winter, wehat is grown on a vast acreage in the punjab.  If another
 cereal like triticale is also grown, chances of spread of disease can be
 considerably reduced through diversity in cropping.  It was with this
 background that research in triticale was initiated at Punjab Agricultural
 University, Ludhiana in 1968-69.  The germplasm bank was strengthened by an
 extensive jcollection of genetic stocks of triticale and rye from exotic and
 indigenous sources.  The research efforts were greatly strengthened with the
 sanction of two PL 480 projects entitled "Development and Evaluation of
 Triticales (1974-80) and Development of Triticales for Stability of Yield
 and Improved Quality of Grains (1980-84) in the Punjab".
 
      A large number of triticales have been synthesized and some ready-made
 strains obtained from other sources have been utilized in crossing.  As a
 result of extensive crossing and selection, the first two strains for India
 TL 419 and TL 1210, were released in 1981 and 1985, respectively.  TL 419
 was released for cultivation under normal sown irrigated conditions of
 Punjab.  TL 1210 was released for cultivation under late sown irrigated
 conditions of the Punjab.
 
      TL 1210 is a unique triticale variety developed from the cross of
 Cinnamon/Raj 821/3/Inia/Turkey 60//2*Arm`S'.  It matures in 1335 days which
 is even 10 days earlier than the early maturing bread wheat `Sonalika'. 
 From the year 1984-85 to 1990-91, this cultivar occupied the top rank in
 yield (Table 1).
 
 Table 1.  Maximum grain yield (kg/ha) and rank of TL 1210 in the state trial
 over years.
                                                                              
                        TL 1210           
 Year                 Yield(kg/ha)              Rank    
  --------------------------------------------------------
 1984-85                  4378                     2
 1985-86                  4779                     2
 1986-87                  2323*                   16
 1987-88                  3774*                   17
 1988-89                  5096                     4
 1989-90                  3715                     2
 19990-91                 4274                     4  
  --------------------------------------------------------   
 *  Low yield due to heavy rain and hail.
 
      TL 1210 has maintained its potential to give high and stable yield over
 years.  This strain's combined high yield of Cinnamon, earliness from Raj
 821 and disease resistance from Inia/Turkey 60 *2//Arm's.
 
      Along with yield, TL 1210 has remained resistant to yellow rust, brown
 rust, powdery mildew, loose smut and karnal bunt (Table 2).
 
 
 Table 2.  Disease reaction of TL 1210 in the state trial over
           years                                                   
                                              Karnal bunt        
        Yellow   Brown    Powdery   Loose            Artificial
 Year    rust    rust     mildew    smut    Field    inoculation   
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 1984-85   F       F         F        F       F          F
 1985-86   F       tx        F        F       F          F
 1986-87   F       tx        F        F       F          F
 1987-88   F       F         F        F       F          F
 1988-89   F       F         F        F       F          F
 1989-90   F       F         F        F       F          F
 1990-91   F       F         F        F       F          F 
  --------------------------------------------------------------------     
 F = Free
 
      This is the only triticale cultivar available in India which has both
 field and laboratory resistance to Karnal bunt.  This cultivar has semi-
 hard, plump, light red grains, and long drooping spikes with an average
 plant height of 110 cms.
 
 ------------------------- 
      Contributions from Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Regional
 Station, Pusa 
 
       M. P. Jha, K. M. P. Singh, B. P. Sinha and  A. K. Sinha
 
      New Cultivars Released.  The wheat cultivar HP 1633, carrying the alien
 leaf rust resistance gene Lr9, was released by the All India Wheat Workers
 Workshop for irrigated late sown conditions of North Eastern Zone of India.  
 This cultivar is a backcross derivative of Sonalika after five backcrossings
 with the recurrent parent and the donor stock for leaf rust resistance used
 is RL 6010.  This cultivar also shows some degree of tolerance to foliar
 blights caused by Helminthosporium and Alternaria complex.  The recurrent
 parent Sonalika is still the most dominant cultivar of eastern states of
 India occupying roughly more than 50% of total cultivated area under wheat
 and needs to be replaced due to its breakdown of resistance to leaf rust and
 foliar blights.  HP 1633 is also resistant to Karnal bunt and thus it will
 be a very suitable replacement of Sonalika.
 
      Scale for recording foliar blights in seedling and adult stages of
 wheat.   The 0-9 scale suggested by Sarri and Prescot (1975) originally for
 powdery mildew of oats is universally applicable in case of all foliar
 diseases including the foliar blights of wheat.  This scale was subsequently
 revised by a 2 digit scale accommodating both vertical progress (height of
 the disease spread) and estimate of severity (percentage of infected leaf
 area by disease).  Both these scales, inspite of their wide acceptability
 are to generalized to hold good in case of foliar blights of wheat, as the
 disease is caused by several fungi, belonging to different genera, vis.,
 Alternaria, Helminthosporium.  The scale is based on the assumption that the
 disease is soil or seed borne and the vertical spread of the disease, i.e.,
 the height of the disease is the only criteria for resistance/tolerance or
 susceptibility.  This scale hinges on an arbitrary value of 5 which has been
 defined as the midpoint of the plant.  The Saari-Prescot scale is not
 useable in seedling studies and at best gives an estimate of probably damage
 (yield loss) due to this disease in case all the inoculum comes through soil
 debris or seed.   It is based on the assumption that in the susceptible
 genotypes the growth of mycelium is very fast and keeps pace with the growth
 of wheat plant under favorable conditions.  In case of resistant/tolerant
 genotypes the growth of mycelium is retarded and it does not go beyond the
 mid-point of the wheat plant.  Several other factors such as the information
 coming from genetic studies, stage of crop growth when the environmental
 factors are congenial for disease spread and disease due to secondary
 infection which is aerial in addition to inoculum through soil or seed has
 not been considered.
 
      The Saari-Prescott scale is not useable in seedling stage and for
 glasshouse studies and as such an alternative scale would be necessary for
 seedling studies particularly in case of genetical studies for vertical
 resistance against specific races and biotypes of pathogenic fungi
 associated with foliar blight.
 
      Investigations on the spread of Helminthosporium and Alternaria species
 taking large number of distantly related genetic stocks of wheat over
 several locations and seasons have indicated that resistant/tolerant stocks
 differ from susceptible types both in leaf area infected and lesion size.  A
 definite pattern with respect to infected leaf area and lesion size is
 noticeable in case of resistant types although in case of susceptible types
 there is a lack of this pattern probably due to non-availability of one or
 the other races of biotypes of Alternaria and Helminthosporium and the
 environmental factors.  The assumed tolerant/resistant genotypes invariably
 maintain low level of severity and show smaller lesion size.  Besides this,
 the stage of crop being attacked by different species is not the same.  The
 intensity of infection whether early (when lower levels are affected) or
 late (when only upper leaves are attacked as the lower leaves die by that
 time) is dependent on environmental factor and the amount of inoculum of
 both primary and secondary types.  If the weather is not favorable for
 disease spread during flowering, even highly susceptible cultivars such as
 Sonalika or UP 115 escape and the upper leaves or ears remain unaffected. 
 Glasshouse studies under artificial epiphytotics, is thereby necessary for
 which a scale different from Saari-Prescot scale is needed.
 
      A scale formulated by Luthra and Rao (1973) for seedling studies of
 Helminthosporium slightly modified on the basis of our own studies and
 studies done by Drs. Mahmood, Y. Prasad and S. N. Singh of Rajendra
 Agricultural University, Pusa (Bihar) is suggested.
 
                             Modified 0-4 Scale:
 
      0 = No spots or hypersensitive flecks
      1 = Spots few, minute, oval, dull brown, isolated, ill defined, and
          often encircled with occasional necrotic areas.
      2 = Spots scattered, small to medium, oval to oblong in size with
          definite margin encircling necrotic area with occasional coalescence.
      3 = Spots dark brown, filiform, irregular due to rapid coalescence of                    
          of several spots leading into streaks with blotched necrotic zones.
      4 = Spots larger, numerous, confluent with several streaks and blotches
          with zones of blighted appearance.
 
      The grades 0, 1 and 2 were considered as resistant and 3 and 4
 susceptible.  However, in the scale being recommended, slight modifications
 suggested are as follows:
 
      (A)  In grade 2 coalescence of lesions was observed not due to
           increase in lesion size of the spots but due to the fact that
           when lesions developed very adjacently on the leaf they seem to
           be coalescing.
      (B)  After the first appearance of the symptoms larger spots and rapid
           increase in the margin of lesions even without coalescence.  When
           lesions were not adjacently located on the leaf were considered
           as susceptible.
      (C)  Mixed type of infection with both isolated small lesions and
           larger lesions with coalescence of several lesions were classed
           as X and considered as resistant to certain races and susceptible
           to the other ones.
 
      Scale for recording foliar blights in adult stages.  For recording the
 foliar blight in adult stages the percentage of leaf area covered by the
 disease is easiest to record and quite meaningful in place of the Saari-
 Prescot scale.  A number of genetic stocks mostly from Chinese and
 Yugoslavian origin have been found to show resistance against all known
 virulences of Helminthosporium as well as Alternaria prevalent in the Bihar
 State.  The crosses of these resistant stocks with susceptible Indian stocks
 show a nearly bimodal distribution in F(2) on the basis of percentage of
 leaf area covered.  It has been possible to select for resistant types in
 the segregating generation on the basis of low infection area and small
 lesion size.  It is therefore suggested to use the second digit of the 2-
 digit scale.  Seedling studies using single spore isolates should be done
 for genetic studies.
 
 -------------------------
      Department of Agricultural Botany, Meerut University, Meerut
 
      P. K. Gupta, H. S. Balyan, D. K. Garg, Sanjeev Kumar, N. K. Sharma and
 Bijendra Pal
 
      Production of near isogenic lines and random isogenic pairs for rht,
 Rht1, Rht2 and Rht3 dwarfing genes in cv K68.  (a)  The production of near
 isogenic lines of three major dwarfing genes, Rht1, Rht2 and Rht3, in the
 genetic background of a tall Indian hexaploid wheat K68 is being attempted. 
 This objective is sought to be achieved by backcrossing the three major
 dwarfing genes into K68 from cvs. HD2009 (Rht1), WH147 (Rht2) and Tom Thumb
 (Rht3).  The material is already in BC(5) generation and following one to
 two more backcrosses and selfing, near isogenic lines for rht1, Rht1, Rht2
 and Rht3 in spring wheat K68 genetic background will be ready for use in
 genetic experiments; (b) Random isogenic pairs of tall (rht) and dwarf (Rht)
 progenies for Rht1 (33 pairs), Rht2 (15 pairs) and Rht3 (70 pairs) genes,
 were isolated in F(5) generation from progenies of F(4) heterozygous (Rht
 rht) plants.  The rht rht and Rht Rht genetic constitutions in these random
 pairs will be confirmed using data on segregation in crosses with Rht
 testers and gibberellic acid insensitivity test.  Subsequently, the Rht1,
 Rht2 and Rht3 near isogenic lines and random isogenic pairs will be used to
 study the pleiotropic effects of the dwarfing genes on yield, yield
 contributing characters, distribution of dry matter and also their role in
 drought and thermo-tolerance in spring wheat background under Indian
 conditions.
 
      Effect of change in tillering behaviour in dwarf vs. tall genetic
 backgrounds on yield components and other characters.  In spring wheats,
 results have been published (even though sometimes contradictory) on the
 pleiotropic effects of three dwarfing genes, Rht1, Rht2 and Rht3, on yield
 components as well as other characters. But virtually no study has been
 conducted to understand the effect of change in tillering behaviour in
 semidwarf (Rht) vs. tall (rht) genetic backgrounds on yield components and
 other characters.  Thus, populations of homozygous dwarf (involving three
 individual major dwarfing genes Rht1, Rht2 and Rht3, and tall (rht)
 progenies with high and low tiller numbers are being developed.   These
 populations will be used to resolve and understand the effect of change in
 tiller number in dwarf and tall height background genotypes on yield
 components and other characters.  Starting in F(2) hybrid populations of
 K68/HD2009 (Rht1), K68/WH147 (Rht2) and K68/Tom Thumb (Rht3), three cycles
 of selection have been completed and the various populations are being
 evaluated in F(5) generation.  One more cycle of selection is proposed to
 allow selection of desirable and homozygous progenies in each population to
 conduct meaningful investigations.
 
      Induced mutation for semidwarfness.  With a view to diversify the
 sources of dwarfness in wheat, a number of induced dwarf mutants in 6x and
 4x wheats have been isolated following gamma ray treatment.  The inheritance
 pattern and allelic relationships among induced genes for dwarfness and
 their agronomic performance is being studied.
 
      Relative efficiencies of (i) biparental mating system vs. selfing
 series and (ii) the phenotypic vs. genophenotypic selection procedures. This
 study involved two double cross F(2) hybrids, Blue Jay/CPAN 1687/Nacozari
 76/1443 and Blue Jay/CPAN 1681//HUW144/HD2305 as starting material.  It was
 concluded that (i) the intermating in early segregating generations
 (biparental matings) is able to overcome the limitations of conventional
 methods of breeding self-pollinated crops since it is possible to increase
 and maintain genetic variation so that several cycles of selection are
 effective for grain yield improvement.  The biparental matings also help in
 concentrating favourable genes or gene combinations for grain yield.  (ii)
 The selection under biparental mating system resulted in progenies with
 greater yield potential than the progenies selected under selfing series.
 (iii) For grain yield improvement, the genophenotypic selection procedure
 (selection of best plants in top families) was either equal to or more
 efficient than phenotypic selection procedure (selection of plants on
 individual merit).  (iv) Based on character association analyses and
 correlated response to selection for grain yield it was concluded that a
 selection index comprising grain yield, tiller number, spikelets per spike,
 biological yield and plant height may be used to select genotypes of
 suitable height with increased dry matter and grain yield.
 
      Identification of selection parameter(s) for selecting F2 genotypes
 with high grain yield potential.  The three F(2) hybrid populations,
 CPAN1866/HD2009, CPAN 1866/DL153-2, and CPAN 1959/DL153-2, were used as
 starting material to evaluate the relative efficiencies of (i) direct
 selection for yield per se; (ii) indirect selection based on yield component
 characters, biological yield and harvest index; (iii) selection based on an
 index involving above parameters, and (iv) random selection with and without
 F(3) yield testing.  Also, the efficiencies of prediction based selection
 and empirical selection for identification of suitable selection parameters
 in F(2) were compared.
 
      The results indicated that (i) the selection of F(2) plants on the
 basis of individual parameters was relatively more effective than the
 selection of plants on random basis in terms of recovering high yielding
 progenies.  The selection of F(2) plants on the basis of an index involving
 grain yield per se, yield component characters, biological yield and harvest
 index was ineffective.  (ii) High biological yield followed by grain yield
 per se were the most important parameters for selecting F(2) plants with
 high grain yield potential.  (iii) The selection of high yielding F(4) bulk
 progenies following F(3) generation yield testing was moderately successful
 in comparison to selection of high yielding F(4) bulk progenies in F(4)
 generation without yield testing in F(3) generation.   (iv) Selection of
 potentially high yielding F(2) genotypes made on the basis of parameters
 predicted due to correlation and regression analysis proved to be
 inefficient and poor in comparison to the empirical selection.  (v) In
 comparison to the simple regression analysis, the stepwise regression
 approach, however, indicated a probable improvement in the efficiency of the
 identification of parameters for selection in F(2) generation.  This
 approach favoured selection based on plant height, grain yield, 100 grain
 weight and harvest index.
 
      Relative efficiency of pedigree, random and selected bulk methods.  The
 relative efficiencies of five breeding methods pedigree (PED), random bulk
 (RB) and three selected bulks (SB(1) for grains per ear, SB(2) for 100 grain
 weight and SB(3) for tillers per plant) are being compared in F(3) and F(4)
 generations using three crosses, CPAN1962/CC493,CPAN 1959/HUWI, and
 WH147/CPAN 1874.  The realized response to selection for eight characters
 including yield and its components was estimated on the basis of differences
 of means of SBs and PED populations from RB population.
 
      In SB F(3) populations, the response was significantly positive for
 directly selected characters.  However, in SB(1) characters like yield per
 ear and grains per spikelet and in SB(3) grains per ear, yield per ear,
 biological yield and grain yield per plant showed positive correlated
 response while in SB(2) grain yield per plant showed negative correlated
 response.  The PED population showed positive and significant response for
 tillers per plant, grains per ear, (except in cross CPAN 1959/HUWI), grain
 yield per plant and biological yield but response was negative for grain
 weight, yield per ear (CPAN 1959/HUWI) and grains per spikelet (CPAN
 1959/HUMI).  Comparison of SB(3) and PED showed that response for grain
 yield per plant was better in SB(3) than PED.  This showed importance of
 bulk method based on tillers per plant as a promising selection method in
 early generations.  The F(4) generation is being evaluated and the F(4) data
 will also be subjected to the analysis as done in F(3) generation.
 
      Phenotypic stability analysis.  (a)  Sixty common wheat genotypes
 including nine commercial wheat cultivars, six strains bred at Meerut, and
 45 strains bred at CIMMYT, were evaluated in eight environments including
 two fertilizer regimes and two dates of sowings at two locations. Data were
 recorded on eleven characters including grain yield.  Both parametric and
 non-parametric approaches of stability analysis are being employed to
 identify the stable genotypes and also to get a comparable idea of the
 sensitivity of the different approaches of stabililty analysis.
 (b)  Since stability is under genetic control, we thought it useful to know
 the chromosomal location of gene(s) for stability in wheat.  To achieve
 this, two sets of substitution lines of Hope and Thatcher in Chinese Spring,
 as well as Hope, Thatcher, Chinese Spring, Sonalika and HD2329 are being
 evaluated in eight environments including two dates of sowings (timely sown
 and late sown) and two fertilizer and irrigation treatments over two years. 
 The data are being recorded for eight characters including grain yield and
 the same will be analyzed using parametric and nonparametric approaches of
 stability analysis to ascertain the association of genes for stability with
 individual chromosomes.
 
      Inheritance study for loose smut resistance.  A study on the
 inheritance of loose smut was initiated in 1989.  Three resistant (HW888,
 PBW65 and WL410) and three susceptible (HD2204, Lal Bahadur and Agra Local)
 cultivars/lines were involved in a 6x6 diallel cross.  These F(1)s are being
 advanced through selfing and backcrossing.  Also one set of parents, F(1)s
 and backcrosses was artificially inoculated with a mixture of smut spores
 while the other set was kept as control and the same was allowed to grow
 under natural conditions.  Data on resistant/susceptible plants in the
 various generations will be recorded to study inheritance of loose smut.
 
      Breeding for late sown cultivars.  In north western India, wheat on
 large acreage is cultivated in rotation with paddy and sugarcane. 
 Therefore, greater emphasis is being laid on breeding cultivars suitable for
 late sown conditions to fit in the above crop rotation.  Keeping the same in
 view and to start an integrated breeding program to develop cultivars
 suitable for late sown as well as timely sown conditions, selection of
 parents/crosses based on combining ability analysis over environments is
 being attempted.
 
      Two cultivars/lines suited for early sown (HD2428 and UP2121), two for
 late sown (HD2285 and HD2270) and one for medium time sown (Sonalika)
 conditions were crossed in a 5x5 diallel manner.  The parents and F(1)s were
 planted in 1990 under timely as well as late sown conditions and data is
 being collected on eleven yield and its contributing characters including
 days to heading and maturity.
 
      Germplasm evaluation.  Four hundred and five accessions of common wheat
 were evaluated for eleven metric characters and genetic divergence was
 measured among them using non-hierarchical euclidean cluster analysis. 
 Thirteen clusters were formed and genotypes of even heterogeneous origin
 were grouped in the same cluster showing no parallelism between genetic and
 geographic diversity.  Some genotypes given in Table 1 were also identified
 which might be used as genetic donors for respective metric characters.
 
      Use of alien genetic variation for wheat improvement.  Efforts have
 been made to transfer alien genes for resistance to brown and black rusts to
 four elite Indian wheat cultivars, Kalyansona, Sonalika, WH147 and WL711. 
 The objective of this exercise is to develop either the new cultivars or the
 superior genetic stocks for use in wheat breeding.  
 
      The details of the materials used as a source of alien gene(s) and
 methods employed were earlier reported (AWN 34:61-63; 1988).  The material
 containing desirable alien genes used in the present study included 16
 exotic and present study included 16 exotic and indigenous 6x genetic
 stocks, 22 individual chromosome addition lines of barley, rye and Agropyron
 intermedium chromosomes, an amphiploid (T. durum/Dasypyrum villosum) and
 several Aegilops and Triticum species.  The F(1) hybrids involving the four
 elite Indian wheat cultivars and various genetic stocks were produced.  The
 F(1) hybrids were selfed as well as backcrossed with recurrent parents.  
 The F(1) hybrids involving alien addition lines were crossed (only those
 plants with 2n=43 chromosomes) with homozygous recessive ph ph mutant for
 inducing translocations (due to homoeologous pairing induced by ph locus). 
 Simultaneously, F(1) hybrids were irradiated for induced translocations for
 transfer of desirable gene(s)/segments.  F(2) hybrids thus obtained in above
 crosses were screened cytologically for homoeologous pairing and
 backcrossing.  The hybrids in various generations were artificially
 inoculated (both under field and laboratory conditions) using suitable brown
 and black rust races to select resistant plants.  Plants showing agronomic
 characters superior or comparable to Indian wheats and resistance to the two
 rusts (black/brown) were visually selected from progenies of various cross
 combinations.  The details are presented in Table 2.
 
 Table 1.  Important genetic donors identified for different 
                          characters                           
 Characters                     Donor Genotypes   
  ---------------------------------------------------------------            
 Large
 grain                 CPAN3011, CPAN6090,MACS2152, CPAN2076
                       CPAN3002, WH 385, and MUW 58
 Long ear              CPAN 1931, WH 385, CPAN 6076, CPAN 1967,
                       I 894 and HUW 267
 High tillering        HD 2160, HD 2320, CPAN 2029, BAU 2182,
                       HD 2512, CPAN 6047, HD 2379 and HD 2740
 High spikelet         VL 497, CPAN 8112, CPAN 2016, CPAN 3004,
    fertility          and HUW 1964
 High yielding         CPAN 2076, HD 2320, CPAN 2029, HI 7080
                       HI 8270, CPAN 3013, PBW 293 and HD 1502
  ---------------------------------------------------------------                                                              
 
 
 Table 2.  Details of plants finally selected for resistance
           against brown/or black rusts in different generations of
           various cross combinations.                                       
                                                                     
 Details                 # of     Details                   # of
 of crosses              Plants   of crosses               Plants
  ------------------------------------------------------------------  
 F(2)BC(1)S:                 
 Kalyansona*2/WC1706       6    WL711*2/WC1707                 11
 WL711*2/Bobwhite         15    WL711*2/WC268                  13
 WL711/WC1706              2    WL711*2/Veery(s)                8
 WH147*2/WC268             5    WL711*2/HD4502(4x wheat)        2
 WL711*2/Novi sad 60/2     2    WL711*2/D. villosum             6
 F(2)BC(2)S(1)         
 Kalyansona*3/WC281        2    Kalyansona*3/Mendos             6
 Kalyansona*3/TebxLr19     3    Kalyansona*3/WC268              6
 Kalyansona*3/Veery(s)    18    Kalyansona*3/Transec            8
 Sonalika*3/WC281         10    Sonalika*3/Veery(s)            15
 Sonalika*3/Eagle          3    Sonalika*3/WC1706              10
 WH147*3/TebXLr9           4    WH147*3/Wc1706                 18
 WH147*3/Veery(S)          4    WH147*3/WC281                   5
 Kalyansona*3/SrTt(1)      4    WH147*3/RA6                     6
 
 F(2)BC(3)A(1):
 Kalyansona*4/TebXLr9     11    Sonalika*4/Lr13                 2
 Sonalika*4/Transec        3    
 
 F(1)BC(3)S(1):
 Sonalika*4/N15439         8    Sonalika*4/WC268                6
 WH147*4/Eagle             5    WH147*4/N15439                  2
 WH147*4/N1747-19          1    WH147?4/Bobwhite                2
 WH147*4/Veery(S)          3    WL711*4/Veery(S)                3
 WL711*4/Lr13              2    WL711*4/Transec                 1
 WL711*4/WC1706            6    WL711*4/Bobwhite                2
 WH147*4/HD4502(4xwheat)   1    WL711*4/T. dicoccoides          2
 WL711*4/BAD6      
 
 M(1)BC(2)S(1):
 Kalyansona*3/BAD2         2    WL711*3/BAG6                    1
 WH147*3/BAG6              2    Kalyansona*3/BAD7               1
 WL711*3/5R                4    WH147*3/5R                      2
 WH147*2/Ag690/7           3    Kalyansona*3/Courtot7           1
 WL711*3/Ag3/8             3    WH147*3/Novi Sad 60/2           1
 
 F5-F(7):
 Sonalika/Spear(F5)        9    WL711/Courtot7(F(5)             7
 Kalyansona/Compair(F(6))  8   Kalyansona/Bobwhite(F(7))        10
 Kalyansona/Compair(F(7))  10
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                                Publications
 
 Balyan, H. S. and Fedak, G.   1989.  Meiotic study of hybrids between barley
 (Hordeum vulgare L.) and triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack).  J. Heredity
 80:460-463.
 
 Balyan, H. S. and Fedak, G.  1990.  Further evidence for the suppression of
 meiotic chromosomes pairing by Hordeum Californicum.  Cytologia 55:61-64.
 
 Balyan, H. S. and Fedak, G. l990.  Hybrids of an amphiploid (Triticum
 timophevii x Hordeum bogdanii with cultivars of triticale (X Triticosecale
 Wittmack).  cytologia 55:65-69.
 
 Balyan, H. S. and  Singh, Tejbir.  1987.  Character association analysis in
 common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  Genome 29:392-394.
 
 Garg, D. K. and Gautam, P. L.  1988.  Evaluation of local collections of
 wheat (Triticum spp.) germplasm.  Genet.  Agr. 42:255-262.
 
 Gupta, P. K.  1990.  Cytogenetics of wheat and related wild relatives -
 Triticum and Aegilops.  In "Chromosome Engineering in Plants: Genetics,
 Breeding, Evolution" (Gupta, P. K. and Tsuchiya, T., eds).  Elsevier Sci.
 Publ.,  The Netherlands.
 
 Gupta, P. K., Altossar, I. and Garg, D. K.  1990.  Molecular genetics of
 wheat.  In "Chromosome Engineering in Plants: Genetics, Breeding, Evolution"
 (Gupta, P. K. and Tsuchiya, T., eds).  Elsevier Sci. Publ.,  The
 Netherlands.
 
 Gupta, P. K., Balyan, H. S. and Fedak, G.  1988.  A study of D/R
 substitutions in some spring triticales using wheat ditelocentrics.  Proc.
 "7th Intern. Wheat Genet. Symp." (Miler, T. E. and Koebner, R. M. D., eds),
 Cambridge, U.K., pp. 297-301.
 
 Gupta, P. K., Balyan, H. S. and Fedak, G. 1989.  Effect of individual rye
 (Secale cereale) chromosomes on pairing in pentaploid hybrids (AABBD). 
 Cereal Res. Commm. (In press).
 
 Gupta, P. K. and Baum, B. R.  1989.  Stable classification and nomenclature
 in the Triticeae: desirability,limitations and prospects.  Euphytica 41:191-
 197.
 
 Gupta, P. K. and Reddy, V. R. K.  1989.  Interspecific and intergeneric
 hybridization in future wheat improvement.  Proc. Natl. Symp. "Strategies
 for Taking Forward the Indian Wheat Revolution to New Heights", 20-22 August
 1986.  New Delhi, India (in press).
 
 Gupta, P. K. and Reddy, V. R. K.  1990.  Cytogenetics of triticale - a man
 made cereal.  In "Chromosome Engineering in Plants: Genetics, Breeding,
 Evolution" (Gupta, P. K. and Tsuchiya, T., eds.), Elsevier Sci. Publ., The
 Netherlands (in press).
 
 Misra, A. K. and Gupta, P. K.  1988.  A report on identification of necrotic
 genes in some tetraploid and hexaploid wheats. Indian J. Genet. 48:311-323.
 
 Misra, A. K. and Gupta, P. K.  1988.  Production of D addition lines in
 tetraploid wheat II.  Cytology of F(3) hybrids involving tetraploid and
 hexaploid wheats.  J. Cytol. Genet. 23:147-150.
 
 Reddy, V. R. K., and Gupta, P. K.  1989.  Mutants for leaf characters in
 triticale. Wheat Inf. Serv. 68:26-28.
 
 Reddy, V. R. K. and Gupta, P. K.  1989.  Effectiveness, efficiency, factor
 for effectiveness and mutants per mutation in triticale. Indian J. Botany
 11: (in press).
 
 Reddy, V. K. R. and Gupta, P. K.  1989.  Cytological mutants in hexaploid
 triticale.  J. Cytol.  Genet. (in press).
 
 Reddy, V. R. K. and Gupta, P. K.  1989.  Induced mutations in triticale-
 frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll mutations.  Indian J. Genet. 49:183-
 190.
 
 Reddy, V. R. K., a d Gupta, P. K.  1989.  Induced mutations in triticale -
 frequency and spectrum of morphological mutants.   Genet. Agr. (in press).
 
 Reddy, V. R. K. and Gupta, P. K.  1989.  Biological effects of gamma rays
 and EMS in hexaploid triticale.  Acta Bot. Indica (in press).
 
 Singh, Tejbir and Balyan, H. S.  1988.  The usefulness of biparental matings
 in early segregating generation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genet. Agr.
 42:283-298.
 
 Walia, D. P. and Garg, D. K.  1991.  Evaluation and genetic divergence in
 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm.  Indian J. Genet. (in press).
 
 -------------------------
      Regional Station, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Indore
 
      A. N. Mishra
 
      Sources of combined adult plant resistance to stem rust and leaf rust
 of wheat probably derived from Sr2 complex and Lr34 complex.  From the
 experience gained so far, it is now fairly well established that the genes
 Sr2 and Lr34 in conjunction with other resistance genes in wheat have
 contributed to adequate levels of adult plant resistance of an apparently
 longer lasting nature to stem and leaf rust, respectively (AWN 37:64). 
 While Sr2 is usually associated with head and stem melanism or `pseudo-black
 chaff' (R. A. McIntosh, 1988), the presence of Lr34 is associated with
 `leaf-tip burning' (M van Ginkel, CIMMYT, pers. comm.).  Hence an attempt
 was made during 1990-91 to identify in the artificially inoculated test
 plots at Indore such wheat stocks which showed `pseudo-black chaff' as well
 as `leaf-tip burning' (Table 1) since stem and leaf rust diseases have been
 the major constraints in stabilizing wheat yields in central and peninsular
 India.
 
      Pedigrees of some wheats were studied (Table 1) in order to identify in
 them the probable sources of Sr2 and Lr34.  The Sr2 component appears to
 have been contributed by `Newthatch' or any of its derivatives like `Penjamo
 62', `Chris', `Yaqui 50', `CIANO 67', `Bluebird' series, `Lerma Rojo 64',
 `INIA 66', etc., (S. Rajarem et. al., 1988).
 
      While the involvement of such sources of durable leaf rust resistance,
 attributed to a combination of Lr13 and Lr34, as `Frontana', `Chris', `Era'
 and `CIANO 67' (A. P. Roelfs, 1988; S. Rajaram, pers. commm.) in the
 parentage of a number of above wheats possibly accounts for the presence of
 Lr34 in them; in others the Argentinean wheat `TZPP' or one of its
 derivatives appears to be the source of leaf rust resistance probably
 derived from Lr34 or similar adult plant resistance gene(s) requiring
 confirmation (M. van Ginkel, pers. comm.).  However, as mentioned earlier, a
 complete analysis of the pedigrees could not be made and more precise
 information regarding the source of Sr2 and particularly Lr34 in these
 wheats might emerge if one could probe deeper into their parentage.
 
 
      The identified wheat stocks showed rust infection in the range of trace
 R-MR through 40R-Mr to 10S.  Thus their levels of disease were significantly
 lower than those observed on the near-isogenic lines carrying Sr2 (`CS/Hope
 3 B' showing stem rust infection from 10S to 30S) and Lr34 (`Line 897' = TC
 *6/`Terenzio' having leaf rust infection from 20 MS-S to 30 MS-S) indicating
 that these wheats possessed other genes for resistance in conjunction with
 Sr2 and Lr34.  Moreover, as could be seen from their parentage, the probable
 resistance donors involved are known to be repeated in a large number of
 Indian wheats and hence the effectiveness of the resistance appears to be
 determined by certain specific gene combinations.
 
      Most of the wheats listed in Table 1 showed high to moderate levels of
 rust resistance in the tests conducted earlier at Indore and/or other hot-
 spot locations in India and thus appear to hold promise as sources of
 combined field resistance to stem and leaf rusts of wheat.
 
 
 Table 1.         Various wheat stocks and their parentages.       
                                                                     
 Wheat stock                Parentage*                              
  --------------------------------------------------------------                                                                    
 CC 505           CC/CAL//SR
                  CAL=TZPP/SON 64/ATZPP//AN(E)
                  SR=BB#3 = CNO"S"//SON 64/KLRE/3/8156
                  8156=PJ"S"/GB 55
                       PJ=FKN/NIOB
 CPAN 1885        ERA/CHR Mutant
 CPAN 1929        **JUP/ZP "S"//COC
                  JUP=II 12300//LR 64/8156/3/NOR
                  NOR=INIA F 66 "S"
 CPAN 1933        PATO/3/SON 64/PDUE//CNO/INIA 66/4/HD 832/BB
                  BB-CNO "S"//SON 64/KLRE/3/8156
 DL 230-6         K7537/HD 2160 M
                  K 7537 = SON 64//TZPP/Yr Gve
                  Yr(YR)=BB#2=CNO "S"//SON 64/KLRE/3/8156
                  HD 2160 = 3*MMASOC//YT 54/NIOB/
                  CAL/3/TOB/CFN/4/HD 1949
                  TOB=TZPP/SON 64A
 DL 230-7         Samd as DL 230-6
 DL 245-5         DL 153-4/HD 2242
                  HD 2242=HD 1962//E 4870/K 65/3/HD 2028
                  E 4870=FKN/NIOB//P14/3/Kt
                  HD 2028=LR/SON 64//SON 64/TZPP//
                  NAI 60/CNO/3/HD 1533
 HD 2402          HD 2267/HD 2236
                  HD 2236=HD 2119/HD 1981
                  HD 2119=CNO/NO//C273/NP875/3/E4853
                  NO=INIA 66 "S"
 HD 2556          HD 2353/HUW 55//HD 21345/HD 2275
                  HUW 55=E 4870/HD 1982//INIA 66
 HI 980           KAL/BB//SPRW "S"
                  SPRW=FN/MD//K 117A/3/2*COFN/4/
                  SON 64/KLRE/3/CNO "S"//2* LR 64/SON 64
 HI 991           TL/3/FN/T4//2* NAR 54
                  T4(ANZA)=LR/NIOB//3* AN(E)
 HI 1026          Raj 860//FN/CNO/3/ SUPER X
 HI 1027          KAL/BB//PERICO "S"
 HI 1035          Raj 860//FN/CNO
 HI 1129          Raj 860//7C/CNO "S"
                  7C=PJ"S"/GB 55
 HS 223           CFR 316/MCM//KT/Y50/3/ZA/4/BJY"S"
                  BJY = TZPP/PL//7C
 HS 225           STRAMPELLI/HD 2160
 HUW 206          KVZ/BUHO "S"//KAL/BB
 HUW 370          HUW 206/K 8027
 HW 921           CNO "S"/INIA//LFN/TOB/3/KL/Pet
 HW 1012          TOB "S"/TZPP/3/8156/CC/INIA//S331
 Raj 1972         HD 2195/HD 2160
                  HD 2195 = C 306/NP 852/E 5550//
                  HD 1962/E 4870/K 65
 Raj 3211         WL 2193//HD 2255/Raj 1857
                  WL 2193 = USA 225/K 816//WL 202
                  K 816 = CNO "S"//SON 64/KLRE
                  HD 2255 = HD 2136//HD 1553/247
                  HD 2136 = H41-3/3/HD 1962//E 4870/K65
                  Raj 1857 = KAL/BB//28036
 VL 653           BLUEBOY/CPAN 1645
                  CPAN 1645 = NAPO//TZPP/SON 64/3/8156
                  NAPO = FR/FN// Y48/NAR "S"
 WH 573           Kh 65/WH 157
                  WH 157 = NP 876/S 308//CIANO "S/8156
  --------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                     
 *Parentage coding mostly after Villareal and Rajaram (1988).  The underlined
 stocks are the probable sources of Sr 2/Lr 34 resistance.
 **JUP - while the resistant `Jupateco' line showed `leaf-tip burning', the
 susceptible `Jupateco' did not (Ginkel, pers. comm.).
 
      Further observations on the responses to Indian stem rust/leaf rust
 populations of some wheat stocks carrying designated Sr/Lr genes.   
 Comprehensive information is available on the seedling and adult plant
 responses to Indian stem rust/leaf rust populations of different wheat
 stocks carrying various designated Sr/Lr genes as a result of sustained work
 carried out mainly at IARI, New Delhi; Flowerdale, Simla and; PAU, Ludhiana. 
 What follows here is a summary statement of further observations made in
 this area of investigation in recent years at IARI, Regional Station,
 Indore.
 
      Wheat cultivar `Gabo' showed additional seedling resistance to Indian
 cultures of stem rust races 11, 43B, 122, 184 and 295 to which the near-
 isogenic line carrying Sr 11 as well as `Yalta' (Sr 11 + Sr Yt-1 + Sr Yt-2)
 were susceptible indicating the presence of additional gene(s) for stem rust
 resistance in `Gabo' besides Sr 11.
 
      Combination lines `Sr Tt-1 + Sr 9b' and `Sr Tt-1 + Sr 9e' produced in
 seedlings near susceptible infection types with stem rust races 11, 11A and;
 117-2, 117-6, respectively.  However, both were observed to maintain high
 levels of field resistance as reported earlier.
 
      Sr 13 line "S" showed the tendency of early field production of
 teliospores.
 
      Three cultivaral stocks `Opal', (Lr 12), `Egret' (Lr 13) and `Timvera'
 (Lr 18), showed significantly lower coefficients of leaf rust infection in
 the field compared respectively to lines TC + Lr 12; `Manitou' and `Red
 Bobs' (both carrying Lr 13) and; TC + Lr 18 suggesting that additional
 gene(s) or the background effect could be responsible for the enhanced
 levels of resistance in the above wheat cultivars.
 
      Although both the Australian cultivars `Eagle' and `Kite' were equally
 resistant to stem rust, the latter showed a lower degree of field
 susceptibility to leaf rust (30 MS-40 MS) as compared to former (40S-60S). 
 Further, `Kite' produced in seedlings a smaller pustule type often
 associated with pronounced degrees of chlorosis and necrosis when tested
 with leaf rust races 10, 77, 77-1, 77A, 107 and 162A.
 
      `Gatcher' (Lr 27 + Lr 31) showed increased susceptibility to leaf rust
 in the field (40 MS-S) during 1990-91 and thus appeared to lack additional
 adult plant resistance. This is in accordance with the concern expressed
 earlier regarding the durability of the then effective Gatcher-resistance
 (10 MS during 1987-89) in view of its observed seedling susceptibility to
 some of the newly detected leaf rust virulences of groups 12 and 77 (Sawhney
 and Sharma, 1990).
 
                                Publications
 
 Mishra, A. N., R. S. Thakur and Y. M. Upadhyaya.  1989.  Genetic diversity
 in Triticum durum (Desf.)  I. Studies on stem rust resistance.  Cereal Rust
 and Powdery Mildews Bulletin.  17: 27-35.
 
 Mishra, A. N., R. S. Thakur and Y. M. Upadhyaya.  1989.  Genetic diversity
 in Triticum durum (Desf.)  II. Studies on leaf rust resistance.  Cereal
 Rusts and Powdery Mildews Bulletin 17: 36-45.
 
 Mishra, A. N., P. K. Verma, R. N. Brahma, M. K. Mutkekar and Paramjit Singh. 
 1989.  Evaluation of Israeli durum land races for rust resistance in India. 
 Cereal Rusts and Powdery Mildews Bulletin.  17:46-56.
 
 Mishra, A. N., R. C. Bhawsar, Kamini Kaushal and Y. M. Upadhyaya.  1990. 
 Genetic diversity for stem rust resistance in Triticum aestivum L.  Cereal
 Rusts and Powdery Mildews Bulletin.  18: 10-21.
 
 Mishra, A. N. and Y. M. Upadhyaya.  1990.  Probable genetic architecture of
 resistance to stem and leaf rusts in some wheats showing Sr 2-associated
 `pseudo-chaff' phenotype. Cereal Rusts and Powdery Mildews Bulletin 18:22-
 34.
 
 -------------------------
      Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Department of Plant Breeding
 and Genetics, Palampur
 
      G. S. Sethi, Satish C. Sharma, K. S. Thakur, D. L. Sharma, Ashwani
 Kumar and H. K. Chaudhary
 
               Wheat improvement in North western Himalayas
 
      HPW 42 - A new wheat cultivar for higher altitude areas of Northern
 Hills' Zone.  HPW 42, a new high-yielding wheat cultivar having high degree
 of resistance to stripe and leaf rusts, has been identified by the All-India
 Wheat Workshop for cultivation in the higher hills 1500 m.a.s.l. and above)
 of the Northern Hills' Zone of India for timely-sown rainfed conditions to
 replace Sonalika which has become highly susceptible to rusts and loose
 smut.  HPW 42 has shown seedling resistance to all the new races of stripe
 rust, viz. A, I, K, L & N, and has comparatively high degree of resistance
 to race 77 complex and 104B of leaf rust.  In addition, it has a high degree
 of resistance to flag smut, Karnal bunt and powdery mildew.  During the last
 4 years of tests, it gave an average increase of 16.71% in grain yield over
 the check Sonalika (Table 1).  Similarly, it outyielded Sonalika under late-
 sown rainfed conditions in low and mid hills during 1990-91.
 
      HPW 42 is an early-maturing semidwarf wheat cultivar having dense
 fully-bearded spikes with white glumes, good tillering potential and amber,
 medium bold and semihard to hard grains.  It exhibited a very high value for
 hectoliter weight and showed negligible infestation to brown wheat mite. 
 This cultivar carries 1RS.1BL translocation and is a derivative of 
 Veery `S' (PVN`S'-CBB-CNO`S'/JAR)ORZ`S'.
 
 
 Table 1.  Grain yield of `HPW 42' in Coordinated Varietal Trials in          
 the high-altitude areas of the Northern Hills' Zone of India     
 
 Year         Grain yield (q/ha) Average of locations
 of            No. of                      Sonalika
 Testing       locations      HPW 42       (check)       (P/0.05 
  --------------------------------------------------------------------  
 1987-88           2           30.8         22.4           4.2
 1988-89           2           20.0         22.5           2.5
 1989-90           3           19.9         17.3           3.5
 1990-91           3           26.1         20.8           5.7
 Overall Mean                  24.2         20.7  
 % Increase over the stock                  16.7                     
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Promising wheat cultivars.  Two newly developed wheat cultivars, `HPW
 63' and `HPW 56', are in the final stages of testing in the  All-India
 Coordinated Trials for the Northern Hills' Zone under timely sown rainfed
 and irrigated conditions and late-sown rainfed conditions, respectively. 
 Their performance for the last 2 years (Table 2) indicates that both have
 superiority over the check, Sonalika, in grain yield and resistance to
 stripe and leaf rusts.  HPW 56 has been found to be free from leaf blight.
 
 Table 2.  Performance of promising wheat cultivars in the Northern           
     Hills' Zone.                             
 
 Cultivar/        Grain yield (q/ha)                 Reaction to  
 Production       (Zonal average)       Overall   Stripe     Leaf
 Conditions      1989-90    1990-91     Average    rust      rust
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 HPW63
 Timely Sown,       22.5      29.7       26.1       0         0
   Rainfed
 Sonalika(check)    19.1      26.9       23.0      70S        0
   C.D.              3.5       1.9 
 Timely Sown,       38.5      40.2       39.3       0         0
   Irrigated 
 HS 240(check)      38.3      37.6       37.8       0         0
   C.D.              3.2       4.2
 
 HPW56
 Late Sown,         25.3      28.0       26.6       0         0
   Rainfed 
 Sonalika(check)    24.2      26.9       25.5      60S       60S
   C.D.              2.0       2.6                                
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Identification of drought tolerant wheat strains.  Out of 56 wheat
 strains screened for drought tolerance for 4 years under rainfed conditions,
 26, 16, 11 and 2 were selected in the first, second, third and the last
 year, respectively.  The highest yielding strains under drought stress over
 the years were `LSW 26 x VL 421' and `Bulk 60055', with mean grain yield of
 39.9 q/ha and 37.8 q/ha, respectively.  However, these strains showed
 susceptibility to leaf rust and would further be improved through backcross
 approach.
 
      Shuttling of wheat breeding material.  As in the previous years, the
 wheat breeding materials generated over the years were shuttled to different
 locations during winter 1990-91 at Bajaura (1098 m), Dhaulakuan (456 m), and
 Palampur/Malan (1300 m) which are the hot spots of stripe rust, leaf rust
 and powdery mildew, respectively, and in summer 1991 at Kukumseri (2300 m)
 which is the hot spot of stripe rust and powdery mildew (Table 3).
 
 Table 3.  Wheat breeding materials generated, evaluated and                  
       selected at different locations.                           
 
                                Cultures          
 Generation Location            Evaluated           Selected 
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------      
 F(2) Bajaura                    38 populations   135 single plants
 
 F(3) Dhaulakuan/Malan          240 progenies     241 single plants
 
 F(4) Malan/Dhaulakuan/
      Kukumseri               295 progenies      80 single plants
 
 F(5) Palampur/Malan           378 progenies     227 single plants
      Kukumseri                                 162 F(6) populations
 
 F(6) Palampur/Malan/            37 bulks          19 bulks
      Kukumseri               74 progenies      27 progenies
 
 F(7) Palampur/Malan             47 bulks          25 bulks
 
 F(8) Palampur/Malan             11 bulks           6 bulks
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                
      In addition, 100 new crosses were made at Palamur involving agronomic
 bases and the donor parents for stripe and leaf rusts (CPAN 2016, CPAN 3004,
 CPAN 1992, CPAN 3013 and HUW 258).
 
      Identification of winter wheats for dry-temperature areas.  Seven
 promising winter wheat cultivars were evaluated at the Regional Research
 Station, Kukumseri (2300  m.a.s.l.) located in the Dry Temperature Region of
 Himachal Pradesh to identify winter wheat cultivars suitable for grain yield
 and green fodder.  These were tested along with a semiwinter check (VL 616)
 and spring wheat check (CPAN 1922) after sowing in October 1990.  The grain
 yield was recorded in 3 replications and in other 3 replications the grain
 yield was recorded after taking one green fodder cutting in May, 1991.  The
 data (Table 4) revealed ts2hat the winter wheat `Bounty' gave the highest
 grain yield of 37.7 q/ha without any fodder cut, followed by ` J. O. 3057'
 and `Atou' with grain yields of 34.6 q/ha and 33.2 q/ha, respectively.
 
      On the other hand, when one fodder cut was taken, cultivar `Funddin'
 gave the highest grain yield of 35.7 q/ha along with 34.5 q of green fodder. 
 However, Atou was found to be the highest green fodder yielder, followed by
 Bounty and J. O. 3057.  Moreover, Atou was the only cultivar which remained
 free from stripe rust, leaf rust and powdery mildew.  On the basis of the
 results of 3 years, Atou and J. O. 3057 have finally been selected for grain
 as well as green fodder yield and resistance to rusts and powdery mildew,
 for on-farm tests in the snow-bound areas (Lahaul-Spiti and Kinnaur
 Districts) of the Zone.  However, both these cultivars are red-grained.
 
 Table 4.  Grain yield, green fodder yield and reaction to leaf and stripe
 rusts of winter wheat cultivars in dry temperature zones.  
                                                                     
           Grain yield(q/ha)
            Without   After   Fodder Yield       Reaction to       
             fodder    one        (q/ha)      Stripe   Leaf  Powdery
 Cultivar     cut      cut     (of one cut)    rust    rust   mildew
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------  
 Atou        33.2      33.2      41.0          0        0       0
 Bounty      37.7      27.6      37.9          0       10S      5
 Amargas 2   29.4      21.2      30.3          0        0       7
 J.O.3057    34.6      29.4      35.2          5S       0       0
 Flendess    25.6      26.1      27.2         10S       5S      3
 Funddin     26.1      35.7      24.5          0       30S      0
 Envoy       25.6      31.9      16.1         10S      10S      5
 VL 616      10.7      18.5       -           20S      10S      5
 CPAN 1922   10.2      16.3       -           10S       0       7
 C.D.         2.3       3.2       5.1          -        -       7      
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Evaluation and identification of genetic stocks for resistance to
 disease.  During 1990-91, about 2,000 genetic stocks of Triticum aestivum,
 T. durum, T. dicoccum and triticale were evaluated against stripe rust, leaf
 rust, powdery mildew and loose smut.  Leaf rust and stripe rust evaluation
 was undertaken under artificial epiphytotic conditions created by periodic
 spraying of a mixture of leaf races 11, 12, 77, 77A-1, 77A, 104B, 108 and
 162, and stripe rust races K, N, 20 and 31.  An epiphytotic of powdery
 mildew was created by dusting the locally available isolates.  For loose
 smut, 350 genetic stocks inoculated during 1989-90 were sown and the
 incidence recorded.  The number of the genetic stocks with multiple
 resistance or resistance against individual diseases is as follows:
 
      A.   T. aestivum
           (a)  Free from stripe rust, leaf rust, powdery mildew and loose   
                  smut: 46
           (b)  Resistant to leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew: 90
           (c)  Resistant to stripe rust and leaf rust: 239
           (d)  Resistant to powdery mildew and loose smut: 17
           (e)  Resistant to powdery mildew: 9
           (f)  Resistant to loose smut: 42
 
      The following genotypes of bread wheat showed multiple resistance to
 all the diseases: 22 IBWSN 12, 77; 2 HEWSN4, 6, 11, 45, 101, 103, 104, 121,
 130, 135, 147, 149, 153, 170, 174, 177, 185, 186, 187; WON(MRA) 9; 1915
 SEPTON 13, 30; 4 HEWSN 7, 84; 5 KBSN 49, 50, 53: 10 ESWYT 22, 25; ALDRM 30,
 64, 66, 70, 72; WSP(HAA) 7, 14, 15, 44; 5HTSN 25; 7DSN 1, 8, 13, 15, 148.
 
      B.   T. durum
           (a)  Resistant to leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew: 20
           (b)  Resistant to leaf rust and stripe rust: 14
           (c)  Resistant to loose smut: 10
 
      The genotypes showing combined resistance to stripe rust, leaf rust and
 powdery mildew were:   2 HEWSN: 11, 144; 4 NCWSN: 84; 5 KBSN: 57; 10 ESWYT:
 22; ALDRM; 73, 84, 96, 109, 64; WSP (HAA): 7; 5 HTSN: 25; 7 DSN: 148; 191
 SEPTON: 54, 
 
      C    Triticale
 
           (a)  Free from leaf rust, stripe rust, powdery mildew and loose   
                  smut: 12
           (b)  Free from leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew: 20
           (c)  Resistant to leaf rust (up to 5S) and free from stripe rust, 
                 powdery mildew and loose smut: 6
           (d)  Resistant to leaf rust (up to 5S) and free from stripe rust  
                  and powdery mildew: 20
 
      The powdery mildew resistance genes were postulated in 27 Indian and
 Mexican genetic stocks of wheat based on their reaction to 5 cultures with
 known virulences.  All the stocks were placed in 9 groups.  In genotypes DT
 18 (triticale), HS 207, C 11 and C 40, showing resistance to all the
 cultures, the genes Pm1, Pm2, Pm3a, Pm3b, Pm3c, Pm4, Pm5, Pm6, Pm7 and Pm8,
 individually or in combination, may be responsible for their resistance. 
 Similarly, in other genotypes 2 to 5 genes individually or in combination
 were found to be responsible for resistance.
 
 -------------------------
      Directorate of Wheat Research Regional Station, Wellington
 
      R. N. Brahma*, R. Asir and A. Saikia
 
      Evaluation of Indian wheat cultivars for possible slow-mildewing. 
 During two summer sessions, 1986 and 1987, 131 Indian wheat cultivars were
 raised in the field in two rows of one metre each.  In each cultivar 10
 plants were tagged and natural incidence and progress of powdery mildew
 (Erysiphe graminis tritici) scored on 0-9 scale (Saari and Prescott, 1975)
 at the boot, flowering, milk and dough stages.
 
      No slow-mildewing was observed in any Indian wheat cultivar.  However,
 in 27 cultivars the rate of mildewing was medium showing a disease severity
 score of 1 to 2 at the boot stage and 5 at the dough stage.  Therefore,
 these cultivars could be considered as moderately susceptible for all
 practical purposes.  This included important wheat cultivars like Sonalika,
 Kalyansona, HD 2135, HD 2177, Hd 2204, HW 657, Raj 1972, UP 215 and UP 262. 
 In the remaining 105 cultivars, the rate of mildewing was very fast showing
 disease severity of 3-5 at the boot leaf stage and 8 to 9 at the flowering
 stage.  These cultivars have been considered as most susceptible.
 
      Seedling damage due to powdery mildew.  Powdery mildew occurs
 throughout the year and effects the wheat crop right from the seedling stage
 in the Nilgiri hills.  Its impact on seedlings of 25 different Indian wheat
 cultivars was studied under glasshouse conditions.  In each cultivar 10
 seedlings were raised in plastic pots (15 cm diameter) and replicated four
 times.  Powdery mildew spores were applied to the seedlings at the two-week
 stage.  Seedlings were removed from the pots two weeks after inoculation and
 their fresh weight recorded.
 
      All the cultivars showed good infection and exhibited varying degrees
 of reduction in fresh weight.  The variation between the cultivar was
 statistically significant.  The minimum reduction (34%) was observed in
 cultivar HI 747, and the maximum (84%) in cultivar DWR 39 lower than their
 respective control.  There was no perceptible reduction in seedling height.
 
      Control of powdery mildew with topsin-M.  A chemical control trial was
 conducted against powdery mildew of wheat using Topsin-M (Thiophanate
 methly) and wheat cultivar HW 741 over two summer seasons (1986 and 1988)
 and one winter season (1987-88).  The chemical was found to be very
 effective and gave higher harvest index, grain yield and grain weight as
 compared to checks.  The chemical had no adverse effect on the crop.
 
 -------------------------       
                              ITEMS FROM ITALY
 
      Istituto Patologia Vegetale, Facolta di Agraria, Via Filippo Re 8,
 40126 Bologna
 
      C. Rubies-Autonell
      
      Soilborne Wheat Mosaic Virus (SBWMV) and Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic
 Virus (WSSMV) are both present in Italy but, their importance, especially
 that of WSSMV has been recognized only in the past decade.
 
                                Publications
 
 Rubies-Autonell, C.  1989.  Detection of the mixed Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic
 Virus and Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus infection by ISEM.  Intern.
 Symp. Electron Microscopy Applied in Plant Pathology, Konstanz, 1989, p.
 125.
 
 
 Rubies-Autonell, C. and V. Vallega.  1985.  Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic on wheat
 crops in Central Italy.  L'Inf. Fitopat. 35:39-42  (in Italian, English
 summary).
 
 Rubies-Autonell, C. and V. Vallega.  1987.  Observations on mixed Soilborne
 Wheat Mosaic Virus and Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus infection in durum wheat. 
 J. Phytopathology 119:111-121.
 
 Rubies-Autonell, C. and V. Vallega.  1990.  Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic Virus
 and Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus in Italy.  Proc. First Symp. Intern.
 Working Group on Plant Viruses with fungal vectors, Braunschweig, Germany,
 1990, p. 135-138.
 
 Rubies-Autonell, C. and V. Vallega.  1991.  Studies on the development and
 interaction of Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic Virus and Spindle Streak Mosaic
 Virus.  In: Biotic interactions and Soil-borne Diseases (Beemster A.B.R.
 ed.), Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, 107-112.
 
 Rubies-Autonell, C. and V. Vallega.  1991.  Reactions of diploid wheat
 Triticum monococcum to Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic Virus and Wheat Spindle
 Streak Mosaic Virus. VI Conf. on Virus Diseases of Gramineae in Europe. 
 June 18-21.  Torino p. 38.
 
 Vallega, V. and C. Rubies-Autonell.  1985.  Reactions of Italian Triticum
 durum cultivars to Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic. Pl. Dis. 69:64-66.
 
 Vallega, V. and C. Rubies-Autonell.  1986.  Wheat Soil-borne Mosaic Virus:
 results of a three year study on the behavior of our durum wheat cultivars.
 L'Inf. Agr. 42:85-86 (in Italian).
 
 Vallega, V. and C. Rubies-Autonell.  1987.  Soilborne Wheat Mosaic in Italy: 
 distribution and Triticum durum varietal reactions.  Proc. seventh Congr.
 Medit. Phytopath. Union, Granada (Spain) 1986, p. 95-96.
 
 Vallega, V., and C. Rubies-Autonell.  1989.  Further investigations on the
 geographical distribution of Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic in Italy.  L'Inf.
 Fitopat. 39-57-58 (in Italian, English summary).
 
 Vallega, V. and C. Rubies-Autonell.  1989.  Durum wheat: studies on the
 resistance to a complex viral syndrome.  Proc. S.I.G.A. Meeting, Alghero
 (Italy) 1989, p. 91-92 (in Italian).
 
 Vallega, V. and C. Rubies-Autonell.  1990.  Studies on a complex viral
 syndrome caused by Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic Virus and Spindle Streak Mosaic
 Virus.  Proc. Eight Symp. Medit. Phytopath. Union, Agadir, Morocco, 1990, p.
 341-342.
 
 -------------------------
      Istituto Sperimentale per la Cerealicoltura, Via Cassia 176, 00191 Rome
 
      V. Vallega 
 
      Triticum monococcum.  Breeding commercial cvs. of diploid wheat,
 Triticum monococcum L. ("Einkorn") appears as a most promising venture, of
 interest to breeders, technologists and medical researchers.  Einkorn, in
 fact, is superior or usefully distinct from the cultivated polyploid wheat
 taxa for a long series of agro-biological attributes including, possibly,
 non-toxicity in celiac disease (Vallega, AWN 1991).  Moreover, the diploid
 nature of this species renders it ideal for the exploitation of hybrid vigor
 as well as for the identification and direct utilization of numerous mutants
 (especially endosperm variants) unavailable in the polyploid wheats.
 
      During 1988/89, 14 accessions of T. monococcum and a free-threshing
 diploid strain (T. sinskajae) were grown in replicated field experiments
 near Rome and Bologna (Italy) together with four modern cvs. of durum and
 common wheat.  The agronomical data collected on these entries (pooled means
 of Rome and Bologna) are summarized in Table 1.  Grain and protein data were
 adjusted to 13% moisture.  As expected, all Einkorns were defective for one
 or more agronomically relevant feature. However, a few of the accessions and
 lines (unreplicated) examined were found to contain, as a group, all the
 genes needed for breeding monococcums having the main field attributes of a
 modern wheat cv.: short stature, earliness, large grain size, high yielding
 capacity, good threshability and adequate lodging resistance. Still higher
 yielding diploid wheats, more responsive to improved growing conditions and
 of better seed quality, could probably be obtained from crosses with wild
 strains bearing mostly two-seeded florets (especially abundant in T.
 thaoudar) as well as by selecting for more rounded-shaped kernels.  The
 threshing ability of T. sinskajae varied from 56 to 94% after one or three
 mechanical threshing operations, respectively.  Some of the entries examined
 were found to carry minor genes for easy threshing which might enhance the
 efficacy of the major gene for soft glumes present in T. sinskajae.  Diploid
 wheat populations segregating for the free-threshing trait, as well as
 early, large seeded, high-yielding tenacious-glumed breeding lines have been
 produced.  Collaborative research with Dr. C. Rubies-Autonell (University of
 Bologna) conducted on 8 monococcum accessions grown in a field infested by
 both SBWMV and WSSMV showed that they were all immune to WSSMV and resistant
 to WSSMV.  Seed and reprints are available from Dr. C. Rubies-Autonell,
 Istituto Patologia Vegetable, Facolta Agraria, Via Filippo Re 8, 40126
 Bologna.
 
 
 Table 1.              Agronomical characteristics*                           
                       Bread        Durum          Diploid 
                             wheats       wheats          wheats
                            (2 cvs.)     (2 cvs.)        (15 cvs.)
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------  
 Net grain yield (kg/ha)      5488          5221     2167 (685-2649)
 Kernel weight (mg)           32.8          44.6     22.8 (18.9-30.1)
 Threshing ability (%)        96.5          99.6      8.7 (1.4-75.0)
 Grains/2-seeded florets(%)    --            -        3.8 (0.2-11.1)
 Naked/hulled grain weight (%)  -            -       70.1 (67.9-71.5)
 Grain protein content (%)    12.5          11.9     16.1 (14.6-20.7)
 Protein per seed (mg)        4.01          5.27     3.71(2.90-6.21)
 Protein yield (kg/ha)         692           632      346 (142-434)
 Days to head                  179           182      197 (171-206)
 Plant height (cm)              68            78      119 (98-143)
 Lodging (%)                    21             0       42 (0-83)
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                   
 *  Replicated 4 g samples were manually dehulled for grain yield and kernel
 weight estimates.
 
      Numerous chemical, electrophoretical, milling and rheological assays
 were performed on 12 of the above-mentioned diploid wheats, in collaboration
 with Dr. M. G. D'Egidio and Dr. S. Nardi (Technology Section I.S.C., Rome). 
 Grains were processed with a Buhler MLU-202 mill or with a Tecator Cyclotec
 mill, depending on the analyses to be performed.  The results obtained are
 summarized in Tables 2, 3 and 4. Analytical data are expressed on a dry
 matter basis.
 
 Table 2.               Grain and flour characteristics*                      
                            Bread        Durum         Diploid
                            wheats       wheats         wheats
                           (2 cvs.)     (2 cvs.)       (12 cvs.)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------    
 Test weight (kg/hl)        79.4        79.1      77.8 (76.4-79.5)
 Thousand kernel weight (g) 34.5        47.1      27.4 (22.3-37.4)
 Yellowberry (%)            36.5        17.0       2.3 (0.0-4.0)
 Wholemeal protein (% d.m.) 13.3        13.1      14.9 (12.5-18.7)
 Wholemeal ash (% d.m.)      1.8         2.0       2.2 (2.1-2.5)
 Flour yield (%)            70.1        44.0      70.8 (65.2-74.0)
 Flour protein (% d.m.)     11.7        12.8      14.0 (11.3-18.3)
 Flour ash (% d.m.)          0.5         1.0       0.7 (0.6-0.9)
 Flour yellow pigments       4.7         4.1      14.1 (11.3-17.9)
 (ppm B carotene)    
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                     
 *  Grains were dehulled with an experimental rice pearling machine.  About
 50% of the seed present in the original hulled samples were recovered.
 
      Flour yields of monococcums were similar to those of bread wheats. 
 Flour particle size of diploid wheats was distinctly smaller than that of
 both bread and durum wheat cvs.  Some of the monococcum accessions examined
 had  exceptionally high carotene and protein contents.  Variation in
 electrophoretical patterns amongst Einkhorns was lower than that commonly
 found in other wheat taxa.  One the whole, technological characteristics of
 monococcum were inferior to those of modern polyploid cvs.  However, the
 data collected clearly indicated that there exists within diploid wheat
 ample genetical variation on which to base substantial improvements using
 classical breeding methods.
 
 Table 3.                Grain protein composition*                           
                                 Bread       Durum         Diploid
                                 wheats      wheats         wheats
                                (2 cvs.)    (2 cvs.)       (12 cvs.) 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Wholemeal protein (% d.m.)     13.5       13.7     15.2 (12.5-19.0)
 Albumins & globulins (%)       25.9       27.5     27.0 (22.1-29.4)
 Gliadins (%)                   29.5       33.4     32.2 (25.3-42.2)
 Glutenins (%)                   4.6        4.6      6.3 (4.8-8.3)
 Insoluble residue (%)          42.0       33.6     36.4 (28.8-41.7)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                       
 *  Protein content and composition were determined on manually       
 dehulled seed (mean kernel weight of monococcum 22.2 mg; range 16.6-31.9).
 
 Table 4.                    Gluten characteristics               
                               Bread        Durum         Diploid
                               wheats       wheats        wheats
                              (2 cvs.)     (2 cvs.)      (12 cvs.)*
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 Dry gluten (% d.m.)           10.8        11.4    11.9 (7.8-20.6)
 SDS sedimentation (ml)        61.5        30.5    23.4 (15.0-42.0)
 Chopin alveograph W          185.0       153.5    31.6 (18.0-65.0)
                   P           57.8       100.9    31.2 (24.2-44.6)
                   L           99.5        41.0    25.6 (14.0-45.0)
                  P/L           0.6         2.5     1.4 (0.6-2.2)
                   G           22.0        14.1    10.9 (8.2-14.7)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                   
     * Alveograms performed on only seven diploid wheats.  Grains        
 were dehulled with an experimental rice pearling machine. About 50% of the
 seed present in the original hulled samples were recovered.
 
                                Publications
 
 Vallega, V.  1977.  Validity of Triticum monococcum in wheat breeding. 
 Sementi Elette 23:3-8.
 
 Vallega, V.  1978.  Search for useful genetic characters in diploid Triticum
 spp. Proc. Fifth Intern. Wheat Genet.  Symp., New Delhi, India, p. 156-162.
 
 Vallega, V.  1979.  Field performance of varieties of Triticum  monococcum,
 T. durum and Hordeum vulgare grown at two locations.  Genetica Agraria
 33:363-370.
 
 Vallega, V., and C. Rubies-Autonell.  1991.  Reactions of diploid wheat,
 Triticum monococcum I., to Soilborne Wheat Mosaic Virus and Wheat Spindle
 Streak Mosaic Virus.  Proc. Sixth Conf. Virus Diseases of Gramineae in
 Europe, Torino, Italy, p. 38.
 
 Vallega, V.  1991.  Triticum monococcum. Annual Wheat Newsletter, p. 74-77.
 
 D'Egidio, M. G., S. Nardi and V. Vallega.  1991.  Quality of diploid wheat,
 Triticum monococcum L. Chemistry in Australia 58:376.
 
 -------------------------
      Experimental Institute for Cereal Research -Section of S.Angelo
 Lodigiano, Italy
 
      B. Borghi and M. Perenzin
 
      Hybrid wheats.  Production of new hybrids: Bread wheat. A total of 21
 hybrids were produced from 7 cultivars showing the highest GCA effects
 (diallel without reciprocal) utilizing CHA technology. Seed setting was good
 with an average of 1.6 t/ha seed production; the best confirmation produced
 2.5 t/ha.
 Durum wheat. 12 Hybrids were produced in a 6 x 2 combination. Average seed
 yield was 1.2 t/ha while the last combination gave a 2.1 t/ha. About thirty
 new hybrids will be produced this year.
 
      Hybrid evaluation: Bread wheat. In 1991 a total of 274 hybrids together
 with their parental varieties were evaluated (two rows unreplicated plots
 1.6 cm long) for agronomical and physiological traits. In addition 8 hybrids
 were tested in 6 m2 plots with three replications. Average hybrids yield was
 9.1 t/ha against 7.8 t/ha of the standard varieties. The best hybrid
 combination yielded 10.4 t/ha corrensonding to an yield increase of 24% over
 the best traditional variety.
 In 1992 690 hybrids will be evaluated together with their parental varieties
 in two rows plots and 129 will be tested in replicated plot trials. 
 
 -------------------------
        M. Cattaneo and Y.M. Qiao
 
      In Vitro anthers culture: bread wheat. The response to anther culture
 of 47 Italian common wheat cultivars, 12 F1 hybrids, and 8 tester cultivars
 has been evaluated. From 127,930 cultured anthers, 5,870 calli and 479 green
 plantlets were obtained. Different liquid and solid media were evauated: the
 best resulted the P2 medium based on potato extract, containing 2 mg/l 2.4D
 and solidified with agar. A yield of 4.6 calli per 100 cultured anthers was
 obtained, 14.1% of which producing green plantlets. The Italian cultivars
 Farneto and Oderzo gave the best results (15-20% of plated anthers gave
 calli), comparable to those obtained with the already known high responsive
 cultivars.
 
 ------------------------- 
      M. Cattaneo, Y.M. Qiao and N.E. Pogna
 
      In vitro anthers culture: durum wheat. About 30 embryoids per 100 in
 vitro cultured anthers were obtained in the durum wheat line 256-8-10
 homozygous for the 1BL/1RS wheat-rye translocation. The embryoid frequency
 is similar to that obtained with the bread wheat Veery, which was the donor
 of the 1BL/1RS translocation. However, the regeneration frequency of line
 256-8-10 was low compared to that of Veery, two green plantlets being
 obtained from 124 androgenetic embryoids. The results suggest that the
 1BL/1RS translocation has beneficial effects on the androgenetic embryoid
 induction in durum wheat. However, plant regeneration and albinism appear
 highly dependent upon the wheat genetic background and some investigations
 are carried out on this topic.
 
 -------------------------                           
      G.M. Borrelli, N. Di Fonzo, E. Lupotto and F. Locatelli (Section of
 Foggia and Bergamo).
 
      Stabilization of embryogenic callus cultures and high regenerative
 capability in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) varieties. The plan was set
 up in the goal of choosing particular types of cereal culture representing
 the ideal material for obtaining highly embryogenic regenerable cultures.
 These cultures are suitable for genetic manipulation in the tetraploid durum
 wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) that otherwise results among wheats, the most
 recalcitrant species. Several durum wheat varieties, namely Appulo, Ofanto,
 Latino, Creso, Castello, Plinio, Messapia, Adamello, Valforte, Valnova, were
 tested starting from immature embryos taken 15 days after anthesis. 
 "Aged calli" were selectively subcultured by choosing the most compact,
 nodular tissues, organized as embryogenic knobs. The variety Ofanto resulted
 the best genotype for establishing embryogenic optimized callus cultures,
 followed by Appulo, Creso, Latino, and Castello. These embryogenic cultures
 could be efficiently propagated up to 10 months to date, without loosing or
 changing their embryogenic phenotype and regenerative capability.
 Depending on the genotype a high percentage of regenerated plantlets (in the
 range of 70-90%), could successfully be established in soil. Nearly 80% of
 the established plants were fertile and set seeds. The high number of
 regenerated fertile plants and the establishment of long-term embryogenic
 cultures in some varieties of durum wheat (especially Plinio and Appulo) as
 described in the present work, result of particular importance for the
 application of genetic manipulation to this crop species.
 
 -------------------------
      Y.M. Qiao, M. Cattaneo, F. Locatelli and E. Lupotto
 
      Plant regeneration from protoplasts of hexaploid wheat. In the present
 work, we have defined the conditions for the initiation of highly
 regenerable callus cultures from immature embryos of hexaploid wheat cv
 Oderzo on a Murashighe and Skoog (1962) based medium. Callus cultures,
 friable and whitish in colour, were easily established at high frequency
 (>90%) in the presence of 2 mg/l 2,4-D. Fast growing friable calli were
 visually selected for the initiation of suspension cultures in liquid
 medium.  Doubling time of optimized suspensions was between fourth and sixth
 day of culture. Viable protoplasts could be isolated from cell suspensions
 taken at day 7-8. Than protoplasts plated into a simple medium based on MS
 salts and vitamins, supplemented with 600 mM MS, 0.6 M glucose, 1 mg/1 2,4-D
 divided and formed colonies in 2-3 weeks from the isolation. 
 
      The development of a PEG-mediated transformation procedure of direct
 gene transfer, has allowed us to introduce and to stably express the
 APH(3')II gene, conferring resistance to kanamycin, into protoclones of
 wheat cv. Oderzo, and to establish kanamycin resistant coltures. Present
 work is in progress for obtaining  plant regeneration from the transformed
 calliclones, and for the molecular characterization of the events of
 transformation.
 
 -------------------------
       R. Castagna and G. Bossinger
 
      Description of Triticum monococcum mutants affecting spike
 differentiation by means of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Nine mutants
 lines, obtained from a gamma rays treatment and a wild type line as a
 control were used in this study (Table 1).
 
     Table 1. Description of the lines used for the SEM
              observations
 
          Line No.           Description
   ----------------------------------------------------------------
          1      wild type                                      
          2      branched and sterile spike                    
          3      branched and partially fertile spike
          4      branched and partially fertile spike
          5      branched and partially fertile spike 
          6      branched and partially fertile spike
          7      short spike with a low number of spikelet          
          8      vegetative plant, sterile
          9      spike without spikelet at the top of the rachis
   ----------------------------------------------------------------
     
      In the wild type, as already done in bread wheat, we established nine
 stages in spike differentiation. 
 Line 2 showed a regular development until the glume primordia stage but,
 instead of the lemma and floret differentiation, the lateral apexes of the
 rachilla produced other glume primordia with an apex that would
 differentiate again lateral apexes without lemma and floret primordia but
 with the two glume primordia. In this mutant the rachilla behaves as a
 rachis and do not produce floral organs originating a completly sterile
 plant. 
 The lines 3, 4, 5 and 6 presented a complex but similar mutated behaviour in
 spite of the fact that they originated from different M1 plants. During the
 enlarging of spikelet primordia it was possible to observe many deformed and
 not straight growing primordia. For few specimens we also observed the
 presence of an additional lateral spikelet coming from the first flower of
 the normal rachilla. Finally, at the terminal spikelet stage we confirmed
 the unusual development of the first flower of each spikelet: we often found
 flowers without or with only one or two anthers and with unusual organs
 similar to an ovary. We also verified the presence of the axillary
 spikelets. 
 The line 7 developed as the wild-type until the enlarging of spikelet stage.
 Later on it differentiated shorter spikes with a reduced number of spikelet
 primordia and the developmental rate decreased. Terminal spikelet
 differentiation took place only after nine weeks and the spike brought 15-20
 spikelet primordia instead of the usual 25-30.
 The apexes from the line 8 after nine weeks were only a little bit
 elongated. This mutant is completely sterile and is analogous to the
 viviparoides described in barley. Line 9 developed an irregular spike top.
 Because of the low penetrance of this character we observed only in few
 spikes many lateral primordia arranged according an irregular position on
 the rachis.
 
 -------------------------
      M. Corbellini, R. Castagna and P. Vaccino
 
      Restriction fragment length polymorphism. A new project on RFLP
 utilization in Triticum aestivum and Triticum monococcum has been started.
 The main goal is to develop RFLP technology for application in wheat
 breeding. The first step in progress is  represented by the evaluation of
 the degree of polymorphism in 50 Italian bread wheat varieties and 16
 accession of T. monococcum utilizing cDNA developped in other laboratories.
 
 -------------------------
      P. Gavuzzi and B. Borghi
 
      Evaluation of genetic variability for adaptation to the stressed
 Mediterranean environments in winter cereals. During the season 1990-91 some
 physiological tests have been performed on six varieties belonging to the
 three species, bread wheat, durum wheat and barley. Eigtheen cultivars have
 been grown in replicated plots in four locations: S.Angelo Lodigiano, (MI)
 Fiorenzuola d'Arda (PC), Catania and Foggia. In each location the yield and
 the photosynthetate translocation efficiency after artificial desiccation
 treatment have been evaluated. Some other tests have been performed in
 different laboratories: a) cellular membrane stability after heat at drought
 stress; b) water loss of excised leaves. Our results lead to the following
 conclusions:
 - in spite of the statistically significative genotype x environment
 interactions the tests are able to detect genetic differences among
 varieties;
 - the artificial desiccation of the photosynthetic apparatus 15 days after
 flowering, produced statistically significant effects only in the Northern
 locations;
 - every physiological test allows to classify the varieties with respect to
 their specific reaction but the cultivars rank differently with different
 test as expected in the case each test evaluate different mechanisms of
 stress tolerance.
 
 -------------------------                             
      N.E. Pogna, R. Redaelli and P.K.W. Ng.
 
      New HMW glutenin subunits in a bread wheat cultivar. A novel pair of
 HMW glutenin subunits was found in a French common wheat line, BEN 84290.
 The x-type subunit has an electrophoretic mobility similar to that of the
 1D-encoded subunit 5; the y-type band is the fastest moving HMW subunit
 described in bread wheat cultivars. Ben 84290 was crossed with the Italian
 cultivar Centauro (HMW composition: 1, 7+8, 5+10) and with the French
 cultivar Th‚s‚e (N, 6+8, 2+12).  Single seeds from F2 spikes of the two
 crosses were analyzed by SDS-PAGE to determine the segregation ratios. The
 results showed that the two novel subunits are coded by the Glu-D1 locus.
 Further analyses will involve the purification of the Ben 84290 y-type
 subunit by electroendosmotic preparative electrophoresis and the sequencing
 of its amino acid composition.
 The F2 seeds from the two crosses involving line Ben were sown in the field.
 SDS sedimentation test will be performed on the F3 generation to evaluate
 the effects of the novel subunit on gluten quality.
 
 -------------------------
      T. Dachkevitch, R. Redaelli and N.E. Pogna
 
      Genetic studies of progenies from the cross between cv Neepawa and cv
 Costantino. Genetic analysis of the progeny from the cross between the
 Canadian bread wheat cultivar Neepawa and the Italian cultivar Costantino
 (see Annual Wheat Newsletter 36: 92) allowed us to demonstrate that cv
 Neepawa contains gliadin encoding genes which are remote from the main locus
 Gli-B1 on chromosome 1B, and recombine with it at a frequency of 18 ñ 3%.
 Two dimensional electrophoretic separations (A-PAGE x SDS-PAGE and unreduced
 SDS-PAGE x reduced SDS-PAGE) showed that these "selfish" genes encode for
 two omega-gliadin polypeptides devoid of any intrachain disulfide bond.
 These omega-gliadins 
 
 appear as strong bands in SDS-PAGE separations and are currently being
 purified by electroendosmotic preparative electrophoresis. The occurrence of
 additional, dispersed genes coding for omega-gliadins is probably a
 distinctive feature of some wheat genotypes. Their effects on gluten
 viscoelastic properties remain unknown.
 
 
                                Publications
 
 Borghi B., Cattaneo M., Corbellini M., Perenzin M., Pogna N.E. 1991. The
 present and the future of wheat production in Italy. In: S. Referatu ed.,
 III Days Kromeriz Cereals. Kromeriz, Cecoslovacchia pp 15-29.
 
 Borghi B., Corbellini M., Gavuzzi P. 1991. The use of laboratory and field
 screening tests for identification of bread wheat cultivars tolerant to heat
 and drought stress. In: E. Acevedo, A.P. Conesa, P. Monneveux, J.P.
 Srivastava eds., Physiology-breeding of winter cereals for stressed
 Mediterranean Environments.INRA- Les Colloques, Parigi France. 55:435-448.
 
 Borghi B., Corbellini M., Perenzin M., Pogna N.E. 1991. Breeding for high
 quality bread wheats in Southern Europe: Results and perspectives. Vortr.
 Pflanzenzuchtg. 20:278-283.
 
 Castagna R. 1991. Induced chlorophyll mutations in Triticum monococcum L. J.
 Genet. & Breed. 45:373-376.
 
 Cattaneo M., Qiao Y.M. 1991. Anther culture in Italian wheat cultivars and
 F1 hybrids: Genotype and culture medium effects on callus development and
 plantlet regeneration. J. Genet. & Breed. 45:197-206.
 
 Cattaneo M., Qiao Y.M., Pogna N.E. 1991. Embryoid induction and green plant
 regeneration from cultured anthers in durum wheat line homozygous for the
 1BL/1RS translocation. J. Genet. & Breed. 45: 369-372.
 
 Curioni A., Dal Belin Peruffo A., Pressi G., Pogna N.E.  1991. Immunological
 distinction between x-type and y-type high molecular weight glutenin
 subunits. Cereal Chem. 68(2): 200-204.
 
 Dessi M.R., Vincenzi De M., Mancini E., Pogna N.E., Redaelli R. 1991. Effect
 of gliadin-derived peptides from mutant bread wheat lines on K562S cells.
 IJBIAC 40(3):181A-183A.
 
 Pogna N.E., Redaelli R., Beretta A.M., Curioni A., Dal Belin Peruffo A.
 1990. The water-soluble proteins of wheat:  biochemical and immunological
 studies. In: W. Bushuk and R. Tkachuk eds., Gluten Proteins 1990. Am. Ass.      
 Cereal Chem. pg 407-413.
 
 -------------------------
                            ITEMS FROM JAPAN
 
      National Agriculture Research Center, Wheat and Barley Physiology
 Laboratory, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305
 
      A. Oyanagi*, A. Sato and M. Wada
 
      Geographical variation of wheat cultivars on root gravitropic response. 
 Gravitropic response of primary seminal root (i.e., radicle) was estimated
 in an agar medium.  Mean growth angles from the horizontal were large
 (>40deg) in the winter wheat cultivars in the northern part of Japan and
 small (<30deg) in the southern part of Japan.  
 
      Then we examined native wheat cultivars in Japan.   The mean growth
 angles of the native cultivars in all regions were large (>40deg) and there
 was no geographical variation.  Therefore, it is concluded that the
 geographical variation has been formed in the wheat breeding processes in
 Japan.
 
      Moreover, we examined wheat cultivars in four regions of the world. 
 The mean growth angles from the horizontal were 52deg in 48 cultivars in
 Canada, 50deg in 82 cultivars in Australia, 41deg in 66 cultivars in the
 Northern Europe and 40deg in 40 cultivars in the Middle and Near East.  All
 mean values were larger than the mean value (35deg) in Japan.  Therefore,
 typical Japanese wheat cultivars, especially southern cultivars, showed the
 smallest positive gravitropic response in the world.  It is considered that
 the characteristic of the root is related to the tolerance to excess soil
 moisture stress which often occurs in the region.
 
 -------------------------
      Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Shimokuriyagawa,
 Morioka 010-01
 
      S. Ito*, A. Sato and T. Hoshino
 
      Improvement of Japanese cultivars in milling value.  We have come to
 grips with improvement of Japanese cultivars for quality.  The Japanese
 cultivars are mainly used for the domestic noodle `Udon'.  It is desirable
 that the flour for Udon are soft, high viscosity, moderate protein content,
 low ash content and brightness.  Our cultivars are generally inferior not in
 physico-chemical properties but in milling values to Australian Standard
 White (ASW).
 
      The domestic and foreign cultivars were milled by Buhler and Brabender
 test mill to search for the cultivars with high milling percentage.  The
 average of 163 cultivars in milling percentage by Brabender test mill was
 61.9%.  Breeding lines bred for leaf rust resistance are high milling
 percentage (70%<) and high protein content (15%<).
 
      The 3 out of 63 cultivars were superior to 1CW (Canada, 82.3%) in
 milling score, and 2 cultivars were higher in grain protein content than 1CW
 (13.8%).  These cultivars are category of hard type and may be suitable for
 bread rather than Udon.  We must push the breeding programme for soft type
 by the picking up the desirable traits only for Udon from cultivars of hard
 type.
 
 -------------------------
      S. Ito, A. Sato and T. Hoshino
 
      Classification of wheat cultivars for resistance to pre-harvest
 sprouting:  The 400 wheat cultivars from Japan (36 cultivars), 27 countries
 (333 cultivars) and un-known countries (8 cultivars) were tested about
 resistance to pre-harvest sprouting.  The 5 spikes per cultivar stored in
 refrigerator for 3 to 4 weeks after harvesting were placed in rain simulator
 maintained at 20degC for 7 to 10 days.  Sprouted grains on the spikes were
 counted and the rank of resistance to sprouting of cultivars were classified
 into 5 ranks.  The most resistance group was 72 cultivars (18%) and more
 resistance was 71 cultivars (18%) out of 400 cultivars.  The 28% of
 Japanese, 26% of Nepalese, 26% of U.S.A., 15% of East European's and 10% of
 Chinese wheat cultivars were classified into the most resistance group to
 sprouting (Table 1 and 2).  The cultivars with the most resistance can be
 used in our breeding programme as parents with resistance to sprouting.
 
 
 List of wheat cultivars having the most resistance to pre-harvest sprouting.
                                                                              
           (No. of most resistance/
 Country             all cultivars                     Cultivars
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------    
 Japan           (10/36)     D52-26, toukei C87889-3, toyokuni,hukukei
                             12,touhoku 190, nourinn27, aobakomugi,
                             nanbukomugi, nourinn33, oonakayama
 Korea           (1/15       Eupamil
 China           (5/51)      tyushi 6, tyonta 4197, hisyouten 1,              
                             pekin 8, bousuihaku
 Nepal           (13/50)     COL/NEPAL/1985/IBPGR/160,COL/NEPAL/1985
                             IBPGR/189,COL/NEPAL/1985/IBPGR/193,COL/
                             NEPAL/1985/IBPGR/194,COL/NEPAL/1985              
                             IBPGR/195,COL/NEPAL/1985/IBPGR/198
                             COL/NEPAL/1986/IBPGR(IZUKA)/77,
                             COL/NEPAL/1986/IBPGR(IZUKA)/84, U
                             1028-4, N 2093-1, N 2101-1
 Afghanistan     (1/6)       AF39-1R
 Turkey          (1/3)       UTUD G-21
 USSR            (3/29)      Soviet wheat 39805, Odesskaya
                             Polukarlikovaya., Bezostayal
 Poland          (2/6)       Emika, KOC 985
 Czechoslovakia  (1/4)       Slavia
 Hungary         (1/4)       GK-Boglar
 Romania         (2/16)      Iulia, Lovrin 24
 Yugoslavia      (5/26)      Biserka, Zitnica, Zagrepcanka, 
                             Kosava, NS 65-84
 Bulgaria        (3/28)      922-2652, Trakia, Dobroudja 1
 Sweden          (2/6)       FOLKE, M.H. (RET 1)
 Germany         (6-21)      Belkvue, Monopol, Breustedts Werla,
                             Diplomat, Disponent, Apollo
 Belgium         (1/1)       Directeur Journee
 Switzerland     (1/4)       Zenith
 Austria         (1/7)       Samson
 France          (1/6)       Ble tourneur 548
 England         (1/9)       Hope
 South Africa    (1/2)       T 79/3
 USA             (10/39)     Rochester Red, Turkey Red, Hart, Vona, 
                             Kiowa (C.I. 12133), UTAH KANRED, Lindon,
                             Tam Wheat 102, Siouxland, Florida 302
 Others          (0/31)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------                                             
 
 Table 2.  Number of wheat cultivars classified into five ranks.              
      
         Country  most   more middle   worse  worst  total
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
         Japan     10     6     9        6      5     36
         China      5     8     8        5     25     51
         Nepal     13     5     7        4     21     50
         E. Europ. 14    20    14       14     32     94
         USSR       3     3     2        5     16     29
         U.S.A.    10     9     5        5     10     39 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 -------------------------
      National Agriculture Research Center, Kannondai, Tsukuba Ibaraki 305
 
      Shunsuke Oda, Kozo Komae, Takeshi Yasui, Chikako Kiribuchi and Hidefumi
 Seko
 
      A highly significant correlation was demonstrated between the
 concentration of the starch granule protein, friabilin and the flour
 particle size in Norin wheat cultivars.  In the Norin cultivars with a faint
 friabilin band, the mean specific surface area (SSA) value was 1680 cm(2)/g
 and the endosperm texture was hard, whereas in those with a prominent band
 the mean SSA value was 3250 cm(2)/g and the endosperm texture was soft. 
 Recently, Nakamura et al. (1990) reported that the presence of the high
 molecular weight glutenin subunit 2.2 may affect the endosperm texture in
 Japanese wheat cultivars.  However, our results showed that the relationship
 between the subunit 2.2 and SSA was not as significnat as that for
 friabilin.
 
      A bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant with low apparent amylose
 content was induced by ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) treatment.  The
 apparent amylose content of the mutant ranged from 14.0 to 16.7% wich was
 about half of that of Norin 61 (29.6%).  The low apparent amylose trait of
 this mutant was inherited.  
 
                                PUBLICATONS
 
 Shunsuke, Oda, Kozo Komae, and Takeshi Yasui.  1992.  Relation between
 starch granule protein and endosperm softness in Japanese wheat (Triticum
 aestivum L.) cultivars.  Japanese Journal of Breeding 42 (in press).
 
 Shunsuke, Oda, Chikako Kiribuchi, and Hidefumi, Seko.  1992.  Bread wheat
 mutant with low amylose content induced by ethyl methanesulphonate. 
 Japanese Journal of Breeding 42 (in press).
 
 -------------------------
      N. Watanabe
 
      Faculty of Agriculture, Gifu University, Gifu 501-11
 
      Genetic variation of chlorophyll-proteins in Triticum durum.  Durum
 wheat genotypes with chlorophyll a:b ratio in a laboratory test gave
 significantly higher photosynthetic rates than genotypes with lower
 chlorophyll a:b ratio.  The chlorophyll a:b ratio is an indication of
 variation in the distribution of chlorophyll among the various chlorophyll-
 protein complexes.  The genotypes with extreme values of chlorophyll a:b
 ratio have been analyzed to detect the amount of chlorophyll associated with
 the chlorophyll-protein complexes and their consequence for leaf
 photosynthesis.  Over 100 durum wheat cultivars and landraces of our
 germplasms were sampled for chlorophyll a:b ratio of flag leaves during a
 period of hot and dry weather in 1990 and 1991 and a range of chlorophyll
 a:b ratio (2.71 to 3.75) among the genotypes was obtained.  This will avoid
 the uncertainties associated with extrapolating results from a laboratory
 test to a field experiment.  The genotypes having the extremes of
 chlorophyll a:b ratio (2.71 and 3.75) have been crossed for preparing
 recombinant inbred lines during 1991.
 
 -------------------------
                             ITEMS FROM MEXICO 
 
 CIMMYT/Mexico
 
      Developments in CIMMYT Wheat Program in 1991
 
      R.A. Fischer and G. Varughese
 
      Staff Changes during 1991.     The pace of staff changes accelerated in
 1991 as budget shortfalls started to be felt. Santiago Fuentes (lately in
 Quito, Ecuador) retired and was not replaced, while Ricardo Rodr¡guez
 (germplasm development at base) and Girma Bekele (pathology in Asunc¡on,
 Paraguay) left the Program as well and were not replaced. Byrd Curtis
 retired from the post of facultative wheat breeder (CIMMYT/ICARDA joint
 program) mid-year and was replaced by Thomas Payne, who splits his time
 between Ankara, Turkey and Aleppo to better integrate the winter and
 facultative wheat breeding efforts for the WANA (West Asia/North Africa)
 region. In Germplasm Improvement, Richard Trethowan, associate scientist in
 bread wheat, returned to a job at the I.A. Watson Wheat Breeding Institute
 in Narrabri, Australia, while long-term visiting scientists Getinet Gebeyehu
 and Chen Tianyou returned to their respective breeding programs in Ethiopia
 and China. Alexei Morgunov from Russia joined as associate scientist in
 bread wheat breeding and Jon Dieseth from Norway as a post-doctoral fellow
 in durum wheat. Rey Villareal and Miloudi Nachit returned from sabbaticals,
 both at Cornell University. No new sabbaticals were taken in 1991.
 
      In Genetic Resources, Anatole Krattiger left and Oscar Riera returned
 to USA to continue graduate studies. In Crop Protection, Peter Burnett
 resigned to take a position with Agriculture Canada; Dennis Lawn left to
 take a job in California; and Roberto Ranieri finished his work and went on
 to do graduate study in the USA. The virologist position occupied by Peter
 Burnett will be refilled in 1992. Finally, Crop Management and Physiology
 lost trainer and agronomist Mark Bell, who moved to CIMMYT Experiment
 Stations and was not replaced, but gained post-doctoral fellow Peter Stefany
 from Germany. 
 
      Impact of CIMMYT Germplasm.    As part of the observance of CIMMYT's
 25th anniversary in 1991, we conducted a systematic survey on the impact of
 our germplasm in the developing countries. Preliminary results indicate that
 some 90% of all spring wheat varieties released in the 1980s were
 semidwarfs, nearly all of which have CIMMYT germplasm in their backgrounds.
 
      The most popular CIMMYT cross is Veery, which has been released 36
 times in developing countries during the 1980s, more than double the number
 of releases for II8156, the cross that spearheaded the Green Revolution in
 wheat during the 1960s. Large-scale crossing of spring with winter wheat (of
 which Veery is a product) has resulted in the release of 72 varieties in the
 1980s. Their impact should become evident in the 1990s as they are
 distributed more widely among farmers and as the stronger national programs
 use them more extensively as parents in crosses.
 
      By 1969, just a few years after CIMMYT's founding, semidwarf varieties
 occupied 8.4 million hectares in the Third World. Since then semidwarfs have
 continued to spread steadily at a rate of about 2 million hectares per year.
 In the 1980s alone, an additional 20 million were planted to these varieties
 in developing countries. And by 1990 the area they covered was close to 50
 million hectares in developing countries, not counting China. If we include
 China, which used dwarfing genes from sources other than CIMMYT, the
 estimated area planted to semidwarfs is more than 70 million hectares or
 over 70% of the total wheat grown by the developing world. Overall,
 varieties to which CIMMYT has contributed directly cover 37 million hectares
 in the developing world, plus another 10.5 million occupied by semidwarf
 varieties with our germplasm in their ancestries.
 
      It is now well established that the adoption of semidwarfs in irrigated
 environments during the early years of the Green Revolution gave average
 yield gains of 35 to 40% over the tall varieties they replaced. A lesser
 known point is that during the two decades since then the yield potential of
 semidwarf varieties under irrigation has continued to increase by about 1%
 annually for a total of about 20%.
 
      Details of this study will soon be available in a CIMMYT publication
 (CIMMYT 1992).
 
      International Nurseries.  In 1991, the CIMMYT International Wheat
 Nurseries Section distributed worldwide a total of 630 sets of yield
 nurseries, 1083 screening nurseries, and 655 segregating populations.
 Results of our first yield nursery distributed as an alpha 0,1 lattice, with
 independent randomization at each location, were analyzed and the precision
 achieved at individual locations was up to twice the value possible with a
 randomized complete block design. Major innovations in data exploration and
 interpretation were incorporated into the published report (CIMMYT 1991) for
 the 10th Elite Selection Wheat Yield Trial (ESWYT). A summary of industrial
 quality parameters, including high molecular weight glutenins, was included
 as well as Cluster Analysis of yield data to depict the relationships among
 participating locations and among genotypes.
 
      Project Documentation.  During 1990 the Wheat Program started
 documenting all its research activities underway in Mexico as individual
 projects. We produced the first project documentation report during December
 1990. In 1991 an updated and revised version of the original document was
 produced (Fischer and Hettel 1991) and contains current information on 261
 research projects--29 of which are either new or previously undescribed or
 substantially revised. The projects fall into the following categories:
 Germplasm Improvement (91), Genetic Resources (50), Crop Protection (79),
 and Crop Management and Physiology (41) and are available most easily in
 electronic form (all or in specified parts) in Microsoft Word 4 or 5 or
 ASCII files.
 
      Program Reviews.  In addition to internal annual review of all our
 programs, from time to time sections of our larger Subprograms, or in the
 case of smaller Subprograms the entire sub-programs, are subjected to
 critical external review. In 1991, our Crop management and Physiology (CMP)
 Subprogram was reviewed by a panel consisting of Drs. P. Goldsworthy, Lloyd
 Evans, R.S. Loomis, and S.K. Sinha. This panel strongly endorsed our
 activities and also suggested expansions in crop modeling and plant
 nutrition. The activities in CMP address the following issues:
 
        Support to breeding programs through better agronomic management of
      nurseries and trials, with a view to decreasing cost and improving
      efficiency.
 
        Support to breeding programs through physiological studies aimed at
      identifying useful selection criteria for yield potential and
      resistance to abiotic stresses.
      
        Strategic component agronomy research: elucidation of principles
      underlying the responses of wheat to agronomic factors, and the
      interactions between such factors, genotypes, and environments. Through
      simple rules and crop models to increase the ability to predict optimum
      factor levels across environments. Examples of such factors include
      seeding strategies, fertilizers and water.
      
        Strategic cropping system sustainability research: Studies of all
      factors affecting the long-term productivity of major wheat cropping
      systems such as rice-wheat in South Asia or wheat-maize in tropical
      highlands.
      
        Adaptive crop management research, which refers to research to adapt
      relatively well understood technology to new situations or countries,
      e.g., East Africa Cereals Project.
      
        Crop management and physiology training to impart appropriate
      theoretical knowledge and practical skills to agronomic and wheat
      physiology breeders researchers at various career levels.
      
        Consulting in crop management, which refers to a one-to-one sharing
      of knowledge relevant to crop management with senior national program
      scientist.
      
      Details on the 41 CMP projects can be found in Fischer and Hettel
      (1991).
 
 
                            References
 
 CIMMYT. 1991. Results of the Tenth Elite Selection Wheat Yield Trial (ESWYT)
 1988-89. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.
 
 CIMMYT. 1992. Enduring Designs for Change. An account of CIMMYT's research,
 its impact, and future directions. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT (in press).
 
 Fischer, R.A., and G.P. Hettel, eds. 1991. Research Project Updates and
 Descriptions of New Projects for the CIMMYT Wheat Program. Mexico, D.F.:
 CIMMYT.
 
 -------------------------
      Screening of Heat Tolerance In CIMMYT Advanced Lines
 
      He Zhong-hu and S. Rajaram
 
      In 1991 at CIANO station in northwestern Mexico, 266 advanced lines
 were planted in 19 replicated yield trials under late January plantings (hot
 conditions) with five irrigations to screen for heat tolerance and disease
 resistance. Twenty-four lines were identified to be outstanding with yields
 10-33% higher than the best check cultivar. Simple correlation analyses of
 11 trials showed that, under late planting conditions, associations between
 yield and spike number, yield and seeds per spike, yield and early
 vegetative vigor, and yield and test weight were significant and positively
 correlated and the association between yield and leaf senescence was
 significant and negatively correlated. However, associations between yield
 and plant height, yield and 1000-kernel weight, and yield and heading date
 were not significant. It was also observed that some lines with durable
 resistance to leaf rust became susceptible under hotter conditions.
 
      The outstanding lines will be sent to cooperators in the Indian
 Subcontinent for late planting and will also be re-evaluated under normal
 and late planting conditions in 1992. From the above results and our
 experience, the following characters might be used as selection criteria for
 heat tolerance: 1) early vegetative vigor, i.e., agronomic score before
 heading date, because in most cases, heat tolerance at early stages is more
 important early in the season than later; 2) high tillering capacity; 3)
 grain numbers per spike, which is a measure of spikelet fertility; 4) high
 test weight, but not necessarily high kernel weight; and 5) lower rate of
 leaf senescence. 
 
 -------------------------
      HMW Glutenin Subunit Composition of Chinese Bread Wheats
 
      He Zhong-hu, R.J. Pe¤a, and S. Rajaram
 
      The stored proteins in the endosperm of 205 Chinese cultivars, advanced
 lines, and introductions were fractionated by SDS-PAGE in the CIMMYT
 Industrial Quality Laboratory to determine their HMW glutenin subunit
 composition. Twenty-one Glu-1 alleles were identified: three at Glu-A1, 11
 at Glu-B1, and seven at Glu-D1. The dominant alleles were Null, 7+8, 7+9,
 2+12, with frequencies of 46.7, 37.2, and 38%, respectively. Two novel
 alleles 6+8* and 7*+9 and four rare combinations were also observed. Among
 the 205 cultivars screened, 199 were homogeneous with 39 groups and six were
 heterogeneous with respect to HMW glutenin subunit composition. More than
 half of the cultivars belonged to five groups: 1) Null, 7+8, 2+12 (36
 cultivars); 2) Null, 7+9, 2+12 (25 cultivars); 3) 1, 7+8, 2+12 (21
 cultivars); 4) 1, 7+9, 2+12 (16 cultivars); and 5) 2*, 7+9, 2+12 (13
 cultivars). The quality scores of the Chinese wheats ranged from 3 to 10,
 averaging 5.7. Chinese wheats are close to European wheats, particularly
 from Italy since several introductions from this country, such as
 Abbondanze, Ardit, Mentana, Funo, and St1472/506 are widespread in Chinese
 wheat pedigrees (He and Chen 1991). Introduction of 5+10 could be a way of
 improving the industrial quality of Chinese wheats.
 
                              Reference
 
 He Zhong-hu and Chen Tianyou, 1991. Wheat and Wheat Breeding in China. Wheat
 Special Report No. 2. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.
 
 -------------------------
 Worldwide variation of alleles of high-molecular-weight glutenin in bread    
                          wheat cultivars
 
      A. Morgunov
 
      Glu-1 loci that encode high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin were
 examined in connection with breadmaking quality. Results of published
 studies in 21 wheat-producing countries were reviewed in an attempt to
 estimate the variation of alleles of HMW glutenin in bread wheats.
 
      Using the published reports, a total of 1380 cultivars were analyzed
 from 10 countries in Europe, four in Asia, five in the Americas, and two in
 Oceania.
 
      Average frequencies for particular alleles appeared to be the
 following:
 
        A genome: Glu-A1a--32.8%; Glu-A1b--30.9%; and Glu-A1c--36.3%.
      
        B genome: Glu-B1a--12.9%; Glu-B1b--25.2%; Glu-B1c--31.2%;
      Glu-B1d--10.0%; Glu-B1-4e--3.3%; Glu-B1f--1.2%; Glu-B1g-- 0.1%;
      Glu-B1i--8.8%; and Glu-B1j--O.1%.
      
        D genome: Glu-D1a--52.9%; Glu-D1b--2.0%; Glu-D1c--3.5%;
      Glu-D1d--40.8%; and Glu-D1h--0.4%. 
 
      Comparing these results to the data presented by Payne and Lawrence
 (1983), it appears that, in their study, the frequencies of Glu-A1c and
 Glu-B1a were overestimated and Glu-B1i underestimated.
 
      Overall observed variation in Glu-1 loci accounts for only 38.2% of the
 variation recorded in the Catalogue of Gene Symbols for Wheat (McIntosh et
 al. 1990).
 
      There are indications that selection pressure towards high breadmaking
 quality leads to uniformity of the cultivars in a particular country. The
 coefficient of correlation between the Glu-1 quality score (calculated
 according to Payne 1986) and Nei's measure of gene diversity was
 significantly negative (r=-0.49).
 
 
      The analysis would be more complete if all the data on Glu-1
 composition were available. The author would appreciate receiving the
 relevant information on HMW composition in bread wheat cultivars, especially
 those published in national journals and reports that have limited
 circulation.
 
                            References
 
 McIntosh, R.A., G.E. Hart, and M.D. Gale. 1990. Catalogue of gene symbols
 for wheat. 1990 supplement. Cereal Res. Comm. 18:141-157.
 
 Payne, P.I. 1986. Varietal improvement in the breadmaking quality of wheat:
 contributions from biochemistry and genetics, and future prospects from
 molecular biology. BCPC Mono. No. 34, Biotechnology and Crop Improvement and
 Protection.
 
 Payne, P.I., and G.J. Lawrence. 1983. Catalogue of alleles for the complex
 gene loci Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1 which code for high-molecular-weight
 subunits of glutenin in hexaploid wheat. Cereal Res. Comm. 11:29-35.
 
 ------------------------- 
       Results of Artificial Inoculation of the 4th Karnal Bunt Screening Nursery
                                 (KBSN)       
 
      G. Fuentes-Davila, S. Rajaram, W. H. Pfeiffer and O. Abdalla
 
      Karnal bunt (KB) caused by Tilletia indica [syn. Neovossia indica
 (Mitra) Mundkur] is a disease that generally affects part of the wheat
 grain. Although yield loss is minor, the adverse effect on grain quality and
 subproducts is important, especially when the percentage of infected grains
 is high. In addition, quarantines in many countries against T. indica limit
 the exchange and distribution of wheat and triticale germplasm. CIMMYT
 research efforts are directed primarily to: 1) identify sources of
 resistance, 2) incorporate resistance to suitable genotypes, and 3) develop
 advanced lines. The Karnal Bunt Screening Nursery (KBSN) consists of wheat
 and triticale genotypes that have shown a low percentage infection in at
 least two wheat cycles in northwestern Mexico. 
 
       Reported here are the results of the 4th KBSN. This nursery was
 planted on November 4, 13, and December 4, 1987, at Ciudad Obregon, Sonora,
 Mexico. One hundred and seventy-one bread wheats, 258 durum wheat, and 328
 triticale cultivars and advanced lines were evaluated in the first planting
 date. After discarding entries with more than 4.1% infected grain, 92 and 67
 bread wheats, 231 and 221 durum wheats, and 311 and 291 triticales were
 evaluated in the second and third planting dates, respectively. 
 
      Plants were inoculated with a sporidial suspension of 10,000/ml,
 injecting 1 ml per head during the boot stage after 4 p.m. High relative
 humidity was generated and maintained by an overhead sprinkler irrigation
 system during the inoculation period. Percent infection was calculated from
 the number of infected and healthy grains measured on 10 inoculated
 heads/entry after hand threshing. The susceptible bread wheat check Seri M82
 had, on average, 58.8% infection.
 
      The range of infection of bread wheat entries was 0-55.22 for the first
 date, 0-53.26 for the second date, and 0-11.53 for the third date. Twelve
 entries had a range of infection 0-2% (Table 1), and 34 entries a range of
 0-4%.
 
      The range of infection of durum wheats was 0-22.91 for the first
 planting date, 0-10.02 for the second date, and 0-16.22 for the third date.
 Ninety entries had a range of infection 0-1%, and 42 a range of 0-2%.
 Thirty-seven entries had 0% infection (Table 2).
 
      The range of infection of triticales was 0-18.60 for the first planting
 date, 0-18.78 for the second date, and 0-11.70 for the third date. One
 hundred and fifty entries had a range of infection of 0-1%, and 59 a range
 of 0-2%. Seventy-four entries had 0% infection (Table 3).
 
      Entries of bread wheat, durum wheat, and triticale which have shown a
 low percentage of infection can be utilized in breeding programs to enhance
 Karnal bunt resistance.
 
 
 Table 1. Twelve bread wheats with a range of infection 0-2%, after           
          artificial inoculation with T. indica on three dates in the            
          Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico, during 1987-1988. 
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------            
 ALDAN"S"/IAS58                               SHANGHAI3
 CM53481-6Y-1Y-1M-3Y-1M-0Y-0B                 -33B-0Y
 
 CHRI"S"                                      SHANGAI7
                                              -19B-0Y
 
 H567.71/3*P.AR                               SHANGAI7
 CMH77.308-1Y-4B-1Y-1B-0Y                     -40B-0Y
 
 H567.71//PEL/2*ATR                           SUZHOE F3#1
 CMH77.308-1Y-4B-1Y-10B-2Y-1B-0Y-0PTZ              -28B-0Y
 
 IAS58/MAD"S"                                 SUZHOE F3#1
 CM50472-2Y-1M-2Y-3Y-0Z-0Y                         -31B-0Y
 
 MRNG/BUC"S"//BLO"S"/PSN"S"                   SUZHOE F3#6
 CM69191-A-5Y-1M-1Y-2M-2Y-2M-0Y                    -10B-0Y
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                            
 
 Table 2. Thirty-six durum wheats with 0% infection, after artificial
 inoculation with T. indica on three dates in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora,
 Mexico, during 1987-1988.
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                 
 ALC"S"//JO"S"/CR"S"/3/YAV79             MEMO"S"/MEXI75
 CD43783-B-2Y-1M-4Y-0M                   CD26132-2B-1Y-1Y-0M
 
 BOOHAI                             MEMO"S"/MEXI75
                                    CD-26132-8B-1Y-8Y-0M
 
 BOTNO                              MEXI/VIC//YAV79
                                    CD52349-9B-2Y-1M-0Y
 
 CIT71/CIT                          PARANA//GS"S"/GR"S"/3/CTA"S"
 CD-3369-2BS-2BS-0DZ                     CD-10504-H-6M-2Y-7M-2Y-0M
 
 CIT71/CPT                          SBA81/CR"S"//CIT"S"/3/CHI"S"
 CM-16999-3L-0L-1B                       /4/PAL"S"
                                    CD44257-G-1Y-2M-1Y-2M-1Y-0M
 
 CORM"S"//D67.3/GTA"S"/3/
 MEXI"S"/KIWI"S"                         SCA"S"
 CD-24922-C-1Y-2M-2Y-0Y                  CM-18537-1Y-0L-0AP
 
 CRIS"S"                            STY/CTA"S"//PAL"S"/3/STN"S"
 CM-17046-10L-13L-2L-0K                  CD55053-3Y-1M-5Y-0M
 
 DEGY                               STY/CTA"S"//PAL"S"/3/STN"S"
                                    CD55053-3Y-1M-9Y-0M
 
 GAN"S"                             STY/CTA"S"//PAL"S"/3/STN"S"
 CD40150-14B-1Y-2M-0Y-11Y-0B             CD55053-3Y-1M-10Y-0M
 
 GR"S"/BOY"S"                       TAD"S"
 CD20345-2AP-2AP-0AP                CD-4754-A-1Y-4M-0Y
 
 GR"S"/LANG//YAV79/3/TEZ"S"              TK SN1081
 CD49709-A-5Y-1M-1Y-0M                   
 
 GUIL"S"/SNIPE"S"                        TRN
 CD15495-5S-0AP                     
 
 H567.71/2*CMH74A.370//                  VDO
 CMH77A.682/3/HUI"S"/4/
 H567.71/2* CMH74A.370//
 CMH77A.682/3/TTURA/CMH74A.370
 CMH82A.1062-1B-3Y
 
 IBIS"S"//S15/CR"S"                      YAV"S"/TEZ"S"
 L4-3AP-2AP-3AP-0AP                 CD42270-11Y-5M-1Y-2M-0Y
 
 JO"S"/CR"S"                             YUK
 D27591                             ICD-74128-1L-2AP-0APTable 2.                                                              
 
 KRK"S"                             68111//RGB/WARD/3/FG"S"/4/
 CM9757-4D-3D-1D-0D                 RABI"S"
                                    CD34886-G-3Y-4M-1Y-1M-1Y-0M
 
 MEDIUM/KIF"S"//SAPI"S"                  68111/RGB//WARD RESEL/3/
 CD27945-5B-1Y-6Y-0M                STIL"S"
                                    CD39312-8B-1Y-2M-2Y-1M-0Y
 
 MEMO"S"/GOO"S"                     68112/WARD
 CD-26136-1M-2Y-4Y-0M                    D72114
 
 6973/WARD.7463//74110
 -2B
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 
 
 
 Table 3. Seventy-four triticales with 0% infection, after artificial
 inoculation with T. indica on three dates in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora,
 Mexico, during 1987-1988.
                                               
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 ADX"S"                             M00910
 X-7224-10M-1Y-100M-0Y                   79Q133001
 
 ARM"S"                             M00913
                                    79Q133001
 
 ARS/MEXIP MUTI//BGL"S"/3/ABN"S"         M00921
 X-36378-6M-1Y-2M-0Y                     79Q133001
 
 BGL"S"/CIN//MUS"S"                 M2A/ARM"S"//BGL"S"/3/
 B-2686-1616-0M                     CABORCA79/4/LMG"S"/FAWN"S
                                    X-63355-B-9Y-2M-4Y-2Y-1M-0Y
 
 BOK"S"/GLENLEA                     M2A/ARM"S"//BGL"S"/3/
 CIT1093-1Y-2Y-1M-1Y-0M                  CABORCA79/4/LMG"S"/FAWN"S
                                    X-63355-B-9Y-2M-4Y-2Y-2M-0Y
 
 BOK"S"/GLENLEA                     M2A/IRA//PTR"S"
 CIT1093-1Y-3Y-2M-3Y-0M                  X-52063-4Y-2M-1Y-2M-0Y
 
 CIT"S"/SPY//PTR"S"/4/
 DRIRA/IA/3/IRA//BB/CHA                  M2A*2/IRA//M2A/TI71
 X-61951-D-1M-2Y-2M-2Y-1Y-1B-0Y          X-49274-5Y-1Y-1M-1Y-3M-0Y
 
 CMH74.1211/PND"S"//GRF"S"               NUTRIA440
 X-56225-1M-3Y-1M-2Y-1Y-1B-0Y            B-2709-2634
                                                             
 
 CNO/PJ62//#70 RYE/3/PND"S"/             PANCHE"S"
 MSF"S"                             B-2671
 CT4818-0M-0Y-0M-3Y-0M
 
 CUYO"R"//M2A/WW15/3/PTR"S"/             PANCHE 198
 2*M2A                              B-2671
 X-53760-D-1Y-1M-1Y-3M-0Y
 
 DF"S"//CIT"S"/SPY/5/IA/                 PANCHE408
 M2A//PI62/3/BGL"S"/4/MSE"S"             B-2671-2183-0Y
 X-63367-C-500Y-500B-500Y-
 502Y-5B-0Y
 
 DGO"S"                             PANCHE 7248
 X-41047-A-1Y-2M-1Y-2Y-0H
 
 DGO"S"                             PANCHE 7248
 X-41047-A-1Y-2M-1Y-2Y-1M-2Y-0B          PANCHE 7248B-2671-0Y
 
 DGO"S"                             PFT7754/PND"S"
 X-41047-A-1Y-2M-1Y-2Y-2M-1Y-0B
 
 DINGO"S"                           PIKA"S"
 X41047-A-1Y-2M-1Y-2Y-0H            X-39597-4Y-2M-1Y-2Y-0M
 
 DRIRA EE                           PND"S"/ABN"S"//LLAMA"S"/3/
                                    PTR"S"/RM"S"//FS381/FS477
                                    X-63299-B-1Y-2M-6Y-2Y-2M-0Y
 
 DRIRA/GLENLEA                      PND"S"/ABN"S"//YE75/3/EDA"S"/
 CIT1016-3Y-1Y-2M-1Y-0M                  CASTOR"S"
                                    X-63298-A-1Y-3M-3Y-1Y-2M-0Y
 
 DRIRA/GLENLEA                      PND"S"/RM"S"//PTR"S"
 CIT1016-4Y-2Y-2M-1Y-0M                  X-59815-1M-2Y-1M-1Y-3Y-1B-0Y
 
 DURUM WHEAT/BALBO//BOK"S"          PND"S"/YE75//PTR"S"
 CT4699-0M-0Y-0M-6Y-0M                   X-59866-5M-1Y-5M-2Y-1Y-1B-0Y
 
 EDA"S"//M2A/ZA75                        PTR"S"/CASTOR"S"//BTA"S"
 X-61039-6M-1Y-1M-1Y-0Y                  X-60839-3M-1Y-1M-2Y-1Y-0B
 
 EDA"S"/TORO"S"                     PTR"S"/3/CIT"S"/SPY//2*M2A/4/
 CT-1828-0M-0Y-0M-5Y-0M                  IRA/CAL//YO"S"/3/M1A/PI62 
                                    X-63358-B-3Y-2M-2Y-2Y-2M-0Y
 
 EPM294.81                          PTR"S"/3/CIT"S"/SPY//2*M2A/4/
                                    IRA/CAL//YO"S"/3/M1A/PI62
                                    X-63358-B-3Y-4M-1Y-2Y-2M-0Y
                                                             
 
 FS381/FS477//TORO"S"/3/TGE"S"           PTR"S"//M1A/BCM"S"
 X-61270-B-1M-2Y-1M-1Y-1Y-0B             X-64821-11Y-2M-2Y-1Y-1M-0Y
 
 GRIZZLY"S"//AI FONG#3/DOVE"S"      PTR"S"/3/RM"S"/IRA//FS477/4/
 CIT1367-1Y-6Y-1M-0Y                WELSH/BGL"S"
                                    X-53893-E-2Y-1M-1Y-1M-1Y-
                                    2Y-0B
 
 GRIZZLY"S"//AI FONG#3/DOVE"S"      PTR"S"/T74
 CIT1367-2Y-4Y-1M-0Y                X-63985-2Y-3M-5Y-2Y-1M-0Y
 
 GRIZZLY"S"//AI FONG#3/DOVE"S"      PTR"S"/2*M2A
 CIT1367-5Y-2Y-2M-0Y                     X-44650-12M-1Y-1Y-2M-2Y-
                                    1M-0Y
 
 GRIZZLY"S"//AI FONG#3/DOVE"S"      PTR"S"/2*M2A//PUMA"S"
 CIT1367-5Y-3Y-2M-0Y                X-61140-1M-3Y-3M-1Y-0Y
 
 HARE"S"/2*MUS"S"                        QKA"S"
 B-8411-500Y-4B-0Y                       X-39253-30Y-1M-2Y-502Y-502M-
                                    502Y-501B-0Y
 
 HARE"S"/2*MUS"S"                        RAT"S"//PND"S"/YE75
 B-8411-500Y-10B-0Y                 CT-855-8Y-1M-2Y-2M-1Y-0M
 
 HARE"S"/2*MUS"S"                        RM"S"//M2A/IRA/4/H277.69/2*
 B-8411-500Y-11B-0Y                 UMX2/3/RM"S"/IRA//FS477
                                    X-53627-D-5Y-1M-6Y-2M-0Y
 
 KLA"S"/M2A/3/UM OCTO/                   RM"S"/PTR"S"//GH"S"
 CIN"S"//FS477/4/PTR"S"                  CIT-116-3Y-1B-1Y-1Y-1M-0Y
 X-60472-8M-1Y-1M-2Y-2Y-3B-0Y
 
 LT176.73/LT696.75//                     TD25/TK DWF//PER RYE/SPY
 CIT"S"/SPY/3/ELK"S"                X-22997-0Y-0Y-1M-0Y
 CTM-8312-501M-501Y-5B-2Y-0M
 
 MN72130/RYE 5//FRT"S"                   TED"S"/CASTOR"S"
 B-4463-2-1Y-1Y-1B-0Y                    CT-1503-500Y-9B-0Y
 
 MUS"S"//DRIRA/KGR                  TESMO"S"
 B-2658                             X-39860-7Y-1M-2Y-2Y-0M
 
 MUS"S"/JLO                              TESMO"S"
 B-2659                             X-39860-7Y-5M-1Y-0Y
 
 MUS"S"/JLO"S"                      TORO"S"/4/CNO/7C//KAL/BB/3/
 B-2659-207                              PCI"S"
                                    CIT1049-8Y-1Y-4M-1Y-0M
 
 79.P393                            ZEBRA 7249
                                    B-2672-0Y
 79.P393
 79.P39379.P394
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                            References
 
 Abdalla, O.S., G. Varughese, E.E. Saari, and H. Braun. 1986. Spring
 Triticale. Names; Parentage; Pedigrees;  Origins. CIMMYT.
 
 Brajcich, P., W. Pfeiffer, and E. Autrique. 1986. Durum Wheat. Names;
 Parentage: Pedigrees and Origins.  CIMMYT.
 
 Villareal, R.L., and S. Rajaram. 1988 revised. Semidwarf Bread Wheats:
 Names, parentages, pedigrees, and origins, Mexico, D. F.: CIMMYT.
 
 -------------------------
                              ITEM FROM NEPAL
                 
      M.L.  Morris (CIMMYT), H.J. Dubin (CIMMYT), T.P.  Pokhrel  (NARC, 
 Nepal).
              Returns to Wheat Research in Nepal.  A study was done in 1991 
 to determine  the  economic  returns to  wheat  research  in  Nepal. 
 Specifically the study had three principal objectives:
         
      1.  To review the achievements of the Nepal Wheat Research Program 
 (NWRP).
         
      2.  To estimate the economic returns to past investment in  wheat 
 research in Nepal.
         
      3.  To  spell  out  the implications  for  the  future  level  of
 investment in wheat research in Nepal.
         
      Wheat in Nepal is generally planted in two distinct zones,  i.e.,
 Indo-Gangetic Plain (Tarai)  and Mid-Hills.  In the early  1960's most 
 cultivars were tall statured and covered an area  of  about 125,000 ha with
 average yields just below 1 t/ha.  By 1991 almost all cultivars were modern
 semidwarf and planted on nearly 600,000 ha  with  average yields of 1.4
 t/ha.   Rotation is  principally with  rice.   The major cultivar planted in
 the  Tarai  is  UP262 (Ska-Bajio66) and in the hills Ska
 (II54.388/An/3/Y+54/N10B//Lr64).
         
      NWRP  engages  in  a  broad  range  of  research  and   extension 
 activities  but  the  impact of some of  these  is  difficult  to quantify 
 and  value.  The study focused  primarily  on  benefits generated by NWRP's
 breeding program since the product - improved germplasm - is relatively easy
 to observe and measure.
         
      Two   specific  benefits  of  the  NWRP  breeding  program   were
 distinguished  : 1) Accelerated rate of cultivar  adoption.   One major 
 benefit  attributable to NWRP has been a  faster  rate  of adoption  of  new 
 semidwarf cultivars  introduced  from  outside Nepal.  2)  Area  increases
 resulting from  the  introduction  of modern,  early  maturing,  semidwarf
 cultivars.   Prior  to  the presence of early maturing, semidwarf cultivars
 rice was  rotated with  late  maturing, tall cultivars or was planted  in  a 
 rice-fallow  rotation.   The situation changed dramatically  with  the
 release of Ska which fitted well into a rice-wheat rotation.
         
      Investments in agricultural research are usually evaluated  using a 
 measure  known as the economic rate of return,  which  can  be thought  of
 as a rate of interest which a bank would have to  pay to  give  the  same
 return as the research  project.  There  are several methods available for
 this type of analysis. The economic  surplus  approach is  particularly
 suited  for  calculating  the returns  to  research on individual
 commodities and was  used  in this study.
  
      Several  salient  points  emerged in the  results:  Firstly,  the
 internal  rate of return for breeding and support activities  was 75%.  
 This very attractive rate of return to wheat  research  is explained by the
 relatively modest costs of the NWRP in  relation to the substantial benefits
 it generates.  Two principal  factors contributed  to the success of the
 Nepali wheat research  effort.  The  first generation of semidwarf
 cultivars,  particularly  Ska,    fuelled  a  dramatic  increase in wheat
 area due  to  its  early  maturity.  This permitted  double cropping of
 wheat and rice  in areas  where farmers had previously been restricted to 
 one  crop  per  year.   Subsequently, the replacement of Ska by  UP262  and
 other  newer  cultivars  effectively  protected   farmers   from
 considerable  yield  losses  due  to  a  breakdown  in   disease resistance, 
 especially  leaf  rust  and  to  a  lesser   degree, helminthosporium  leaf 
 blight.  Experimental data  suggest  that failure  to  replace Ska would
 have resulted in  disease  related losses  of  2.5% per year.  Sensitivity
 analysis  indicated  that changes in annual rate of growth of wheat yields
 due to  research and  research  lag (i.e., the length of the  period  of 
 research investment  preceding  cultivar release) are the  most  important
 factors in determining internal rate of return.  Based  on experiment
 station yield trials it was determined  that genetic  yield potential grew
 at 1.25% per year between 1976  and 1990. However, absolute experimental
 yields have been  declining apparently  due  to experiment station 
 management  problems  and possibly increased foliar blights and foot rots.
 
      The  results  are  taken as a strong  endorsement  for  continued
 investment  in wheat research in Nepal.  However, it is  expected that more
 emphasis will be given to crop management research  due to  evidence  of 
 stagnating yields in  the  rice-wheat  cropping pattern.
 
 -------------------------
                             ITEMS FROM POLAND
 
      Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute, Department of Cereals,
 Krakow
 
      Stanislaw Wegrzyn, Helena Grzesik
 
      General and specific combining ability of F(1) generation hybrids
        in some varieties and strains of hexaploid winter Triticale
 
      With a view to determining the mode of inheritance of some traits of
 Triticale, crosses were made using a topcross system of 4 varieties of
 winter Triticale as maternal forms (Clercal, Salvo, Dagro, and MAH-384) and
 5 varieties as paternal forms (LAD-183, Bolero, Lasko, Malno and Newton).  A
 field trial including 20 hybrids and 9 paternal forms was designed based on
 a method of randomized blocks in 3 replicates.  After harvest biometric
 measurements were made of all the collected plants, eliminating those
 growing along borders.  The following 7 traits were analyzed: culm length,
 ear length, ear number per plant, grain number and yield per ear as well as
 grain number and yield per plant.  
 
      Based on the analysis of variance of the F(1) generation and parental
 forms, the significant effects of general combining ability for all analyzed
 traits were found.  Significant effects of specific combining ability were
 found for culm length, ear length, grain number, and yield per ear.  Ear
 number, grain number, and yield per plant were statistically non significant
 (Table 1).
 
      As concerns culm length, the significant positive effects of general
 combining ability occurred in varieties: MAH-384, LAD-183, Lasko, Newton. 
 Significant but negative effects were observed in the varieties Dagro,
 Bolero, and Malno.
 
      The analysis of ear length revealed significant positive effects of
 general combining ability in variety Clercal, while significantly negative
 ones in varieties Salvo and Lasko. With respect to the ear number, the
 significant negative effects of general combining ability were found in
 varieties Clercal, Dagro and Newton.     Grain number per ear was
 characterized by significant positive effects of general combining ability
 in varieties: Salvo, Bolero and Newton, and by significant negative effects
 in varieties: Dagro, LAD-183 and Lasko.
 
      Highly significant positive effects of general combining ability were
 found for grain number per plant in varieties: Clercal and Bolero while
 highly significant negative ones in variety Dagro.  Grain yield per ear
 displayed significant positive effects of general combining ability in
 varieties Dagro and Bolero while significant but negative ones in varieties
 MAH-384 and Lasko.  Grain yield per plant showed significant positive
 effects of general combining ability in varieties Clercal and Bolero while
 significant negative ones in varieties Dagro and MAH-384 (Table 2). 
 Varieties displaying significant positive effects of general combining
 ability will increase the value of a given trait in offspring, while in
 those where the effects of general combining ability are significant but
 negative, they will decrease the traits value in their offspring.
 
      As concerns the effects of specific combining ability (Table 3) it can
 be stated that for culm length they are significantly positive in case of
 hybrids: Clercal x Malno, Clercal x Newton, Salvo x Malno. Salvo x Newton,
 Dagro x LAD-183, Dagro x Bolero, Dagro x Lasko and MAH-384 x LAD-183 while
 significant but negative for hybrids: Clercal x LAD-183, Salvo x LAD-183,
 Salvo x Bolero, Dagro x Malno, Dagro x Newton and MAH-384 x Lasko. The
 significantly negative effects of combining ability for culm length are
 beneficial from the breeding point of view, since it means the shortening of
 the culm which can lead to lesser susceptibility to lodging.  Significant
 effects of specific combining ability for ear length were displayed only by
 two hybrids: Dagro x LAD-183 - positive, and Dagro x Malno - negative.  For
 grain yield per ear the significant positive effects of specific combining
 ability were observed in hybrids: Clercal x Bolero, Clercal x Malno, Salvo x
 Newton, Dagro x LAD-183, Dagro x Bolero while the negative ones in hybrids: 
 Clercal x LAD-183, Salvo x Bolero, Dagro x Malno, Dagro x Newton and MAH-384
 x Bolero.  Significant positive effects of specific combining ability for
 grain number per ear were displayed by hybrids: Clercal x Bolero, Clercal x
 Malno, Salvo x LAD-183, Salvo x Newton, Dagro x LAD-183, Dagro x Bolero and
 MAH-384 x Newton, while significant but negative ones in hybrids: Clercal x
 LAD-183, Clercal x Newton, Salvo x Bolero, Dagro x Malno and MAH-384 x
 Bolero (Table 3).
 
      In summary the performed analysis of variance of combining ability in
 the studied hybrids and parental forms of some varieties and strains of
 winter Triticale has shown highly significant effects of general combining
 ability for al the studied traits, while the effects of specific combining
 ability for ear number per plant, grain number per plant and grain yield per
 plant were non-significant (Table 1).  Similar results of the studies on
 wheat were obtained by Gyawali et al., 1968; Hassanien et al., 1974; Selim
 et al., 1974; as well as Wegrzyn and Pochaba, 1980 who have shown that for
 most studied wheat traits there are considerably higher effects of general
 combining ability than of specific combining ability.
 
                                References
 
 Gyawali, K K., Qualset, C. O. and Yamazaki, W. T.  1986.  Crop Sci. 8:3122-
 324.
 
 Hassanien, E. H., Ibrahim, H. A., Selim, A.K.A., and Attia, S. E. A.  1974. 
 Agric. Res. Rev. 52:1-8.
 
 Selim, A. K. A., Hassanien, E. H., Dessauki, S. M. and Attia, S. E. A. 
 1974.  Agric.  Res. Rev. 52:9-17.
 
 Wegrzyn, S., Pochaba, L.  19890.  HODs Aklim. i. Nas. 24:211-224.
 
 
 Table 1.  Analysis of variance of combining ability for some traits        
 of F1 hybrids in a few varieties and strains of winter Triticale             
                                                                    
                                                              Grain
                                Ear #  Grain  Grain #  Grain  Yield
                   Culm    Ear   per   number   per    yield   per
 Source       df  length length plant  per ear plant  per ear  plant
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Maternal
   forms      3    99**  1.11**  4.00*  184**  28945** 0.58**  66**
 Paternal 
   forms      4   146**  2.32** 25.68**  26    98180** 0.32** 218**
 
 Maternal x
   paternal  12   166**  0.80**  1.00(ns) 264** 5406(ns) 0.48** 20(ns)
 Error       56     6    0.19    1.25     7     5499     0.06   13      
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 * - significant at P = 0.05, ** - significant at P = 0.01
 
 
 Table 2.   Effects of general combining ability for maternal (gj)
                        and paternal (gi) forms                   
                                                            Grain
                            Ear#            Grain#  Grain   yield
           Culm     Ear      per    Grain#    per   yield    per
          length   length   plant   per ear  plant  per ear  plant
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Maternal
 forms
 Clercal  -0.7     0.60**  -4.65**   1.0    128.63**    0     6.24**
 Salwo    -1.2    -0.49**  -0.46     1.5*   -18.58     0.10  -0.40
 Dagro    -2.0**   0       -1.53**  -1.6*   -95.24**   0.1*  -3.95**
 MAH-384   3.7**  -0.12    -0.09    -1.1    -14.81    -0.24** -1.90*
 
 Paternal
 forms  
 LAD-183   3.4**   0.19    -0.18    -2.4**  -29.49     0.12   -0.72
 Bolero   -3.4**  -0.09     0.27     4.7**   53.52*    0.17*   2.55*
 Lasko     1.5*   -0.43**   0.15    -4.0**  -23.50    -0.31** -1.85
 Malno    -4.2**   0.14     0.53    -0.1     38.14    -0.02    1.74
 Newton    2.5*    0.17    -0.77*    1.5*   -38.67     0.06   -1.75 
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------    
 * - significant at P = 0.05;  ** - significant at P = 0.01
 
 Table 3.  Effects of specific combining ability for several traits           
     of F1 hybrids                                
                                                                     
 
                  Culm length
 Male/Female      Clercal       Salwo       Dagro       MAH-384 
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------   
 LAD-183           -5.75**      -6.15**     6.75**       5.15**
 Bolero             1.69       -10.02**     6.82**       1.51
 Lasko             -2.72         1.27       4.81**      -3.36*
 Malno              3.38*        9.64**   -10.96**      -2.06
 Newton             3.40*        5.26**    -7.43**      -1.24    
                             Ear Length
 LAD-183           -0.46         0.07       0.65*       -0.26
 Bolero             0.48        -0.39       0.32        -0.42
 Lasko             -0.14        -0.21       0.27         0.09
 Malno              0.35         0.24      -0.04**       0.44
 Newton            -0.24         0.29      -0.20         0.15
                         Grain yield per ear
 LAD-183           -0.45**      -0.05       0.38**       0.12
 Bolero             0.37        -0.50**     0.53**      -0.39**
 Lasko              0.02         0.02      -0.06         0.02
 Malno              0.29*        0.12      -0.41**      -0.002
 Newton            -0.22         0.41**    -0.43**       0.25   
                         Grain number per ear
 LAD-183           -5.13**       3.36*      3.34*       -1.56
 Bolero             4.55**      -5.23**     6.69**      -6.01**
 Lasko              0.35        -2.03       0.19         1.49
 Malno              5.70**      -0.44      -7.63**       2.37
 Newton            -5.48**       4.34**    -2.58         3.72 
  --------------------------------------------------------------------  
 * - significant at P = 0.05,  ** - significant at P = 0.01
 
 -------------------------
                            ITEMS FROM ROMANIA
 
      I.C.C.P.T. (Research Institute for Cereals and Industrial Crops)
 Fundulea,8264,jud.Calarasi
 
      N.N.Saulescu
 
      Physiological background of breeding for increased grain filling
 duration (GFD).  Increased GFD has been suggested as a possible way to
 increase grain yield in wheat.Breeding for longer GFD could be made more
 efficient by a better understanding of its physiological basis.
 
      Several studies documented that early heading genotypes have longer
 GFD.We found that this relation holds true in most of our trials,but only
 when GFD is expressed in days.When transformed in degree-days,most
 differences in GFD between early and late genotypes dissapear.Therefore it
 seems that the relationship between earliness and GFD is largely due to
 lower temperatures generaly encountered by earlier genotypes during their
 grain formation. For each genotype across locations,GFD in days and GFD in
 degree days are both very variable and are highly correlated one with
 another (r=0,90 to 0,92).Therefore it seems wrong to assume,as it is done in
 some simulation models,that GFD is a genetic coefficient expressed as a
 constant amount of degree-days. To avoid this problem Weir et all
 (J.Agr.Sci. Cambridge 102, 1984) changed the base temperature for computing
 degree-days during grain filling to 9  Celsius degrees, a temperature which
 was found to minimize the correlation between number of days and degree-
 days. When we tried the same approach with our data, this correlation became
 non-significant only at a base temperature over 15 degrees, which seems
 physiological very unrealistic.
 
      Boese (Tag Ber.Akad.Landwirt.Wiss. Berlin 219, 1984) suggested that GFD
 in days can be predicted using average temperature during the first 20 or 30
 days after flowering.This approach seems logical since the first 20-30 days
 after flowering is the period when the number and potential size of
 endosperm cells is decided, which would influence the potential duration of
 starch accumulation.
 
      With our data we found that GFD was significantly correlated with
 average temperature during the first 30 days after flowering but not with
 average temperature during the whole grain filling period.
 
      For modelling or prediction purposes it is convenient to know the
 relationship between average temperature during the first part of GFD
 ("grain formation"-in our case, 30 days after flowering) and the degree-days
 needed after that period("final starch deposition") until physiological
 maturity.For the genotypes which we studied the relation was linear and
 negative with r=0.46* to 0.57* .
 
      Genotypes were almost equal in GFD when the average temperature during
 30 days after flowering were about 17 degrees but were different in their
 response to higher temperatures predicted GFD beeing reduced to 30 days at a
 30 days-average temperature of 23.4 degrees for Turda 81 and 25.3 degrees
 for Flamura 80.  Therefore it seems that,for genotypes included in our
 study, the observed differences in GFD are largely due to differences in
 temperature response of the grain filling processes.This means that for our
 environment, breeding for increased GFD becomes related with breeding for
 heat tolerance.
 
 -------------------------
        Mariana Ittu,N.N. Saulescu,Gh. Ittu
 
      Breeding for Fusarium scab resistance. Unusual rainy weather (16-20
 days with rain and 193 to 370mm rainfall in 30 days after flowering)
 favoured a scab epidemic as we have never seen before in our
 nurseries.Average frequency of scabby heads varied from 73 to 100% in
 released varieties.In durums frequencies of 90-100% were quite usual.
 
      We were pleased to see that under such severe conditions some of
 previously identified(by artificial innoculation) sources of resistance
 performed well.Good scab resistance was seen in lines having as parents Ning
 81249,Turda 195,Amigo,NS 732.Some of the best lines come from crosses
 combining more of these resistant parents.It seems that our longtime
 breeding effort using artificial innoculation is beginning to pay.
 
      In durums prospects are less encouraging.We would like to hear from
 anyone having potential sources of scab resistance in durum wheat.
 
 -------------------------
          N.N.Saulescu,Mariana Ittu,Gh. Ittu 
  
      Bunt resistances in TAM 104.  Routine testing showed that many
 progenies from crosses involving TAM 104 are resistant to prevalent races of
 common and dwarf bunt. Subsquent tests showed that TAM 104, but no other TAM
 line available to us, is also resistant.  TAM 104 was released by Texas A+M
 University as germplasm carrying fertility restorer genes from rye. We have
 used TAM 104 as parent for its excellent Septoria resistance and the
 selection of progenies from its crosses was mainly based on that. No
 selection pressure was applied for bunt resistance. We suspect that both
 Septoria and bunt resistance might come from rye and might be linked. If
 this is true , it could be the first bunt resistance gene transfered from
 rye. We would like to hear from anyone having information on location of rye
 genes or on possible markers for those genes in TAM 104.    
 
 -------------------------
                              ITEM FROM RUSSIA
 
      The Moscow Branch of N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry 
 
      Alexandr Fedorov
 
      Effects of photoperiodic reaction and vernalization requirement on
 wheat.  The plants show two reactions to photoperiod slightly different in
 the degree of expression:  the stronger one is manifested by nonvernalized
 (1), the weaker one by vernalized cultivars (1).  Differences in the type of
 plant development (winter, alternative and spring), mode of life (annual or
 perennial) and duration of the vegetative period of plants are largely
 determined by their light reaction at the initial period of life.
 
      To study the physiological-genetical of basis ontogenesis we crossed
 cultivars of different type of plant development and of different origin
 (winter, alternative and spring wheats).  The character of developmental
 traits (response to photoperiod and vernalization) determining the nature of
 their ontogenesis was studied.  
 
      Wheat cultivars of different growth habit and their F1 hybrids differ
 in their light reaction in the tillering stage and thereby in development
 rate.  How cultivars respond to vernalization is determined by the light
 reaction.
 
      The F1 of the winter wheat Bejsostaya 1 x Czech alternative wheat on a
 short (12-hour) day showed 23 days more lag in the differentiation of the
 shoot apex than the parent alternative cultivar and 63 days less than the
 winter parent.  In accordance with the lag was the response to vernalization
 under these conditions.  The hybrid showed a higher rate of photoperiodic
 reaction than that of the Czech parent (Table 1).
 
      In crosses of the same alternative cultivar with the winter wheat
 Mironovskaya 808, which has a higher degree of winter habit than that of
 Besostaya, the rate of photoperiodic reaction was still greater.  For
 example, in one test the F1 with Mironovskaya 808 showed 35 days more lag
 than when grown under natural long-day conditions, compared with only 22
 days more lag for the hybrid with Besostaya 1.
 
      The same may be observed in crosses of winter with spring wheat.  In
 crosses of a single spring cultivar with winter wheats with different
 degrees of winter habit, the photoperiodic reaction of the F1 is more
 pronounced as the degree of the winter property of the winter cultivar
 increases.
 
      These results indicate that the photoperiodic reaction of the spring
 and alternative cultivars (lagging development under short-day conditions)
 and the winter property of the winter cultivars (lagging development under
 both long- and short-day conditions) are phenomena of the same type and are
 determined by the photoperiodic reaction during the tillering stage.  This
 reaction, and not vernalization, determines the difference in the length of
 the plants vegetative period and particularly of the hybrids and the initial
 cultivars.
 
 
 
 Table 1.  Influence of daylength and vernalization on the days from          
            emergence to beginning of ear development.            
                                          Period length    Differ-
   Objects of         Kind of            natural  12h day    ence
 investigation        seeds sown         day (n)   (12)    (n)-(sh)  
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 F1 Mironovskaya 808  non-vernalized       55        87       32
  x Czech alternative     vernalized       16        27       11
 
 Mironovskaya 80      non-vernalized       98    no earing     -
                          vernalized       15        27       12
 
 Czech alternative    non-vernalized       25        52       27
                          vernalized       15        26       11
 
 F1 Besostaya 1       non-vernalized       50        75       25
  x Czech alternative     vernalized       14        22        8   
 
 Besostaya 1          non-vernalized       84       138       54
                          vernalized       13        23       11
 Saratovskaya 29      non-vernalized       12        23       11
                          vernalized       12        18        6    
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      An F1 of winter x alternative wheat and its parental cultivars differ
 greatly in the duration of the vegetative period.  The F1 of the winter
 wheat Mironovskaya 808 with the Czech alternative cultivar sown in spring
 headed on August 25, while the parent Czech cultivar headed on July 11, and
 the winter parent remained at the tillering stage.  But they do not differ
 in the length of the vernalization period (which is 45 days for all of them)
 or in the conditions of the vernalization period (vernalization taking place
 at 0-3degC).  They do not differ either in the degree of their photoperiodic
 reaction after the vernalization period.  For example, on a short (12-hour)
 day they all showed 27 days more lag in heading than when grown in
 conditions of natural day length.
 
      These results indicate that the difference in the length of the
 vegetative period of the F1 and the parent cultivars cannot be determined by
 vernalization or the photoperiodic reaction after vernalization but is
 determined essentially by their reaction to light in the beginning of their
 vegetative period, i.e., before the process of vernalization.
 
      Spring cultivars and alternatives show two photoperiodic reactions
 slightly differing in their degree: the first in non-vernalized and the
 second in vernalized plants.  The second is much weaker.  The photoperiodic
 reaction observed in the non-vernalized spring and alternative wheats and
 the winter property of the winter wheats are phenomena of the same type.
 
      The F2's of crosses of wheats with different developmental traits
 differ in the number of segregated winter plants.  In the F2 of crosses of a
 spring cultivar with an alternative cultivar, winter forms do not segregate. 
 In the F2 of a spring cultivar with a winter cultivar, only about 10% of
 winter forms segregate.  Crosses of a winter cultivar with an alternative
 cultivar segregate from 20 to 50% winter forms, depending on the
 photoperiodic reaction of the alternative.  These data, confirm that the
 alternative differ from spring and winter cultivars by their genotype,
 although by their phenotype when sown in spring they closely resemble spring
 forms and when sown in autumn, winter forms.
 
     Crosses of the same cultivar of winter wheat with different non-winter
 cultivars (spring and alternative) differing by the first photoperiodic
 reaction segregate the more winter forms the higher the degree of
 photoperiodic reaction of the non-winter wheat cultivar, i.e., the longer
 the short day developmental lag (Table 2).  For example, in the F2 of
 crosses of winter wheat with spring wheat Saratovskaya 29 only 10% of winter
 forms segregated, in crosses with alternative variety Surhak 5688, 21% of
 winter forms segregated.  In crosses with the alternative variety 109, with
 a higher degree of photoperiodic reaction, 33% of winter forms segregated. 
 In crosses with Czech alternative 51% of winter plants segregated.
 
      These data once more confirm the conclusion resulting from the analysis
 of the behavior of the F1 of wheat crosses with different developmental
 traits that the photoperiodic reaction of the alternative wheats and the
 winter property of the winter wheats are phenomena of the same type and are
 determined by the same chromosomes.  On their influence depends the
 vegetation period, the photoperiodic reaction and vernalization of all the
 three types of wheat, spring, alternative and winter.  In our experiments
 the vernalization response was always inherited along with the reaction to
 light.
 
      Our experiments on the determination of vernalization length have
 demonstrated that the wheat varieties as F1 from their crossing of different
 types of plant development (alternative and winter), which originated from
 the same geographical region, have as rule identical vernalizaton (in its
 length and its process conditions).  For example, Mironovskaya 808 (winter),
 Czech alternative and their F1 plants have the same length of vernalization
 (45 days).  In the Moscoa region the vernalization of winter and
 alternatives plants terminate at the end of October - November according to
 the cultivar. The normal course of he vernalization begins when the average
 day temperatures are about 10degC and below (September).  Alternative
 barleys Odessky 17 and Kruglik 21, which are cultivated the southern
 regions, have the same vernalization as the winter barleys Krasnodarski 2929
 and Krasnydar as well as others regionalized there.  These plants differ not
 only in their development types but in the length of the vegetation period. 
 They may not have a different length of the vernalization period because it
 depends on the autumn period length.
 
      Therefore, the type of plant development as well as length of the
 vegetation period cannot be conditioned by the vernalization.
 
 Table 2.  Segregation of winter forms in F(2) of crosses between a           
   winter wheat and cultivars differing in photoperiodic reaction.
 
                          Delay in differentiation
                          of the shoot apex under
                          short day in comparison
                          with natural day of the
 Cross                    non-winter parent/days      plants in F2 
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Mironovskaya 808 (winter)          30                 51.1 + 3.9
   x Czech alternative
 
 Mironovskaya 808                   21                 33.1 + 3.2
   x 109 (alternative)
 
 Mironovskaya 808                   17                 21.3 + 2.9
   x Surhak 5688 (alternative)
 
 Mironovskaya 808                   15                 10.1 + 2.3
   x Saratovskaya 29 (spring)
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                   
 
      A physiological-genetical study has shown that differences in the type
 of plant development (winter, alternative and spring wheats) are due to
 their different response to light in the tillering stage.  Their different
 response to vernalization is determined by the light reaction.
 
 
      The plants show two reactions to photoperiod slightly different in the
 degree of expression:  the stronger one is manifested by non-vernalized (1),
 the weaker one by vernalized (2).  As a result of vernalization, plants lose
 the ability of adaptive reaction, i.e., lagging development and growth under
 the light conditions preceding the oncoming of adverse winter conditions,
 the reaction essential for the normal vegetation in the favorable season of
 the year spring - summer.  The reaction to photoperiod and lagging
 development under short-day conditions of non-vernalized spring and
 alternative cultivrs and wintering of winter cultivars (lagging development
 under both long- and short-day conditions) are basically phenomena of the
 same order, the differences between them are mainly quantitative.
 
      Wintering of winter cultivars is the most pronounced reaction to
 photoperiod.  The least expressed reaction to photoperiod is shown by spring
 cultivars as a slight lag of development under short-day conditions.  It is
 expressed to a greater extent by alternative cultivars as a more significant
 lagging under short-day conditions, and to the greatest extent by winter as
 the most marked lagging of development under short- and even long-(natural
 summer) day conditions.
 
      Differences in the types of plant development (winter, alternative and
 spring), mode of life (annual or perennial) and duration of the vegetative
 period of plants are largely determined by their light reaction at the
 initial period of life.
 
      The type of plant development as well as length of the vegetation
 period cannot be conditioned by the vernalization.  It is a facultative
 process, which takes place under certain conditions (in autumn) and does not
 take place under the other ones (in summer).   The type of plant development
 is due to their different reaction to light at the beginning of their life
 (in the gramineous plants at the tillering phase).  The spring plants have
 the ability to a slight development delay under the short-day.  The
 alternative plants have the ability to a considerable delay under the short-
 day and the winter plants have the ability to delay under the short and the
 long day.
 
      The length of the vegetation period for the spring-sown plants (spring
 and alternative) is conditioned by the light reaction in the non-vernalized
 plants (we called it the 1-st photoperiodic reaction) but for winter-sown
 plants (alternative, winter) it is conditioned by the light reaction in the
 vernalized plants (we called it the 2-d photoperiodic reaction).
 
      A photoperiodic reaction in non-vernalized plants is slightly different
 from that in vernalized ones in the degree of expression.  As a result of
 vernalization plants lose the ability of adaptive reaction expressed as a
 lag of development under definite light conditions, the light reaction is
 affected.  Plants of all types respond to vernalization with an acceleration
 of development depending on their light reaction.  They respond only under
 definite illumination conditions, and the response is the higher the greater
 the delay.  Thus, the differences in the type of plant development, i.e.,
 the lengths of the vegetation period in wheats are due to their different
 light reaction in the tillering stage and related response to vernalization.
 
      The role of vernalization in ontogenesis of plants is associated with
 changes in their photoperiod reaction (light reaction) as result of which
 they lose their ability to delay growth and development (considerably under
 influence of the photoperiod preceding wintering (alternative, plants-short
 photoperiod, and winter plants - short and long photoperiod).
 
 -------------------------
                          ITEMS FROM SOUTH AFRICA
 
      Department of Genetics, University of Stellenbosch
 
      R. de V. Pienaar*, G. F. Marais*, H. S. Roux, J-M. Hay and
 G. M. Littlejohn
 
      Durum wheat breeding.  The production of durum wheat in South Africa
 was discouraged since 1990, because pasta products made from subsidized
 wheat were sold on the South African markets by neighbouring Botswana
 (belonging to the South African toll union) at prices below the production
 cost of durum grain.  The result was that the 1991/92 durum crop fell to an
 estimated 500 tons.  In the past, 20 000 tons of durum wheat were utilized
 annually by the South African
 
 pasta industry.  Since levies on the durum crop are used to fund our
 breeding program, it will of necessity have to be scaled down until such
 time that market forces will again permit the profitable production of durum
 wheat.
 
      USD8712, a selection from CIMMYT's 15th IDSN entry 99 (= GDO VZ578//LDS
 MUT/GTA'/3/FULI'S'), was released as the cultivar Orania.  Its pasta quality
 and yield are superior to that of Goeie Hoop and Rama.   Pasta products made
 from the latter cultivars won seven gold medals at the Monde S‚lection,
 Barcelona, Spain, in 1991.  Over a period of four years at two localities,
 Orania gave an average yield of 11.3 t/ha in the irrigated elite trials
 compared to the 10.5 t/ha of Goeie Hoop, and the 10.3 t/ha of the best
 yielding bread wheat check, Gamtoos (= a VEERY selection).   Orania also has
 better mildew resistance and straw strength than the other cultivars.  
 Replicated yield trials (318 lines), 1020 rod rows (advanced lines) and 354
 segregating families were planted at Rietrivier near Kimberley, while a
 further 319 lines and CIMMYT's 23rd IDSN were grown at Stellenbosch.
 
      Triticale breeding.  The popularity of triticale for feed grain and
 silage is steadily increasing.  In the Cape Province an estimated 30 000 ha
 have been planted.   Seed of the newly released cultivar USGEN 19 (=
 ANOAS'S' of CIMMYT) has been increased and will be available to farmers in
 1992.  During 1991 it outyielded the current cultivars USGEN 10, USGEN 14
 and USGEN 18 (all of which had become susceptible to leaf and stem rust). 
 USGEN 19 has a higher hectolitre mass than the older cultivars, and it is
 resistant to the prevailing leaf and stem rust races.
 
      Junior and senior trials (276 lines) were planted on a sandy soil under
 rainfed conditions at the Mariendahl Experiment Station near Stellenbosch,
 while another 580 advanced lines were screened in rod rows.  The best triticale
 line yielded 6.4 t/ha, whereas the bread wheat check Palmiet only produced 3.3
 t/ha.   Selections were made in 360 segregating families.
 
      Cytogenetics.  The transfer of the telosomic series in Chinese Spring to
 Pavon 76 has progressed to the B(7)F(1) thanks to the co-operation of Kathleen
 Ross and J.P. Gustafson of the USDA, ARS at the University of Missouri,
 Columbia.   The kr(1), kr(2) and kr(3) crossability genes are also being
 transferred from Chinese Spring to Pavon 76 and its telosomic series.
 
      The semi dwarf genes Rht2 and Rht8 are being transferred from the D genome
 of common wheat to durum wheat by utilizing the ph1b mutant and the nulli 5B
 tetra 5D stocks in crosses with durum wheat addition and substitution lines. 
 The Thinopyrum ponticum and Th. distichum derived genes for leaf and stem rust
 resistance (Lr19 and Sr25) and their closely associated genes for yellow
 endosperm, are being transferred from Agatha and Indis to durum wheat and
 triticale.   Durum wheat plants with 2n=28-30 have been obtained that possess
 the resistance genes.   The genes in Triticum dicoccoides that code for high
 protein content are being transferred to triticale via a T. dicoccoides/Henoch
 rye amphiploid.   B(3)F(2) plants were obtained that had 15-17% protein,
 whereas the recurrent triticale parent, USGEN 18, had 10-11%.
 
      It was concluded that the Indis translocation is homoeologous to the
 Lr19 translocation in Agatha, and the suffix "d" was adopted to distinguish
 the Indis homoeoalleles.   Deletion mapping showed the linear order of
 several genes on the Indis translocation to be: centromere, Lr19d, Wsp-D1c,
 Y1d and Y2d.   Sr25d was found to be situated distally from Lr19d.   Four
 ph-induced recombinants were confirmed to carry Lr19d and a segregation
 distorter gene Sd-1d, but to have lost Sr25d, Y1d and Y2d.   In the
 recombination events, Lr19d was apparently re-translocated to an unknown
 chromosome(s).   At least three of the four recombinants have an altered
 gametocidal property, and depending on the genotype of a translocation
 heterozygote, may show preferential transmission or abortion, or may not
 have any effect on segregation ratios.   This would suggest the existence of
 an enhancer gene(s) of Sd-1d on the original translocation.   It was also
 concluded that promoters or suppressors of the gametocidal effect occur on
 several chromosome arms.   The interaction of the wheat response factors
 with the gametocidal factors on the translocation determines the nature and
 magnitude of segregation distortion.
 
      An octoploid hybrid of Chinese Spring and the Russian wheat aphid
 resistant rye, Turkey 77, was backcrossed to common wheat in an attempt to
 derive an addition line carrying the resistance.   Attempts to transfer leaf
 and stem rust resistance from Triticum speltoides and Triticum tauschii,
 respectively, were continued.
 
 
      Personnel changes:  After 35 years at the University of Stellenbosch, the
 last 22 as head of the Department of Genetics, Prof. R. de V. Pienaar has
 retired.  As Professor Emeritus, he will, however, continue his research in
 Room 1026, Welgevallen Experiment Station, University of Stellenbosch, 7600
 Stellenbosch, South Africa (his new address).
 
 G.M. Littlejohn joined the Wild Flower Breeding Unit of the Department of
 Agricultural Development at Elsenburg.
 
      Visiting scientists.  Prof. P.S. Baenziger, Department of Agronomy,
 University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA, visited the department on a FRD grant for
 a six week period.   Dr. R.J. Griesbach, Florist Nursery Crop Lab, USDA,
 Beltsville, MD, USA, also spent a few days with the department.
 
      Conference.  The University of Stellenbosch hosted the 1st Conference
 of the SA Plant Breeders Association, May 2-3.
                                        
                                  Publications
 
 Potgieter, G.F., Marais, G.F. & Du Toit, F. (1991) The transfer of
 resistance to the Russian wheat aphid from Triticum monococcum L. to common
 wheat.  Plant Breeding 106: 284-292.
 
 -------------------------
      Department of Plant Pathology, University of the Orange Free State,
 Bloemfontein 9300
 
      Z.A. Pretorius and F.J. Kloppers
 
      Wheat leaf rust.  Our research program involves the characterization of
 resistance expression, with the aim of using this information when selecting
 for specific Lr gene combinations.  In characterizing resistance expression,
 factors such as growth stage, temperature, race effects, and their
 interactions, are being investigated.  The influence of these factors on
 inheritance is also studied.  Furthermore, field studies in epidemic
 situations are conducted to determine the disease response of lines
 containing promising resistance genes.  During 1991, expression of the
 recently named Lr35, Lr36 and Lr37 genes was studied.  All three genes are
 currently effective to local pathotypes.
 
      In a backcrossing program, Lr12, Lr21, Lr22a, Lr29, Lr32, Lr34, Lr35,
 Lr36 and Lr37 are being incorporated individually in adapted spring and
 winter types.  Once agronomically acceptable leaf rust resistant plants have
 been recovered, gene combination lines will be developed.
 
      Fusarium head blight.  A collection of wheat lines, obtained from the
 Cimmyt head blight program in Paraguay, was evaluated in a field nursery and
 greenhouse during 1991.  Following artificial inoculation with Fusarium
 graminearum in the greenhouse, and natural infection by F. poae, F.
 crookwellense and F. graminearum in the field, 38 lines were selected on a
 basis of disease incidence and severity.  These lines will be evaluated in a
 replicated trial in 1992 after which a breeding program involving the most
 resistant genotypes will be initiated.
 
                                Publications
 
 Brink, E. G. & Pretorius, Z.A. 1991. Expression of wheat leaf rust
 resistance gene Lr35.  Phytophylactica 23:98 (Abstr.).
 
 Drijepondt, S.C. & Pretorius, Z.A. 1991. Evaluation of wheat leaf rust
 resistance gene combinations in segregating populations.  Phytophylactica
 23:99 (Abstr.).
 
 Drijepondt, S.C. & Pretorius, Z.A. 1991. Expression of two wheat leaf rust
 resistance gene combinations involving Lr34.  Plant Disease 75:526-528.
 Drijepondt, S.C., Pretorius, Z.A. & Rijkenberg, F.H.J. 1991. Effects of
 growth stage, leaf position and races of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici
 on Lr34 resistance in wheat.  Phytophylactica 23:53-58.
 
 Kemp, G.H.J., Pretorius, Z.A. & Smith, J. 1991. Anthracnose of wheat in
 South Africa.  Phytophylactica 23:177-179.
 
 Kloppers, F.J. & Pretorius, Z.A. 1991. Early-growth stage detection of
 resistance conferred by Lr37 to leaf rust of wheat.  Phytopathology 81:1199
 (Abstr.).
 
 Pretorius, Z.A. 1991. Evaluating Frontana wheat for resistance to leaf rust. 
 Phytopathology 81:1189 (Abstr.).
 
 Pretorius, Z.A., Brink, E.G. & Van Deventer, C.S. 1991.  Selecting for
 resistance to wheat leaf rust in Frontana seedlings.  Phytophylactica 23:97
 (Abstr.).
 
 Uys, M.D.R. & Pretorius, Z.A. 1991. Inhibition of fungal growth of
 Pyrenophora tritici-repentis on fungicide-amended media.  Phytophylactica
 23:98 (Abstr.).
 
 ------------------------- 
      Department of Plant Breeding, University of the Orange Free State,
 Bloemfontein 9300
 
      C.S. van Deventer, M.T. Labuschagne and M. C. B. Coetzee
 
      Soft wheat breeding programme.  This recently established, unique
 breeding program expanded significantly over the past year.  Evaluation of
 the F4 is already in progress.  More germplasm was imported from France and
 the USA.  The aim of the program is to breed soft wheats for the irrigation
 areas, for the production of soft wheat products such as cookies and cakes. 
 Research into soft wheat quality and breeding was stimulated from this
 program, and the following projects are in progress:
 
 1.  The expression and inheritance of HMW glutenin subunits in wheat (PhD
 project).
 
 2.  The effect of temperature on the combining ability of several spring
 wheats (MSc project).
 
 3.  The effect of kernel softness on biscuit making properties (MSc
 project).
 
                                Publications
 
 Labuschagne, M.T. and Van Deventer, C.S. 1992.  The effect of moisture
 stress on yield and yield components of several wheat cultivars and their
 F1-hybrids.  J. Agronomy and Crop Science (In press).
 
 ------------------------- 
      PANNAR (PTY) Ltd., P. O. Box 17164, Bainsvlei, 9338
 
      F. du Toit, S. S. Walters, Audrey Brummer
 
      On January 1, 1992, Pioneer Seed Company (Pty) Ltd., changed its name
 to PANNAR (PTY) LIMITED.  Only the name has changed and the company will
 continue to operate on the same basis as before.
 
      Winter wheat.  In 1991 PANNAR submitted its first hard red winter wheat
 line for provisional classification.  This line could be finally released in
 1992 depending on final baking quality tests.  The line is fairly tolerant
 to drought and heat stress and resistant to prevalent stem rust races in the
 Orange Free State Province
 
      Spring wheat.  The first hard red spring wheat lines were tested in the
 southern and western Cape Province (winter rainfall area) and under
 irrigation in the northern Cape Province.  One line outyielded the highest
 yielding check (cv. Gamtoos) by 21%.
 
      Russian wheat aphid resistance breeding.  Considerable progress has
 been made towards the development of RWA resistant wheat lines through
 backcrossing.  Acceleration of generations permitted three to four
 backcrosses in the case of intermediate and spring types during 1991.  Field
 resistance was highly effective and no differences in yield were measured
 between unsprayed and sprayed resistant lines.  Unsprayed resistant lines
 yielded the same as sprayed susceptible cultivars in a split-plot trial. 
 Increasing numbers of resistant parents are being used in the crossing block
 each year.  For the first time, at least some of the segregating populations
 were not sprayed for RWA and resistant plants were selected in the field. 
 Twenty-five wheat lines found to be resistant in the USA, were screened in
 the greenhouse.  Thirteen of these lines showed good levels of resistance
 and will be used in genetic studies and development of resistant germplasm.
 
      Personnel.  Audrey Brummer, formerly from the Small Grain Centre at
 Bethlehem, has joined PANNAR in March 1991 as secretary/technician.
 
 -------------------------
      Small Grain Centre, Grain Crops Research Inst.,Bethlehem
 
      H.A. van Niekerk* , P.R. Celliers, D.J. Exley and Riana Pretorius
 
      Breeding.  Winter wheat.  The cultivar 'Betta' with resistance to
 Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) will be submitted for final classification as a
 bread wheat.  'Tugela' with similar resistance was not accepted as a bread
 wheat, but this cultivar will be given to farmers in the neighboring
 country, Lesotho.
 
      Mentzchen Marais has now also joined this group and she will
 concentrate on RWA research.
 
 -------------------------
      H.A. van Niekerk, F. Koekemoer, Anschen Grobbelaar, Ren‚ee Prins, T.G.
 Paxton, Suzette Jordaan,      R.Britz, T. van A. Bredenkamp and Suretha Pelser
 
      Spring wheat.  From the dryland component of the program four lines
 have been identified as potential new cultivars, should the quality be
 acceptable.  These lines are W84/17, W90/2, W90/3 and W90/13 .  From the
 irrigation lines BSP89/11 will be submitted for release as a cultivar and
 BSP89/14 will be submitted for provisional classification.
 
 -------------------------
      I.B.J. Smit and Antoinette Otto
 
      International Nurseries.  A total of 293 selections were made from the
 previous seasons International Nurseries and evaluated as single rows under
 irrigation at various locations.  These rows replace trial entries for a
 faster evaluation of better adapted lines.  Of these entries 8% were
 selected for elite trials.  
 
      Some 15 International nurseries, established under irrigation, were
 evaluated for all relevant agronomic characteristics and various diseases. 
 Apart from a severe powdery mildew and a slight leaf rust infection, the
 lack of infection was apparent.  This is probably related to the dry and hot
 conditions prevailing during most of the growing season.  The entries to
 these nurseries were, wheat 1469, barley 77 and triticale 219.  Of these
 entries 14% were selected for further evaluation.
 
 -------------------------
      I.B.J. Smit, F. Groenewald
 
      Germplasm bank.  The National Small Grain Germplasm Research Facility,
 Aberdeen, Idaho was visited to obtain information pertaining to the
 upgrading of the local germplasm bank.  All available germplasm material was
 planted as winter and spring plantings to identify winter and spring entries
 and to observe the degree of purity of seed.  A new cold storage facility
 was obtained as well as special computer equipment to handle the growing
 data base.
 
 ------------------------- 
       D. van Lill*, J.L. Purchase and O.T. de Villiers
 
      Wheat Quality.  The effect of environment on yield, bread-making
 quality and protein composition of S A winter wheats. Genetical factors
 determine bread-making quality, but the expression of these factors may also
 be affected by environmental growing conditions.  The objective of this
 study was to assess the magnitude of cultivar, environment and their
 interaction on the yield, bread-making quality and quantitative protein
 composition of five winter wheat cultivars commonly grown in the Orange Free
 State.  Yield and protein content were predominantly influenced by
 environment, whereas mixing time was mainly genetically determined. 
 Variation of quality parameters within cultivar groups were strongly related
 to variation in total protein-, gliadin- and glutenin content, but not to
 remarkable quantitative variation of either storage protein fractions.   The
 magnitude of environmental interactions emphasizes the need for an efficient
 system for the quality screening of early generation wheat lines in South
 African breeding programmes.  Such a system is discussed.
 
 -------------------------
      D. van Lill, J.L. Purchase, O.T. de Villiers and M.F. Smith
 
      The effect of agronomic practices on yield, bread-making quality and
 protein composition of winter wheats.  The purpose of this study was to
 determine if cropping systems (wheat monoculture, crop rotation, early and
 late planting date) would affect bread-making quality through variation in
 protein composition.  Climatic differences over years had a marked effect on
 the interaction between agronomic practices and quality attributes. 
 Favorable climatic conditions post anthesis enhanced yield and protein
 content for crop rotation.  Planting date played a minor role.  Dough
 quality groupings according to Glu-1 scores suggested that HMW glutenin
 properties principally contributed to bread-making quality.  Under stress
 related conditions, yield was reduced and protein contents increased for
 monoculture x early planting date.  Crop rotation realised higher yields and
 acceptable protein contents.  Later planting date improved yield and protein
 content in the drier year.  However, dough development time decreased
 despite increased protein content, but could not be related to variation in
 gliadin:glutenin ratios.  These results sustained findings that various
 protein attributes contribute to variation in bread-making quality. 
 However, favorable climatic conditions after flowering enhanced the genetic
 potential of inherent quality wheats.  Agronomic practices aimed at
 conservation of soil water content, contributed towards achievement of
 genetic potential and the positive management of crop quality, provided crop
 rotation had been applied.
 
 ------------------------- 
          D. van Lill, B.S. Wentzel and O.T. de Villiers
 
      The effects of nitrogen supply on the protein content of five S A
 winter wheats.   Analysis of wheat plants grown in pots under greenhouse
 conditions were conducted to study the effect of N supply from the soil on
 distribution of N in both vegetative and reproductive parts of five South
 African winter wheat cultivars.  Also, whether the effect of N applications
 at anthesis on protein content differed among cultivars.  N content and its
 distribution in vegetative material at anthesis was strongly influenced by
 genotype and N availability.  It also appeared that cultivars showed
 variation in their ability to store N in different plant components and that
 increased N availability contributed to this variation.  Maintenance of N
 supply was necessary to improve dry matter production and nitrogen harvest
 index.  It was also shown that variation in grain N% among cultivars was
 related to differences in the efficiency of N redistribution and post
 anthesis utilization of available N.
 
 -------------------------
      D. van Lill, Connie Benson, B.S. Wentzel and O.T. de Villiers
  
      The effect of cultivar and environment on the formulation of a 100g
 bread-making test.  This study evaluated the suitability of a 100g baking
 formula for the evaluation of the respective contributions of genotype,
 locality and their interaction to variation in loaf volume.  It was showed
 that formula components contributed differently to the variation in loaf
 volume induced by genotype, environment or their interaction.  This formula:
 flour (100g, 14% mb), optimum water absorption, yeast 5.75%, sugar (6%),
 salt (1.5%), shortening (3%) and ascorbic acid (50 ppm), was excellently
 suited for evaluation of the bread-making quality of cultivar adaptation
 trials.
 
 -------------------------
      D. van Lill, Chrissie van den Berg, J.L. Purchase and O.T. de Villiers
 
      A protocol for assessment of early generation winter wheat quality. 
 The evaluation of early generation wheat quality is an important aspect in
 breeding programmes. This article describes the development of a protocol
 for testing early generation winter wheat cultivars.  Equations for
 estimated water absorption, loaf volume and baking strength index, were
 based on data obtained from a wide range of cultivar adaptation trials
 executed in the Orange Free State.
 
 -------------------------
      H.A. Smit*, J. Purchase, P.A. Visser, A.H. Botha, M. Maritz, Hesta van
 Tonder, C. de Wet,  A.Rautenbach, J. du Plessis and Hannelie du Plessis
  
      Agronomy and Plant Physiology.  1991 Crop Conditions.  The three major
 wheat producing regions of South Africa are the Western Cape (Mediterranean
 climate), the Orange Free State (summer rainfall region) and the irrigation
 areas along the major rivers.  Spring types are generally planted in the
 Western Cape and under irrigation, while winter and intermediate types
 dominate production under dryland conditions in the Orange Free State.  The
 OFS produces approximately 60% of the total annual crop, the Western Cape
 25% and approximately 15% is produced under irrigation.  The total wheat
 crop for the period 1 November 1991 to 30 October 1992, as estimated by the
 Wheat Board, should amount to 2,2 million metric tons, which is very close
 to the average total annual production and equals the annual demand of the
 country.  Conditions were relatively favorable in the Western Cape, except
 for the eastern regions of the Ruens, and in the Western, Central end
 Eastern OFS, but a severe drought reduced yields considerably in the
 important wheat producing area of the Northern and North-Eastern OFS.
 
      Cultivar adaptation under dryland conditions.  Due to the large
 variation that exists in climatic conditions and soil types within the
 respective regions, intensive cultivar adaptation programmes are necessary
 to make accurate recommendations to the producers regarding cultivar
 selection, optimum planting date and seeding rate.
 
      In the OFS a great diversity of cultivars are recommended, including a
 number of F1 hybrids.  As a result of the extremely low seeding rates (10-30
 kg/ha) that are used, the cultivation of hybrids is a viable proposition in
 certain areas, despite the high seed cost.  Generally the semi-dwarf hybrids
 out-perform the tall purelines under favorable conditions, but not under
 drought conditions, which occur fairly regularly.  The exception is 'Carina'
 (B205 from Cargill) which yields exceptionally well over a wide range of
 environments.
 
      Plant physiology.  The plant physiology programme is mainly concerned
 with factors affecting coleoptile length, preharvest sprouting and the
 determination of physiological and morphological factors associated with
 drought tolerance.  The programme also concentrates on characterising
 cultivars and advanced breeding lines in terms of vernalization requirement
 and photoperiod sensitivity, which are important aspects of adaptation.
 
      Intensive data collection for the running of the Ceres Wheat Model has
 been a priority this last year.  Since conditions for wheat cultivation in
 the OFS are rather unique, it will be interesting to observe the accuracy
 and applicability of the model to our conditions.
 
 -------------------------
      H.A. Smit, C.G. Burbidge, Hesta van Tonder, H.S.C.A. van der Merwe and
 W. van der Westhuisen.
 
      Cultivar adaptation under irrigation.  An intensive spring wheat
 cultivar adaptation research program is run in five irrigation areas which
 vary in climatic conditions.  Spring wheat cultivars and promising breeding
 lines from the Small Grain Centre, as well as from private seed companies,
 are included in the trials.  These trials are conducted at 30 localities and
 at least three planting dates per locality.  These trials, analyzed over
 years with the A.M.M.I. model, act as guidelines to wheat producers
 regarding cultivar choice, optimum planting date and planting density.
 
      Plant physiology.  In most irrigation areas of South Africa, the grain
 filling period of spring wheat coincides with periods of high evaporation
 demand and high day temperatures.  All the irrigation wheat cultivars that
 are recommended in South Africa are being evaluated under temperature
 controlled conditions and also in field trials in terms of grain filling
 rate and duration.  Preliminary results suggest that considerable genetic
 variation exists between local genotypes for both rate and duration of grain
 filling in the different irrigation areas.
 
 -------------------------
      Annelie Barnard
 
      Preharvest sprouting.  Research consisted of an evaluation trial in
 which South African cultivars were compared to international standards and
 screened for preharvest sprouting resistance.  The relatively warm ripening
 conditions, together with a high rainfall during or just prior to harvest
 present a major challenge to breeders attempting to safeguard their
 varieties against weather damage.  To achieve this goal the identification
 and utilization of components of sprouting resistance, apart from dormancy,
 are needed.  Preliminary experiments have been undertaken and further
 research is in progress.
 
 -------------------------
      H.A. Smit, H.H. Knobel, C.F. Pool, B.L. de Villiers, R.C. Lindeque and
 J.P. du Toit 
 
      Weed Research.  Combination studies.  Research in this regard is still
 being carried out on registered and unregistered herbicide combinations. 
 Wild oat control by CGA 184927 was enhanced by bromoxynil in greenhouse
 trials.  Bromoxynil on the other hand was enhanced by both CGA 184927 and
 triasulfuron when evaluating climbing knotweed control in the greenhouse and
 field.
 
      Adjuvant studies.  Studies on the influence of adjuvants on the
 efficacy of herbicides and herbicide mixtures are still in progress.  The
 efficacy of the wild oat herbicide CGA 184927 was not improved by the
 adjuvant Citrex (R).  It appears as if the efficacy of this herbicide
 decreases at higher levels of Citrex(R).  This adjuvant did not increase
 grass control after it was added to a mixture of CGA 184927, parathion and
 thiometon.  Control of Bilderdykia convolvulus decreased after the adjuvant
 was added to a mixture of CGA 184927, bromoxynil and MCPA.
 
      Residual studies.  Studies to determine the residual effect of
 herbicides are still in progress.  Bioassays with lentils (Lens culinnaris)
 were conducted in a greenhouse to determine the effect of different
 properties of twenty natural soils on the activity of imazamethabenz methyl
 and a mixture of chlorsulfuron and metsulfuron methyl respectively.  The
 order of importance for imazamethabenz activity was:  %clay > %organic
 material > cation exchange capacity > % loam > pH:  and for
 chlorsulfuron/metsulfuron methyl activity:  pH > cation exchange capacity >
 %clay > %loam > % organic material.  Further studies to determine the effect
 of pH on the residual effect of these two herbicides are in progress.
 
                                Publications
 
 De Villiers, B.L. and Du Toit, D. 1991.  Efficacy of fenoxaprop-P-ethyl when
 applied in combination with bromoxynil and MCPA.  Appl. Pl. Sci.  5 (2):
 60-63.
 
 De Villiers, B.L. and Du Toit, D. 1992.  Antagonistic effect of MPCA on
 Avena sterilis control with tralkoxydim.  S.A. J. Plant & Soil (In Press)
  
 De Villiers, B.L., Knobel, H.H., Du Toit, J.P. and Smit, H.A.  1992. 
 Influence of combinations of CGA 184927 with bromoxynil and MCPA on wild oat
 (Avena sterilis L.) control. Appl. Pl. Sci (In Press)
 
 Knobel, H.H., De Villiers, B.L., Smit, H.A. & Lindeque, R.C. 1991. 
 Differential phytotoxicity of tralkoxydim, bromoxynil and a mixture of these
 two herbicides on South African wheat cultivars.  S.A. J. Plant & Soil (In
 Press)
 
 -------------------------
      S.C Drijepondt
 
      Pathology
 
      Leaf rust.  Due to unforseen circumstances, the leaf rust survey was
 not completed before contributions for this journal had to be supplied.  It
 would seem, however, that natural infections of leaf rust occurred
 throughout all the wheat producing areas of South Africa, except for the
 Eastern Cape Province.  Natural infections in the Eastern Orange Free State
 were higher than usual.
 
      Current emphasis in the breeding programme for resistance to leaf rust
 at the Small Grain Centre is to seek for and incorporate complex resistance
 in commercially adapted cultivars.
 
      Leaf rust of barley is also a problem in the barley producing areas of
 South Africa.  During this past season we did a restricted survey to
 establish some race differentiation.  This will be expanded in the coming
 season, whereafter resistance evaluation of the existing barley cultivars
 will be done.
 
 -------------------------
      J. Smith*                     
                               
      Stem rust research.  Stem rust of wheat is presently still under good
 genetic control in South Africa.  No major outbreaks have been recorded
 since 1984.  During the 1990 season stem rust was not recorded on any
 commercially grown wheat.  Collections for isolations were made mainly from
 the South and Western Cape, the Eastern Cape and the Eastern Transvaal. 
 Although the annual stem rust survey has not been completed, indications are
 that 2SA102 (the race carrying virulence for Sr27) predominates.  The only
 other race which occurred in significant amounts was 2SA4 which has
 virulence for Sr9e and Sr30.  Races with virulence for Sr24 have diminished
 considerably.
 
      The most probable reason why 2SA102 predominated was because triticale
 is planted as a fodder and many triticales carry Sr27 which thus provide an
 alternate host for this race.  2SA102 does not present a threat to
 commercial wheat cultivars because it has avirulence for the major
 resistance genes currently employed in South Africa.
 
      Future work on stem rust at the Small Grain Centre will entail the
 characterization of certain genes, alone and in combination and the study of
 these genes when incorporated into commercial wheat cultivars.
 
 
                                Publications
 
 Smith, J., & Hattingh, M.J.  1991.  Fluorescent pseudomonas associated with
 diseases of wheat in South Africa.  Journal of Phytopathology 133:36-48.
 
 Smith, J., Hattingh, M.J., & Kemp, G.H.K.  1991.  Pseudomonas syringae pv.
 striafaciens associated with diseased oats in South Africa.  Phytophylactica
 23:235-236.
 
 Kemp, G.H.J., Pretorius, Z.A., & Smith, J.  1991.  Anthracnose of wheat in
 South Africa.  Phytophylactica 23:177-179.
     
 -------------------------
          G.J. Knobel, W.H. Kilian, W.M. Otto and Verna Wessels
 
      Plant Nutrition
 
      Soil acidity research.  Field trials were conducted in the Eastern
 Orange Free State to determine the practical value of existing variation
 between wheat cultivars with respect to their tolerance to high levels of
 aluminium.  Five soil acidity levels which varied between pH(KCl) 4,0 and
 5,2 were used to test four wheat cultivars known to vary in their tolerance
 to aluminium.
 
      Results showed that the cultivars can be divided into two groups,
 namely a tolerant and a susceptible group.  The tolerant group showed a
 decrease in yield of only 8% at a pH(KCl) level of 4,0 when compared to the
 control (pH 5,2), while the susceptible group showed a yield loss of 23%
 under the same circumstances.
 
      The results obtained from this research showed clearly that the
 different levels of tolerance to aluminium in cultivars is very important
 and that this could be used by producers, together with a responsible liming
 program, to produce acceptable yields under acid conditions.
 
 -------------------------
          W.H. Kilian*, W.M. Otto and Verna Wessels
     
      Nitrogen fertiliser and protein content.  A study was conducted in the
 Free State over a period of nine years to determine the possibility of
 manipulating the protein content of wheat grain by applying additional
 nitrogen fertiliser.  The results showed that nitrogen fertiliser almost
 always increased the protein content of the grain.  This increase was 0,2%
 for every 10 kg N/ha applied.
 
     At the same time the protein content varied with as much as 7% from one
 season to the other.  It was determined that this variation was due to
 mainly soil moisture conditions before anthesis in the Eastern Free State,
 while this factor as well as temperature during grain filling was
 responsible for the variation in the Central and Western Free State where
 temperatures go above 30øC.
 
      It is clear from these results that it will not be practical for
 producers to manipulate protein content by applying additional nitrogen
 fertiliser, since weather conditions normally plays a bigger role in
 determining the grain protein than nitrogen fertiliser.
 
 -------------------------
      J.P.C. Tolmay and B.J. Pieterse*
 
      Soil Cultivation.  The use of water potential as an indicator of soil
 water shortage in tillage research on wheat was investigated.  During the
 stage of spikelet differentiation, significantly more soil water was
 measured under conventional tillage compared to no-tillage.  These
 differences were however not reflected in leaf water potential due to
 sufficient soil water content under both tillage practices to prevent plant
 water stress.
 
      In another experiment, leaf water potential was monitored hourly for 72
 hour period to compile a leaf water potential diagram.  Leaf water potential
 was relatively stable from 03:00 to 05:00 and from 14:00 to 16:00.  Results
 of these experiments proved the importance of leaf water potential in
 explaining yield differences in soil tillage experiments.
 
 -------------------------
      G.J. Prinsloo*, Vicky Tolmay, Belinda Koen and J.L. Hatting
 
      Entomology.  Resistance breeding against Russian Wheat Aphid, Diuraphis
 noxia.  Good progress has been made during 1991 with the breeding of
 resistant cultivars.  Application was made to the Wheat board to release the
 first cultivar with resistance to D. Noxia.  A few lines were also evaluated
 under field conditions.
 
      Biological control.  Two strains of the hymenopterous parasitoid
 Aphelinus varipes were introduced against 
 D. noxia during 1991.  One strain originated from the USSR, while the other
 from Germany.  These strains will be released and evaluated in the coming
 season.
 
 -------------------------
                             ITEM FROM TURKEY
 
      CIMMYT, P. K. 39 Emek, 06511 Ankara
 
      Hans-Joachim Braun, Thomas S. Payne
 
      Personel.  Dr. Byrd C. Curtis retired in mid-1991 after nearly four
 decades of involvement in cereal research.  Dr. Curtis jointed CIMMYT in
 1981 as leader of the Wheat Program.  Since 1988, he served as the
 CIMMYT/ICARDA Regional Coordinator based in Ankara, Turkey and Aleppo,
 Syira.  While in Aleppo, he was also responsible fore Facultative (High
 Altitude) Wheat Breeding.  Dr. Curtis now resides in Ft. Collins, Colorado.
 
      Dr. Gene Saari has returned to CIMMYT/Mexico to assume the position of
 Leader of Plant Pathology, Wheat Program.  Dr. Thomas S. Payne, CIMMYT Wheat
 Breeder based in Ankara, Turkey, has filled the Facultative Wheat position. 
 
      International Nurseries.  The results of the 5th International Winter
 Wheat Screening Nursery (IWWSN) were distributed in December, 1991.  WxS
 derivatives performed well.  Five of the 10 highest yielding entries are WxS
 crosses and the most winterhardy entry was a WxS cross.  The results of the
 6th IWWSN are expected to be finalized in the spring, 1992.  
 
      The Facultative and Winter Wheat Observation Nursery (FAWWON) is
 organized by the National Wheat Improvement Program of Turkey, CIMMYT and
 ICARDA.  The FAWWON replaces the International WInter Wheat Screening
 Nursery (IWWSN; Turkey/CIMMYT) and the Wheat Observation Nursery High
 Altitude Areas (WON-HAA; ICARDA).  The 1st FAWWON, distributed in August
 1991, contains 140 entries distributed to 120 cooperators in 48 countries.  
 
      Production.  The winter was unusually cold in the Aegean Region
 (Izmir), but spring wheat yields were normal.  In the Cukurova area (Adana)
 spring wheat production was much lower than normal.  Yield trials in
 Cukurova were in the range of 3 - 5 tons/ha, while normal yields vary
 between 8 - 9 t/ha.  In particular low yields were caused by ground pearl
 infestation (Porphyrophora tritici Bod.).  Seri was susceptible to this
 insect and damage was so heavy that in some fields yields were below 2t/ha. 
 Leaf rust infection was heavy, but Seri 82, the most grown variety, is still
 resistant. 
 
 Yields in Thrace (winter wheat area) were low due to a heavy leaf rust
 epidemic--all commercially grown varieties are susceptible  (mainly
 Yugoslavian and Bulgarian varieties).  Root rots were also identified and
 they seem to be becoming more important in Turkey, both in Thrace and on the
 Anatolian Plateau.  This problem has to be addressed soon and initial
 discussions have been held with Dr. John Hamblin, ICARDA. 
 
      The central Anatolian Plateau experienced the worst yellow rust
 epidemic since the 1970's.  The winter was very mild (Inia 66 survived
 without winterkill) and the spring cold.  Rains were sufficient and well
 distributed.  Gerek 79, grown on 1.5million ha was 100S.  Kernel size was
 significantly reduced.  The prevailing race was Yr6 + Yr7, which has
 dominated the WANA region for a long time.  
 
      Point aside.  The yellow rust resistance of Bezostaya is remarkable
 (see Results of 3rd through 5th IWWSN).  More than twenty years after it's
 release and being more widely grown than any other winter wheat variety, the
 resistance (partial?, durable?) is still holding including in hot spots like
 Kenya and Ecuador.  
 
      Winter, Facultative, Spring comparative yield trial-Syria.  During Byrd
 Curtis' tenure at ICARDA-Syria, he recognized various similarities between
 northwestern Syria (Tel Hadiye) and his native region, Oklahoma.  He was
 able to quantify latitudinal, seasonal, agro-meteorological, and agronomic
 similarities.  However, in Oklahoma winter cereal production predominates
 due, in part, to moisture distribution patterns skewed towards late
 winter/early spring, rapid early-season temperature fluctuations resulting
 in precocious plant development and late-spring frosts, terminal heat and
 moisture stress, and rapid temperature transition between winter and summer. 
 These same constraints occur in northern Syria, however, winter-sown spring
 (low vernalization requiring) cereal cultigens predominate.  Might adapted
 facultative or winter wheat cultivars be appropriate for this area too?
 
      Further evidence supporting adaptation of winter/facultative cereal
 production for northern Syria may be gained from vernal analysis of endemic
 cereal landraces.  Drs. Ceccarelli and Tahir confirm that facultative
 barleys predominate in accessions collected in the northern-tier of
 provinces in Syria.  Dr. Jan Valkoun (ICARDA Germplasm Resources Unit)
 suggests that this is also the pattern in endemic wheat accessions, however,
 this will be confirmed in a joint-project to be conducted in 1992.  We
 speculate that until about 30 years ago, an admixture of vernal requiring
 (facultative/spring) cultigens was grown in northern Syria.  With the
 introduction of Mexipak, a revolutionary change away from traditional
 varieties occurred, and as a consequence the area became known to early IARC
 scientists as a "spring wheat" environment.  This classification continues
 today.
 
      During the 1990/91 growing season, an alpha-lattice replicated yield
 trial comparing the response of 44 winter and facultative wheats, and 22
 spring bread wheats was grown at five locations in northern Syria, Tel
 Hadiya, Hasakeh, Kamishly, Idleib and Azaz.  Winter and facultative wheats
 performed well across locations.  Excluding Hasakeh, seven of the top twelve
 performing lines were winter or facultative.  The winter and facultative
 group tended to perform better under harsher (drier) conditions.  Great
 Plains (USA) winter wheats were at a competitive disadvantage because of
 lateness, possibly because of a strong vernalization requirement.  
 
      Micro-Nutrient Imbalance.  Curiously, wheat production in the central
 Anatolian Plateau has been characterized by few wheat cultivars.  Incidious
 production constraints may limit germplasm adaptation and restrict cultivar
 acceptance.  Dr. Tony Rathjen, Waite Institute, Adelaide, Australia, was
 asked to check Turkish cultivars, in particular Gerek 79, and land races for
 response to micro-nutrient dificiency or toxicity.   Preliminary results
 indicate that Turkish cultigens exhibit a wide array of efficiencies to
 nutrient deficiency and tolerance to toxicities.  Furthermore, Gerek was
 identified as very tolerant to Cereal Cyst Nematode, a pathogen thought to
 occur widely in Turkey.  
 
      Micro-nutrient deficiency or toxicity differentials for Mn, Zn, B, and
 Cu, were planted in Konya (two locations) and Eskisehir (three locations). 
 Phenotypical observations showed that 'Halberd' was the only entry without
 obvious leaf necrosis, while 'Durati' (Zn-inefficient) died at all
 locations.  In continuing research, soil and tissue samples from the central
 plateau will be analyzed for N, P, K, Zn, Fe, Cu, B, and Mn.  
 
      Turkey/CIMMYT/ICARDA Winter Cereals Traveling Seminar.  The 1991
 Turkish Travelling Seminar was organized jointly between
 Turkey/CIMMYT/ICARDA and served 34 participants including 16 Turks, 2
 Russians, 1 Rumanian, 1 Bulgarian, 1 South African, 1 Dutch, 3 Iranians, 1
 Pakistani, 2 Americans, 3 CIMMYT staff, and 3 ICARDA staff.  The seminar was
 designed to visit winter cereal environments in Thrace and west-central
 Anatolia.  
 
      The cropping cycle was atypical (!?) with greater than normal spring
 rains that favored epiphytotic development.  Leaf and stripe rusts
 predominated and the general weakness of germplasm resistance was obvious. 
 Comment was made that severe yellow rust epiphytotics on the Anatolian
 Plateau were a one-in-ten year event and that breeding for resistance didn't
 merit the risk/benefit ratio.  However, as the seminar progressed and the
 extent of the epiphytotic became evident (Gerek79 planted to > 1.5 million
 ha. was very susceptible), breeder's attention to the importance of
 releasing cultivars that exhibit both performance and disease stability
 increased.  
 
 
                              Publications
 
 H. J. Braun and W. Pfeiffer.  1992.  Environments for selecting widely
 adapted spring wheats.  Submitted to Crop Science for consideration.   
 
 Results of the Fifth International Winter Wheat Screening Nursery (5th
 IWWSN), 1989/90. CIMMYT/Turkey.  
 
 Singh, R. P., T. S. Payne, and S. Rajaram.  1991.  Characterization of
 variability and relationship among components of partial resistance to leaf
 rust in CIMMYT bread wheats.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics.  82: 674-
 680.
 
 Singh, R. P., T. S. Payne, P. Figueroa and S. Valenzuela.  1992.  Comparison
 of the effect of leaf rust on the grain yield of resistant, partially
 resistant and susceptible spring wheat cultivars.  American Journal of
 Alternative Agriculture.  7:  In press.
 
 Payne, T. S.  1992.  Facultative and Winter Wheat Breeding.  IN:  Cereal
 Improvement Program:  Annual report for 1991.  ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria.
 
 -------------------------
                       ITEMS FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM
 
      Cambridge Laboratory, JI Centre for Plant Science Research, Colney
 Lane, Norwich
 
      A.J. Worland*
 
      Rht12, a possible alternative semidwarfing gene.  Semi dwarf stature in
 wheat seems essential to the production of cultivars adapted to current high
 input farming practices.  The range of dwarfing genes utilised in breeding
 is, however, restricted primarily to the GA insensitive dwarfing genes from
 Norin 10 (Rht1 and Rht2) and in Southern Europe from Saitama 27 (Rht1S), and
 the GA responsive dwarfing genes from Akakomugi Rht7 and Rht8).  It is,
 therefore, of interest to evaluate alternative sources of dwarfing genes
 that may be commercially viable.
 
      One possible alternative dwarfing gene is Rht12 located on chromosome
 5A of the X-ray derived Hungarian mutant line Karkagi.  This gene is GA
 responsive, dominant, and from initial analysis said to have no pleiotropic
 effects on yield.  To investigate the gene, isogenic lines are being
 developed in the cultivaral backgrounds of Bersee, Bezostaya, Cappelle-
 Desprez, Huntsman and Mercia.  It is intended to develop isogenics to 8
 backcrosses selecting Rht12, rht12 heterozygotes by their dominant dwarfed
 stature for further backcrossing.
 
      Initial analysis of the agronomic effects of the gene were determined
 by selfing heterozygous plants after the third backcross and growing F2
 progenies as spaced plants in field trials.  Approximately 750 plants were
 analyzed over the 5 cultivaral backgrounds.  Results showed that all awned
 plants lacking the dominant awn inhibitor (b1, b1) were short and that all
 plants lacking the dominant dwarfing gene (rht12, rht12) were awnless.  This
 must indicate very tight linkage between B1 and Rht12 on the long arm of
 chromosome 5A.  Additional evidence for this tight linkage was obtained by
 screening F3 progenies of the field experiment for  -amylase isozyme. 
 Karkagi showed a unique allele to the five recipient isogenic cultivars and
 the analyzed sample suggested 3% recombination between Rht12 and  -amylase,
 this being equal to reported linkages between B1 and  -amylase.
 
      Assuming that all awned plants are homozygous Rht12, Rht12 and that all
 short awnless plants are heterozygous Rht12, rht12, then pleiotropic effects
 on a range of agronomic characters could be determined for each of the three
 genotype classes involving Rht12.  The results indicate that compared to an
 average height of 105.5 cm for homozygous tall genotypes, the homozygous
 short plants were reduced in height by more than 50% to 51.1 cm. 
 Interestingly the gene was shown to be incompletely dominant as
 heterozygotes were significantly taller than homozygous dwarfs, averaging
 58.1 cm.
 
      All short plants, whether heterozygous or homozygous, showed much lower
 plant and tiller yield than tall segregants.  This might, however, be due to
 competition with the talls.  Grain number per spikelet and per ear and 1000
 grain weight were all reduced in short plants.  The effect of the dwarfing
 gene on tiller number varied with the background, with large increases in
 tillering associated with Bersee and small decreases with other cultivars. 
 Similar cultivaral interactions were seen for spike length with the gene
 having no effect in Bersee or Cappelle-Desprez backgrounds but reducing
 spike length with the three other genotypes.
 
      Although these initial results suggest Rht12 will not be of
 significance to breeding programmes, further experiments are being
 undertaken to determine the gene's effects in stands without competition
 between tall and short plants and also to determine its behaviour under a
 range of contrasting environmental conditions.
 
 -------------------------
      I.P. King, K.A. Purdie, T.E. Miller, C.N. Law*, W.J. Rogers
 
      Exploitation of chromosome 4S(l) from Aegilops sharonensis for the
 production of stable 44-chromosome wheat.  A number of chromosomes from
 species related to wheat carry genes of potentially high agronomic value. 
 However, lines carrying a pair of such chromosomes have never been exploited
 commercially because they are unstable and are frequently lost during
 gametogenesis.  In order to overcome this problem translocations involving
 the long arm of the Aegilops sharonensis chromosome 4S(l), which carries the
 gene(s) determining preferential transmission, and the long and short arms
 of chromosome 1U from Aegilops umbellulata, which carry to the genes Glu-U1
 and Gli-U1 which affect bread making quality, have been isolated.  These
 translocations are stable and preferentially transmitted.
 
 -------------------------
      T.E. Miller*, S.M. Reader, I.P. King
 
      Aluminium tolerance.  Aegilops uniaristata has been shown to be
 tolerant to levels of soil aluminium normally toxic to wheat.  With a view
 to utilizing this tolerance to improve the tolerance of wheat a series of
 Chinese Spring/Ae. uniaristata addition lines are being produced.  So far
 five of the seven lines have been isolated and one, 3N, on the evidence of a
 preliminary screen shows tolerance.  The three substitution lines in which
 chromosome 3N has been substituted for chromosome 3A, 3B or 3D have been
 established and these will be screened for tolerance to aluminium.  A
 programme to recombine 3N with its wheat homoeologues has also been started.
 
 -------------------------
      S.A. Quarrie and A. Mahmood
 
      Improving salt tolerance in hexaploid wheat.  A range of spring wheat
 cultivars and breeding lines was examined for uptake of sodium from a
 hydroponic culture medium containing 150 or 200 mol m(-3) sodium chloride. 
 One cultivar, Kharchia (reputedly salt tolerant) accumulated moderate
 quantities of sodium in the leaves but had relatively very good shoot growth
 in saline.  In contrast, a breeding line, TW161, had excellent exclusion of
 sodium, though all the plants subsequently died in saline.  An attempt was
 made to combine the salt tolerance characteristics of Kharchia with the
 better salt exclusion of TW161 by making doubled haploid lines from the F(1)
 from the cross between them.  After chromosome doubling, 48 doubled haploid
 lines gave sufficient seed for a replicated trial in 0 and 150 mol m(-3)
 sodium chloride.  Although saline reduced the dry weight of the more
 tolerant Kharchia by over 50%, several of the doubled haploid lines
 performed much better and one line in saline gave over 80% of the dry weight
 of Kharchia under control conditions. This line also had better sodium
 exclusion than either of the parents.  Marker polymorphisms between
 Kharchia, TW161 and other salt susceptible lines are being identified so
 that genes regulating sodium uptake can be located by linkage analysis.
 
 -------------------------
      S.A. Quarrie and A. Steed
 
      Regulation of stress in wheat by abscisic acid (ABA).  Studies on the
 chromosomal distribution of genes controlling high ABA production have
 continued.  More monosomic lines of the high-ABA producing cultivar Inia 66
 have been examined for the presence of major genes affecting drought-induced
 ABA production.  In addition to the group 1 and group 5 chromosomes already
 studied (AWN 1991, p97), monosomics of groups 6 and 7 have been examined,
 but without any evidence for an effect of monosomy or nullisomy on ABA
 production.
 
      Two wheat genotypes differing by about three-fold in ABA production
 (Chinese Spring, low ABA and SQ1, an experimental high-ABA line) are being
 used to locate genes regulating ABA production using RFLP markers.  An F2
 population of 160 plants from the cross between them was separated into 24
 low- and 24 high-ABA plants on the basis of ABA accumulation in a detached-
 leaf drought test and DNA from these plants was probed with 10 genomic and
 cDNA probes showing polymorphism between the parents. Analysis of variance
 of ABA content of F2 plants grouped according to the Chinese Spring (CS),
 SQ1 or heterozygous genotype for a particular RFLP probe showed significant
 linkage (P  0.05) between high ABA content and probes for chromosomes 3BS
 and 5AL.  In collaboration with the University of Parma, Italy, DNA from
 these plants is currently being examined with other polymorphic probes for
 the group 3 and group 5 chromosomes to confirm these associations.
 
      Over 80 RFLP, isozyme and biochemical markers have so far been
 identified which show polymorphism between CS and SQ1 and these are being
 used to locate more precisely the genes for high drought-induced ABA
 production in doubled haploid lines derived from F1 plants of CS x SQ1 using
 the maize pollination method (AWN 1991, p97).
 
 -------------------------
      M.D. Gale*, K.M. Devos, J.B. Smith, M.D. Atkinson, C.N. Chinoy, R.L.
 Harcourt, T. Millan, D.X. Xie, J. Jizeng, O.A. Rognli
 
      RFLP based maps in wheat, barley and rye.  The RFLP maps continue to
 develop in all three species.  The wheat map, based on a Chinese Spring x
 'Synthetic' F2, backed up by Timgalen x RL4137 F2 and several other
 recombinant inbred and DH populations contains some 300 mapped loci which,
 in turn, place about another 250 by colinearity.  A feature of the map is
 extreme clustering of points in the region of the centromere, reflecting
 recombination predominantly in the distal chromosome regions.  Polymorphism
 levels are low with cDNA clones and homoeologous genomic DNA clones showing
 about 10% RFLP among our diverse cultivaral tester set.  Non-homoeologous
 loci, including chromosome specific sequences, supernumerary sequences with
 homology to sets elsewhere and sequences without close homologues in barley
 or rye, give higher levels of RFLP and tend to map away from the centromeric
 clusters.  The evolutionary translocations resulting in non-colinearity in
 chromosomes 4A (4A/5A/7B), 5A (5A/4A), and 7B (7B/5A) have been mapped and
 the breakpoints closely defined.
 
      The map of rye shows close colinearity, marred only by several large
 translocations, with that of the original A, B and D genomes of wheat. About
 130 loci have been placed and the centromeric clustering of RFLP loci is
 similar to that observed in wheat.
 
      During the year Chunji Liu obtained his PhD degree.  As a post-doc he
 is now leading a group developing RFLP maps in pearl millet.  Teresa Millan
 from Cordoba and Dao Xin Xie from Beijing both completed one year visits to
 the laboratory.
 
 -------------------------                           
      R. Bozorgipour, J.W. Snape*
 
      Selection of herbicide resistant lines using in vitro techniques.  Some
 important and widely used herbicides for weed control in wheat can cause
 damage to particular cultivars, indicating that genetical variation for
 differential responses exists in the species.  Past studies at the Cambridge
 Laboratory have shown that these responses are generally controlled by
 single major genes.  Given this type of genetical control, it should be
 possible to produce resistant analogues from successful, but susceptible,
 cultivars directly by inducing single gene mutations.  Since tissue culture
 protocols have been shown to induce somaclonal variation in wheat giving
 heritable changes, experiments were initiated to examine whether in vitro
 procedures could be used to generate and select herbicide resistant lines
 from susceptible cultivars.  Two different chemicals, difenzoquat and
 atrazine, were chosen to test the possibilities.
 
      Two genetically defined spring wheat cultivars were used, Chinese
 Spring (CS) and Sicco. Sicco is susceptible to difenzoquat and CS is
 tolerant.  Both genotypes, as with all known wheat cultivars, are
 susceptible to atrazine.  To generate and select variation, callus was
 initiated from immature embryos of both cultivars using standard procedures.
 Following callus initiation and growth for one month, tissue was subcultured
 onto media containing 5M, 10M and 50M concentrations of the active
 ingredients of the herbicides.  Plants were then regenerated, grown to
 maturity, and their progeny tested as whole plants for herbicide response by
 spray application.
 
      Plants were regenerated from the lower concentrations of the selective
 media for both herbicides, but not from those containing 50M of the
 herbicides.  For difenzoquat, variation in response, from extreme
 susceptibility to tolerance was observed in R(2)  Sicco derived lines,
 whilst the CS lines, as expected, were all tolerant.  However, genetic
 characterization of the presumptive Sicco mutants by progeny testing,
 revealed that the variation was not stably inherited, and resistance broke
 down at the R(3) generation.  No completely tolerant lines for atrazine were
 obtained, although some progenies showed greater tolerance than the parents. 
 However, plants of all of these lines died when submitted to commercial
 doses of the herbicide.  
 
      Overall, no clear evidence of successful selection for heritable
 mutations was obtained under selection pressure from either herbicide. 
 These results suggest that reliance on somaclonal variation, without an
 additional mutagenic treatment, may not be sufficient to generate the
 appropriate genetical variation for herbicide resistance, although such
 variation is known to occur naturally.  As an alternative approach, a cell
 culture system which ensures a large number of discrete/single cells with a
 high regeneration capacity, which is also amenable to chemical or ionizing
 radiation treatments, such as microspore culture, may be necessary to
 generate and select out the desired variation.
 
 -------------------------
      R. Johnson
 
      Genetic analysis of differential cultivars for wheat yellow (stripe)
 rust.  The wheat cultivar Heines VII is designated as possessing the gene
 Yr2 for resistance to yellow rust caused by Puccinia striiformis. Recently
 we showed that Heines VII was resistant to certain isolates of the pathogen
 that actually possessed virulence for Yr2. Thus it was clear that Heines VII
 possessed another gene or genes not previously recognised, in addition to
 Yr2. The gene (or genes) was extracted into a line designated as TP981. This
 line is susceptible to all known isolates of British origin but resistant to
 some isolates from other countries. Its susceptibility to British races that
 lack virulence for Yr2 indicates that TP981 does not carry Yr2.
 
      The differential cultivar Heines Kolben is described as possessing the
 gene Yr6, while Heines Peko is also thought to possess Yr6, but in addition
 to possess Yr2. Tests with a race classified as 6E0 (our accession number
 WYR 85/22) showed that Heines Kolben was susceptible, indicating that the
 race carries virulence for Yr6. Heines Peko and Heines VII were resistant
 which, at first sight, could be interpreted as indicating that the
 resistance of Heines Peko and Heines VII was due to Yr2. However, other
 evidence indicates that this isolate of race 6E0 does carry virulence for
 Yr2. Therefore the resistance of Heines Peko to this race is not due to
 either of the genes (Yr2 and Yr6) identified in it.
 
      TP981 was crossed with Heines Peko and the F2 was tested with race 6E0.
 There was no segregation in 100 seedlings. Although this is a small
 population, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that, in addition to
 the two identified genes, Heines Peko also possesses a gene or genes in
 common with those of TP981. Additional evidence indicates that the same gene
 or genes may also be present in some of the other differential cultivars.
 This is under investigation and has important implications for the
 international comparison of isolates of P. striiformis.
 
 -------------------------
      P. Nicholson, H.N. Rezanoor, T.W. Hollins (Plant Breeding International
 Cambridge)
 
      Occurrence of Tapesia yallundae apothecia on field and laboratory
 inoculated material and evidence for recombination between isolates. 
 Tapesia yallundae was observed in early July on wheat straws which had been
 inoculated with isolates of Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (W-type)
 nine months previously and placed in plots of winter wheat to act as
 inoculum in a resistance screen.  A perfect state was not observed on straws
 inoculated with R-type isolates in the same experiment.  134 single
 ascospore isolates were obtained and observations on morphology in culture,
 pathogenicity to wheat and rye seedlings, resistance to benomyl and the
 pattern of restriction fragment length polymorphisms demonstrated that all
 isolates were W-type, although some grew at half the expected rate on agar,
 and at least two isolates were involved in the production of apothecia.
 
      Apothecia were produced in vitro on straws inoculated with single
 isolates of P. herpotrichoides only when they were incubated in contact with
 other straws similarly inoculated with certain other isolates.  No apothecia
 were produced on straws with only a single isolate present, suggesting the
 need for at least two strains for apothecium formation, possibly
 representing different mating types.
 
      Evidence for genetic recombination between isolates was obtained when
 single ascospore colonies were analyzed for resistance to benomyl in culture
 and for restriction fragment length polymorphisms.
 
 -------------------------
      M.J. Ambrose
 
      AFRC Wheat Collection.  This year 68 wheat accessions from Nepal
 collected by the University of Bangor expedition in 1971 have been
 regenerated and incorporated into the collection (Acc. Nos. 9174-9242). 
 Listings of all
 
 land race material and selections from land races grouped by country of
 origin have been prepared and are available on request.
 
 -------------------------
                                Publications
 
 Bingham, JB, Law, CN, Miller, TE (1991).  Wheat Yesterday, Today and
 Tomorrow. Plant Breeding International, Cambridge and Plant Science Research
 Ltd. 25 pp.
 
 Devos, KM, Chinoy, CN, Atkinson, MD, Hansen, L, von Wettstein-Knowles, Gale,
 MD (1991).  Chromosomal location in wheat of genes coding for the acyl
 carrier proteins I and III.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics 82, 3-5.
 
 Devos, KM, Atkinson, MD, Chinoy, CN, Guiltinan, MJ, Quatrano, RS, Gale, MD
 (1991).  Chromosomal location and variability in wheat, barley and rye of a
 wheat gene encoding a bZIP protein (EmBP-1).  Theoretical and Applied
 Genetics 82, 665-667.
 
 Javornik, B, Sinkovic, T, Vapa, L, Koebner, RMD, Rogers, WJ (1991).  A
 comparison of methods for identifying and surveying the presence of 1BL.1RS
 translocations in bread wheat. Euphytica 54, 45-53.
 
 King, IP, Koebner, RMD, Reader, SM, Miller TE (1991).  Induction of a
 mutation in the male fertility gene of the preferentially transmitted
 Aegilops sharonensis chromosome 4S(1) and its application for hybrid wheat
 production.  Euphytica 54, 33-39.
 
 King, IP, Miller, TE, Koebner, RMD (1991).  Determination of the
 transmission frequency of chromosome 4S(1) of Aegilops sharonensis in a
 range of wheat genetic backgrounds.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics 81,
 519-523.
 
 Laurie, DA, Reymondie, S (1991).  High frequencies of fertilization and
 haploid seedling production in crosses between commercial hexaploid wheat
 varieties.  Plant Breeding 106, 182-198.
 
 Liu, CJ (1991)  Biochemical marker genes in hexaploid wheat.  Ph.D. Thesis,
 University of Cambridge.
 
 Manyowa, NM, Miller, TE (1991).  The genetics of tolerance to high mineral
 concentrations in the tribe Triticeae - a review and update.  Euphytica 57,
 175-185.
 
 Person-Dedryver, F, Jahier, J, Miller, TE (1991).  Assessing the resistance
 to cereal root-knot nematode.  Meloidogynenaasi, in a wheat line with the
 added chromosome arm 1H(ch)S of Hordeum chilense.  Journal of Genetics and
 Breeding 44, 291-296.
 
 Petrovic, S, Worland, AJ, Mirjana, V, Vucenovic, M (1990).  Efekt
 interakcije strane citoplazme i nikleusa heksaploidne psenice na komponente
 prinosa. Savremena Poljoprivreda 38, 263-265.
 
 Quarrie, SA (1991).  Implications of genetic differences in ABA accumulation
 for crop production.  Abscisic Acid Physiology and Biochemistry (Eds:
 Davies, WJ, Jones, HG) Oxford, BIOS Scientific Publishers, 227-243.
 
 Quarrie, SA (1991).  The role of abscisic acid in regulating water status in
 plants.  Bioloski Vestnik 39, 67-76.
 
 Quarrie, SA (1990).  Modifying drought responses of wheat by selecting for
 genetic variation in abscisic acid production.  Savrevena Poljoprivred 38,
 101-109.
 
 
 Raines, CA, Lloyd, JC, Chao, S, John, UP, Murphy, GJP (1991).  A novel
 proline-rich protein from wheat.  Plant Molecular Biology 16, 663-670.
 
 Reader, SM, Miller, TE (1991).  The introduction into bread wheat of a major
 gene for resistance to powdery mildew from wild emmer wheat. Euphytica 53,
 57-60.
 
 Rogers, WJ, Payne, PI, Seekings, JA, Sayers, EJ (1991).  Effect on
 breadmaking quality of x-type and y-type high molecular weight subunits of
 glutenin.  Journal of Cereal Science 14, 209-221.
 
 Sutka, J, Worland, AJ, Maystrenko, OI (1991).  Slight effect of the
 cytoplasm on frost resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Cereal
 Research Communications 19, 311-317.
 
 Taeb, M (1991).  The genetics of salt and waterlogging tolerance in wheat
 (Triticum aestivum).  Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cambridge.
 
 Tao, YZ, Snape, JW, Hu, H (1991).  The cytological and genetic
 characterization of double haploid lines derived from triticale x wheat
 hybrids.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics 81, 369-375.
 
 Wang, ML, Atkinson, MD, Chinoy, CN, Devos, KM, Harcourt, RL, Liu, CJ,
 Rogers, WJ (1991). RFLP-based genetic map of rye (Secale cereale L.)
 chromosome 1R. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 82, 174-178.
 
 Worland, AJ, Law, CN, Petrovic, S (1990).  Height reducing genes and their
 importance to Yugoslavian winter wheat varieties.  Savrementa Poljoprivreda
 38, 245-258.
 
 Zeller, FJ, Cermeno, M-C, Miller, TE (1991).  Cytological analysis on the
 distribution and origin of the alien chromosome pair conferring blue
 aleurone color in several European common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)     
 strains.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics 81, 551-558.
 
 -------------------------
      John Innes Institute, JI Centre for Plant Science Research, Colney
 Lane, Norwich
 
      J.S. Heslop-Harrison, A.R. Leitch, T. Schwarzacher, K. Anamthawat-
 J¢nsson and I.J. Leitch.
 
      Detection of alien chromosome transfer using genomic in situ
 hybridization.  We have been developing methods to use total genomic DNA
 from an alien species as a probe to detect the alien in wheat. 
 Collaborative work with recombinant stocks from AKMR Islam (Waite
 Institute), R. Kynast and R. Schlegel (Gatersleben), R.M.D. Koebner, T.E.
 Miller and C.N. Law (Cambridge Laboratory), has shown that relatively small
 segments of barley, rye and Aegilops umbellulata chromatin can be detected
 in situ when translocated onto wheat chromosomes.  Use of two differently
 labelled probes simultaneously is also proving valuable.
 
      Further developments of the genomic probing method are enabling alien
 chromosomes or chromosome segments to be followed within interphase nuclei.
 Interphase cytogenetics has many potential applications because
 differentiated tissues can be examined, and there is no need for good,
 complete, metaphase spreads to be made - monosomic and disomic alien lines
 can be identified simply by counting the number of sites of hybridization at
 interphase. The data also give information about the three dimensional
 organization of the interphase nucleus.  Alien chromosome arms tend to lie
 in discrete domains, and in disomic stocks the two domains are not closely
 associated in somatic tissue - we have found no evidence for the somatic
 association of homologous chromosomes.
 
 -------------------------
      J.S. Heslop-Harrison, A.R. Leitch, T. Schwarzacher, G. Moore and
      Mingli Wang (in collaboration with N. Carter,
      Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge and N. Miller, IAPGR,
      Babraham).
 
      Flow Cytogenetics of wheat.  We have separated many chromosomes in a
 Triticum aestivum cell suspension line (TaKB1) on a dual laser fluorescence
 activated cell sorter.  Although the chromosome complement differed in every
 cell examined, the flow karyotype remained stable for many months, showing
 that the average karyotype is stable.  One chromosome peak has been sorted
 and a DNA library made which is strongly enriched for sequences derived from
 chromosome 4A.  We have demonstrated that flow cytometry is possible with
 cereal chromosomes and is likely to be valuable for analysis and mapping of
 large plant genomes, such as that of wheat.
 
 
                                Publications
 
 Leitch, IJ, Leitch, AR, Heslop-Harrison, JS (1991).  Physical mapping of
 plant DNA sequences by simultaneous in situ hybridization of two differently
 labelled fluorescent probes.  Genome 34, 329-333.
 
 Heslop-Harrison, JS (1991).  The molecular cytogenetics of plants. J. Cell
 Sci. 100, 15-21.
 
 Leitch, AR, Schwarzacher, T, Mosg”ller, W, Bennett, MD, Heslop-Harrison, JS
 (1991).  Parental genomes are separated throughout the cell cycle in a plant
 hybrid.  Chromosoma 101, 206-213.
 
 Schwarzacher, T, Heslop-Harrison, JS (1991).  In situ hybridization to plant
 telomeres using synthetic oligomers.  Genome 34, 317-323.
 
 -------------------------
      W.J. Angus*, D.R. Stephenson, R.E. Granger.  Nickerson Seeds, Ltd., 4
 Enterprise Park, Etna Road, Bury St.  Edmunds, Suffolk.
 
      Following the disinvestment of The Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies
 (Shell) from participation in the plant biotechnology, breeding and seeds
 business of the Nickerson International Seed Company Limited (NISC) in
 Spring 1990
 
 the company was purchased by the French based company Groupe Limagrain. 
 Groupe Limagrain is the largest seed company in the EEC and the third
 largest in the world.
 
      The consolidation of the UK wheat breeding programme at Bury St.
 Edmunds in Suffolk (as reported in AWN Vol. 33 and 35) has continued over
 the past five years. The current position is one where all winter and spring
 wheat selection nurseries, the majority of yield trial plots and disease
 observation  nurseries are either sited at Bury St. Edmunds or are managed
 from that site.  Remaining at the former location in Lincolnshire are
 disease observation nurseries and some yield trials.  This provides
 supplementary disease information and yield results from an alternative soil
 type and climate area.  Yield trial preparation will continue from Rothwell
 in Lincolnshire.
 
      From March 1992 the section of the company responsible for the
 purification and early stock multiplication, previously based in Narborough,
 Norfolk will be amalgamating with the wheat breeding team in Suffolk.  A new
 office and warehouse has been constructed to the east of Bury St. Edmunds
 (Woolpit) sited only a few minutes from breeding and production fields.
 
      This amalgamation will lead to closer liaison and improved efficiency
 between the two sections. Further, it allows wheat quality analysis work to
 be relocated from Rothwell to Woolpit. All milling, baking, predictive and
 electrophoresis tests can be carried out at a single purpose built site -
 the first time since 1986.
 
      All of the benefits that were thought to accrue from a move south to
 Suffolk have been realised. The environment, in combination with more
 efficient machinery and a committed workforce, has allowed the programme
 size to treble with no addition to staffing levels. The evaluation of the
 trials and breeding material has improved with trial CVs being low (circa 2-
 5%) and correlations with official trial results being very high.
 
      The establishment of the trials has improved as a result of earlier
 drilling into warmer, more uniform seedbeds.  Husbandry of the crop has
 improved, largely as a result of crop development monitoring through apical
 dissection work. This has allowed very precise application timings of plant
 growth regulators, fungicides and fertilizers.  As a consequence the crop
 has utilised inputs to a maximum, which in combination with early drilling,
 has highlighted inter-varietal yield differences.  With the precise
 application of plant growth regulators, the crop standing ability under such
 optimum yield conditions is differentially expressed so facilitating
 selection.
 
      The fruits of these changes are starting to show through the increased
 rate of varietal acceptance into the most advanced series (Recommend List
 Trials) of the UK national trialing system.
 
      In 1990/91 the spring wheat Baldus (a Cebeco agency cultivar) was
 entered into Recommend List Trials and  provisionally recommended that
 autumn.
 
      Baldus (Sicco x Kolibri) is a very high yielding spring wheat which has
 performed well in autumn sowings.  It has good breadmaking quality and good
 grain characteristics.  Baldus has a good disease resistance spectrum to all
 major UK diseases.
 
      In 1991/92 two winter wheat cultivars, Spark and Zodiac, and a spring
 wheat, Rascal, were promoted to Recommended List Trials.
 
      Spark (Moulin x Tonic) is a high yielding, hard milling cultivar
 suitable for breadmaking. Spark shows good flour extraction rates and high
 hagberg falling number.  The cultivar has a 'conventional' straw type with
 good standing power which is responsive to growth regulators.  It has good
 resistance to all the major wheat diseases in the UK.
 
      Zodiac (Hammer x Parade) is a very high yielding feed wheat with good
 specific weight and good standing power.  Again it is a cultivar that has
 good resistance to all the major wheat diseases in the UK in particular to
 current races of yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis).
 
      Rascal (Cub x Minaret) is a high yielding, very early, spring wheat
 which has performed well as a autumn sown wheat.  It has very good
 breadmaking quality.  Rascal has a good disease resistance spectrum to major
 UK diseases.
 
      The very good disease spectrum of both Spark and Zodiac may enable
 growers to reduce the costs of fungicide sprays with the potential for
 improved gross margin.  An important factor in todays economic climate.
 
 -------------------------
                       ITEMS FROM THE UNITED STATES 
                                 ARKANSAS
 
       University of Arkansas
 
       R.K. Bacon*, B.R. Wells, E.A. Milus, J.T. Kelly and  D.G. Dombek
 
       Production. According to the Arkansas Agricultural Statistics Service,
 Arkansas farmers planted 1,100,000 acres and harvested 930,000 acres of
 winter wheat in 1991. Average yield in the state was 22 bu/A accounting for
 a total production of 20,460,000 bu, which was 87% less than the average for
 the previous ten years. The reduced production was due to the lowest yields
 since 1958 caused by unfavorable weather and diseases and reduced acreage.
 
       Management. Field studies were conducted at three locations to
 evaluate the response of five cultivars to management practices. These
 practices included fall N and P fertilization, spring N fertilization rates
 and use of a foliar fungicide. Excessive rainfall during the entire season
 resulted in very low grain yields and test weights. At one location, on a
 clay loam soil, a combination of saturated soils in December followed
 immediately by extremely cold temperatures resulted in high levels of plant
 mortality of Florida 302 and Coker 9877. Pioneer 2548 and Pioneer 2555 were
 not affected by the cold temperatures. In a second N rate study located on a
 silt loam soil, maximum grain yield of Cardinal, Wakefield, Saluda and
 Caldwell were obtained with spring fertilizer N rates of 60 to 90 lb/A.
 Higher N rates, while not increasing yields, decreased test weights. This
 study also received excessive rainfall throughout the season.
 
       Mr. Don Obert is continuing his work to determine the possible
 allelopathic effects of rice straw on a succeeding wheat crop.  Exotic rice
 lines exhibiting allelopathic effects on ducksalad have been incorporated
 into the study.  This research is to be continued with additional genotypes
 and fertility regimes being examined.
 
       Diseases. A complex of head blight diseases was especially severe in
 1991.  Fusarium head scab was the most obvious component in most fields, but
 black chaff and glume blotch also were severe in many fields.  The head
 blight complex and the physical effects of too much rainfall during the
 spring were the principal causes of the record low yield and test weight.  A
 Southern Regional Information Exchange Group was formed to pool resources
 for controlling scab.  Seed of scab-resistant breeding lines from CIMMYT and
 the University of Minnesota were distributed to breeders, and there are
 plans for cooperative scab nurseries and fungicide tests.  Marsha Rhoads was
 hired in January 1991 as a research technologist and is working on
 biological control of Pythium and take-all root rots.  Agha Mirlohi was
 promoted to research associate in October 1991.
 
       Breeding and Genetics. The experimental line AR 26413B showed promise
 in the state yield trials. It was the earliest maturing line in the trials
 and showed excellent yield potential, particularly in the southern part of
 the state. The breeding program has put a renewed effort in developing
 early-maturing lines which will fit in a doublecropping system.
 
       A study conducted by Dr. John Kelly to characterize and select wheat
 cultivars for traits affecting nitrogen utilization has been completed. 
 There were significant differences found for several of the yield components
 with the number of kernels/m(2) having the highest relationship with grain
 yield and nitrogen utilization.  After two cycles of selection a significant
 difference between those plants selected for high and low nitrate reductase
 activity (NRA) was maintained. A Keiser/McNair 1003 population showed
 significant differences among the yield components measured with those
 plants selected for high NRA being significantly lower in tiller, spike, and
 kernel numbers.  The results so far of
 
 the selection scheme do not support the hypothesis that selection of high-
 yielding wheat genotypes can be identified by making selections for high
 NRA.
 
       Mr. Steve Schuler has completed a study determining factors affecting
 test weight and their relationship to quality.  Preliminary results
 indicated that test weight was not correlated with flour yield.  Measurement
 of kernel characteristics revealed that kernel length had a negative
 association with test weight.  Kernel size, and kernel weight showed no
 relationship with milling yield.
 
       The inheritance of metribuzin tolerance in four soft wheat cultivars
 commonly grown in Arkansas is being continued by Mr. Robert Wright.  The
 study is also investigating the linkage of coleoptile color to metribuzin
 tolerance in order to use it as a genetic marker.  
 
       Fifty-six cultivars and experimental lines were tested in the small
 grain performance tests at four locations in the state. Duplicate tests were
 planted at each location. One test received standard management practices
 whereas the other test received additional inputs such as a foliar fungicide
 and additional spring nitrogen. The mean yield of the high-input trials was
 9.5 bu/A greater than the mean of the standard trials. The top yielding
 cultivars in the standard-input trials were Stoneville/FFR 525W, Northrup
 King Coker 9803, Verne, Wakefield, Gore and Northrup King Coker 9024, all of
 which had an average yield across locations of 56 bu/A or higher. The top
 yielding cultivars in the high-input trials were Northrup King Coker 9835,
 Stoneville/FFR 525W, Northrup King Coker 9803, Wakefield, Mcnair 1003 and AR
 26413B all of which had an average yield across locations of 64 bu/A or
 higher.
 
       Personnel Changes. Dr. John Kelly has taken a Research Associate
 position in the area of wheat breeding.
 
       Mr. Gill Giese, Research Assistant, has left the program and is now a
 Research Associate in the Department of Entomology.
 
       After the current growing season, Mr. Don Dombek will work full-time
 with grain sorghum, maize and soybean variety testing. The small-grain
 breeding program will assume the responsibilities for cultivar testing in
 wheat and oats.
 
       Dr. Sorel Jacques, who finished his Ph.D. this spring, has been doing
 some consulting work with USAID in Haiti.
 
                                Publications
 
 Bacon, R.K., N.V. McKinney, E.A. Milus, D. Dombek, and T. Kirkpatrick. 1991.
 Arkansas wheat performance tests and variety selection. Ark. Coop. Ext.
 Service. Fact Sheet 2074.
 
 Bacon, R.K., S.F. Schuler, and J.T. Kelly. 1991. The interaction of
 cultivars on test weight in wheat blends. Cereal Res. Comm.(in press).
 
 Bacon, R.K., and B.R. Wells.  1991.  High input wheat management.  Ark.
 Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 929.
 
 Dombek, D.G., and M.L. May. 1991. 1990-91 Arkansas small-grain cultivar
 performance tests. 
 
 Jacques, S., R.K. Bacon, and C.E. Caviness. 1991. Performance of soybean
 blends and pure-lines in multiple cropping with wheat. Ark. Farm Res.
 40(4):5-6.
 
 Kelly, J.T., and R.K. Bacon. 1991. Characterization and selection of soft
 wheat for nitrogen utilization.  Agron. Abstr. American Society of Agronomy,
 Southern Branch, Madison, WI. p. 3.
 
 Mascagni, H.J., R.K. Bacon, E.A. Milus, and E.D. Vories. 1991. Effect of
 soil moisture and fungicide on yield, test weight, baking and milling
 quality of five wheat cultivars. Agron. Abstr. American Society of Agronomy,
 Southern Branch, Madison, WI. p. 11.    
 
 McKinney, N.V., and R.K. Bacon. 1991. Cultural practices for profitable
 wheat production. Ark. Coop. Ext. Service.  Fact Sheet 2071.
 
 McKinney, N.V., and R.K. Bacon. 1991. Wheat growth and development. Ark.
 Coop. Ext. Service. Fact Sheet 2070.
 
 Milus, E. A. and A. F. Mirlohi. 1991. Techniques for evaluating bacterial
 stripe resistance in wheat. Proc. of the Southern Small Grain Workers'
 Conference, Overton, TX. Pg. 7.
 
 Milus, E. A. and A. F. Mirlohi. 1991. A test tube assay for estimating
 populations of leaf-associated bacteria on individual leaves. Phytopathology
 81:1171.
 
 Milus, E. A., A. F. Mirlohi and C. E. Parsons. 1991. Evaluations of foliar
 fungicides on wheat, 1990. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 46:221.
 
 Milus, E. A., A. F. Mirlohi and P. W. Parker. 1991. Evaluation of seed
 treatments for control of loose smut, 1990.  Fungicide and Nematicide Tests
 46:289.
 
 Milus, E. A., C. S. Rothrock and M. L. Rhoads. 1991. Rhizosphere
 colonization by selected bacteria and effects on growth and soilborne
 diseases of wheat. Phytopathology 81: 1215. 
 
 Schuler S.F., R.K. Bacon, P.L. Finney, and E.E. Gbur. 1991. Milling quality
 of soft red winter wheat as influenced by test weight and kernel size and
 density. Agron. Abstr. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. p. 190.
 
 Wells, B.R., R.K. Bacon, and M.L. May.  1991. Intensive management studies
 with wheat. p. 15-22.  In W.E. Sabbe, editor.  Arkansas Soil Fertility
 Studies 1990.  Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Research Series 411.
 
 West, C.P., D.W. Walker, R.K. Bacon, D.E. Longer, and K.E. Turner.  1991. 
 Phenological analysis of forage yield and quality in winter wheat.  Agron.
 J. 83:217-224.
 
 -------------------------
 CALIFORNIA
 
      Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California,
 Riverside
 
      Christine A. Curtis, Bahman Ehdaie, Adam J. Lukaszewski, Mohammad
 Sadehdel-Moghaddam, Shakir    H. Shah, and J. Giles Waines
 
      Water-use efficiency in wheat, rye, barley and dasypyrum, and in their
 alien chromosome addition lines (Shah, Waines)
 
      'Chinese Spring' bread wheat, 'Imperial' rye, 'Betzes' barley, and
 Dasypyrum villosum G870 were grown in gravimetric experiments in pots in the
 glasshouse.  Water-use efficiency (kg biomass per kg water transpired) was
 greatest for Imperial rye and least for D. villosum G870; Chinese Spring
 bread wheat, and Betzes barley were intermediate.  In similar gravimetric
 studies with the alien chromosome addition lines obtained from Dr. E. R.
 Sears or Dr. Islam (Betzes barley), chromosomes 2R (Imperial) and 4H
 (Betzes) appear to react with the recipient Chinese Spring genome and
 improve water-use efficiency and drought resistance. 
 
      Genetic variability within Triticum urartu and between and within
 populations of Iranian Bluchestan and Khuzestan tetraploid and hexaploid
 landraces (Sadehdel-Moghaddam, Ehdaie, Waines)
 
      Wild species, landraces, and primitive cultivars of crop plants can be
 a useful source of many economically important traits.  In order to use
 plant materials available in the gene banks effectively in the breeding
 programs, they should be thoroughly evaluated.  We are conducting several
 field experiments to study Iranian Khuzestan and Bluchestan tetraploid and
 hexaploid landraces and also Triticum urartu accessions which are available
 in the University of California, Riverside, gene bank.  The materials will
 be characterized morphologically, especially for grain yield and its
 components.  The data will then be subjected to cluster analysis.  Also, the
 extent of genetic variability on these genotypes will be determined by
 electrophoresis using several enzymes. 
 
 -------------------------
      Inheritance of water-use efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination
 in bread wheat (Ehdaie, and Waines)
 
      Carbon isotope discrimination (D) has been associated with season-long
 water-use efficiency (WUE) in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),
 and it has been suggested as a selection criterion to improve WUE in wheat. 
 Contrasting parents 'Chinese Spring' and 'Yecora Rojo', and their F(1) and
 F(2) generations were grown in pot experiments in a glasshouse to study the
 inheritance of WUE and D.  Significant additive and dominance genetic
 effects were detected for both WUE and D.  Additive effects were larger than
 dominance effects.  Direction of dominance was toward higher WUE and higher
 D.  The broad-sense heritabilities of WUE were 80% and 70% and those of D
 were 94% and 86% under well-watered and water-stressed conditions,
 respectively.  The genetic correlation between WUE and D was -0.36 under
 well-watered conditions and -0.79 under water-stressed conditions.  Indirect
 selection for WUE through selection for D was only 18% less efficient under
 water-stressed conditions, but 61% less efficient under well-watered
 conditions compared to direct selection.  Carbon isotope discrimination
 could be used as a selection criterion to advance WUE under water-stressed
 conditions in the field. 
 
 -------------------------
      Heat resistance in wild Triticum and Aegilops (Ehdaie, Waines)
 
      Cultivars of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and macaroni wheat (T.
 turgidum L. var. durum) are sensitive to heat during vegetative and
 reproductive development.  The introduction of resistance from related wild
 species may provide the genetic variation necessary to breed heat-resistant
 cultivars.  Seventy-three wild accessions from seven species of Aegilops and
 several macaroni and bread-what cultivars were grown in the field at Moreno
 Valley, CA, in summer 1987.  In summer 1989, 59 wild accessions of Triticum
 and Aegilops, representing seven species, were grown at the same location. 
 The reduction in duration from sowing to anthesis under summer heat relative
 to normal cool winter season was from 43 to 45% for the macaroni and bread-
 wheat cultivars, but only from 13 to 25% for the heat-resistant wild
 accessions.  The survival rates of Aegilops squarrosa (93%) and Ae.
 speltoides spp. ligustica (97%) were similar but higher than those of the
 other wild Aegilops species during vegetative growth in 1987.  Considerable
 variation for heat resistance during early growth was observed among
 accessions of the S(B?) and A genomes in 1989.  Two accessions of Ae.
 speltoides spp. speltoides, three accessions of Ae. longissima, and six
 accessions of Ae. searsii were considered heat resistant.  These accessions
 came from eastern Israel, western Jordan, or southern Syria. 
 
 -------------------------
      Screening Iranian landrace wheat genotypes for resistance to Russian
 wheat aphid (Ehdaie, Waines)
 
      The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), was first
 detected in the Texas Panhandle of the USA in March 1986.  In the 1990
 season, our field experiments at the Moreno Farm of the University of
 California Agricultural Station, Moreno Valley, CA, were naturally infested
 by RWA.  The experimental cultivars, namely, 'Moringa' and its isogenic
 dwarf lines, 'Chinese Spring', 'Ramona 50', 'Yecora Rojo', and 'Mexicali',
 all were susceptible.  Visible damage by RWA on these genotypes was
 manifested as white streaking, purple discoloration, and tightly curled
 leaves.  However, the landrace lines collected from landrace populations of
 Iranian Bluchestan which were planted adjacent to the field experiments did
 not show any of these symptoms.  These landrace lines and landrace 
 genotypes collected from Khuzestan province of Iran are being tested for
 resistance to RWA under greenhouse conditions. 
 
 -------------------------
      Wheat cytogenetics (Curtis, Lukaszewski)
 
      The study of the physical distribution of recombination in the B-genome
 chromosomes of tetraploid wheat has been completed.  Recombination was
 scored in 90 segments in a sample of 916 chromosomes.  Recombination was
 absent in the proximal 37.8% of the arm length, infrequent in the proximal
 80% of the arm length, and concentrated in the distal about 20% of arm
 length.  The relationship between relative and genetic distances was
 exponential.  Strong positive chiasma interference was observed in 35 pairs
 of adjacent segments in which such analysis was possible (i = 0.81) and
 chiasma interference over the entire recombining portions of chromosome arms
 was 0.57.  This means that less than one half of the expected double
 crossovers occurred in the entire portions of chromosome arms involved in
 recombination.  The genetic lengths of chromosomes corresponded closely to
 the cytologically observed chiasma frequencies.  The distribution of
 recombination appeared closely associated with the distribution of chiasmata
 in MI indicating no chiasma terminalization.
 
      Four sets of disomic and ditelosomic wheat-rye addition lines were used
 to localize rye Rf genes capable of restoring male fertility in male-sterile
 wheats with timopheevi cytoplasm.  In all four ryes tested, the Rf genes
 were localized on chromosome arms 4RL and 6RL.  The Rf gene on 6RL has
 stronger effect and in some combinations restored full male fertility. 
 Considerable variation in the expression of the Rf gene on 4RL was found
 between the ryes tested, and is being used to map the gene relative to the
 centromere.
 
      Attempts are underway to transfer Russian wheat aphid resistance from
 triticale PI386148 to wheat.  This triticale,  its F(1) hybrids with wheat,
 and some backcross individuals show no symptoms of RWA in standard tests. 
 Triticale PI386148 has the rye genome of Secale montanum which may
 complicate the transfer of the responsible chromosome or its segments to
 wheat.  Preliminary results indicate that chromosome 4R is associated with
 the high level of resistance.
 
      Aneuploids of Chinese Spring:  new monosomics 1A and 7A, and double
 ditelosomic 2B, without the deficiencies/translocations reported earlier
 were reselected and are available.  A normal telocentric chromosome 4AS
 (rather than an acrocentric which was present in the set) was isolated and
 new DDt4A and Dt4AS Mt4AL lines were produced.  In addition, a ditelocentric
 4AS line was also produced.  However, its male fertility is extremely low
 and the line needs further increase before is becomes available for
 distribution.  Another round of selection against the 2AS.5AL translocation
 in the N5B T5A line, and for tetrasomics in group 3 failed.  A set of double
 monosomics (19"+ 5B' + 1') was grown.  However, of the 20 possible
 combinations, only 14 checked out correct.  Some of the missing combinations
 will be reselected.
 
 -------------------------
      Triticale cytogenetics (Lukaszewski)
 
      In triticale Rhino 14, disomic substitutions of D genome chromosomes
 for their A, B, or R genome homoeologues were produced (six backcrosses). 
 The remaining seven are in BC(4)-BC(6) stage.  All 21 monosomics of Rhino
 were selected; majority had seven to nine backcrosses to Rhino.  So far, 25
 telocentric chromosomes of Rhino were identified.  Following a second round
 of 5D(5B)-induced homoeologous recombination, chromosome 1R with a small
 interstitial segment of chromosome 1D with the Glu-D1 gene was isolated. 
 This chromosome can be used in triticale, wheat, and rye breeding to
 manipulate bread-making quality.
 
      In triticale Presto, 11 disomic substitutions following BC(6) were
 selected.  Nine substitutions are in the BC(4)-BC(6) stage; 7D(7R) is still
 missing.  A set of 20 monosomic was selected with majority having at least
 six backcrosses to Presto. Monosomic 7R was lost again and will need to be
 reselected from earlier generations.
 
 
                                Publications
 
 Curtis, C. A. and G. G. Doyle.  1992.  Production of aneuploid and diploid
 eggs by meiotic mutants of maize.  J. Hered.  (in press). 
 
 Ehdaie, B., A. E Hall, G. Farquhar, H. T. Nguyen, and J. G.  Waines.  1991. 
 Water-use efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination in wheat.  Crop
 Science  31:1282-1288.
 
 Ehdaie, B. and J. G. Waines.  1991.  Inheritance of water-use efficiency and
 carbon isotope discrimination in bread wheat.  Amer. Soc. Agronomy Annu.
 Mtg., Denver, Colorado.  Abstract.
 
 Graybosch, R. A., C. J. Peterson, L. E. Hansen, D. Worrall, D. Shelton, and
 A. J. Lukaszewski.  1992.  Comparative quality and protein characteristics
 of 1BL/1RS and 1AL/1RS wheat-rye translocation lines.  J. Cereal Chem.  (in
 press). 
 
 Lukaszewski, A. J.  1991.  E. R. Sears collection of wheat aneuploids:
 present status.  Proc. ITMI Meeting, Manhattan KS. (in press). 
 
 Lukaszewski, A. J.  1992.  A comparison of physical distribution of
 recombination in chromosome 1R in diploid rye and in hexaploid triticale. 
 Theor. Appl. Genet.  (in press). 
 
 Lukaszewski, A. J. and C. A. Curtis.  1991.  The relationship between
 physical and genetic maps of wheat chromosomes.  Proc. ITMI Meeting,
 Manhattan, KS.  (in press). 
 
 Lukaszewski, A. J. and C. A. Curtis.  1992.  Transfer of the Glu D1gene from
 chromosome 1D of breadwheat to chromosome 1R in hexaploid triticale.  Plant
 Breeding.  (in press). 
 
 Lukaszewski, A. J. and C. A. Curtis. 1992.  Rye-wheat translocations to
 double the dosage of Glu-D1 gene in wheat. Proc. HRWW Workers Conference,
 Lincoln, NE.  Abstract.  (in press). 
 
 Rafi, M. M., B. Ehdaie, and J. G. Waines.  Quality traits, carbon isotope
 discrimination and yield components in wild wheats.  Ann. Bot.  (in press). 
 
 -------------------------
 COLORADO
 
      Colorado State University 
 
      J. S. Quick, G. H. Ellis, R. Normann, M. Mergoum, S. Haley, K.
      Nkongolo, A. Saidi
 
 Production.  The 1991 Colorado winter wheat production was 71.3 million
 bushels, 85 percent of the 1990 crop, and the yield average was about 27
 bu/a.  Hard red spring, soft white spring and durum wheats were collectively
 grown on about 38,000 acres.  Leading cultivars were TAM 107, Baca, Scout
 66, Lamar, Hawk and Sandy. The most significant 1991 production factor was
 the damage caused by leaf rust in northeastern Colorado during the grain
 filling stage. The combination of significantly higher rainfall and a large
 acreage of the susceptible TAM 107 contributed to yield reduction.
 
 Breeding program.  Several new winter wheats were evaluated for potential
 release and 'Yuma', a semidwarf HRWW tested as CO850061, was released for
 eastern Colorado. It is superior to TAM 107 in baking quality and leaf rust
 resistance, and is equal to TAM 107 in grain yield and heat tolerance.
 'Fairview', a medium height HRWW was released for use in southwestern
 Colorado. It is superior to other currently grown cultivars in grain yield
 and straw strength and has very good dwarf bunt resistance and grain
 quality. An advanced HRWW line, CO860094, has performed very well in
 Colorado and regional tests and will be released in 1992 pending seed
 increase and final evaluation. 
 
 Selection progress was made for grain yield, grain volume weight, heat
 tolerance, leaf rust resistance and bread-making quality. Cultivar
 performance trials and Russian wheat aphid evaluations were conducted
 statewide. Our quality evaluation program was modified to include SDS
 sedimentation testing of all bulked F5 lines between harvest in August and
 planting in September (see Dick and Quick method, Cereal Chem. 60:315).
 Hence, all first year yield tests include only lines with acceptable gluten
 properties. Our results indicate that SDS sedimentation will predict
 mixograph mixing time for 90 percent of the lines. Construction of a
 climate-controlled growth room was completed and is now operational.
 
 
 Russian wheat aphid. The Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) damage and
 cost in 1991 was only about $3.5 million. The accumulated losses since 1986
 in Colorado are $91.4 million. The aphid overwinters in Colorado and
 survives the dry summer on native and introduced grasses. Much project
 activity was associated with Russian wheat aphid (RWA) research where
 excellent cooperation resulted in useful information for improvement of RWA
 resistance in wheat. Resistance to the RWA has been transferred from
 triticale to wheat lines by backcrossing. Low crossability, viability of F1
 embryos, and high sterility in early generations were restrictive factors
 during introgression. Chromosome 3R was found at the highest frequency among
 resistant substitution lines. Field tests of 800 T-57-derived resistant F5
 lines identified 112 lines with cultivar potential for 1992 tests. The major
 deficiency traits were winter hardiness, test weight and grain yield. One
 line, CORWA1, was released as improved germplasm for breeder use. Allelism
 studies indicate that at least five major resistance genes are present in
 wheats. 
 
 The first cycle of experiments were conducted in the new climate-controlled
 growth room. Plant water stress, genotypes (resistant and susceptible), and
 the RWA (present and absent) were evaluated. All three main effects and
 their two-way interactions were significant for biomass, grain yield, plant
 height, number of heads per treatment, and leaf chlorosis. The number of
 aphids reproduced on genotypes was independent of water stress treatments.
 In the resistant wheat, water stress was more important than RWA in reducing
 biomass and grain yield; however, in the susceptible wheat, RWA was more
 important than water stress in reducing these traits. We observed an
 additive effect of the RWA and water stress only on the resistant wheat.
 
 The chemical dessication method for post anthesis drought tolerance was
 effective in selecting among crosses between tolerant and sensitive parents,
 and in selectively improving tolerance of bulks prior to extensive line
 extraction and evaluation. 
 
 Significant improvement in androgenesis was obtained from cytoplasmic
 substitutions with Ae. kotschii and squarrosa compared to T. aestivum
 cytoplasm. Several doubled haploid lines were obtained from androgenesis and
 wheat x maize crosses among RWA resistant materials.
 
 A visiting scientist from Australia, Dr. Graham Wildermuth, initiated
 research projects on root rot tolerance during September 1991.
 
                                Publications
 
 Nkongolo, K.K., J.S. Quick, W. Meyer, F.B. Peairs. 1990. Gene locations for
 Russian wheat aphid resistance of 'Imperial' rye. Cer. Res. Commun. 18:307-
 313.
      
 Nkongolo, K.K., J.S. Quick, F.B. Peairs, and W.L. Meyer. 1991. Inheritance
 of resistance of PI372129 to the Russian wheat aphid. Crop Sci. 31:905-907.
 
 Nkongolo, K.K., J.S. Quick, A.E. Limin, and D.B. Fowler. 1991. Sources and
 inheritance of resistance to the Russian wheat aphid in Triticum species
 amphiploids and Triticum tauschii. Can J. Plant Sci. 71:703-708. 
 
 Quick, J.S., K.K. Nkongolo, W. Meyer, F.B. Peairs, and  B. Weaver. 1991.
 Russian wheat aphid reaction and agronomic and quality traits of a resistant
 wheat. Crop Sci. 31:50-53.
   
 Sun, Q.X., and J.S. Quick. 1991. Chromosomal locations of genes for heat
 tolerance in tetraploid wheat. Cer. Res. Commun. 19:431-437.
 
 Quick, J.S. 1991. Aphid-resistant variety released. Colorado Wheat Farmer.
 33 (No.4):1.
 
 Quick, J.S. 1991. Yuma is new CSU wheat variety. Colorado Wheat Farmer. 33
 (No.4)2:8.
 
 J.S. Quick, M. Mergoum, G.B. Wildermuth, and J.P. Hill. 1991. Root rot
 enhancement using plant water stress.  Paper presented at the International
 Common Root Rot Workshop, Saskatoon, Sask.
  
 Quick, J.S. 1991. Development of Russian wheat aphid resistant varieties.
 Wheat Technology Conference, February 1991, Chappell and Kimball, NE.
      
 Haley, S.D., J.S. Quick, and D.H. Smith. 1991. Selection for chemical
 dessication tolerance in winter wheat. Agron. Abstr. p. 97.
 
 Kisana, N., D.L. Johnson, and J.S. Quick. 1991. Alien cytoplasmic effects on
 androgenesis in wheat. Agron Abstr. p. 197.
      
 Meyer, W.L., F.B. Peairs, J.S. Quick, and J.W. Echols. 1991. Field
 evaluation of Russian wheat aphid damage in resistant wheats in artificially
 infested plots. ESA Annual Meeting.
 
 Nkongolo, K.K., and J.S. Quick. 1991. Transfer of resistance to the Russian
 wheat aphid from 6X triticale to common wheat. Agron. Abstr. p. 108.
 
 Quick, J.S., K.K. Nkongolo, and F.B. Peairs. 1991. Breeding wheat for
 resistance to the Russian wheat aphid. Agron. Abstr. p. 112.
 
 Quick, J.S. 1991. Development of Russian wheat aphid resistant wheat
 varieties. Annual Seed Growers Conference, Estes Park, CO.
           
 Quick, J.S. 1991. Russian Wheat Aphid vs. Wheat: The Genetic Battle. Sigma
 Xi Lecture, CSU, March. 
 
 -------------------------
 GEORGIA
 
      J. W. Johnson,* B. M. Cunfer,* P. L. Bruckner*, J. J. Roberts, * G. D.
 Buntin, and R. E. Wilkinson
 
      The 1991 Georgia winter wheat crop was grown on 425,000 harvested acres
 and produced an average of 31 bushels per acre. Favorable fall and winter
 temperatures resulted in good growth.  However, a wet winter followed by a
 wet spring resulted in significant damage from powdery mildew, leaf rust,
 and septoria nodorum blotch on susceptible cultivars.  Low test weight and
 high levels of seed infestation by seedborne fungi, including the scab
 fungus Fusarium graminearum, resulted in substandard seed germination. 
 Grain yields were not as low as expected with the amount of disease present;
 however, test weights of cultivars were extremely low ranging from 44 to 56
 lbs per bushel.
   
      NEW CULTIVAR RELEASE.  Sunland (joint release with Ron Barnett,
 Florida) is a spring-type triticale selected from the cross B-2736, Merino
 "S"/Juanillo, made at CIMMYT in Mexico.  Sunland was selected in 1983 as a
 high-yielding advanced line from CIMMYT's 14th International Triticale
 Screening Nursery grown in Florida and Georgia.  Sunland is an early-
 maturing, photoperiod-insensitive, hexaploid cultivar.  Average grain yield
 of Sunalnd (3265 kg ha(-1)) was 8% higher than Florida 201 and 40% higher
 than Beagle 82.  Average grain volume weight of Sunland (677 kg m(-3)) is
 greater than that of Florida 201 (638 kg ha(-1)).  Average seasonal forage
 yield of Sunland (4315 kg dry matter ha(-1)) was 5 and 20 % greater than
 Beagle 82 and Florida 201, respectively.  Crude protein and lysine content
 of Sunland have averaged 134 and 4.7 kg(-1), respectively.  Leaf rust and
 bacterial leaf blight resistance of Sunland is superior of Beagle 82 and
 Florida 201.
 
      GA-Mitchell is a winter oat developed from the cross of experimental
 lines, GA-76T-2507/GA-76T-2579. The pedigree of GA-76T-2507 is Coker
 234/CMB-3 and the pedigree of GA-76T-2579 is Coker 70-12/Coker 70-14//NC
 2469-2.  GA-Mitchell has a winter growth habit with a low vernalization
 requirement and excellent lodging resistance.  Average grain yield (3548 kg
 ha(-1)) was similar to Florida 501 and Coker 227.  Lodging resistance of GA-
 Mitchell (14%) eas superior to taht of Coker 227 (60%).  Test weight of GA-
 Mitchell is intermediate (427 kg m(-3)).  Average forage production was
 intermediate to Coker 227.  It is moderately resistant to prevalent races of
 crown rust and moderately susceptible to barley yellow dwarf virus.
 
      Ceruga -1 to -6  The USDA, ARS and University of Georgia released
 jointly six rust resistant soft red winter wheat germplasm lines.  Ceruga-1
 to -6 feature unique and currently effective combinations of resistance to
 wheat leaf rust.  The name Ceruga symbolizes the close cooperation between
 the USDA-ARS Cereal Rust Laboratory and The University of Georgia.  The six
 Ceruga lines were produced by crossing and recrossing sources of rust
 resistance with cultivars adapted to the Southeast.  Resistant progenies
 were sent to Georgia to select for agronomic characters and disease
 resistance in the field.  The most promising selections were returned to the
 Cereal Rust Laboratory for rigorous screening with leaf and stem rust
 cultures representing currently prevalent races in the Southeast and the
 broadest virulence combinations available.  The resistant lines possess
 combinations of resistance genes which provide protection against a wide
 array of leaf rust virulences.  They also possess some resistance to stem
 rust, providing important additional protection from this potentially
 devastating rust.  The lines are well-adapted agronomically to the
 southeastern United States.  They also have suitable soft wheat quality. 
 The parentages and pedigrees of the six lines are:
      
 Name         Pedigree                  Parentage
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------                   
 Ceruga-1     CRL83139A4-2-2-4-2-3      Nelson//Precoz Pareno/CK747
 Ceruga-2     CRL83170A12-6-3-3         Lani/Hunter//CK762
 Ceruga-3     CRL83212A7-1-4-5-3        CK762*2/Laborador
 Ceruga-4     CRL85044A-1-1-1           CK916//Tyler/Buck Manantial
 Ceruga-5     CRL83139A4-2-2-4-2-1      Nelson//Precoz Pareno/CK747
 Ceruga-6     CRL83152A1-10-1           Hunter*2/Precoz Pareno
 
      RESEARCH:  Drought.  A study was conducted to detect a possible non-
 hydraulic root signal in response to a drying top soil and to measure its
 effect on plant growth and production from emergence to maturity.  Wheat
 plants were established in a growth chamber in soil-filled tubes at three
 treatments: (1) watered from the top as needed to eliminate stress (IR), (2)
 constant water table at a soil depth of 100 to 120 cm, with no applied water
 (WT), and (3) plants grew on stored soil moisture and were rewatered when
 water stress developed (SW).
 
 The upper part of the soil column in WT became dry and hard while roots
 reached the water table in less than 30 days.  No significant differences
 occur in midday leaf water potential and relative water content between IR
 and WT.  WT as compared with IR, resulted in earlier heading, smaller flag
 leaf area, reduced shoot weight, reduced plant height, and greater leaf
 epicuticular wax content.  Since IR and WT did not differ in leaf water
 status, the effect on WT on the plant was intepreted to result from a non-
 hydraulic root signal in response to the dry and hard top soil.
 
      Acid Soil Tolerance.  Six cultivars (FL 301, FL 302, Gore, Saluda, and
 Stacy) were grown in sand for 14 days at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, and 4.0. 
 Shoot length and root length decreased as the H+ concentration increased
 with a pH decrease.  The cultivars appeared to follow similar trends in
 response in H+ concentration.  FL 302 and Stacy were the nost tolerant
 cultivars.  Root growth was a better indicator of cultivar tolerance to H+
 concentration than shoot growth.  
      Winter Cover Crop.  Four winter annuals (rye, crimson clover, canola,
 and fallow-weeds) were evaluated for rooting depth and residual N recovery
 from a previous crop (corn).  Rye and canola had significantly higher root
 counts than clover or weeds in the 0 to 30 cm depth throughout the growing
 season.  Rye and canola accumulated a total plant biomass of 11,450 and 9910
 kg ha(-1), respectively.  Soil nitrate concentrations were significantly
 reduced at soil depth below 20-cm in the rye and canola plots comparison to
 clover and weeds.
 
      HESSIAN FLY IN WHEAT.  Damage by the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor
 Say) was limited in Georgia in 1990/1991 season, because most fields were
 planted with resistant cultivars and/or treated at planting with a systemic
 insecticide.  However, damage usually was severe in fields where susceptible
 cultivars were grown without an insecticide treatment.  Results of a three-
 year study showed that spring infestations of the Hessian fly could be
 reduced by timely and repeated foliar applications of disulfoton (DiSyston). 
 However, yield responses and economic benefits were erratic and marginal;
 consequently, management of spring infestations with foliar treatments is
 not currently feasible.  The presence of volunteer wheat in soybeans in a
 wheat-soybean doublecrop system was found not to enhance Hessian fly
 infestations in the following wheat crop.  Tillage disrupted Hessian fly
 populations and prevented significant carryover of insects from the
 volunteer plants to the subsequent wheat crop.  
      
      Hessian Fly Management in Triticale.   The integration of planting
 date, cultivar, and use of a systemic insecticide (disulfoton) at planting
 for Hessian fly control were studied in winter triticale during two years. 
 'Beagle 82', 'Florida 201', and 'Florico' were susceptible and 'Morrison'
 was partially resistant to the Hessian fly.   Damage was less severe in
 November than October and December plantings.  Use of a systemic insecticide
 at planting prevented losses of grain yield and may be economically
 justified in triticale in areas with considerable risk of attack by the
 Hessian fly. 
 
      PLANT PATHOLOGY.  Soil was infested uniformly with Gaeumannomyces
 graminis var. tritici at two field sites. For two years replicated plantings
 of wheat, triticale, barley, rye, and oats were made at each location. Wheat
 was planted into each plot in the third year. Yield reduction of wheat
 caused by take-all was not significantly different following wheat,
 triticale, barley, and rye. Yield was significantly greater following oats,
 a nonsusceptible crop. Rye did not suffer any yield loss to take-all for two
 years but supported sufficient inoculum to reduce yield in wheat the third
 year. The results show that oats is the only small grain that can be rotated
 with wheat to reduce take-all in wheat.
 
      Susceptibility to Stagonospora nodorum differed in relation to leaf
 age. Older leaves were more susceptible than younger leaves of adult plants
 among cultivars differing in partial resistance.  Results in the greenhouse,
 where microclimate was not a significant factor, were similar to those in
 the field. Previous studies suggested that microclimate rather than leaf age
 was the primary factor for variation in disease severity within the plant
 canopy.  
 Variation in inoculum concentration had a greater differential effect on
 resistant cultivars than on susceptible cultivars. Disease severity was much
 less for resistant cultivars at a low inoculum concentration, whereas the
 difference in disease severity was small for susceptible cultivars between
 high and low inoculum.  Incubation period was the component of partial
 resistance least affected by environmental conditions.
 
      Stagonospora nodorum remained viable in wheat seed stored at 4-5 C for
 eleven years. The percentage of seeds from which the fungus could be
 recovered was similar to the level when the seeds were harvested (50-70 %).
 The fungus survived less than four years in seed stored at 22-25 C. These
 results show that Stagonospora nodorum probably survives as long in seed as
 they remain viable.
 
      Personnel:   Dr. Juju Manandhar returned to Nepal after spending three
 years as a visiting scientist in plant pathology at the Georgia Station in
 Griffin. He conducted research on selective media for isolation of
 Stagonospora nodorum, Pythium root rot of wheat, and selection of wheat
 germplasm for tolerance to aluminum toxicity and soil waterlogging.
 
      Jennifer Yocum completed a Ph.D. in plant pathology on partial
 resistance to septoria nodorum blotch. She is employed by Ciba-Geigy at
 Hudson, New York. 
 
                                Publications
 
 Blum, A., J. W. Johnson, E. L. Ramseur, and E. W. Tollner.  1991.
 The effect of a drying top soil and a possible non-hydraulic root signal on
 wheat growth and yield.  J. Exp. Bot. 42:1225-1231.
 
 Blum, A. and J. W. Johnson.  1991.  A possible non-hydraulic root signal in
 wheat.  Second International Symposium Physiological Aspects on Crop Yield,
 Gainesville, FL.
 
 Bruckner, P. L., R. D. Barnett, J. W. Johnson, and B. M. Cunfer.  1991. 
 Registration of 'Sunland' triticale.  Crop Sci. 31:1710-1711.
 
 Bruckner,  P. L., D. D. Morey, B. M. Cunfer, and J. W. Johnson.  1991. 
 Registration of 'GA-Mitchell' oat.  Crop Sci. 31:1707-1708.
 
 Buntin, G.D., Cunfer, B. M., and Bridges, D.C. 1991. Impact of volunteer
 wheat on wheat insects in a wheat-soybean doublecrop system. J. Ent. Sci.
 26:401-407.
 
 Buntin. G.D. and R. D. Hudson. 1991. Spring control of the Hessian fly
 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in winter wheat using insecticides.  J. Econ.
 Entomol. 84: 1913-1919.
 
 Cunfer, B.M. 1991. Common names for plant diseases-rye. Plant Dis. 75:228-
 229.
 
 Cunfer, B.M. 1991. Long term viability of Septoria nodorum in stored wheat
 seed. Cer. Res. Commun. 19:347-349.
 
 Cunfer, B.M., and Rothrock, C.S. 1991. Disease management in wheat produced
 under conservation tillage in the southeastern United States. pp. 117-125.
 In: Conservation tillage for subtropical areas. Proceedings of the
 International Workshop on Conservation Tillage Systems. Fernandes, J.M., and
 Sutton, J.C. (eds.).  EMBRAPA. Passo Fundo, Brazil. 265 pp.
 
 Johnson, J. W. and R. E. Wilkinson.  1991.  Wheat cultivar response to H+
 concentrations.  Fourth International Symposium on the Genetics Aspects of
 Plant Mineral Nutrtion, Canberra, Australia. 
 
 Johnson, J. W., W. L. Hargrove, J. E. Box, Jr., and P. L. Raymer.  1991. 
 Role of winter cover crops in reduction of nitrate leaching.  Agron. Abstr.
 p 148, Denver, Colorado.
 
 Rothrock, C.S., and Cunfer, B.M. 1991. Influence of small grains on the
 inoculum potential of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Plant Dis.
 75:1050-1052.
 
 Yocum, J.A. 1992. Components of partial resistance to Leptosphaeria nodorum
 in winter wheat. Ph.D. thesis. 185 pp.
 
 Zelarayan, E.L., G. D. Buntin, J.W. Johnson, P.L. Bruckner, and P.L. Raymer. 
 1991.  Integrated management of the Hessian fly in triticale.  J. Prod.
 Agric. 4: 629-633.
 
 -------------------------
 IDAHO
      University of Idaho, Moscow and Aberdeen
 
      R. Zemetra*, E. Souza*, S. Guy*, S. Quisenberry, J. Johnson, G.
 Knudsen, D. Schotzko, M. Lauver, J.     Tyler, and L. Pierola
 
      Production.  The 1991 winter wheat production was 49 million bushels, a
 29% decrease from 1990.  The decrease can be attributed to a 10% reduction
 in acres planted and a severe winter which caused extreme winter damage in
 several parts of the state.  Due to the winter damage diseases such as
 Cephalosporium stripe and Cercosporella footrot further reduced yield in
 affected areas.  Stripe rust was not a major disease factor in 1991. 
 Neither was the Russian wheat aphid, which suffered a decrease in population
 due to the extreme winter conditions in the Northwest.  Statistics for the
 Idaho winter wheat production for the last five years are shown below.
 
 Year         Acres planted      Acres harvested      Yield      Prod.(bu)    
                    x1000              x1000           bu/ac      x1000
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 1987               868                800             75         60,000      
 1988               820                770             66         50,820   
 1989               880                810             70         56,700
 1990               960                920             75         69,000
 1991               870                700             70         49,000
 
      Personnel.  Dr. Sharron Quisenberry was hired as the Entomology
 Division head replacing C. Michael Smith.  M. Heikkinen was hired as an
 extension associate in the extension crop management program.  J. Tyler
 resigned as research associate in the wheat breeding program at Aberdeen to
 take a breeding position in Mississippi with the USDA-ARS.  S. Schroeder-
 Teeter completed her Master's degree and is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in
 remote sensing in Idaho.  M. Rafi from India started a Ph.D in the wheat
 breeding program at Moscow.  M. Fida from Pakistan started a Ph.D. program
 with the Aberdeen breeding program.
 
      Cultivar releases.  During 1991 the Aberdeen breeding program released
 two cultivars.  'Meridian' (ID0360, PI 557013) HRW was released as a
 cultivar for intensive management in the irrigated production areas of the
 Snake River Plain.  It is moderately resistant to stripe rust, snow mold,
 and dwarf bunt.  Meridian has had similar grain yield to Stephens SWW in 7
 years of trials at Aberdeen.  'Fairview' (ID0338, PI 557017) HRW was
 released jointly with the Colorado AES for production areas of Western
 Colorado.  Fairview will not likely be produced in Idaho.
 
      Germplasm release.  Idaho 266 (ID0266) was released as germplasm by the
 Idaho AES in 1991.  Idaho 266 is a soft white spring wheat with extremely
 high flour extraction percentages.  It has excellent baking characteristics
 and yield levels comparable to 'Owens' in Oregon trials and 'Treasure' in
 Idaho trials.  Idaho 266 is moderately susceptible to stripe rust and
 comparable to Owens for lodging resistance.
 
      Russian Wheat Aphid.  Somaclonal variants with improved Russian wheat
 aphid (RWA) resistance form the cultivar Stephens were recovered after in
 vitro screening with RWA extract.  Screening of two generations of progeny
 from the regenerants in the greenhouse confirmed the improved response to
 RWA over the original cultivar.  Field testing and genetic analysis of these
 lines will be initiated in 1992.
 
 
      The inheritance of resistance to RWA was determined for four hexaploid
 wheats with high levels of RWA resistance.  PI 94355, CI 6501, and CI 6593
 have a resistance to RWA that is likely conferred by a single, partially
 dominant gene.  PI 94365 has RWA resistance that is recessive and probably
 multigenic in crosses to the susceptible check 'Manning' HRW.  Allelism
 testing of these lines and other RWA resistant lines is currently underway. 
 Greenhouse resistance was found to be generally predictive of field
 resistance in field trials at Parma and Aberdeen.
 
      Field testing of RWA resistant breeding lines developed from a
 backcross program using PI 137739 and PI 294994 as sources of resistance
 will be initiated in the spring, 1992.  Lines to be tested are BC(2)F(2)
 lines which were screened in the greenhouse after each cross.  Recurrent
 parents were Pacific Northwest adapted spring and winter cultivars.
 
      Variation for RWA resistance was observed within accessions identified
 as resistant to the Russian wheat aphid.  Selection over two cycles for
 resistance was shown to greatly reduce this variability.  Based on these
 results, accessions should be evaluated and selection for resistance be made
 prior to using accessions identified as RWA resistant.
 
      Trials with the biological control agent Beauveria bassiana continue in
 the laboratory.  The capability of inducing mycosis in RWA populations with
 pelletized  B. bassiana was confirmed.  A new powdered form of the sodium
 alginate was developed and will be tested.  Field studies have monitored RWA
 populations and sought evidence of natural enemy establishment.  Within
 season field recoveries of several biological control agents were made.  No
 evidence of overwintering was found possible due to the low rate of
 overwinter survival of the RWA.  Several biological control agents were
 released in Moscow and Aberdeen in 1991.  These agents were Aphelinus
 varipes, Scymnus frontalis, and Aphidinae.
 
      Computer simulation of RWA movement and population dynamics has been
 developed.  Validation and refinement of the model including the
 incorporation of epizootics is currently underway.
 
      Nearest neighbor analysis.  The nearest neighbor analysis was compared
 to conventional ANOVA analysis for yield and yield component analysis.
 Nearest neighbor analysis improved efficiency in locations where local
 trends were present but in locations where environmental variation could be
 blocked no gain in efficiency was observed.  Adjustment of yield component
 data by nearest neighbor analysis improved correlations to yield but did not
 change the relative ranking of the yield component correlations.
 
                                Publications 
 
 Feng, M., and J. B. Johnson. 1991.  Bioassay of four entomophthoralean fungi
 on the Russian wheat aphid.  Environ. Entomol. 20:338-345.
 
 Feng, M., J. B. Johnson, and S. E. Halbert. 1991.  Natural control of cereal
 aphids    by entomopathogenic fungi and parasitoids on irrigated spring
 wheat in southwestern Idaho.  Environ. Entomol. 20:1699-1710
 
 Hou, Liming, R. S. Zemetra, and Dianne Birzer. 1991.  Wheat genotype and
 environment effects on Chinese steamed bread quality.  Crop Sci. 31:1279-
 1282.
 
 Knudsen, G. R., and D. J. Eschen. 1991.  A new nethod to formulate
 biocontrol fungi for seed treatment of foliar application.  Phytopathology
 81:1227.
 
 Knudsen, G. R., and D. J. Schotzko. 1991. Simulation of Russian wheat aphid
 movement and population dynamics on preferred and non-preferred host plants. 
 Ecol. Model. 57:117-131.
 
 Schotzko, D. J., and C. M. Smith. 1991.  Effects of host plant on the plant
 to plant  spatial distribution of the Russian wheat aphid
 (Homoptera:Aphididae).  J. Econ. Entomol. 84:1725-1734.
 
 Schotzko, E. J., and C. M. Smith. 1991. The effects of preconditioning host
 plant on population development of the Russian wheat aphid
 (Homoptera:Aphididae).  J. Econ. Entomol. 83:1083-1087.
 
 
 Schroeder-Teeter, S. 1991.  Resistance and phytotoxocity of the Russian
 wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) in wheat (Triticum aestivum).  M.S. thesis.
 University of Idaho.
 
 Smith, C. M., D. J. Schotzko, R. S. Zemetra, E. J. Souza and S. Schroeder-
 Teeter. 1991.  Identification of Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera:Aphididae)
 resistance in native and foreign wheat germplasm.  J. Econ. Entomol. 84:328-
 332.
 
 Smith, C. M., D, J. Schotzko, R. S. Zemetra, and E. J. Souza. 1992. 
 Catagories of resistance in wheat plant introductions resistant to the
 Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera:Aphididae).  J. Econ. Entomol. (in press).
 
 Souza, E., C. M. Smith, D. Schotzko, and R. S. Zemetra. 1992.  Greenhouse
 evaluation of red winter wheats for resistance to the Russian wheat aphid. 
 Euphytica (in press).
 
 Souza, E., and D. W. Sunderman. 1992. Pair-wise rand superiority of winter
 wheats for spring stand. Crop Sci. (in press).
   
 Souza, E., D. W. Sunderman, and J. Tyler. 1992.  Registration on 'Vandal'
 wheat.  Crop Sci. (in press).
 
 Souza, E., D. W. Sunderman, J. Whitmore, and K. O'Brien. 1991.  Registration
 of 'Centennial' wheat.  Crop Sci. 31:1095-1096.
 
 Souza, E., D. W. Sunderman, J. Whitmore, and K. O'Brien. 1992.  Registration
 of 'Survivor' wheat.  Crop Sci. (in press).
 
 Souza, E., J. Tyler, and K. O'Brien. 1992.  Registration of 'Idaho Dark
 Northern Spring, Cycle 0' wheat germplasm.  Crop sci. (in press).
 
 -------------------------
      Camas Wheat Breeding Moscow, ID, 
 
      W. K. Pope
      Tolerance to Cephalosporium gramineum in Idaho-Camas wheat selections
 
      (Work prior to 1981 was done for the University of Idaho.)
 
      The winter of 1991-92 favored very high levels of Cephalosporium
 gramineum in winter wheat plots near Culdesac, ID.  Surprisingly, there was
 moderate to high tolerance to Cephalosporium in almost all increases and
 breeding lines, with the conspicuous exception of the parent variety Weston
 CI17727 and Sel-1 of Weston/Lovrin24, a favored new wheat.  Sel-2 of this
 family did show a moderate tolerance.  In 13 different new F3 combinations,
 eight of which were crosses to Weston, all were segregating for tolerance to
 Cephalosporium with the single exception of Weston/Sel-1.
 
      So much tolerance to Cephalosporium can only be attributed to
 serendipity.  It traces to wheats with European PI178383 parentage and to
 combinations between them.  The only selection technique has been a
 preference for locating trial plots on "trouble sites" where good stands in
 wet areas has been synonymous with tolerance to Cephalosporium.  Severe
 infections have been seen only twice, once in 1973 near Coeur d'Alene, where
 ID71043 was by far the best plot, and once at Moscow, where tolerance in
 Yamhill CI14563 (OR) (Heines VII/Redman) and several derivatives of PI178383
 was noted.  The variety Peck CI17298 (ID) (Swedish type/2*Gaines) was
 released in 1974 because it gave good stands in wet draws without realizing
 that this meant tolerance to Cephalosporium.
 
      The two European wheat sources used have been Odin in WA4765
 (14-53/Odin//CI13421) (1967, Clarence Peterson, USDA, WSU), and Staring in
 the Oregon wheat Nrn10/Staring CI13275 (1958, Wilson Foote).  The white
 wheat WA4765 was promoted for its tolerance to the "footrots."  A cross with
 Burt/178383 CI13837 produced the white wheat Lenore CI17726.  A similar
 three way cross on the original F1 of Bezostaja//Burt/178383 (that
 ultimately became Weston), produced the bulk family ID71043.  This was
 reselected by D. Mathre, MSU, Bozeman as MT3528.  All three wheats had very
 high tolerance to Cephalosporium.
 
      The Oregon wheat CI13275, first entered in the western wheat trials in
 1958, was the first western wheat known to be tolerant to Cercosporella foot
 rot.  I attempted to make use of this in red wheats with two crosses to
 Cheyenne to produce the short ID5006 CI17245.  A further cross to the tall
 ID5011, a sib of Ark (178383/Cnn//3*Td) produced another family of short
 selections, some of which had great vigor in wet sites.  These continue in
 pedigrees today.
 
      A confirmation of the validity of these selections was noted in the
 1981 dwarf smut trial planted at Logan Utah by J. Hoffmann.  The Moscow
 entries had been planted across a swale where an "unknown" trouble
 eliminated most of them.  Only ID5519, MT3528 and its sib lines survived
 with vigorous normal stands.  This was typical of other experiences with
 Cephalosporium and added great confidence to use of these varieties as
 parents.
 
      Wheats tolerant to Cephalosporium in the Camas Wheat breeding progran
                                         
                          CI or    Resistance
 Item      Variety       Camas No. Rating      Pedigree
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               ng = not grown in 1992
 
 A. Derivatives of European wheats
 
  1. Hill-81 (OR)         17954     R         Yamhill/Hyslop
                                              Yamhill was HeinesVII/Redmond
  2. Peck (ID)            17298     R         Swedish type/2*Gaines. Res.
                                              similar to Hill
  2.1 Hill/Peck                     R         Res. same in two sel.
  3. Hohenheimer/3*Cnn    C92242    VR        Germany. Best vigor in '92
                                              plots
  4. ID5006               17245     R-ng      Nrn10/StaringCI13275 
                                              (OR)//2*Cnn
 
 B. Non-European wheats
 
  5. short Burt           13739     MR        Nrn10/Brvl4//5*Burt, 
                                              (R. Allan USDA, WSU)
  6. ID5011               17246     R-ng      Ark sib, 178383/Cnn//3*Td
  7. ID5519               17734     VR-ng     Weston sib,
                                              Bezostaja//Burt/178383
 
 C. Combined parentages
 
  8. ID5011/5006          17732     R-ng      Many in further crosses
  9. Lenore (ID)          17726     VR-ng     WA4765//Burt/178383 CI13837
 10. ID71043              17252     VR-ng     WA4765/3/Bezostaja
                                              //Burt/178383
 10.1 MT3528                        VR-ng     Sel of ID71043
 10.2 MT3528/Weston       C92233    VR        Inc-6
 
 
 D. Recent Pediqrees
 
 11."Bare"                C92151    VR        Best res. in '92. A sel. for
                                              tolerance to Rhizoctonia.
                                              MT3528/(5011/5006//Ark/3/
                                              55l9)
 12. ID89002              C92Inc3   R         5519/(Td*2-Idd59-5006)
                                              //Ark9342
 13. Complex/2*Weston     C92236    VR        71043/5519//CI9442/3
                                              /2*Weston
 14. Fenn26-1             C9249     R         ID89002//Complex/2*Weston.
                                              Fenn docs not have all the
                                              res. of its parents
 
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 -------------------------
 ILLINOIS
 
      University of Illinois and USDA-ARS
 
      F.L. Kolb and E.D. Nafziger, Dep. of Agronomy; A.D. Hewings and L.L.
 Domier, USDA-ARS; W.L. Pedersen, C.J. D'Arcy, H.T. Wilkerson and E.M.
 Bauske, Dep. of Plant Pathology; C.E. Eastman and M.E. Irwin, Dep. of
 Economic Entomology; W.H. Brink, Cooperative Extension Service
 
      Production.  Farmers in Illinois planted 1.65 million acres (668,000
 hectares) of soft red winter wheat under good conditions in the fall of
 1990.  Crop growth and condition were excellent through the heading stage,
 but hot, wet weather in May 1991 encouraged the development of extremely
 high levels of scab (Fusarium sp.) and glume blotch (Septoria nodorum) which
 severely reduced yield and grain quality throughout much of Illinois.  Only
 1.4 million acres were harvested, representing an abandonment rate of 15%. 
 The state average yield was only 32 bushels per acre (2,156 kg/ha), which is
 the lowest yield since 1974.  Test weight was also severely reduced in many
 areas.
 
      Illinois wheat producers seeded about 1.45 million acres (587,000
 hectares) of wheat in the fall of 1992.  This is a reduction of 12% from
 1991 and a 31%  reduction from the 2.1 million acres (850,000 hectares) sown
 in 1990.  The 1992 wheat crop suffered damage from several cold snaps in
 early November.  The extent of the damage to the 1992 wheat production in
 Illinois is not known at this time (2/92), but much of the winter wheat in
 the northern half of the state has been killed and will be abandoned. 
 Southern Illinois wheat is in better condition, but damage is evident in
 some fields, and some fields may be abandoned.  The majority of Illinois
 wheat production is in southern Illinois.  The extent of the reduction in
 1992 Illinois production is not known at this time. 
 
      Cardinal has replaced Caldwell as the predominant public cultivar grown
 in Illinois.  Cardinal has performed well the past two seasons under heavy
 disease pressure.  The acreage of Clark is also increasing.
 
 Management Research  (E.D. Nafziger).    The primary focus of wheat
 management research in 1990-91 was on nitrogen rate for optimum yield.  A
 new project was begun in which N rates were applied to small plots in farmer
 fields.  In addition to rate effects on yield, we also took soil samples at
 the time of spring topdressing to see if soil nitrate content might be a
 useful predictor of N rate response.  Yields were poor in most of these
 fields, and N responses tended to be quite flat.  Soil nitrate content was
 found to be somewhat related to N response, in that sites with very low
 nitrate tended to respond more to applied N.  Another study was designed to
 test the relationship among plant population, tiller number, head number,
 and grain yield of several cultivars planted at different rates.
 
 Cultivar Evaluation (E.D. Nafziger).   For about ten years we have conducted
 uniform cultivar comparisons at six locations in Illinois.  These
 comparisons include both publicly- and privately-developed cultivars and
 advanced lines from the University of Illinois breeding program.  In 1991,
 each trial had about 55 to 60 entries including 16 advanced experimental
 lines from the University of Illinois breeding program.  A report of
 performance (excluding advanced lines) was distributed in August.
 
 Cultivar Development (F.L. Kolb).  Approximately 150 advanced experimental
 breeding lines were evaluated in 1991 in replicated tests at three
 locations.  In addition, 225 preliminary breeding lines were tested at two
 locations, and about 900 single plots were evaluated at one location.  All
 material in the breeding program was evaluated for the severe septoria leaf
 blight (Septoria tritici) and glume blotch that occurred in 1991.
 
      The cultivar 'Howell' (previously designated IL 82-3298) was released
 in 1991.  Howell is high-yielding, and has excellent winter hardiness and
 very high test weight.  Howell is similar to Cardinal in height and maturity
 and has yielded equal to or better than Cardinal in most trials in Illinois. 
 The pedigree of Howell is McNair 48-23 / IL 70-2225 // CI 13855 /3/ Arthur//
 TN 1571.  Foundation seed of Howell was produced in 1991 and Registered seed
 is currently in production by seedsmen. 
 
      BYDV (A.D. Hewings, C.J. D'Arcy, F.L. Kolb, E.M. Bauske, C.E. Eastman,
 M.E. Irwin).  Our efforts to improve barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)
 evaluation methodology have focused on screening techniques and the study of
 factors which may obscure the limited variability in wheat for tolerance to
 BYDV under field conditions.  We are evaluating several techniques to screen
 winter wheat for tolerance to (BYDV), including enzyme-linked immunosorbant
 assays (ELISA) and northern dot blots.  We have also evaluated the
 potentially confounding  effects of initial BYDV dosage on symptom
 expression in wheat in the field.  
 
      An experiment to determine if a modified recurrent selection method
 using a chemical hybridizing agent was effective in changing the frequency
 of BYDV tolerant genotypes in a wheat population was completed.  The
 technique did not change the frequency of BYDV tolerant genotypes in the
 population studied.
 
      Additional objectives of BYDV research projects in progress are:  to
 investigate mechanisms of resistance to BYDV, to investigate cereal virus
 epidemiology, and to determine the incidence, distribution and variability
 of BYDV virus strains across space and over time in wheat.
 
      Based on data from 1989, 1990 and preliminary data from 1991, BYDV
 spread occurred more rapidly in fields where infection foci were established
 prior to aphid infestation but the primary source of BYDV inoculum appears
 to be outside of rather than within the fields.  Suction traps were used to
 capture live aphids crossing fields at canopy level.  The first large
 flights of aphids in the spring occurred in late April to early May in 1991,
 mid-May in 1990 and late May to early June in 1989.  Rhopalosiphum padi,
 vector of both the BYDV-PAV and -RPV- like viruses was captured with greater
 frequency in 1990 than 1989.  Incidence of BYDV in the Urbana field plots
 and in the state-wide survey was greater in 1990 than 1989. 
 
      Preliminary studies to test PAV-IL transmission from barley to maize,
 maize to maize, and maize to barley suggest that R. padi transmits the virus
 with difficulty, if at all, from maize to maize but relatively easily from
 barley to maize and maize to barley.  Recently an RMV strain has been
 isolated from commercial corn fields in both Minnesota and Illinois. 
 Studies are underway to determine the importance of this strain in small
 grains and the role corn may play in BYDV epidemiology in the Midwest.
 
      Evaluation of Seed Treatment Fungicides (W.L. Pedersen and W.H. Brink). 
 Several seed treatment fungicides were evaluated for the control of loose
 smut (Ustilago tritici) and seedling blights (Fusarium sp.) on three wheat
 cultivars at two locations in Illinois.  Vitavax 200 (carboxin) reduced
 loose smut incidence by 72%; while several new materials, including Baytan,
 reduced incidence of loose smut to <1%.  In the absence of loose smut, none
 of the fungicide seed treatments had a significant yield increase compared
 to the untreated control.  In 1991, we initiated a study to compare several
 seed treatments on three lots of the cultivar Cardinal at four locations in
 Illinois.  The three lots had test weights of 52, 57, and 62 lbs/bu,
 respectively.  Stand counts from the fall showed no significant differences
 among seed lots or fungicide seed treatments.  Due to a severe early
 November cold snap, all of the plots at Urbana are dead.
 
      Evaluation of Foliar Fungicides (W.L. Pedersen).  Foliar fungicides
 were evaluated for control of septoria leaf blight and glume blotch, and
 leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp tritici).  While all of the treatments
 reduced levels of septoria leaf blight, none of the treatments affected
 yield.  Scab infections were so high that yields were reduced by over 50% at
 several locations in southern Illinois.  
 
      Cooperative research program with Egypt (W.L. Pedersen and H.T.
 Wilkerson).  In 1991, we established a cooperative research program with
 Egypt.  We are surveying commercial wheat fields for soil-borne diseases, as
 well as evaluating potential biological control strategies.  
 
 -------------------------
 INDIANA
 
      Purdue University
 
      H. W.  Ohm, H. C. Sharma, I. M. Dweikat, S. A. Mackenzie, D.
 McFatridge, F. L. Patterson (Dept. Agronomy), G. Shaner, R. M. Lister, D.
 M. Huber, G. Buechley (Dept. Botany and Plant Pathology), R. H.  
 Ratcliffe, R. H. Shukle, G. Safranski, S. Cambron (USDA-ARS and Dept.
 Entomology)
 
      Production. Farmers in Indiana planted 900,000 acres (364,400 ha) of
 soft red winter wheat in Indiana for the 1991 crop year and harvested
 720,000 acres (291,500 ha). Harvested wheat area in 1991 was 74% of that in
 1990. Total production in 1991 was 28.8 million bushels (782,200 metric
 tons), 57% of production in 1990. Average yield in 1991 was 40 bu/acre (2.69
 m-tons/ha) compared to 52 bu/acre (3.50 m-tons/ha) in 1990.  Cardinal,
 Clark, and Caldwell were the three leading public cultivars, occupying 20,
 18, and 15% of the wheat area, respectively.  Private cultivars occupied 36%
 of the wheat area.
 
      Season. Cool temperatures and wet soil conditions during September and
 October 1990 delayed harvest of corn and soybeans, and consequently delayed
 seeding and establishment of wheat. Warm temperatures during November and
 most of December resulted in excellent growth and establishment of wheat.
 Wheat in most of the state survived a wet winter and wide temperature
 fluctuations in March in very good condition. Rhizoctonia solani 
 (binucleate) was a significant factor in the winterkilling and subsequent
 abandonment of approximately 9% of the planted acreage. This soilborne
 fungus causes a severe leaf and crown rot which can be severe during cool
 and wet conditions often encountered in late winter and early spring. Wheat
 was growing vigorously by mid-March and weather conditions through May
 resulted in excellent wheat growth and development. Temperatures 10 to 15
 degrees F above normal along with recurring showers and high humidity
 prevailed during May. Powdery mildew was moderately prevalent by mid- May,
 but declined with the warm temperatures.  By the end of May severe epidemics
 of Septoria leaf and glume blotch, leaf rust, and head scab had developed.
 Early in the season, both Septoria tritici and S. nodorum could be found on
 lower leaves.  The warm wet weather during May favored S. nodorum and it
 became the predominant foliar pathogen, and also caused significant levels
 of glume blotch.  Warm and dry conditions prevailed during June and July,
 providing additional stress to the wheat. Many wheat fields in southern
 Indiana were abandoned due to low yield and poor grain quality. Generally,
 wheat flowering and harvest in 1991 were at least two weeks earlier than
 normal due to unusually warm temperatures throughout much of the season,
 especially in early and mid-March and after the end of April, combined with
 severe disease pressure which killed plants prematurely.
 
      Disease surveys.  Wheat disease surveys throughout Indiana during the
 fall and spring demonstrated the vulnerability of most current cultivars to
 Septoria nodorum blotch and scab, and the loss of  effective resistance to
 powdery mildew in cultivar Caldwell.  Severe epidemics of Septoria nodorum
 blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rust, and head scab in three of the past six
 years demonstrate the need for resistance to these diseases in wheat
 cultivars for Indiana. 
 
      Variety development. Two soft red winter wheat lines, 8138I1-16-50 and
 79410D1-3-3-5-2-1, are being increased for varietal release. The two lines
 have yield potentials as high or higher than those of Caldwell, Cardinal and
 Clark, good soft wheat milling and baking qualities, resistance to leaf
 rust, Septoria tritici blotch, powdery mildew, soil-borne mosaic, wheat
 spindle streak mosaic, and take-all.
 
      Weather in the spring of 1991 favored disease development, and
 permitted effective screening for resistance.  We had an excellent test of
 resistance to soilborne mosaic in our nursery at the University of Illinois. 
 We made several disease assessments in the wheat performance trials at
 Purdue and southwest Indiana to obtain detailed information about disease
 reactions of our most advanced breeding lines and varieties in commercial
 production. 
 
      Fungicidal control of wheat diseases (Shaner and Buechley).  Untreated
 Clark yielded 38 bu/acre with 52 lb/bu test weight.  Clark sprayed with Tilt
 at flag leaf emergence yielded 57 bu/acre with 57 lb/bu test weight.  The
 1991 survey of wheat diseases throughout the state revealed how quickly
 Septoria nodorum blotch can spread from a minor problem on the lower leaves
 to a devastating epidemic on flag leaves and heads given the right weather
 conditions, and emphasizes the need for greater resistance and a reliable
 disease forecast to time fungicide applications.
 
      Septoria nodorum blotch. Dwight Bostwick identified cultivars Coker 84-
 27 and Cotipora as having resistance in greenhouse studies of controlled
 levels of inoculum concentrations (300 thousand, one million, and 3.5
 million spores/ml), moist period durations (15, 30, 45, 60 hours), and
 temperatures (20 C and 28 C) on the development of Stagonospora nodorum on
 several wheat lines. Parental, F1, F2, BCF1, and BCF2 populations from the
 cross Cotipora X P831791A1-1-6 (susceptible) were inoculated on the spikes
 and flag leaves with spores of S. nodorum. Percentage of diseased tissue was
 estimated on the spikes and flag leaves four times over a 20-day period, and
 area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was calculated. Resistance was
 partially dominant in the F1 generation in both spikes and flag leaves, but
 in F2, BCF1, and BCF2 generations, dominance was not evident. The number of
 genes that confer resistance in the glumes was estimated at 3, based on
 variances of parental, F1, and F2 populations. Analysis of F2 populations
 from crosses of 21 monosomic lines X Cotipora indicates that resistance of
 Cotipora against S. nodorum is contributed by chromosomes 3A, 4A, 7A, and
 3B.
 
      Characterization and utilization of resistance to Stagonospora
 (=Septoria) nodorum in exotic germplasm  (Shaner and Buechley).  A
 collection of 42 wheats, many from Europe, was screened for reaction to S.
 nodorum at two post-inoculation moist periods (48  or 65 hr).  Nine lines
 had excellent resistance after either moist treatment (less than 5% of leaf
 area affected, compared to 94% for the most susceptible cultivar in the
 test).  Unfortunately, these wheat varieties are all very late maturing, and
 it will take time to transfer this resistance into adapted cultivars. 
 Three- and four-way crosses among well adapted Purdue lines and exotic
 wheats with resistance to Septoria nodorum, as well as leaf rust and powdery
 mildew were made in the fall of 1990.  The F(1)s were grown in a transplant
 nursery, and F(2) seed was sown in a breeding nursery in the fall of 1991. 
 
      Inheritance of resistance to Septoria tritici leaf blotch  (Shaner and
 Buechley).  Resistance to Septoria tritici in some spring wheats from Israel
 and Australia appears to be simply inherited, as we have found for several
 other sources of resistance used in our program for many years.
 
      Powdery mildew. We are incorporating resistance to Erysiphe graminis 
 f. sp. tritici from a number of wheat lines from around the world into soft
 red winter wheat lines adapted to Indiana. Whether or not the genes
 conferring resistance in these lines are different than current identified
 genes must be determined. Xueyi Hu examined the inheritance of resistance in
 three of these lines. The resistant hexaploid wheat lines Portugal 27,
 Australia 17566, and Portugal 62 were each crossed to the susceptible
 cultivar Morocco. Populations of parents, F1, backcrosses to both parents,
 and F2 for all three crosses, were inoculated in the seedling and adult
 growth stages in the greenhouse with a local isolate of E. graminis by
 dusting them with conidia from infected seedlings of cv. Morocco. Portugal
 27 and Australia 17566 possess two recessive genes for resistance to powdery
 mildew, each conferring resistance independently. The resistance in Portugal
 62 is conferred by one recessive gene. 
 Another round of backcrossing to transfer powdery mildew resistance from
 tetraploid Persian wheats to elite hexaploid lines was completed in the
 spring of 1990.  F2 seed was sown in the breeding nursery in the fall of
 1991.
 
      Genetics of slow rusting  (Shaner and Buechley).  Slow rusting wheat
 parent CI 13227, fast rusting parent Suwon 92, and the F1, F2, and both back
 cross generations were evaluated for slow rusting in the greenhouse last
 spring, to compare results of this method of analysis with those obtained
 from analysis of near-homozygous F7 families from a cross of these two
 cultivars.  Our data indicate that genes at three independent loci control
 long latent period (slow rusting).
 
        F2s of crosses designed to transfer slow rusting resistance to Clark
 were grown in the field in 1990/91, and selected F3 progeny have been sown
 in the nursery this fall.   
 
      Durability of slow-rusting resistance in wheat  (Jeff Lehman) is
 characterizing the fitness components -- latent period (generation time),
 infection frequency, pustule area, pustule growth rate, and spore production
 -- of a wild-type population (WT) of P. recondita and isolates from WT
 selected for short latent period on slow ruster CI 13227.  Selected isolates
 had a significantly shorter latent period on slow-rusters CI 13227 and L-
 574, and produced more spores on CI 13227, compared to WT.  The selected
 isolates produced fewer infections on susceptible Monon  and slow rusting
 Suwon 85 and SW 72469 compared to WT.  Selection had no effect on pustule
 area or growth rate.  In field tests, the selected isolate caused more rust
 than WT on slow-rusters CI 13227 and L-574.   Selected isolates are more fit
 for latent period and sporulation on some slow rusting cultivars, but
 overcame only about 30% of the slow rusting resistance of CI 13227.
 
      Adult-plant hypersensitivity to leaf rust (Shaner and Buechley). 
 Because of the complexity of adult-plant hypersensitivity resistance (APHR)
 and its environmental sensitivity, advanced-generation lines are being
 developed from F(2)s of crosses between several APHR cultivars and Monon.
 
      Fusarium head scab.  The shift to minimum and no-till corn production
 in Indiana has provided an inoculum load of Fusarium graminearum on surface
 residues.  When weather is favorable for head scab there is little benefit
 from crop rotation in reducing the severity of this disease.  Crop rotation
 with soybeans and conventional tillage, which buried corn residues, provided
 effective control of this disease in the past.  Because of the increasing
 frequency of problems with scab in Indiana, we have begun a program to breed
 for resistance to this disease.  Graduate student Guihua Bai investigated
 the effect of different moisture and temperature conditions on wheat scab
 development among varieties that differ in resistance. Plants were
 inoculated by placing 1000 spores into a floret of a central spikelet at the
 beginning of anthesis.  The percentage of scabby heads in a variety
 increased as the moist period increased from 0 to 3 days.  The number of
 scabby spikelets per head was lower on some varieties than others at all
 moist periods tested.  This expression of resistance is a more stable
 character than resistance expressed as the percentage of scabby heads. 
 Temperature seems to be more important than moisture in controlling the
 spread of the fungus within a spike.   Two dominant genes appear to control
 restriction of spread of the fungus within the spike in cultivar Ning 7840. 
 The transfer of these genes into varieties adapted for Indiana is
 progressing.  Large F(2) populations derived from 3-way crosses (two doses
 of adapted parents) were screened this fall in the greenhouse.  Experiments
 were done to see if growing seedlings in the presence of the scab fungus
 would permit detection of resistance to head scab.  When seeds were
 germinated in a spore suspension, some seedlings died and shoot elongation
 was inhibited on survivors, but differences among the varieties were not
 correlated with adult-plant resistance.
 
      Take-all (Don Huber and Tina McCay-Buis).  Mechanisms and microbial
 interactions affecting disease severity from synergism and complementation
 to antagonism under natural field conditions in Indiana were evaluated
 relative to biological control of take-all.  This research provided basic
 information on the interactions of rhizosphere colonizing ability,
 antagonism, and host factors affecting virulence and pathogenesis. 
 Selection of organisms on the basis of their manganese activity in the
 rhizosphere and soil was more likely to generate a potential biological
 control agent than direct antagonism to the pathogen.  Siderophore
 production, phenazine antibiotic production, and gram reaction again were
 not associated with biological control  capability of an organism. 
 Bacterization with manganese oxidizing organisms generally increased disease
 (synergism) and reduced Mn tissue levels in host plants while the opposite
 was observed with manganese reducing organisms.  A moderately virulent
 manganese oxidizing isolate of Gaeumannomyces graminis was able to
 complement an avirulent isolate to result in increased (synergistic) disease
 severity.  Some potential biological control organisms can oxidize as well
 as reduce manganese depending on the soil pH or redox reaction.  Nuclear
 magnetic resonance evaluations supported the role of redox reactions with
 manganese for the pathogen as well as the host.  All of the plant growth
 promoting rhizosphere bacterial strains and potential biological control
 organisms (bacteria and fungi) tested are manganese reducers which may
 account for their growth stimulation in the absence of severe disease.
 
      Virulence of Gaeumannomyces graminis was correlated with the manganese
 oxidizing ability of the pathogen.  This is conditioned by temperature, with
 some strains of the pathogen being virulent and able to oxidize manganese
 only at low or high temperatures while other isolates are insensitive to
 temperature for virulence and manganese oxidizing ability.  We have
 completed a screen of isolates from all over the world relative to their
 temperature sensitivity and manganese oxidizing ability and virulence. 
 Scanning Electron Microscopic Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis
 evaluations confirmed that manganese oxidizing ability is mostly limited to
 the region of the hyphopodia of G. graminis var. graminis but in advance of
 the penetration (infective) hyphae of G. graminis var. tritici.  Differences
 in localization of manganese oxide precipitation for G. graminis var
 graminis compared with G. graminis var tritici isolates appears to influence
 virulence.  The strain of the fungal pathogen markedly modifies the
 bacterial composition in the rhizosphere relative to manganese oxidizing
 ability; however, rhizosphere organisms can enhance or reduce virulence
 depending on their composition relative to manganese oxidation.
 Several manganese-reducing bacteria inhibited Mn-oxidation by the pathogen
 with little effect on its growth.  This indicates a mechanism of biological
 control independent of population of the pathogen and more compatible with
 observations of indigenous biological control in natural field conditions.
 
      Barley yellow dwarf virus (Sharma). We have developed monosomic alien
 addition lines (progeny from four cycles of selection and backcrossing to
 soft red winter wheat) with resistance to barley yellow dwarf virus derived
 from Thinopyrum intermedium, Th. trichophorum, and Th. ponticum.
 Additionally, trigeneric hybrids among hexaploid wheat, durum wheat, and
 Agropyron spp. were produced to enhance chances of gene transfer from
 Agropyron chromosomes to D genome chromosomes.
 
      In a survey conducted in June at the Purdue Agronomy Farm, Mayuresh
 Karanjkar, working with Richard Lister,  collected at random 98 symptomatic
 samples from wheat and oat fields.  Of these, 92 were positive for BYDV;  60
 were mixed infections of PAV and RPV serotypes; 2 were mixed infections of
 PAV and RMV types; 4 were infections of PAV, RPV, and RMV types; 19, 5, and
 2 were singly infected with PAV, ROV, or RMV types, respectively.  These
 results confirm PAV and RPV types as the predominating  strains in this
 area.
 
      In our resistance-through-bioengineering program, the primary objective
 is to obtain resistance to BYDV by introducing cDNAs encoding the viral coat
 protein.  It is anticipated that cereal plants expressing this gene will
 inhibit virus production, through a coat protein mediated resistance such as
 has been demonstrated with other systems, including potato leaf roll,
 another luteovirus.  In this regard, Fujiang Wen has succeeded in devising
 protocols for transforming and regenerating rice plants -- i.e. we can
 introduce BYDV genes into rice protoplasts, and grow plants from these
 transformed protoplasts.  This provides an excellent model for similar work
 with other cereals, including oat.
 
      Hessian fly. F. Maas, S. G. Wellso, J. E. Araya, and R. H. Ratcliffe.
 Several Triticum spp. lines that were previously discarded due to their low
 level resistance response to biotypes L, C, or E in greenhouse tests were
 retested with biotype L in the growth chamber at 17 C. From 176 lines
 previously discarded in the tests without temperature control, 92 exhibited
 typical resistance to biotype L. Temperature contrast experiments are being
 run to determine which lines behave most similarly to the H18 gene with the
 expectation that those types will demonstrate enhanced field durability due
 to the survival of avirulent larvae. Nineteen crosses were made with
 temperature sensitive potentially durable lines with the objectives of
 determining the number of genes for resistance present, and transferring
 resistance genes into adapted soft common wheat background. Resistance of
 tillers of Caldwell wheat to biotype B larvae was not altered by previous
 infestation of the primary stem by virulent biotype L larvae.
 
      A survey of Hessian fly on wheat in Indiana in the summer of 1991
 conducted by G. Safranski and S. Cambron showed that there was a slight
 increase in Hessian fly infestation in 1991 compared to 1990. Samples were
 collected from 241 fields in 58 counties. The mean percentage infestation
 per field was 2.4 and 3.1, the number of puparia per 100 stems was 3.4 and
 4.4, the percentage of fields sampled that were infested was 43.8 and 50.6,
 and the number of fields infested with greater than 10% infestation was 5.8
 and 9.1, respectively, in 1990 and 1991. The Annual Uniform Hessian Fly
 Nursery evaluations were conducted by USDA, ARS in cooperation with SAESs
 and private wheat breeders. Thirty entries were evaluated in nurseries in
 GA, FL, IL, IN, and SC for Hessian fly response. In general, the lowest
 infestation levels were recorded on entries with the H18 (8686A1-8 and
 Brule), T. tauschii (KS89WGRC06) and 2RL genes for resistance (KS86HF012-23-
 6).
 
      R. H. Shukle and J. J. Stuart are constructing a physical map of the
 Hessian fly genome by positioning DNA sequences on salivary polytene
 chromosomes through in situ hybridization. Six sequences have been
 positioned, four on chromosome 1 and two on chromosome 3 (X1).  An inbred
 line for a morphological mutation (white-eyed) of the Hessian fly also has
 been developed. Reciprocal and test crosses established that the trait is X-
 linked and recessive.
 Cytological and protein changes that take place in susceptible and resistant
 wheat after Hessian fly infestation have been documented. On susceptible
 wheat, fly larvae caused a general  increase in the permeability of cells in
 the lower leaf sheath.  On resistant wheat, larvae elicited a localized
 reaction that limited their ability to cause general changes in cell
 permeability.  Analysis of plant proteins indicated that separate changes in
 protein metabolism occur in susceptible versus resistant wheat.  In
 susceptible wheat, ribulose biphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) in the lower
 leaf sheath increased.  In resistant wheat, non-rubisco proteins with lower
 molecular weights increased.  From this work, a conceptual model has been
 developed that hypersensitivity in wheat forms the basis of Hessian fly
 resistance.
 
      Aphids. J. E. Araya and S. Cambron. Aphid infestations in the spring on
 oats and in the fall on winter wheat were reduced with applications, at the
 2-3 leaf stage, of slow release granular formulations of acephate,
 carbofuran, and disulfoton, compared with carbofuran 15G and untreated
 controls. In oat, all insecticide treatments reduced aphid populations and
 percentage of aphid-infested plants, with a residual action of ca. 25 days.
 In winter wheat the residual action of all insecticide treatments in the
 fall lasted up to 19 days, after which cold temperatures stopped aphid
 development. The major aphid species present were the English grain aphid,
 Sitobion avenae and the bird cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi.
 
 DNA markers. (Dweikat, Mackenzie, and Ohm): Shichuan He developed a DNA
 marker detection strategy, combining random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
 analysis along with polyacrylamide denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis
 (DGGE), that allows the rapid and efficient resolution of high levels of
 polymorphism among closely related lines of common wheat. Using this
 strategy, we were able to cluster or group different varieties of soft
 winter wheat, barley, and oat based on their DNA banding patterns. This
 system is powerful enough to detect polymorphism even among relatively
 closely related lines of many cereal crop species. The enhanced level of
 polymorphism that can be detected by this system should enable
 fingerprinting of varieties and marker assisted selection.
 
 
 
      Personnel. Herb Ohm is on sabbatic leave at the USDA,ARS- University of
 California, Berkeley, Plant Gene Expression Center, Albany, CA, November
 1991 to April 1992.
 
      Stanley Wellso retired from the USDA in May, 1991.
 
      Dwight Bostwick completed requirements for the Ph.D. degree under the
 direction of H. Ohm and has accepted a postdoctoral position at the
 University of Arizona in the laboratory of Brian Larkins.
 
      Shichuan He completed requirements for the M.S. degree and is
 continuing graduate studies for the Ph.D. degree under the direction of S.
 Mackenzie and H. Ohm.  Xueyi Hu has initiated studies for the Ph.D. degree
 under the direction of H. Ohm and will collaborate with H. Sharma, I.
 Dweikat, and G. Shaner to carry out genetic analyses of resistance to
 Septoria nodorum blotch.
 
      Guihua Bai, who spent a year working at Purdue as a visiting scholar
 from The People s Republic of China, has begun a Ph.D. program under the
 direction of G. Shaner and H. Ohm.  He will be studying the genetic control
 of head scab resistance in some resistant Chinese wheats.
 
                       Publications and Presentations 
 
 Aldridge, W.G., H.W. Ohm, and G.E. Shaner. 1991. Characterization of partial
 resistance in oats to crown rust. Agron. Abstr. 83:84.
 
 Araya, J.E. and A. Fereres. 1991. Cereal aphid survival under flooding
 conditions. J. Plant Diseases and Protection 98:168-173.
 
 Araya, J.E. and R.H. Ratcliffe. 1991. Cereal aphids and BYDV studies at the
 USDA Small Grain Insects and Weed Control Research Unit, Purdue University,
 1988-1991. Purdue Univ. Station Bull. 620. 18 p.
 
 Arnott, H.J., T.S. Roseman and D.M. Huber.  1991.  In vitro development and
 structure of the hyphopodia of Gaeumannomyces graminis.  Mycologia (In
 Press).
 
 Arnott, H.J., T.S. Roseman, R.D. Graham and D.M. Huber.  1991.  An
 experimental study of manganese mineralization in the take-all fungus,
 Gaeumannomyces graminis.  Mycologia (In Press). 
 
 Bai, G. H., Shaner, G., and Ohm, H. W.  1991.  Effect of moist period on
 response of wheatcultivars to infection by Fusarium graminearum. 
 Phytopathology 81:1145-1146 (Abstr).
 
 Bostwick, D.E., H.W. Ohm, and G.E. Shaner. 1991. Inheritance of Septoria
 glume blotch resistance in wheat. Agron. Abstr. 83:87.
 
 Bournival, B., M. Obanni, H. Ohm, and S. Mackenzie. 1991. Genome
 organization of a wild wheatgrass: a look at repetitive DNA families.
 International Congress of Plant Molecular Biology. Tucson, AZ.
 
 Buechley, G. and Shaner, G.  1991.  Effect of seed treatments and foliar
 fungicides on wheat, 1990. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 46:284.
 
 Buechley, G. and Shaner, G.  1991.  Effect of seed treatments on wheat from
 bunted or smutted seed, 1990.  Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 46:283.
 
 Day, K. M., Lorton, W. P., Buechley, G. C., and Shaner, G. E., Huber, D. M.,
 and Scott, D. H. 1991.  Performance of public and private small grains in
 Indiana, 1991.  Purdue University Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 616. 25 p.
 
 Foster, J.E., H.W. Ohm, F.L. Patterson, and P.L. Taylor. 1991. Effectiveness
 of deploying single gene resistances in wheat for controlling damage by the
 Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Environmental Entomology 20:965-969.
 
 He, S., H. Ohm, and S. Mackenzie. 1992. Detection of DNA sequence
 polymorphism among varieties of wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. (in press).
 
 Housley, T.L. and H.W. Ohm. 1991. Earliness and duration of grain fill in
 winter wheat. Plant Physiology (in press).
 
 Huber, D.M. 1991.  The use of fertilizers and organic amendments in the
 control of plant disease. In: D. Pimental (ed) Handbook of Pest Management
 in Agriculture, 2nd Ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
 
 Huber, D.M. and R.D. Graham.  1992.  Techniques for studying nutrient-
 disease interactions.  In: C.M. Rush and L.L. Singelton (eds) Techniques for
 Studying Soilborne Plant Pathogens. APS Press, St. Paul, MN  (In Press).
 
 Lehman, J. S., Shaner, G.  1991.  Fitness components of Puccinia  recondita
 isolates adapted to slow-rusting wheat cultivars.  Phytopathology 81:1149-
 1150 (Abstr).
 
 Lu, C.S., H.C. Sharma, and H.W. Ohm. 1991. Wheat anther culture: effect of
 genotype and environmental conditions. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture
 24:233-236.
 
 Mackenzie, S., S. He, I. Dweikat, and H. Ohm. 1991. Detection of sequence
 polymorphism in cereal crop species using RAPD/DGGE. Oat Biotech VI.
 Schaumburg, IL.
 
 Magalhaes, J.R. and D.M. Huber.  1991.  Response of ammonium assimilation
 enzymes to nitrogen form treatments in different plant species.  J. Plant
 Nutrition 14:175-185.
 
 Nelson,D.W. and D.M. Huber.  1991. Nitrification Inhibitors.  In: Nielsen,
 R. (ed). National Corn Handbook. American Soc. Agron. Sp. Pub.
 
 Patterson, F. L., G. E. Shaner, H. W. Ohm, and J. E. Foster.  1990.  A
 historical perspective for the establishment of research goals for wheat
 improvement.  J. Production Agriculture 3:30-38.
 
 Patterson, F.L., J.E. Foster, H.W. Ohm, J.H. Hatchett, and P.L. Taylor.
 1992. Proposed system of nomenclature for biotypes of Hessian fly (Diptera:
 Cecidomyiidae) in North America. J. Economic Entomology 85: (in press-
 April).
 
 Quiroz, C., R.M. Lister, J.E. Araya, and J.E. Foster. 1991. Effect of
 symptom variants derived from the NY-MAV isolate of barley yellow dwarf
 virus on the life cycle of the English grain aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)
 and on yield components in wheat and oats. J. Econ. Entomol. 84: 1920-1925.
 
 Quiroz, C., R.M. Lister, R.H. Shukle, J.E. Araya and J.E. Foster. 1992.
 Selection of symptom  variants from the NY-MAV strain of barley yellow dwarf
 virus and their effects on the feeding behavior of the vector Sitobion
 avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environ. Entomol. 21:  (in press).
 
 Roseman, T.S., R.D. Graham, H.J. Arnott and D.M. Huber.  1991.  The
 interaction of temperature with virulence and manganese oxidizing potential
 in the epidemiology of Gaeumannomyces graminis. Phytopathology 81:1215.
 
 Shaner, G. and G. Buechley.  1991.  Effect of foliar fungicides on wheat. 
 Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 46:226.
 
 Sharma, H.C., J.E. Foster, H.W. Ohm, and F.L. Patterson. 1991. New sources
 of resistance to Hessian fly biotype L in Triticeae. Agron. Abstr. 83:208.
 
 Tuite, J., G. Shaner, and R. J. Everson.  1990.  Wheat scab in soft red
 winter wheat in Indiana in 1986 and its relation to some quality
 measurements.  Plant Disease 74:959-962.
 
 Ueng, P. P., R. M. Slay, E. A. Geiger, G. Shaner, A. L. Scharen, and G.
 Bergstrom.  1991.  RFLP maps in fungus Stagonospora nodorum, a causal agent
 of wheat glume blotch disease.  Phytopathology 81:1229 (Abstr).
 
 Weller, S.J., H.W. Ohm, F.L. Patterson, and P.L. Taylor. 1991. Genetics of
 resistance of CI 15160 durum wheat to biotype D of Hessian fly. Crop Sci.
 31:1163-1168.
 
 Wellso, S.G., R.C. Coolbaugh and R.P. Hoxie. 1991. Effects of ancymidol and
 gibberellic acid on the response of susceptible Newton and resistant Abe
 winter wheat infested by biotype E Hessian flies (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).
 Environ. Entomol.  20:489-493.
 
 ------------------------- 
 KANSAS
 
  Wheat Quality Council
 
  Tom C. Roberts, Manhattan
 
   This is the 54th year for the Hard Winter Wheat Improvement program of the
 flour milling industry and the 42nd year for the Large-Scale Milling and
 Baking Evaluation Program of the Breadstuff's Industry. Organized for the
 purpose of serving as a not-for-profit liaison group within the industry in
 1938 and supported in total by the milling industry until 1980, the Wheat
 Quality Council emerged and has developed as it is today with the assistance
 of other industry groups - Baking, Grain, Seed, Banking, Associations,
 Publishing, Transportation, Wheat Commissions and Allied.    The Wheat
 Quality Council shall be for charitable, educational and research support of
 wheat improvement, conservation and protection.  In furthering these
 purposes the organization shall encourage development of new varieties and
 production by growers of all wheats that meet the nutritional and functional
 needs of food processors.
 
   The Council has played an important role in improving wheat quality.  The
 Large-Scale Milling and Baking Program began in 1949, being initiated by
 what now is known as the KSU Dept. of Grain Science Industry.  Minimum
 support funds were generated by a number of the industry groups to assist in
 a very low cost volunteer-oriented program until 1980.  A Standardized
 Evaluation System was implemented in 1988 with funding from the American
 Bakers Association.  The following flow chart explains the analytical
 organizations of the 1991 program.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                     WHEAT QUALITY COUNCIL FLOW CHART
                               NOT INCLUDED
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
             
 -------------------------
  United States Agricultural Research Service, Manhattan, KS
 
  O. K. Chung, G. L. Lookhart, V. W. Smail, J. L. Steele, W. H. McGaughey,
  D. B. Sauer, L. M. Seitz, M. D. Shogren, D. B. Bechtel, D. W. Hagstrum, I.
  Y. Zayas, L. C. Bolte, C. R. Martin, J. D. Wilson, D. L. Brabec, H. H.
  Converse, B. W. Seabourn, R. Dempster, R. R. Rousser, C. S. Chang, A. K.
  Dowdy, P. W. Flinn, W. S. Kim, W. D. Lin, K. Tilley, and A. Xu
 
     Efforts to Begin the Implementation of a Quality Based Grain Marketing
 System.  The U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL), located in
 Manhattan, Kansas, is one of the major facilities in the Agricultural
 Research Service (ARS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducting
 research on quality of cereal grains.  USDA, ARS also operates the Plant
 Science and Entomology Research Unit (PSERU) and a Wind Erosion Research
 Unit on the KSU campus.
 
     As the following series of research progress on wheats shows, the USGMRL
 has been seeking to develop new knowledge, information, and technologies
 needed to solve problems relating to harvest, storage, marketing, and
 end-use functional performance for U.S. grains.  Research is predominately
 oriented to wheat and corn due to its importance in the grain industry, but
 also includes sorghum and rice.  Recent research developments at the lab
 have created the opportunity to begin to seriously plan and develop an
 integrated end-use quality based grain classification and marketing system. 
 In addition, the PSERU conducts basic research on rust, hessian fly, powdery
 mildew, septoria and other diseases of wheat and offers screening for
 resistance to winter wheat breeding programs nationwide.  This effort allows
 the integration of both quality and pest resistance factors into new wheat
 varieties ensuring high quality, high yielding varieties in the future.
 
     The USGMRL and several other ARS and collaborative university research
 programs have been developing and improving technologies over the last 5
 years that now offer an opportunity to create an integrated market driven
 end-use quality marketing system for the grain industry.  Recent research in
 Near-Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmission (NIT) technology, digital
 image analysis, single kernel computerization data for hardness scores,
 moisture, size and weight of single kernels, grain handling sensor and
 measurement technology, odor detection, integrated stored grain insect, and
 pest management systems have occurred that can be applied to this system.
 
     In the past few years, we have refocused our research initiatives toward
 a more applied development of the following technology areas:  (a) rapid
 identification of end-use quality for purchase of hard red winter (HRW)
 wheats and other grains at the elevator and mill level, making it possible
 to create a market incentive for producing quality for the grower; (b)
 automatic computer optimization of mill streams by digital imaging and NIR/T
 analysis, to handle wheat of differing quality and sources, to create a
 uniform flour product for modern large scale bakeries; (c) development and
 implementation of an integrated, automated single-unit, measurement device
 to determine current and potential quality by the Federal Grain Inspection
 Service (FGIS) grade standards at each step of the grain industry thus
 reducing subjective test results and allowing a quality based system to be
 implemented; (d) improved storage and handling systems by the grain industry
 using in-line sensors and expert systems to reduce breakage, spoilage and
 insect infestation; and (d) development of new integrated insect control
 agents and expert systems using biorational compounds and biological control
 agents to replace lost stored grain protectants and fumigants.
 
     The potential implementation of these systems has only recently
 occurred, due to a strong realization by the entire U.S. grain industry that
 an integrated system is needed to keep the U.S. grain industry competitive,
 especially with the above mentioned recent market events, which have eroded
 the world grain share.
 
     Hard Red Spring and Hard Red Winter Wheats.  I.  Functional
 Characteristics.  Twelve cultivars each of hard red spring (HRS) and of hard
 red winter (HRW) wheats were grown at the Sacramento Valley area in
 California during three growing years (1988-90).  There were no significant
 differences in test weights, milling yields, and both mixograph and bake
 mixing time (MT) requirements between HRS and HRW wheats.  However, there
 were substantial differences in protein contents for wheat (overall average
 14.5% for HRS vs. 13.3% for HRW) and flour (13.0% vs. 11.9%) and significant
 differences in hardness scores (88 vs. 67).  Accordingly, all protein
 content-dependent parameters differed for HRS and HRW wheat flours:  higher
 water absorption (WA) for HRS (63.6%) than for HRW (60.3%); larger loaf
 volume (LV) for HRS (88.4 cc) than for HRW (81.7 cc).  Both wet and dry
 gluten contents were higher for the HRS (35.8 and 12.3%) than the HRW (32.8
 and 11.2%).  Gluten index (GI) values were higher for HRW (93.8 on average;
 85.4-98.7 range) than for HRS (89.7; 76.2-96.9) wheat flours.  LV regression
 values were slightly higher for HRW than HRS wheats.  Wheat protein contents
 were greatly affected by growing years:  the average wheat proteins of both
 classes were 14.4% (12.8-16.3%), 11.5% (8.5-14.0%), and 15.9 (14.1-17.9%),
 respectively, in 1988, 1989 and 1990. Growing years significantly affected
 wheat hardness of HRS wheats (89, 95 and 80) but not HRW wheats (66, 69 and
 67).
 
     Hard Red Spring and Hard Red Winter Wheats.  II.  Statistical Analysis
 of Gliadin HPLC Patterns.  Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid
 Chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used to analyze grain harvested from 12 HRW and
 from 12 HRS wheat cultivars grown in a common environment.  Visual
 examination of the gliadin patterns did not show any peak universally
 present in one class, but not in the other.  Statistical analysis of peak
 heights at each retention time was performed.  Analyses based on Euclidian
 distances produced 5 clusters plus 6 HRW cultivars that did not fall into
 any cluster.  In the 5 clusters were:  2 that contained only HRS cultivars,
 2 that contained only HRW cultivars, and 1 that contained both HRW and HRS
 cultivars.  The first principal component (PC1) explained 21% of the total
 variation among cultivars, primarily separating HRW and HRS classes with
 minor overlap.  The first three principal components together explained
 nearly half (45%) of the total variation.  In these three major dimensions,
 there was greater scatter within the HRW class than within the HRS class. 
 The correlation between PC1 and the first canonical variable was 0.79. 
 Discriminate analysis based on gliadin RP-HPLC allocated all cultivars to
 their correct class except Tam 105 and Tam 107.
 
     High Molecular Weight Glutenin Genes:  Effects on Quality in Wheat.  To
 utilize electrophoretic variants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) storage
 proteins as rapid screening criteria in selection of parents or progeny for
 end-use quality, breeders should know the relative effects of the alternate
 alleles at the storage-protein loci on which selection will act.  The
 objective of this study was to determine the direct effects of high
 molecular weight (HMW) glutenin genes on quality in wheat, without the
 confounding effects of linkage disequilibrium.  Genetic analyses of the
 direct effects of loci coding for glutenin subunits on mixing time, mixing
 tolerance, absorption, and protein concentration were conducted with 135
 random wheat selections from a randomly mated population.  Polyacrylamide
 gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) was
 used to screen for HMW glutenin subunits.  Significant differences were
 observed among alleles within loci for some of the quality traits measured. 
 Some of the epistatic interactions also were significant, indicating that
 the effects of some subunits depend partly on which of the subunits coded by
 other genomes are present.  The Subunit 5 + 10 combination at the Glu-D1
 locus had the largest positive effects on dough mixing traits, and the 6 + 8
 combination at Glu-B1 had large negative effects on most traits.  Alleles at
 Glu-A1 had no significant effects on any traits. Glutenin-based selection
 for increased mixing time and tolerance gave lower predicted gains than
 phenotypic selection.
 
     Purification of the High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits of Wheat. 
 The HMW glutenin subunits (GS) of the varieties Cheyenne and Chinese Spring
 were extracted and purified via two different methods.  In the first method
 (Khelifi and Branlard, 1991), the HMW-GS were purified through the use of an
 acid PAGE system followed by an SDS-PAGE gel.  The collected HMW fractions
 had reduced background proteins, but were not completely pure.  The second
 method involved a DMSO extraction of flour followed by reduction and
 alkylation of the proteins (Burnouf and Bietz, 1989).  The subunits were
 collected from an SDS-PAGE gel. The HMW-GS collected from this procedure
 were also shown to have fewer background proteins, and were also not
 completely pure.  When these subunits were run on RP-HPLC, they eluted at
 approximately 50% acetonitrile indicating that they were much more
 hydrophobic than previously reported (Wieser and Belitz, 1990).  The peaks
 were collected and run on mini SDS-PAGE gels and silver stained.  The
 collected peaks contained only the HMW-GS purified.  Our data show that each
 HMW-GS remains unchanged during purification by the initial SDS-PAGE gel,
 electroelution, separation on RP-HPLC, collection and re-analysis on
 SDS-PAGE.
 
     Purification of Proteolytic Enzymes from Wheat Flour and Their Effect on
 Rheological Changes in Cracker Sponge.  The proteolytic activity of enzymes
 extracted from wheat flours with ammonium sulfate was measured by
 fluorometry. The pH optimum of the extracted enzymes on hemoglobin substrate
 was around pH 4.0.  The proteolytic activity in soft wheat flours was higher
 than in hard wheat flours.  Enzymes purified by gel filtration
 chromatography gave two peaks of proteolytic activity.  One of the active
 fractions eluted from G-100 Sephadex was found responsible for the change of
 the elongational viscosity of the sponge during fermentation.  The changes
 of elongational viscosity of the cracker sponges set at pH 4 during
 fermentation were measured by lubricated uniaxial compression.  It was found
 that the elongational viscosity of the sponges decreased with fermentation
 time.  Insignificant changes were observed in the elongational viscosity of
 the sponges when enzymes had been extracted from sponge flour but decreased
 with fermentation time when the extracted enzymes were added back to the
 flour residue.  Rechromatography was used to further purify the proteolytic
 enzymes, and a single peak with high specific proteolytic activity was
 obtained.  About 85% of activity of the purified enzyme was inhibited by
 pepstatin, indicating that the enzyme is an acid protease.
 
     Image Analysis Applications for Grain Science.  Several applications of
 digital image analysis were studied.  Image analysis showed potential for
 use in recognizing corn color defects using red, green and blue images and
 discriminant analysis or neural network analysis procedures; in texture
 distinction of milled wheat fractions and hard vs. soft milled wheat
 fractions; in classification of hard and soft wheat using size and shape of
 single kernels, texture parameters of crushed material, and by assessing the
 number, shape and size of starch globules; in determining size, shape and
 projected areas of single popcorn kernels and flakes; and in determining
 bread slice cross-sectional areas.
 
     Digital Image Analysis for Differentiation of Wheat Classes.  In
 evaluations to determine wheat class, four single kernel crush parameters,
 ten single kernel size and shape parameters and nine crushed sample texture
 parameters were evaluated.  For the seventeen Federal Grain Inspection
 Service (FGIS) hardness reference sample set and approximately 300 kernels
 per sample, the kernel by kernel correct recognition rate based on four
 crush parameters was 79.9 and 93.2% for the hard and soft samples
 respectively.  Combining the crush parameters with image determined size and
 shape parameters improved the kernel by kernel correct recognition rate to
 93.5% for the hard and 94.7% for the soft wheat samples.  Several
 combinations of crush parameters, size and shape parameters and texture
 parameters of crushed material were investigated. Texture parameters were
 determined for each hardness reference sample using four repetitions of
 presentation and 16 sub-images (17 x 4 images, 17 x 4 x 16 sub-images). 
 Based on only the texture parameters of the crushed wheat samples, hard and
 soft wheat could be identified using singular and multiple texture
 parameters.  In canonical analysis using four texture parameters, hard wheat
 (HRW, HRS, DURUM) sub-images were correctly distinguished from soft wheat
 (SRW, SWW, CLUB) sub-images with an accuracy of 95.2% for the hard and 92.5%
 for the soft.
 
     Size Distribution of Starch Isolated from Hard and Soft Red Winter
 Wheats. A variety of hard and soft red winter wheats grown during the 1988
 growing season at several different Kansas locations were analyzed for
 near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) hardness, moisture, particle
 size index (PSI), and protein content after harvesting.  Starch was isolated
 from caryopses and viewed by darkfield light microscopy (LM).  The LM images
 were video recorded and subjected to digital image analysis.  Data was
 plotted as a histogram of frequency of starch granules vs. relative diameter
 of the granules.  Visual inspection of the graphs revealed three basic
 patterns for the histograms; one generally corresponded to soft wheats, one
 consistently corresponded to hard wheats, and the third graph corresponded
 to both soft and hard wheats.  Further examination of the third histogram
 revealed that the hard wheats usually had type B granules with a median
 diameter less than 10 um while the soft wheats possessed type B granules
 with median diameters greater than 10 um.
 
     Patterns of Starch Development in Hard Red Winter Wheat.  Digital image
 analysis was conducted on several wheat varieties grown during five growing
 seasons at the same location.  Starch isolated from developing hard red
 winter wheat caryopses was observed by darkfield LM.  Darkfield images were
 stored for use in the image analyzer using a video camera/tape recorder
 system.  Resolu- tion of the system allowed consistent measurement of starch
 granules with equivalent diameters of about 1.8 um.  All of the wheats
 possessed three classes of starch granules at maturity; large type A, medium
 type B, and the small type C.  There was considerable variation in starch
 growth patterns among both the varieties and growing seasons.  These
 variations included timing of initiation of each starch granule class, rates
 of growth for each class, and relative number of granules within each class. 
 At maturity, however, most of the size distribution profiles for all of the
 wheats were similar in appearance.
 
     Development of a Computerized Mixograph.  In mixograph instrumentation
 studies, the equations of motion for the platform were used to translate
 digitized moving and fixed bowl mixograms to estimates of torque imposed on
 the platform.  The translations resulted in nearly identical mixograms
 regardless of instrumentation method.  Comparable average and rms torque
 values were used to summarize dough development.
 
 
     Mixograph Studies.  I.  Whole Wheat Meals vs. Milled Flours.  There is
 an urgent need for a simple and fast method of screening wheat lines based
 on certain intrinsic quality.  NIR is widely used to determine moisture,
 ash, and protein contents and hardness scores of whole wheat ground meals. 
 We used those meals after the NIR determinations in mixograph studies. 
 Using 12.5 g (14% mb) meals produced mixograms with peak MT similar to those
 of 10 g (14% mb) flours:  an average 4.1 min was required for both meals
 (1.63-7.5 min) and for flours (1.75-8 min); meals required about 12 ml more
 WA than flours did. There were three groups of meal mixograms compared to
 corresponding flour mixograms:  (A) little change; (B) prolonged hydration
 times with thin ascending bands; and (C) substantial changes with much
 narrower curves and sharper angles.  Based on our limited number of samples,
 group (A) included wheats with low proteins (10%; 8-11%) with short MT (1.88
 min; 1.63-2 min) and low WA (65%, 61-68%); (B) included wheats with medium
 proteins (12.7%, 12-13.5%) with long MT (6.88 min; 5.75-7.5) and high WA
 (77%; 74-80%); and (C) included wheats with high proteins (14.7%;
 11.7-16.4%) with medium MT (3.5 min; 2.63-4.5 min) and medium WA (74%;
 70-78%).  Meal WA was linearly related to meal protein contents with larger
 slope for (B) than for (C).
 
     Comparison of One Pound and Pup Loaf Baking Procedures in Flour
 Performance Evaluation.  Nine wheat flour samples were obtained from Con
 Agra, Inc. who specially milled those 9 wheats for this project.  The
 moisture, protein, and ash contents of the 9 flours was determined.  Dough
 characteristics were evaluated by using a mixograph, farinograph,
 extensigraph, falling number, and amylograph.  Straight dough baking tests
 using the USDA/ARS U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL)
 formulations of all 9 samples have been completed for the one-pound loaves
 using a Hobart mixer (two and three prong agitators) at the American
 Institute of Baking (AIB).  Those tests have also been completed at the
 USGMRL using a National mixer for both pup and one-pound loaf doughs.  The
 production of one-pound loaf bread by a sponge and dough procedure using the
 AIB formulations similar to commercial bakery practices is currently being
 carried out at the AIB.  Temperature changes of white pan bread during
 baking and cooling were measured using a Super M.O.L.E. (Multiple Occurrence
 Logger Evaluator).  Changes in temperature of one-pound (458 g baked
 weight), pup (based on 100 g flour), and micro (based on 10 g flour) loaves
 were compared for both sponge and dough, and straight dough formulas.
 
     Bread Crumb Amylograph Studies.  I.  Effects of Storage Time,
 Shortening, Flour Lipids, and Surfactants.  Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate
 (SSL), sucrose monopalmitate (SMP), diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono-
 and diglycerides (DATEM), monoglycerides (MG), and petroleum ether-extracted
 flour lipids (FL) were added at the 0.5% level to make breads with and
 without shortening.  Bread crumb compressibility was measured after 1, 2 and
 5 days of storage at room temperature and the crumbs were then used for
 amylograph studies.  Compress- ibility increased with storage length and
 decreased with crumb moisture content and LV.  Amylograph readings of breads
 made with different additives were significantly different.  Storage time of
 the bread did not significantly affect the crumb amylogram readings except,
 in some breads, the height of the plateau before the viscosity onset.  The
 plateau was formed by progressive lowering of the initial viscosity,
 presumably caused by amylopectin retrogradation in bread crumb over the
 storage time.  Amylograph readings of bread crumb were significantly
 correlated with crumb firmness.  Storage days, LV, and cooling end or
 holding end viscosity in crumb amylogram were included in the best-fitting
 regression equations of crumb firmness.  The relation of amylograph readings
 to crumb compressibility was attributed to effects of lipid materials on
 both amylograph readings and crumb compressibility.
 
     Origin of Color in Vital Wheat Gluten.  Commercial vital wheat gluten
 has a cream to dark brown color, which detracts from its use in foods that
 are white. This investigation was done to determine the source(s) of color
 in gluten.  Our data suggest that the color of commercial gluten can be
 attributed equally to indigenous chromophores in endosperm tissue, enzymic
 browning during wet processing, and Maillard browning during drying.  Most
 of the color in gluten is extractable with acidified 92% aqueous butanol
 with a loss of only 4% protein.  The chromophores in gluten are either
 chemically linked to a small proportion of the protein, or they are
 associated through secondary forces.  It appears feasible to produce vital
 wheat gluten with two thirds less color or devitalized (solvent-extracted)
 gluten with practically no color.
 
     The USGMRL Single Kernel Wheat Characterization Meter (Hardness Tester):
 Update.  A U.S. Patent on the single kernel characterization system has been
 issued.  A second patent on the singulator device will be issued in early
 1992. Two wheat hardness instruments equipped with single kernel weighing
 devices were evaluated in methodology tests by FGIS in late 1990.  In early
 1991, FGIS selected the USGMRL single kernel crushing methodology for
 further development and use in developing new wheat hardness classification
 procedures.  As a result, commercial interest in patent licensing and a
 Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was solicited.  A
 CRADA which included the commercial fabrication of two prototypes of the
 hardness instrument was executed with Perten Instruments North America. 
 Target date for delivery of two commercial prototypes is February-April
 1992.
 
     As a result of temperature sensitivity, two experimental wheat hardness
 instruments were equipped with ambient temperature sensors, calibrated and
 normalized for hardness at temperatures ranging from 50-90øF and delivered
 to FGIS for further evaluations.
 
     Instrument determined averages and standard deviations for hardness,
 weight and size were correlated with milling quality at the first and second
 breaks while little correlation was found with milling yield.  The
 correlations were better for soft than hard wheat.  Tests are underway to
 relate single kernel hardness with maturity and simulated fast and slow
 field drying conditions. Some tests were conducted using prepared mixtures
 of hard and soft wheats. Some exploratory crushing tests were done using
 samples of barley and sorghum.
 
     Varietal and Environmental Effects on Phenotypic Stability in Hardness
 of Hard Red Winter Wheat Progenies.  Wheat hardness score (HS) was measured
 by NIR in 3,282 HRW wheat progenies grown in 1987-1989 from the Northern and
 Southern Regional Performance Nurseries (NRPN and SRPN) representing 24-45
 genotypes from 9-19 locations across thirteen states.  Phenotypic stability
 (PS), a nonparametric statistic, expressed as the mean of the absolute rank
 differences of a genotypes' HS over the N environments, was calculated for
 each progeny within each nursery for each growing season.  PS values of the
 most stable progenies in the NRPN were 5.1 (1988), 5.6 (1989), and 7.5
 (1987); the least stable progenies were 15.7 (1987), 11.7 (1988), and 11.1
 (1989).  PS values of the most stable progenies in the SRPN were 9.7 (1987),
 10.3 (1988), and 10.9 (1989); the least stable progenies were 20.1 (1987),
 19.8 (1988), and 18.8 (1989).  Step-wise linear regression of HS vs.
 temperature and moisture data from each growing season indicated a
 temperature x moisture interaction for wheat hardness.  HS for a given
 variety tended to be harder when grown in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, and
 softer when grown in Oklahoma, Texas, and Kansas.
 
     Nonuniformity in the Sensory Evaluation of Grain Odors.  Subjectivity
 and variability in grain odor assessment cause problems between grain buyers
 and sellers, and prompted our present research aimed at developing an
 objective means of detecting off odors in grain.  Over 500 samples of wheat,
 corn, sorghum and soybeans were evaluated for odor by licensed grain
 inspectors and by a panel of four persons at our laboratory.  Most of the
 samples had been designated as U.S. Sample Grade, during routine grading,
 because of undesirable odors.  In our evaluations we attempted to categorize
 the odors as OK, musty, sour, insect, or other; odor intensities were rated
 on a 0-3 scale, with ratings of 0 and 1 considered not strong enough for
 downgrading.  In independent evaluations, at least three of the four
 panelists agreed on the odor category (musty, sour, etc.) on about 50% of
 the samples.  There was majority agreement to fail 47% and to pass 34% of
 the samples; the vote was split on the remaining 19%.  Licensed graders also
 frequently disagreed on odor category or intensity.  Greatest agreement was
 on samples with strong odors or with clearly normal odors.  The absence of
 any relevant sensory standards is a hindrance to developing an instrument or
 technique for odor assessment.
 
     Sensory Analyses of Grain Samples.  A collaborative study was made
 between the Grain Quality and Structure Research Unit, USGMRL, and the
 Sensory Evaluation Center, Kansas State University, sponsored by the FGIS. 
 An experienced sensory panel evaluated 122 samples of wheat, corn, soybean,
 and sorghum to develop a list of descriptive terms that could be used to
 characterize grain odor.  Each descriptor was discussed until the panelists
 could agree that it was valid or should be eliminated because it was poorly
 defined or redundant.  When possible, specific chemical compounds were used
 as standards or references for odor descriptors.  The list of 30 descriptors
 and references was then tested on 400 grain samples to determine the
 frequency of occurrence of each term and to see if additional terms were
 needed.  Data collection is almost complete on this portion of the study.  A
 final part of the study will be to characterize 200 samples with regard to
 each relevant odor characteristic and its intensity.  All of the data will
 be used to relate perceived odor to chromatographic analyses of the
 volatiles from each sample.
 
     Volatile Compounds Associated with Objectionable Odors in Commercial
 Grain Samples.  More that 600 samples of corn, sorghum, wheat, and soybeans
 were received from official private, state, and FGIS offices.  All samples
 had odor classifications from the official inspectors and a panel at USGMRL. 
 Each whole-grain sample was analyzed by collecting volatiles on Tenax
 absorbent in a purge and trap concentrator.  Volatiles were then thermally
 desorbed and transferred to a gas chromatograph for separation on a
 Supelcowax-10 column (30m x 0.32mm) temperature programmed from 50 to 230øC. 
 Separated components were detected by first passing through a Fourier
 transform infrared detector and then into a mass selective detector. 
 Compound identities were confirmed by comparing infrared and mass spectra
 from observed components with those from reference standards and/or spectral
 libraries.
 
     The following are some examples of odors and compounds that were
 observed:
 Musty odors:  Some commercial samples with musty-earthy odors usually
 contained geosmin.  Geosmin is produced by molds and is known to cause
 off-flavors in water, fish, and other foods. Samples with moldy- or
 mushroom-type musty odors usually had high levels of 1-octen-3-ol and
 elevated levels of one or more of 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one,
 dimethoxybenzenes, styrene, nitromethane, and alkylpyrazines.  Sour odors: 
 Samples with piggy/barnyard odors contained butanoic acid, plus one or more
 other acids such as acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, 3-methylbutanoic,
 and hexanoic.  Butanoic acid was the main contributor to the off-odor. 
 Fermenting-type sour odors were associated with high concentrations of
 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin), and 2,3-butanediol.  This
 latter odor is not as intense and unpleasant as the piggy/barnyard odor. 
 Both odors appear to be caused by bacteria.  Insect odors:  Samples with
 odors like that produced by lesser grain borer (LGB) had high levels of
 2-pentanol and some also had detectable levels of LGB aggregation pheromones
 (dominicalures).  These compounds were only associated with the off-odor. 
 Samples with odors related to those from red flour beetle usually contained
 a monoterpene, a sesquiterpene, and/or possibly 1-pentadecene.  Other odors: 
 Some commercially objectionable foreign odors were apparently caused by
 unusually high levels of ammonia, 2-butoxyethanol, alkylbenzenes (paint),
 naphthalene (moth balls), and decomposition products of malathion.  Samples
 with smoke odors had high levels of alkylphenols and alkylpyrazines.  A few
 samples with "fatty" odors had exceptionally high aldehyde contents.
 
     Safety in Grain Handling and Storage.  A chapter entitled "OSHA
 Requirements and Worker Safety" was prepared for the proposed handbook,
 "Management of Grains, Bulk Commodities and Bagged Products".  The chapter
 summarizes the OSHA requirements regarding fumigation of grain storage
 structures and handling and processing of grain.  Reports on grain dust
 research in Poland and at Texas A&M were reviewed.
 
     Development of Models To Predict Temperature and Moisture Conditions of
 Grain During Storage.  In full scale tests, the aeration of wheat in 21-ft
 diameter bins was controlled by a programmable microprocessor for one bin
 and manually for a second bin.  Samples of grain were taken periodically to
 determine moisture content, test weight and insect population.  Grain
 temperatures at different locations in the bins were recorded four times
 daily and used with local weather data to develop a prediction model for
 both grain temperature and moisture content.  The prediction model included
 several sub-models which predicted soil temperature profiles under the bins,
 solar radiation on bin walls at any time of day, radiation between the bin
 roof and grain surface, and convective heat transfer coefficients for the
 bin wall and grain surface.  Predicted grain temperatures were in close
 agreement with measured grain temperatures over a test period of 32 months.
 
     Development of Predictive Models for Insect Populations.  A simulation
 study was completed using a spatial model for temperature and insect
 population dynamics in stored grain.  Model predictions and field data
 showed that fall insect densities were higher in the inner core than in the
 outer layers because insects continue to develop in the center where
 temperatures remain warmer longer.  A 2 year study showed that sticky traps
 can detect insects outside bins. Insect numbers inside and outside bins were
 influenced by air and wheat temperatures.  Response of LGB to aggregation
 pheromone or wheat volatiles was unrelated to age or sex of beetles and
 heavily infested wheat was more attractive than uninfested wheat.  A study
 was completed on functional response, age specific fecundity and
 developmental rate of a parasite of LGB, Choetospila elegans.  Cuticular
 hydrocarbon compositions of rusty grain beetle and dermestid larvae, and
 their parasites were quantified and their roles in host recognition by
 parasites are being studied.  Automated acoustic monitoring allowed partial
 identification of insect species.  Numbers of 10 second intervals with >40
 detectable sounds increased with insect size, and equalled 0, 25 and 50% of
 intervals for small (rusty and sawtoothed grain beetles), mid-size (LGB),
 and large (rice weevil and red flour beetle) species, respectively.
 
     Automation of Stored Grain Insect Population Monitoring with Acoustic
 Sensors.  The objective during the first three months of the pilot test has
 been to prepare equipment for field studies to begin in July when
 newly-harvested wheat is stored.  The field studies will test automated
 insect monitoring system in farm-stored wheat.  These field studies will
 assess variation in the performance of automatic insect monitoring system in
 different storage facilities and determine the reliability of systems in
 estimating insect populations in relation to the number and location of
 sensors, and the species and densities of insects present.  Equipment and
 software have been scaled-up from a capacity to monitor 8 sensors to a
 capacity to monitor 320 sensors.  Two cables with 20 sensors each and six
 cables with 10 sensors each have been constructed, and tested.  Additional
 materials have been purchased, and 20 additional cables with 20 sensors each
 are being constructed.  Software has been tested and programs have been
 rewritten to correct several problems discovered during testing.
 
     USDA/ARS Regional Wheat Quality Testing Laboratory:  Hard Winter Wheat
 Quality Laboratory (HWWQL).  The HWWQL, one of the four USDA/ARS Regional
 Wheat Quality Testing Laboratories, was first established in 1937 by
 Congress to work with wheat breeders of the Great Plains to determine the
 breadmaking qualities of hard winter wheat varieties for release.  The lab
 was located at the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of
 Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.  In
 1972, the HWWQL became part of the USGMRL.  The HWWQL evaluates intrinsic
 quality parameters of breeders' lines from the regional nurseries (SRPN,
 NRPN, and Western Plains Regional Performance Nurseries [WPRPN]), state and
 private nurseries, and Wheat Council, etc.  Evaluations include physical and
 chemical characteristics of wheats and their milled flours, milling
 properties, dough and gluten characteristics and bread characteristics.  For
 the earlier generation samples, evaluation is limited to micromilling and
 dough properties, proximate analyses, and kernel hardness.  We are proposing
 to include about 600 samples for complete testing (both milling and baking): 
 100 lines from the regional nurseries; 200-250 samples from the Great Plains
 state nurseries (approximately 30-40 samples/year from each of Colorado,
 Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas, South Dakota, etc.), 100 samples from
 other state and private nurseries; and 150-200 samples for research
 purposes.  Micromilling and mixograph evaluation for early generation
 research will be limited to about 200-300 samples, and for the G x E studies
 to 400 samples from the SRPN entries at multiple locations. The HWWQL also
 proposes to offer check sample services on experimental milling, NIR,
 mixograph, and/or straight-dough pup loaf bread-making to the various state
 hard winter wheat testing laboratories.  This service will be provided
 yearly by supplying 3 to 4 wheat samples and/or flours and will help each
 participating lab keep a check on their methodology.
 
     Book Chapters.  "Cereal Lipids" by Okkyung Kim Chung and "Cereal
 Proteins: Composition of Their Major Fractions and Methods for
 Identification" by George L. Lookhart were published in Handbook of Cereal
 Science and Technology, edited by K. J. Lorenz and K. Kulp, Marcel Dekker,
 Inc.  "Effect of Two Growing Years on Gluten Quality of Hard Winter Wheats
 from Two Nurseries" by Okkyung Kim Chung and Bradford W. Seabourn and
 "Identification of Wheat Lines Containing the 1BL/1RS Translocation by High
 Performance Liquid Chromatography" by George L. Lookhart were published in
 Gluten Proteins, edited by W. Bushuk and R. Tkachuk, American Association of
 Cereal Chemists.  "Microflora" by David B. Sauer et al will be published in
 Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products, edited by D. B. Sauer, American
 Association of Cereal Chemists.  "Off-Odors in Grains" by Larry M. Seitz and
 David B. Sauer will be published in Off-Flavours in Foods and Beverages,
 edited by G. Charalambous, Elsevier Science Publishing Company.
 
     Staffing News at the USDA/ARS Manhattan programs.  This year we have had
 several staffing changes.  Dr. Virgil Smail is approaching his first full
 year as the Laboratory Director and USDA/ARS Location Coordinator.  Dr.
 Daniel Skinner has joined the USDA/ARS as a career scientist to head up the
 alfalfa research program.  With the recent infusion of funds to the Grain
 Quality and Structure Research Unit (HWWQL), we are planning to recruit a
 replacement for Merle Shogren, who retired in 1989, to be in charge of the
 Baking Laboratory for the testing program of hard winter wheat breeder's
 samples.  The Engineering Research Unit is currently recruiting for an
 electrical engineer to assist in the development of predictive milling
 quality parameters from the Single Kernel Harness Tester and instruments. 
 The stored grain insect program in the Biological Research Unit has also
 received an infusion of funds allowing the development of a program to work
 with elevators and end-users in developing and adapting IPM stored grain
 management systems.  Recruitment is underway for a lead scientist on this
 new program.  In the Director's Office, Janie McGuire moved to New Orleans
 and Sandy Mathewson has taken over as the Secretary. Linda Morgan has
 replaced Sandy as the Secretary for the Biological Research Unit.  The
 USGMRL's new FAX number is (913) 776-2792.
 
 
                                Publications
 
 Bakhella, M., Lookhart, G. L., and Hoseney, R. C.  1991.  Identification of
 Moroccan wheats by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and
 electrophoretic procedures.  Review Scientifique et Technique
 Multidisciplinaire. (In Press)
 
 Bakhella, M., Moujib, M., Lookhart, G. L., and Hoseney, R. C.  1991.  Wheat
 hardness - a review.  Review Scientifique et Technique Multidisciplinaire. 
 (In Press)
 
 Bechtel, D. B., Wilson, J. D., and Shewry, P. R.  1991.  Immunological
 localization of the wheat storage protein triticin in developing endosperm
 tissue.  Cereal Chem. 68:573-577.
 
 Bechtel, D. B., Zayas, I. Y., Dempster, R., and Wilson, J. D.  1991.  Size-
 distribution of starch isolated from hard and soft red winter wheats. 
 Cereal Foods World 36:683.  [Abstract]
 
 Bechtel, D. B., Zayas, I. Y., Dempster, R., and Wilson, J. D.  1991. 
 Patterns of starch development in hard red winter wheat. Cereal Foods World
 36:884. [Abstract]
 
 Branlard, G., Khelifi, D., and Lookhart, G. L.  1991.  Identification of
 some proteins of wheat separated by the 2 step acid-page-SDS page technique.
 Journal of Cereal Science.  (In Press)
 
 Chang, C. S., Converse, H. H., and Steele, J. L.  1991.  Flow rates of grain
 through various shapes of vertical and horizontal orifices.  Transactions of
 the ASAE 34(4):1789-1796.
 
 Chang, C. S., and Noyes, R. T.  1991.  OSHA requirements and worker safety. 
 In: Handbook of Management of Grains, Bulk Commodities, and Bagged Products,
 M. Stone, ed.  Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK.  (In Press)
 
 Chung, O. K.  1991.  Cereal Lipids.  In:  Handbook of Cereal Science and
 Technology, K. J. Lorenz and K. Kulp, eds.  Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.
 Chapter 13, pp. 497-553.  [Book Chapter]
 
 Chung, O. K., Lookhart, G. L., Bechtel, D. B., Hagstrum, D. W., Chang, C.
 S., Flinn, P. W., Steele, J. L., Converse, H. H., McGaughey, W. H., Zayas,
 I., Seabourn, B. W., Shogren, M. D., Dowdy, A. K., Howard, R. W., Seitz, L.
 M., Lamkin, W. M., Lin, W. D., Brabec, D. L., Sauer, D. B., Martin, C. R.,
 Shin, M. G., Speirs, R. D., Wilson, J. D., and Xu, A.  1991.  Wheat research
 in the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory.  Annual Wheat Newsletter
 37:128-135. [Review]
 
 Chung, O. K., Lookhart, G. L., Bolte, L. C., Shogren, M. D., and Bruns, R. 
 1991. Hard red spring and hard red winter wheats.  I.  Functional
 characteristics. Cereal Foods World 36:685-686.  [Abstract]
 
 Chung, O. K., and Seabourn, B. W.  1991.  Effect of two growing years on
 gluten quality of hard winter wheats from two nurseries.  In:  Gluten
 Proteins, W. Bushuk and R. Thachuk, eds.  Am. Assoc. of Cereal Chem., St.
 Paul MN.  pp. 724-739.  [Book Chapter]
 
 Dong, H., Cox, T. S., Sears, R. G., and Lookhart, G. L.  1991.  High
 molecular weight glutenin genes:  Effects on quality in wheat.  Crop Sci.
 31:974-979.
 
 Dong, H., Sears, R. G., Cox, T. S., Hoseney, R. C., Lookhart, G. L., and
 Shogren, M. D.  1991.  Relationship between protein composition and end-use
 quality characteristics in wheat (T. aestivum).  Cereal Chem.  (In Press)
 
 Dowdy, A. K., and McGaughey, W. H.  1991.  Importance of stored grain insect
 pests outside of bins in making management decisions.  In:  Proceedings of
 Oklahoma Grain Elevator Management Workshop, G. W. Cuperus, ed.  Oklahoma
 State University, Cooperative Extension Service Circular E-902.
 
 Flinn, P. W., and Hagstrum, D. W.  1991.  An expert system for managing
 insect pests of stored grian.  Proceedings of 5th International Working
 Conference on Stored-Product Protection.  pp 2011-2017.
 
 Hagstrum, D. W., Vick, K. W., and Flinn, P. W.  1991.  Automatic monitoring
 of Tribolium castaneum populations in stored wheat with computerized
 acoustical detection system.  J. Econ. Entomol. 84:1604-1608.
 
 Kim, W. S., Seib, P. A., and Chung, O. K.  1991.  Origin of color in vital
 wheat gluten.  Cereal Foods World 36:954-959.
 
 Lin, W. D., Lookhart, G. L., and Hoseney, R. C.  1991.  Purification of
 proteolytic enzymes from wheat flour and their effect on rheological changes
 in cracker sponge.  Cereal Foods World 36:688.  [Abstract]
 
 Lookhart, G. L.  1991.  Cereal proteins:  Composition of their major
 fractions and methods for identificaiton.  In:  Handbook of Cereal Science
 and Technology, K. J. Lorenz and K. Kulp, eds.  Marcel Dekker, Inc., New
 York. Chapter 11, pp 441-468.  [Book Chapter]
 
 Lookhart, G. L.  1991.  Identification of wheat lines containing the 1BL/1RS
 translocation by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).  In:  Gluten
 Proteins, W. Bushuk and R. Tkachuk, eds.  Amer. Assoc. of Cereal Chemists,
 St. Paul, MN.
 
 Lookhart, G. L., Cox, T. S., and Chung, O. K.  1991.  Hard red spring and
 hard red winter wheats.  II.  Statistical analysis of gliadin HPLC patterns. 
 Cereal Foods World 36:686.  [Abstract]
 
 Lookhart, G. L., Hagman, K., and Kasarda, D. D.  1991. 
 High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits of the most commonly grown wheat
 cultivars in the U.S. in 1984.  Journal of Plant Breeding.  (In Press)
 
 Martin, C. R., Rousser, R., and Brabec, D. L.  1991.  Rapid single kernel
 grain characterization system.  U.S. Patent No. 5,005,774, U.S. Patent
 Office, Washington, D.C.
 
 Martin, C. R., Rousser, R., and Brabec, D. L.  1991.  Device for singulating
 particles.  U.S. Patent Serial No. 519195, U.S. Patent Office, Washington,
 D.C.
 
 Obaldo, L. G., Harner, J. P., and Converse, H. H.  1991.  Prediction of
 moisture changes in stored grain.  Trans. of the ASAE 34(4):1850-1858.
 
 Olewnik, M. C., Lookhart, G. L., Chung, O. K., Sutton, T. L., and Miller, R.
 1991.  Temperature changes of white pan bread during baking:  One pound, pup
 and micro loaves.  Cereal Foods World 36:726.  [Abstract]
 
 Sauer, D. B., Meronuck, R. M., and Christensen, C. M.  1992.  Microflora. 
 In: Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products, 4th ed., D. B. Sauer, ed.,
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 Sauer, D. B., and Seitz, L. M.  1991.  Nonuniformity in the sensory
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 Sauer, D. B., and Seitz, L. M.  1991.  Relationship between microflora and
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 Sears, R. G., Heyne, E. G., Martin, T. J., Cox, T. S., Browder, L. E.,
 Wetzel, D. L., Shogren, M. D., Bolte, L. C., Curran, S. P., Lawless, J. R.,
 Witt, M. D., and Heer, W. F.  1991.  Registration of "Karl" wheat.  Crop
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 objectionable odors in commercial grain.  Cereal Foods World 36:707.
 [Abstract]
 
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 -------------------------
 Kansas State University, Manhattan
                                
      T.S. Cox*, R.G. Sears*, T.J. Martin*, B.S. Gill*, W.W. Bockus, R.L.
      Bowden, T.L. Harvey, J.H.Hatchett*, S. Hulbert, M.B. Kirkham, G.H.
      Liang, M.D. Witt, W.J. Raupp*, D.L. Wilson, L.G  Harrell, L.E.
      Patton, L.C. Coonrod, K.S. Gill, R.S. Kota, J.E. Werner, B. Friebe,
      P.D. Chen, T.R. Endo, C. H. Carter, J. Jiang, A.K. Fritz, L.
      Michelson, D. Miller, D.E. Delaney, G.L. Brown, Q. He, G. Shu 
 
      The 1990-91 Crop Year.  The 1990-91 wheat crop will probably best
 be remembered as variable. Rainfall across the state from February thru
 March was erratic in both amount and location. In most regions it was
 possible to look at wheat completely drought stressed in one field and
 without driving  far find wheat in good condit‚ion, with good yield
 potential. As a result the average yields for the state, estimated at
 2220 kg/ha, are averages of rather large extremes rather than a
 reflection of any consistent trend. This years production was 24% less
 than last years record crop. Kansas produced 9.7 million metric tons or
 18% of the total United States wheat crop.
 
      Fall planting conditions were excellent across the state and wheat
 stand establishment was good. Wheat vegetative growth during this period
 was well above average and much of the wheat in southern Kansas was
 grazed. Excessive growth during this time period removed a large amount
 of stored sub-soil moisture which was limited in most areas, this
 resulted in very poor spring regrowth and recovery. Because of the very
 dry spring, wheat that had been grazed yielded much less grain than
 ungrazed wheat. Generally yield reductions due to grazing can occur but
 are not dramatic unless cattle are left in the fields past jointing.
 
      Winter temperatures were relatively mild continuing a trend toward
 more moderate and warmer winters throughout the southern Great Plains. 
 Spring green-up occurred in mid-February and wheat started to tiller
 again by the last week of February. March and April were very dry and
 warm months in Kansas. Without sufficient sub-soil moisture and no early
 spring rain, little early season growth occurred. In late April general
 rains occurred across much of the state and improved wheat prospects
 considerably. High temperatures in mid-June hastened maturity and
 reduced yields of late maturing wheats.
 
      Major disease pressure in eastern and central Kansas this year came
 from 2 diseases we usually see and one that has been very rare. Powdery
 mildew and leaf rust were predominant at all locations in eastern and
 central Kansas. Powdery mildew seriously affected performance
 southeastern and southcentral Kansas. Susceptible leaf rust selections
 and checks lost their flag leaves perhaps 5-8 days before normal
 senescence and leaf rust reduced yields as much as 10-15% in south-
 central Kansas. Soil Borne Wheat Mosaic and Spindle Streak Mosaic
 Virus', usually significant diseases in Kansas were not severe due to
 the very warm dry spring. A relatively rare disease for Kansas, Septoria
 nodorum, which we usually only see in trace amounts in southeast Kansas
 was heavy and damaging in central and eastern Kansas. As more and more
 emphasis is placed on reducing soil and water erosion by increasing
 residue on the soil surface we are observing a significant increase in
 tan spot and both Septoria diseases.  Leaf rust, stem rust and wheat
 streak mosaic virus were the major diseases in western Kansas.
 
      End use quality was generally much above average. Protein content
 averaged 12.9%, the 4th consecutive year protein content of the crop was
 above the 10 year average of 12.0%. Milling and baking properties of the
 1991 crop were considered above average-good.
 
      Six Kansas experimental lines are currently being tested in
 regional nurseries and are being increased for release consideration:
 
      KS87H325-2 (Lr16/Lr17//LES/3/CHY/LES/4/BNT'S'/5/Tam 107) is an
 early, strong strawed selection that carries resistance to the wheat
 curl mite and good tolerance to WSMV. It has very good milling and
 baking characteristics. Its performance in this years elite trials was
 very good and it will be tested again next year.
 
      KS89H48-1 and KS89H50-4
 (Dular/Eagle//2*Cheney//(Larned//Eagle/Sage)/3/Colt are very promising
 selections, especially under dryland conditions. In last year's advanced
 yield trials and in this year's elite trials they were the top yielding
 selections in western Kansas. Both of these selections will be tested in
 Kansas elite tests and the Southern Regional Performance Nursery next
 year.
 
      KS831374-142 is a head row reselection from the variety Karl. In
 three years of testing this line has averaged a 270 kg/ha yield
 advantage over Karl. It has similar milling and baking qualities of
 Karl. KS831374-142 will be recommended for increase and release
 consideration in 1992.
 
      Two hard white wheats are currently being increased for release
 consideration in 1992 or 1993. KS90HW53 and KSSB-369-7 (bulk selections)
 have improved yield and test weight patterns along with better disease
 resistance than currently grown varieties. - Sears
 
      Release of two leaf rust-resistant germplasms.    The Wheat
 Genetics Resource Center released two new germplasms in 1991. 
 KS91WGRC11 (Century*3/TA2450) carries a partially dominant gene for
 seedling and adult-plant resistance to leaf rust.  The gene comes from
 Triticum tauschii accession TA2450, collected by Kyoto University near
 the Caspian coast of Iran. KS91WGRC12 (Century*3/TA2541) carries adult-
 plant leaf rust resistance from T. tauchii accession TA2541, collected
 in far northeast Afghanistan, also by Kyoto University.  
 
      KS91WGRC11 has a slightly higher seedling and field infection type
 than KS90WGRC10 (Lr41), and its partially dominant gene segregates
 independently of the dominant gene Lr41.  Its seedling infection type is
 lower than those of other D-genome leaf rust genes, but genetic studies
 are not complete.  Monosomic crosses show it is not on chromosome 1D,
 where Lr21 and several other leaf rust genes are located.  Studies of
 the inheritance of adult-plant resistance in KS91WGRC12 are not
 complete, but the resistance seems to be recessive.  The gene(s)'
 relationship to Lr22 is not yet known.  KS91WGRC12 also segregates for
 resistance to soilborne mosaic virus resistance, derived from TA2541.-
 Cox, Sears, Gill
 
 Wheat Genetics Resource Center
 
 Collection Status.   The various species and number of accessions
 maintained for each are listed below:
 
                Species                                 Number of
                                                        accessions
 
                Triticum boeoticum ........................  606
                Triticum urartu ...........................  195
                Triticum tauschii .........................  346
                Triticum araraticum .......................  307
                Triticum dicoccoides ......................  385
                Miscellaneous Triticum species ............  141
                Miscellaneous Triticum 
                     (formerly Aegilops) species ............313
                Genetic stocks ............................1,231
                Perennial Triticeae species................  173
                    Total................................  3,697
 
      A major addition to our collection is the recently acquired
 collection of Dr. Robert Metzger, USDA, Oregon State University,
 Corvalis.  This collection amounts to approximately 1,200 accessions
 collected extensively over the country of Turkey.  Much of this
 collection has never been evaluated for useful genes.  There was an
 increase in the number of cytogenetic stocks by 33. -Raupp, B. Gill,
 Wilson
                  
 
 RESEARCH
 
      Transfer of PhI gene(s) from Triticum speltoides into common wheat. 
 Some accessions of Triticum speltoides have a gene(s) called PhI which
 inhibits Ph and promotes homoeologous chromosome pairing.  Plants with
 PhI gene(s) were screened from a BC(2)F(2) T. aestivum c.v. Chinese
 Spring (CS)/T. speltoides//CS, and had a range of chromosome pairing of
 6.14-6.89 II + 0.78-1.12 III + 0.03-0.16 IV in their test crosses with
 Triticum peregrinum (syn = Aegilops variabilis.  The chromosome pairing
 in the controlled test crosses CS/T. peregrinum, ph2/T. peregrinum, and
 ph1/T. peregrinum were 2.41 II + 0.07 III, 4.09-5.18 II + 0.28-0.51 III
 + 0-0.01 IV, and 7.82 II + 2.06 III + 0.33 IV + 0.02 V, respectively. 
 In both hybrids between plants with PhI gene(s) and Triticum durum-
 Haynaldia villosa amphiploid (AABBVV), homoeologous chromosome pairing
 between V-genome chromosomes and A-, B-, or D-genome chromosomes was
 observed in 10-30% C-banded PMC at MI.  However, this kind of pairing
 was only observed in 2-4% PMC at MI in (CS/T. durum-H. villosa)F(1). 
 The segregation data from test crosses suggested that two pairs of genes
 may be responsible for the pairing. -Chen, B. Gill
 
      Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of Thinopyrum intermedium and
 its potential for improving disease resistance of cultivated wheat.
 Thinopyrum intermedium is an autoallohexaploid species genomically
 E(1)E(2)X where the E(1) and E(2) genomes are related to the E genome of
 Thinopyrum elongatum and the J genome of Thinopyrum bessarabicum,
 respectively, and the third X genome is of unknown origin.  C-banding
 and in situ hybridization were used to analyze the genomic affinities of
 the T. intermedium chromosomes present in a partial Triticum aestivum-T.
 intermedium amphiploid and in derived chromosome addition lines. 
 Furthermore, T. intermedium has potential for improving the genetic
 variability of wheat and two transfers of resistance genes derived from
 T. intermedium to hexaploid wheat via wheat-T. intermedium chromosome
 translocations are as follows:
 
 1. transfer of resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus via a T4Ai-2S/4DL
 translocation, and
 2. transfer of leaf rust resistance genes via T2AS.2AL-7Ai-2L, T7Ai-2L-
 5AS.5AL, T1DS.1DL-7Ai-2L, and T6DS.6DL-7Ai-2L translocations. -Friebe,
 B. Gill
 
      Pest resistance and agronomic evaluations of Triticum tauschii. 
 Triticum tauschii (syn. Aegilops squarrosa, DD), a wild diploid species
 is the D genome progenitor of bread wheat Triticum aestivum (AABBDD). 
 Triticum tauschii is a rich source of genes for resistance to a number
 of pests, along with genes for desirable agronomic traits.  A collection
 of 342 T. tauschii accessions is maintained by the Wheat Genetics
 Resource Center at Kansas State University.  The collection was
 evaluated for resistance to pathogens that cause tan spot, leaf rust,
 powdery mildew, and leaf blotch; and the insect pests greenbug, Russian
 wheat aphid, and Hessian fly.  Winter hardiness was evaluated under
 natural field conditions.  Accessions with 80% survival rate were
 considered cold tolerant.  The percentage of T. tauschii accessions with
 resistance to each pathogen or insect were:  tan spot (61%), leaf rust
 (19%), powdery mildew (10%), leaf blotch (53%), greenbug (65%), Hessian
 fly (24%), and Russian wheat aphid (0.4%).  Thirty-three per cent of the
 accessions were considered cold tolerant.  Identifying these traits will
 contribute to the available genes needed for cultivar enhancement. -
 Wilson, Cox, Gill, Raupp, Hatchett, Harvey
 
      The sub-arm aneuploids of common wheat.  The gametocidal gene
 located on chromosome 3C of Triticum cylindricum causes extensive
 chromosome breaks in wheat chromosomes.  Homozygous deletion stocks were
 recovered in the selfed progeny of heterozygous deletion plants by
 examining ten plants by C-banding analysis.  If no homozygous deletion
 stocks were recovered, heterozygous deletion plants were crossed with
 the nulli-tetrasomic stock corresponding to the deletion chromosome. 
 Five BC(1)F(1) plants were analyzed to identify monosomic deletion
 chromosome plants which were then selfed.  Ten BC(1)F(1) plants were
 analyzed to recover homozygous deletion stocks.  Using this system, we
 have isolated 150 monosomic or homozygous deletion stocks.  Genes for
 fertility, plant height, awn suppression, and other phenotypic traits
 have been localized to sub-arm chromosome segments. -Endo, B. Gill
 
      In situ hybridization analysis of wheat-Elymus trachycaulus
 chromosome addition lines.  Four different repeated DNA sequence probes,
 pEt2, pCb1, pCb4.14, and pP12.5, were hybridized in situ to identify
 Elymus trachycaulus chromosomes added to wheat.  Although  the four
 probes did not hybridize with wheat DNA in southern blot analysis, probe
 pEt2 hybridized with most and pCb1 hybridized with all wheat chromosomes
 by in situ hybridization.  pCb4.14 and pP12.5 hybridized only to E.
 trachycaulus chromosomes.  Elymus trachycaulus chromosomes can still be
 detected using pEt2 and pCb1 in addition lines due to stronger
 hybridization signals on Elymus than on wheat chromosomes.  Probe pCb1
 had a dispersed hybridization pattern and the other three probes showed
 tandem repeat patterns.  pCb4.14 and pP12.5 are mainly located on
 telomeric areas and pEt2 is located on both telomeric and interstitial
 sites of E. trachycaulus chromosomes.  Most of the E. trachycaulus
 chromosomes in the addition lines had a similar hybridization pattern
 with pCb4.14 and pP12.5 except the short arms of 1St, 5Ht, and 6Ht that
 only had signal with pP12.5. -Jiang, B. Gill
 
      A DNA fragment mapped within the submicroscopic deletion of Ph1, a
 chromosome pairing regulator gene in polyploid wheat.  Bread wheat is an
 allohexaploid consisting of three genetically related (homoeologous)
 genomes.  The homoeologous chromosomes are capable of pairing but strict
 homologous pairing is observed at metaphase I.  The diploid-like pairing
 is regulated predominantly by Ph1, a gene mapped on the long arm of
 chromosome 5B.  We report direct evidence that a mutant of the gene
 (ph1b) arose from a submicroscopic deletion.  A probe (XksuS1-5) detects
 the same missing fragment in two independent mutants ph1b and ph1c and a
 higher intensity fragment in a duplication of the Ph1 gene.  It is
 likely that XksuS1-5 lies adjacent to Ph1 on the same chromosome
 fragment that is deleted in ph1b and ph1c.  XksuS1-5 can be used to tag
 the Ph1 gene to facilitate incorporation of genetic material from
 homoeologous genomes of the Triticeae.  It may also be a useful marker
 in cloning the Ph1 gene by chromosome walking. -K. Gill, B. Gill
 
      An updated genetic linkage map of Triticum tauschii, the D-genome
 progentior of wheat.  The current map of Triticum tauschii consists of
 196 loci, 182 of which are present as linkage groups.  An F(2)
 population of 60 plants, derived from a cross between two accessions of
 T. tauschii (TA1691 / TA1704), was used for the mapping.  One hundred
 and seventy-six loci exist as seven linkage groups corresponding to the
 seven chromosomes of T. tauschii (1D, 2D, ..., 7D).  Six loci are
 present in two linkage groups not assigned to any chromosome.  The
 number of loci and the genetic length for each chromosome is given in
 the table.  There is an average of 25 loci per chromosome.  All the
 markers are RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) loci except
 for eight protein loci and a leaf rust resistance gene.  Salient
 features of the map include the following:  the map covers all seven
 chromosomes, an average chromosome has 25 loci, the average genetic
 length of a chromosome is 307 cM, the map covers 90% of the genome, and
 most of the probes are also mapped in wheat.-K. Gill, Hassawi, Raupp,
 Fritz, B. Gill, Cox, Sears
 
 CHROMOSOME     # OF LOCI      LENGTH (cM)
  ------------------------------------------
 1D             23             271
 2D             27             342
 3D             36             390
 4D             19             221
 5D             24             281
 6D             34             462
 7D             13             185
  ------------------------------------------
 TOTAL          176            2152
 
      Molecular cloning of telomeric and telomere-related sequences in
 wheat.  The oligonucleotide d(TTTAGGG)(n) cross-hybridizes to wheat and
 related species.  A 100 bp length of telomeric repeat generated by the
 ligation of oligomers (TTTAGGG)(4) and (CCCTAAA) has illuminated the
 structure of wheat chromosome ends.  It appears that the length of the
 telomeric repeat in the Triticeae is variable.  Cloning of wheat
 telomeres and their associated sequences and the genetic determination
 of telomere length was determined.  Telomere-related sequences are
 isolated by PCR using (TTAGGG)(4) as a primer.  A 1 kb fragment isolated
 by this method detected species-dependent telomeric lengths among
 various species in the Triticeae. -Kota, Werner, B. Gill, Hulbert
 
      Distribution of telomeric repeats in common wheat and their role in
 the healing process of broken chromosomes.  The distribution of
 telomeric repeats in common wheat was studies by in situ hybridization
 of the telomeric probe to root tip chromosomes.  Synthetic oligomers,
 (TTTAGGG)(28) and (CCCTAAA)(7), were used to generate the 100 bp probe. 
 Hybridization sites were detected by horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed
 precipitation of diaminobenzidine with single amplification by
 biotylinated antiavidin.  Sites of hybridization were visualized as
 double dots at the end of the chromosome.  Variation among chromosomes
 in the telomere lengths based on the size of the signal indicated that
 individual telomeres may contain variable numbers of telomeric repeats. 
 A number of deletion stocks isolated from the progeny of monosomic
 additions of the gametocidal chromosome in common wheat were included in
 the analysis.  The telomeric sequence was detected by in situ
 hybridization at the ends of broken chromosomes. -Werner, Kota, Endo, B.
 Gill
 
      A physical map of group 7 chromosomes in common wheat.  Chromosomes
 of group 7 were physically mapped utilizing 41 deletion lines and 16
 RFLP and biochemical markers.  By examining an array of deletions in the
 critical chromosome arm, genetic loci were mapped to a specific
 chromosome region, sometimes involving a very tiny segment of the
 chromosome (less than 0.01% of the total chromosome length estimated as
 0.85 million bp).  The physical map indicates colinearity among the
 three A, B, and D wheat genomes.  Using the same probes, the physical
 map was compared to the genetic map of the group 7 chromosomes.  There
 is general agreement in the gene order of the two map types.  However,
 physical mapping verified the location of two loci and clarified the
 inconsistency  on the linkage maps of two other loci.  Furthermore,
 genes mapped to genetic positions close to the centromere have been
 physically localized to more distal chromosome regions indicating that
 in distal regions, recombination is more frequent. -Werner, Endo, B.
 Gill
 
      Microspore culture. Microspore culture, an alternate of anther
 culture, could have the advantage of increasing number of polyhaploids
 and free of hexaploids derived from maternal tissues.  The initial step
 of microspore culture is to extract or isolate the microspores from
 anthers.  We have been experimenting with three methods of isolation: 1)
 using a tissue grinder (Fisher) to grind the anthers followed by
 filtration and centrifugation under aseptic conditions, 2) using the
 magnetic plate and stirrer to break the anthers in a beaker containing 
 liquid medium, and 3) floating the anthers in a liquid medium and collect 
 the microspores after shedding into the medium.
 
      Five media were tested for microspore culture - W(3), W(4) (from
 Dr. David Lucket of Australia), Potato II (from China), 85D12 and
 modified 85D12.  Among the five media, 85D12 and modified 85D12 were the
 best.  The modified 85D12 is the 85D12 supplemented with IAA, kinetin,
 gylcine, and 3% sucrose.
 
      The anthers from Pavon 76 were cultured in a liquid medium for
 several days and the microspores were collected by centrifuging, then
 resuspend the microspores in a double layer medium with a liquid medium
 (3 mm deep) on top of a solid medium 0.7 (1% Difco agar).
 
      Microspore division was observed and cell mess were formed. 
 However, no seedlings have been regenerated yet.  - He and Liang
 
 -------------------------
      Restriction fragment patterns of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs
 of Haynaldia villosa and wheat.
 Haynaldia villosa Schur [Syn. Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy, 2n = 14
 = VV] is an annual allogamous grass of the tribe Triticeae.  It has been
 postulated that H. villosa may be the cytoplasm donors to the wheat
 (Rosen, 1987).  Homoeology between chromosomes of H. villosa and wheat
 was reported (Montebove et al., 1987) and H. villosa is cross-compatible
 with tetraploid and hexaploid wheat (Jan et al., 1986).  However,
 distinct differences in C-banding patterns between the chromosomes of H.
 villosa and wheat were noted (Friebe et al., 1987). 
 
      We compared the restriction endonuclease patterns of cp- and mt-
 DNAs using Bam HI, Pst I, Hind III, and Sal I from H. villosa and wheat,
 but found that patterns were different between wheat (both tetraploid
 and hexaploid wheats) and H. villosa for cp- and mt-DNA.  Both
 accessions of H. villosa showed the same cpDNA restriction patterns but
 differed by having additional fragments at 12.8 and 5.4 kb (Hind III
 digestion) but missing at least 6 small fragments (4.4 kb and less) when
 compared to wheats.  Tetraploid and hexaploid wheats had identical cp-
 DNA restriction patterns.  Sal I restriction patterns of mt-DNAs for two
 accessions of H. villosa and tetra- and hexaploid wheats were also
 compared.  Again, identical patterns of mtDNA were observed between the
 two accessions and between tetra- and hexaploid wheats but distinct
 differences existed between H. villosa and wheats.
 
      Results from other restriction enzyme analyses concurred with above
 observations.  From the restriction patterns of those cytoplasmic
 organelles, it appears that H. villosa is unlikely to be the cytoplasm
 donor to tetra- or hexaploid wheats as previously reported. - Shu and
 Liang
 
      Root restriction and drought resistance.  The objective of this
 work was to determine if roots of a drought-sensitive wheat grew more
 (or less) than those of a drought-resistant wheat, when roots were
 confined to a restricted root zone.  Eleven-day-old seedlings of two
 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Ponca' (drought-
 sensitive) and 'KanKing' (drought-resistant) were transplanted into 185
 mm long soil-filled glass tubes, one plant per tube, with internal
 diameters of three different sizes (3.5, 8, or 10 mm).  Root length was
 monitored for 26 days after transplanting.  At the end of the study, the
 37-day-old plants were harvested, and root dry weight was determined. 
 Seven days after transplanting, all plants in the 3.5-mm diameter tubes
 were dead or dying.  Roots of the drought-sensitive cultivar grew faster
 into the 8- and 10-mm diameter tubes than did roots of the drought-
 resistant cultivar.  At the end of the study, roots of Ponca reached a
 depth of 185 and 149 mm in the 10- and 8-mm diameter tubes,
 respectively; roots of KanKing reached a depth of 152 and 92 mm in the
 10- and 8-mm diameter tubes, respectively.  Root diameters were not
 measured, but roots of KanKing appeared to be wider than roots of Ponca. 
 At the end of the study, roots of Ponca were similar in weight to those
 of KanKing.  The apparently thicker and shorter roots of KanKing thus
 weighed the same as the apparently thinner and longer roots of Ponca. 
 The slender roots of Ponca may have been more able to penetrate faster
 and deeper into the constricted root zone than the thicker roots of
 KanKing.  The results suggested that drought resistance may be related
 to root diameter and that a drought-sensitive cultivar might be better
 adapted for penetration into compacted soil.  - Kirkham
 
      A simple method to select for resistance to the necrosis symptom in
 the tan spot disease syndrome -
 Tan spot, caused by the fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, is an
 important foliar disease of wheat throughout the world.  High levels of
 resistance are readily identified in various accessions of wheat.  There
 are two distinct symptoms within the disease syndrome; chlorosis and
 necrosis.  Crude culture filtrates of the fungus, produced in the
 laboratory, can be used as a rapid method of identifying genotypes which
 are sensitive or resistant to the necrosis symptom.  Hundreds or
 thousands of lines can be infiltrated by a single person in one day and
 reactions scored a few days later.  Below is a summary of the procedure.
 
      Fungus culture.  Spores to inoculate flasks are produced by
 inoculating the center of plates of V-8 agar (150 ml V-8 juice, 3 g
 CaCO(3), 15 g Agar, 850 ml water).  Subsequently, aerial hyphae around
 the perimeter of the colony is flattened with a sterile, bent-glass rod
 when the colony reaches about 4-6 cm in diameter (about 4-5 days in the
 dark at 24 C).  Plates are then placed at 15-24 C for 12-24 hr light (7-
 40 cm below fluorescent tubes) followed by 12-24 hr dark at 15 C. 
 Conidiophores of the fungus are produced during the light treatment and
 conidia are produced during the dark.  Culture filtrates are made in
 500-ml flasks containing 100 ml modified Fries medium (9 g sucrose, 5 g
 ammonium tartrate, 1 g ammonium nitrate, 1 g K(2)HPO(4), 0.5 g MgSO(4)-7
 H(2)O, 0.13 g CaCl(2), 0.1 g NaCl, and 1 g yeast extract per liter). 
 Agar plates with the sporulating fungus are flooded with sterile
 distilled water (about 10 ml) and the surface of the fungus colony
 gently scraped with a sterile instrument to dislodge conidia.  Each
 flask is inoculated with 1 ml of the spore suspension (about 2,000-
 20,000 spores) from the agar plate.  Flasks are incubated without
 agitation 16-22 days under constant light (20 cm below fluorescent
 tubes) at about 24 C.  Constant light is very important.  Toxin
 production peaks between 16 and 22 days of incubation; however, there is
 some variability between flasks so filtrate from several flasks should
 be pooled.  After incubation, filtrate is collected by passing through
 filter paper and transferring to a suitable container.  Filtrates can be
 stored in the freezer section of a refrigerator (-15 C) for at least two
 years and can be kept at room temperature for several hours while
 infiltrating plants without losing activity.  Filtrates can also be
 thawed and refrozen at least twice and maintain toxicity.
 
      Plant culture.  Plants from as young as the two-leaf stage to as
 old as after heading have been used successfully.  Plants grown in
 either the greenhouse or field can be infiltrated.  It is recommended
 that plants be well-fertilized and well-watered and that a set of
 "differential" cultivars be included in each experiment: susceptible and
 resistant.
 
      Infiltration.  The youngest, fully-expanded leaf should be
 infiltrated and the middle one third of the leaf blade works the best. 
 A Hagborg device (Hagborg, W. A. F.  1970.  A device for injecting
 solutions and suspensions into thin leaves of plants.  Can. J. Bot.
 48:1135-1136.) is used with full-strength filtrate to infiltrate leaves
 to produce water-soaked, elongated zones 1-3 cm in length.  Usually only
 one infiltration site is needed per plant.  About ten infiltration sites
 can be produced from 1 ml of filtrate.  The ends of the zones may be
 marked with an extra-fine, non-toxic felt pen before water soaking
 disappears to show where infiltration occurred.  Controls, if desired,
 consist of full-strength, modified Fries medium (gives no reaction). 
 Necrosis symptoms are rated several days (usually 3-5) after
 infiltration depending upon the temperature and light intensity. 
 Reactions are usually scored as positive (infiltration site necrotic,
 susceptible) or negative (no symptoms, resistant).
 
      About 20 isolates of the fungus, collected from grower's fields
 across Kansas, have been tested for their ability to produce toxic
 filtrates.  So far, all isolates have been necrosis positive (their
 filtrates produce the necrosis symptom); however, Canadian researchers
 have reported that necrosis-negative isolates of the fungus exist.  We
 have found that a team of two people is the most efficient; one to
 infiltrate leaves and the other to mark the infiltration site.  As
 mentioned, only one infiltration site per plant is needed to determine
 susceptibility to the necrosis symptom.  Therefore, lines that are
 segregating for reaction may be readily identified and resistant
 individuals selected from a population.  It should be noted, however,
 that resistance to the chlorosis symptom, which is under separate
 genetic control in the host, is not identified with this method.  There
 are lines (such as the cultivar Triumph 64) which will be resistant to
 the necrosis symptom but susceptible to the chlorosis symptom and give
 an intermediate to moderately susceptible reaction to the disease in the
 field.  Finally, if adequate laboratory facilities are not available,
 culture filtrates, ready to infiltrate up to 2,000 lines, can be
 obtained at no charge by contacting Bill Bockus, Dept. of Plant
 Pathology, Throckmorton Hall, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS, 66506-
 5502,  U.S.A. (phone = 913-532-6176, FAX = 913-532-5692) - Bockus
 
       General Impact.  Importance of leaf rust on irrigated winter wheat
 in western Kansas, 1991.
 It has been suggested that leaf rust is not a serious problem on winter
 wheat in the central High Plains.  Fungicide plots were established in
 irrigated wheat at Garden City, KS to evaluate disease losses in two
 commercial cultivars.  Disease ratings were made on 4 June (Feekes 11.2
 (mealy ripe)) for percent of flag leaf covered by leaf rust using James'
 standard area diagrams.  Approximately 37% is the maximum leaf rust
 rating in this system.  Plots were harvested 20 June, plot yields were
 corrected to 60 lb/bu at 12.5% moisture, and test weights determined.
 
       Leaf rust was undetectable in plots on 8 May, but was severe on
 TAM 107 and moderate on Thunderbird by 4 June.  Apparently, large
 amounts of inoculum were transported into the area in mid- to late May. 
 The only other disease noted was a trace of Septoria leaf blotch.  Using
 the nonsprayed control and the disease-free control (2 applications of
 Folicur), the estimated yield loss was 21.7 bu/A (23%) for TAM 107 and
 5.4 bu/A (7%) for Thunderbird.  A single application of a commercial
 fungicide recovered all the yield loss for Thunderbird and about half of
 the estimated loss for TAM 107.  Severe leaf rust epidemics do not occur
 regularly enough in western Kansas to justify routine fungicide
 applications.  However, large losses are occasionally sustained in
 susceptible cultivars like TAM 107.   (See Table below).
 
 
                          TAM 107                      Thunderbird
 
 Chemical,        Leaf              Test      Leaf                Test
 rate/A,          rust     Yield   weight     rust      Yield    weight
 growth stage      (%)    (bu/A)   (Ib/bu)     (%)      (bu/A)   (Ib/bu)
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Nonsprayed
 control         36.3 D*  71.4 A   58.6 A     4.8 D     71.1 A   61.2 A
 
 Tilt 3.6E, 4 fl oz,
 Feekes 8        26.3 C   85.2 B   59.6 B     3.0 C     77.1 B   61.2 A
 
 Bayleton 50DF,
 2 oz + Dithane
 M-45 80WP, 2
 Ib, Feekes 10   10.2 B   85.0 B   60.2 C     0.2 B     77.7 B   61.2 A
 
 Folicur 3.6F,
 4 fl oz,
 Feekes 8 & 10    0.1 A   93.1 B   60.5 C     0.0 A     76.5 B   60.8 A
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Means within a column followed by the same letter are not
 significantly different according to protected LSD (P=0.05).
 
 -------------------------
      Bowden and Witt
 
      Effect of heavy leaf rust infection on productivity and quality of
 wheat.  
 In 1991, we yield tested TAM 107 and 13 leaf rust-resistant backcross
 lines of the pedigree TAM 107*3/TA2460 (sibs of KS90WGRC10) under a
 typically heavy leaf rust infection at Hutchinson, KS and under a
 lighter infection at Manhattan, KS.  Plots were 3 rows 120 cm long at
 Hutchinson and 250 cm long at Manhattan.  There were two replicates of
 each backcross line and 20 replicates of TAM 107 at each location. 
 After harvest and data collection, entries were bulked within each
 location and evaluated for milling and baking traits by O.K. Chung, L.C.
 Bolte, M.S. Caley, S.G. Maechtlen, and G.L. Lookhart at the US Grain
 Marketing Research Laboratory.
 
      There were no differences between the backcross lines and TAM 107
 in heading date or height.  The mean grain yield of the 13 resistant
 lines exceeded that of TAM 107 by 22% at Hutchinson, with 12 of the 13
 yielding more than TAM 107 - two of them by over 50% (Table 1).  At
 Manhattan, where leaf rust was lighter, the resistant lines yielded the
 same, on average, as TAM 107, but individual lines had yields of 76% to
 118% of TAM 107's.  All resistant lines at all locations had higher
 1000-kernel weight and flour protein than TAM 107, with several
 exceeding TAM 107 by over one percentage point in protein at Hutchinson. 
 Mixograph mix times were lower than or equal to that of TAM 107 for all
 lines at all locations.  This was primarily a result of the higher
 protein of the backcross lines, which had less flat mixing curves than
 TAM 107.
 
      In susceptible cultivars such as TAM 107, leaf rust can reduce the
 quality as well as the yield of the wheat harvest.  -  Cox
 
 Table 1.  Means and ranges for agronomic and quality traits of TAM 107
 and 13 leaf rust-resistant backcross lines (TAM 107*3/TA2460).
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Grain    Kernel     Flour   Flour     Mix
                       Yield     Weight    Yield  Protein   Time
 Location     Entry    (g/m2)    (1000)     (%)     (%)     (min)
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 Hutchison    TAM 107   290       28.5      72.7    11.5    3.63
         T107*3/TA2460  354       33.3      70.9    12.3    3.16
                       (269-     (28.5-    (70.6-  (11.9-   (2.63-  
                        450)      37.7)     73.4)   12.9)   3.63)     
 Manhattan    TAM 107   386       33.3      70.7    11.9    4.50
         T107*3/TA2460  382       35.7      70.9    12.2    3.81
                       (294-     (33.5-    (67.2   (11.9-  (3.13          
                        456)      38.0)     72.5)   12.7)   4.50)
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                    
 
                                PUBLICATIONS
         
 Hassawi, D. S. and George H. Liang.  1991.  Antimitotic agents: effects
 on double haploid production in wheat.  Crop Sci. 31:723-726.
 
 Sun, Y. and George H. Liang.  1991.  Pollen surface sculpture of wheat,
 rice, maize, and five sorghum species.  Cytologia 56:659-664.
 
 Cox, T.S., L.G. Harrell, P. Chen, and B.S. Gill.  1991.  Reproductive
 behavior of hexaploid/diploid wheat hybrids.  Plant Breeding  107:105-
 118.
 
 Cox, T.S., R.G. Sears, and B.S. Gill.  1991.  Registration of KS87UP9, a
 winter wheat germplasm segregating for a dominant male-sterility gene. 
 Crop Sci. 31:245.
 
 Cox, T.S., J.H. Hatchett, B.S. Gill, W.J. Raupp, and R.G. Sears. 1991.
 Agronomic performance of hexaploid wheat lines derived from direct
 crosses between wheat and Aegilops squarrosa. Plant Breeding 105:271-
 277.
 
 Dong, H., T.S. Cox, R.G. Sears, and G.L. Lookhart. 1991. High molecular
 weight glutenin genes: effects on baking quality of wheat.  Crop sci.
 31:974-979.
 
 Endo, T.R., Y. Mukai, M. Yamamoto, and B.S. Gill.  1991.  Physical
 mapping of a male-fertility gene of common wheat.  Japanese J. Genet.
 66:291-296.
 
 Friebe, B., Y. Mukai, H.S. Dhaliwal, T.J. Martin, and B.S. Gill.  1991. 
 Identification of alien chromatin specifying resistance to wheat streak
 mosaic virus and greenbug in wheat germplasm by C-banding and in situ
 hybridization. Theor. Appl. Genet. 81:381-389.
 
 Friebe, B., J.H. Hatchett, Y. Mukai, B.S. Gill, and E.E. Sebesta.  1991. 
 Transfer of Hessian fly resistance from rye to wheat via radiation-
 induced terminal and intercalary chromosomal translocations.  Theor.
 Appl. Genet. 83:33-40.
 
 Gill, B.S., B. Friebe, and T.R. Endo.  1991.  Standard karyotype and
 nomenclature system for description of chromosome bands and structural
 aberrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum).  Genome 34:830-839.
 
 Gill, B.S., D.L. Wilson, W.J. Raupp, J.H. Hatchett, T.L. Harvey, T.S.
 Cox, and R.G. Sears.  1991.  Registration of KS89WGRC4 hard red winter
 wheat germplasm lines with resistance to Hessian fly, greenbug, and
 soilborne mosaic virus.  Crop Sci. 31:246.
 
 Gill, B.S., D.L. Wilson, W.J. Raupp, J.H. Hatchett, T.S. Cox, and R.G.
 Sears.  1991.  Registration of KS89WGRC3 and KS89WGRC6 Hessian fly-
 resistant hard red winter wheat germplasm.  Crop Sci. 31:245.
 
 Gill, B.S., W.J. Raupp, L.E. Browder, T.S. Cox, and R.G. Sears.  1991. 
 Registration of KS89WGRC7 leaf rust-resistant hard red winter wheat
 germplasm.  Crop Sci. 31:246.
 
 Gill, K.S., and B.S. Gill.  1991.  A DNA fragment mapped within the
 submicroscopic deletion of Ph1, a chromosome pairing regulator gene in
 plolyploid wheat.  Genetics 129:257-260.
 
 Gill, K.S., E.L. Lubbers, B.S. Gill, W.J. Raupp, and T.S. Cox.  1991.  A
 genetic linkage map of Triticum tauschii (DD) and its relationship to
 the D genome of bread wheat (AABBDD).  Genome 34:362-374.
 
 Jauhar, P.P., O. Rieralizarazu, W.G. Dewey,  B.S. Gill, C.F. Crane, and
 J.H. Bennett.  1991.  Chromosome pairing relationships among the A
 genome, B genome, and D genome of bread wheat.  Theor. Appl. Genet.
 82:441-449.
 
 Lubbers, E.L., K.S. Gill, T.S. Cox, and B.S. Gill.  1991.  Variation of
 molecular markers among geographically diverse accessions of Triticum
 tauschii.  Genome 34:354-361.
 
 Mukai, Y., and B.S. Gill.  1991.  Detection of barley chromatin added to
 wheat by genomic in situ hybridization.  Genome 34:448-452.
 
 Mukai, Y., T.R. Endo, and B.S. Gill.  1991.  Physical mapping of the
 18S.26S rRNA multigene family in common wheat.  Chromosoma 100:71-78.
 
 Tsujimoto, and B.S. Gill.  1991.  Repetitive DNA sequences from
 polyploid Elymus trachycaulus and the diploid progenitor species -
 detection and genomic affinity of Elymus chromatin added to wheat. 
 Genome 34:782-789.
  
 Chaudhuri, U.N., M.B. Kirkham, and E.T. Kanemasu.  1990.  Carbon dioxide
 and water level effects on yield and water use of winter wheat.  Agron.
 J. 82:637-641.
 
 Chaudhuri, U.N., M.B. Kirkham, and E.T. Kanemasu.  1990.  Root growth of
 winter wheat under elevated carbon dioxide and drought.  Crop Sci.
 30:853-857.
 
 Riaz, M., W. W. Bockus, and M. A. Davis.  1991.  Effects of wheat
 genotype, time after inoculation, and leaf age on conidia production by
 Drechslera tritici-repentis.  Phytopathology 81:1298-1302.               
    
 
 -------------------------
      Kansas Agricultural Statistics, Topeka
 
      T. J. Byram
 
 Distribution of Major Kansas Winter Wheat Varieties (Years).            
 
 Variety        1984  1985  1986  1988  1989  1990  1991  1992
  ---------------------------------------------------------------     
 TAM 107         -      -    .3    4.9   9.5  14.7  15.4  18.3
 Karl            -      -    -      -     -     .7   5.9  11.5
 AgriProVictory  -      -    .1    6.2   8.2   7.7   8.2  10.2
 Larned          10.2  8.6  7.9   10.9   9.7  10.7  11.6   8.9
 AgriPro
   Thunderbird   -      -    -     1.6   7.3   9.3   9.0   7.5
 Newton          30.9  25.7 21.1  13.4  11.6   8.3   7.6   5.8
 2163            -      -    -      -     -     .6   3.9   4.7
 TAM 200         -      -    -      -     -     .8   2.6   4.6
 AgriProAbilene  -      -    -      -     .9   6.1   5.9   4.5
 Arkan             .9   6.3 10.1  14.9  11.9   6.8   3.2   2.2
 AgriProSierra   -      -    -      -    1.3   3.4   3.0   1.8
 Scout/Scout66    4.2   3.6  2.6   2.9   1.8   1.9   1.6   1.8
 Eagle            5.4   4.0  3.1   1.4   1.8   1.6   1.1   1.6
 AGSECO 7846     -      -    -      -     .3    .8   2.4   1.5
 2180            -      -    -      -     -     .5   1.6   1.5
 2157            -       .1  4.4   7.2   9.5   7.2   2.5   1.1
 TAM 105        13.1   13.4  6.8   1.5   1.0    .9   1.1   1.0
 AgriProHawk     9.0   12.3 13.5   7.6   4.5   2.9   2.1    .8
 Sage            1.8    1.4  1.1    .7    .5    .6   1.0    .8  
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
 
                                Publications
 
 Monthly Crops.  Wheat cultivars, percent of acreage devoted to each
 cultivar.  Wheat quality, test weight, moisture, and protein content of
 current harvest.  $10.00
 
 Weekly Crop-Weather.  Issued each Monday, March 1 through November 30. 
 Provides crop and weather information for previous week.  $12.00.
 
 County Estimates.  County data on wheat acreage seeded and harvested,
 yield, and production on summer fallow, irrigated, and continuous
 cropped land.  December.
 
 Wheat Quality.  County data on protein, test weight, moisture, grade,
 and dockage.  Includes milling and baking tests, by cultivar, from a
 probability sample of Kansas wheat.  September.
 
 -------------------------
 LOUISIANA
 
 Louisiana State University Agricultural Center
 S.A. Harrison*, P.D. Colyer*, and S.H. Moore*.  
 
 Wheat Breeding.   A total of 271 wheat crosses were made during 1991,
 which brings the number of active crosses made since 1985 to well over
 1,200.  Substantial progress was made during the 1990-91 season toward
 the long-term objective of variety and germplasm development despite the
 heavy rains during harvest.  A total of 319 advanced lines developed by
 the LAES wheat breeding program were evaluated in observation plots at
 Baton Rouge.  From these 319 plots, 30 lines were identified as superior
 and were combine-harvested for testing in replicated yield trials at
 Baton Rouge and Alexandria during the 1991-92 growing season. 
 
 681 different advanced (F(5)) lines (1985 crosses) were evaluated as
 headrows.  Each line was rated for plant type, disease reaction,
 maturity date, and vigor.  828 observation plots will be evaluated in
 1992, an increase of 509 plots over the previous year.  Wheat
 observation nurseries in the future will probably include about 1,000
 lines, which approaches the maximum that can be properly evaluated and
 handled.  Additionally, 2,907 F(5) and 1,525 F(6) headrows were planted
 for 1991-1992.  The earlier generations of the wheat breeding program
 also continued to increase in size.  1,300 genetically different F(3:4)
 lines (1989 crosses)and 9,000 F(2:3) lines are included in the 1991-92
 nursery.
 
 Germplasm Enhancement.   Over 1,000 F(3:4) CIMMYT lines will be grown at
 Baton Rouge in 1992.  These have been selected for two generations in
 Louisiana for resistance to specific diseases and many have already been
 utilized as parents.  A recurrent selection program based on the
 dominant male-sterile (Ms 3) was established in 1987 to develop a
 genetically broad-based population of wheat that contains resistance
 sources for numerous important pathogens.  Parents of the population
 currently include 33 adapted soft red winter wheats and 5 'exotics'. 
 The population has been through about six cycles of intermating and
 selection, with new parents added each year.  Selection has been for:
 low vernalization; general vigor; leaf rust, septoria, and Xanthomonas
 resistance; and green leaf duration.  Seed of this population should be
 available upon request after July, 1992.  A formal germplasm release
 will probably be made in the near future.
 
 Other Research Activities of the Breeding Program.   Cooperation
 continued in 1991 to assess the likelihood of a Hessian Fly problem in
 Louisiana and to incorporate resistance into adapted lines.  Hessian Fly
 has not been a problem to date in Louisiana.  It may be that the
 environment or other biological constraints prevent development of an
 epidemic.  The highly susceptible cultivar 'Florida 302' was grown on a
 large scale in Louisiana in the late 1980's and is still grown on some
 acreage.  Efforts to utilize tissue culture, anther culture, and other
 emerging technologies to increase efficiency and productivity of the
 wheat variety development program continued during 1991, in cooperation
 with Dr. Tim Croughan (Rice Research Station).  Improvements were made
 in media for anther culture and some level of success was obtained. 
 Soft red winter wheat lines have generally been very recalcitrant, but
 some regenerants have been obtained.  This effort will be continued in
 1992, using F(2)  plants selected in the field for disease resistance
 and vigor.  Initial efforts are also under way to develop a system to
 produce haploids using corn pollen.  
 
 Cooperative work is being expanded with Dr. Mary Musgrave to evaluate
 tolerance to waterlogging stress in wheat.  A thesis project has been
 initiated to examine the inheritance of tolerance and to assess the
 magnitude of yield losses that result form waterlogging stress.
 
 Bacterial streak (Xanthomonas campestris pv translucens (Xct)) research
 continued in cooperation with Dr. Christopher Clark and Dr. John Russin. 
 Mr. Barry Tillman began working on a Ph.D. in the fall of 1991 to 1)
 examine the inheritance of resistance to Xct, 2) to determine the level
 of yield losses that occur from infection, 3) to evaluate the efficacy
 of copper compounds and antibiotics for control, and 4) to study the
 interaction of leaf rust and Xct.  The inheritance study will utilize
 two or more of ten populations selected for variation in reaction to
 Xct.  
 
 Initial efforts to screen the USDA World Wheat Collection (hexaploids)
 for resistance to Xct were initiated in the field with the planting of
 5,000 accessions (hexaploids only) in 1991-92.  These accessions will be
 inoculated with a mixture of virulent isolates of Xct.  One replication
 of these will be fungicide protected, while the other replication will
 be allowed to develop leaf rust and Septoria.  The superior 1-5% of
 lines will be utilized in crossing and recurrent selection programs.  A
 list of the most resistant lines will be published in the AWNL and other
 areas so that other breeders know which lines offer some source of
 resistance.  Unfortunately, the project is not adequately funded to
 permit a detailed evaluation of the lines for leaf rust, vernalization,
 Septoria leaf & glume blotch, and  Xct reaction.  
 
 
 Diseases and Hessian Fly (Colyer, Red River Research Station, Bossier
 City).
 Because of heavy spring rains, the incidence of bacterial blight
 (Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens) and Septoria leaf and glume
 blotch were high in northwest Louisiana.  The incidence of leaf rust was
 low and developed very late in the growing season.  Evaluation of
 commercial varieties at two locations, Bossier City and Winnsboro, for
 reaction to foliar diseases indicated that very little resistance to
 Septoria and bacterial streak is available in commercial varieties.  
 
 Labeled and experimental fungicides were evaluated for the control of
 foliar diseases.  The incidence of leaf rust was not severe enough to
 make the necessary evaluations and none of the materials were very
 effective in controlling Septoria.  Failure to control Septoria may have
 been related to the excessively high amount of rainfall which occurred
 following application of the fungicides.  Yield and test weight were not
 determined because of heavy rainfall which prevented harvesting.
 
 Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) was again identified in Bossier
 Parish in the northwestern part of the state.  The incidence was very
 low and does not currently pose a serious problem to wheat production in
 Louisiana.
 
 Production Research (Moore, Dean Lee Research Station, Alexandria)
 An extensive field experiment involving wheat with a sustainable
 agriculture focus was established in November 1991 on a Red River
 alluvial soil in central Louisiana.  The 8-acre test includes eight
 cropping systems in a factorial combination with three tillage systems. 
 Wheat is used as a cover crop in three cropping systems with corn,
 cotton, and soybean.  Wheat is also doublecropped with soybean in an
 additional cropping system.  tillage systems include conventional,
 reduced, and no-till.
 
                                PUBLICATIONS
 
 Jalaluddin, Md. and S.A. Harrison.  In press.   Repeatability of
 stability statistics for grain yield in wheat.  Crop Science.
 
 Moore, S.H., D.J. Boquet, S.A. Harrison, and J. Rabb.  In Press. 
 Performance of canola cultivars in Louisiana.  Louisiana Agriculture. 
 
 Harrison, S.A. et al.  1991.  Performance of small grain varieties in
 Louisiana, 1990-91.  LAES Mimeo Series No. 58.
 
 Harrison, S.A,C.A. Clark, and J.S. Russin.  Bacterial Streak of Wheat. 
 p. 8. IN Proceedings of the Southern Small Grain Workers' Conference. 
 April 28-30, 1991.  Overton, TX.
 
 -------------------------
 MARYLAND
 
 Department of Agronomy, University of Maryland at College Park
 
 D.J. Sammons*
 
 1992 Winter Wheat Production.  Maryland wheat producers harvested
 195,000 acres (78,947 hectares) in 1991, 1 2.7% increase over harvested
 area in 1990.  The state crop totaled 9.75 million bushels (265,909
 metric tons) of grain, a slight decrease in total production compared to
 the 1990 harvest.  This production was obtained by a state average of 50
 bu/a (3390 kg/ha), approximately 3.8% lower than for the 1990 crop year.
 
 The production year 1990-1991 was moderately favorable for wheat
 production in Maryland.  Weather during the fall planting season was
 normal, and timely planting occurred statewide.  Seasonable fall
 moisture and temperatures resulted in good stand establishment.  The
 winter months were unusually mild, and almost no winter kill was noted
 anywhere in the state.  Early spring regrowth was rapid, encouraged by
 gradually warming temperatures and sufficient rainfall in February and
 the first half of March.  Late March and April were characterized by
 unseasonably cool temperatures and damp conditions which favored the
 development of disease in wheat.  Excessive heat in mid- to late May
 reduced the disease threat but also caused early maturation of the crop. 
 Wheat harvest was completed unusually early in 1991, however the late
 season heat resulted in lowered yields and reduced tst weights at many
 locations in the state.
 
 
 Disease pressure was relatively intense in wheat in the spring.  Powdery
 mildew (Erysiphe graminis) was present throughout the state, and was
 particularly severe on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay.  Leaf
 Rust (Puccinia recondita) was also severe in this region of the state on
 some cultivars.  In general, other common wheat diseases, including
 glume blotch (Septoria nodorum) and scab (Fusarium sp.), were present
 but variable in incidence and severity.  Insect damage to wheat also
 occurred during the 1990-1991 production year.  At several locations on
 the Eastern Shore, infestations of true armyworm (Pseudaletia
 unipuncta), grass sawfly (Dolerus sp.), and cereal leaf beetle (Oulema
 melanopus) were observed -occasionally reaching economically damaging
 levels.  There were also sporadic reports of economically damaging
 infestations of Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) in Maryland this crop
 year.
 
 Cultivar Evaluation.  Cultivar evaluation was conducted at four
 locations in Maryland in 1991.  A total of 39 genotypes were tested (30
 cultivars, 9 elite breeding lines).  Among public cultivars tested,
 three (caldwell, Gore, Madison) yielded over 70 bu/a (4703 kg/ha) in
 statewide testing; eight private cultivars (AgriPro brands 85-81 and 86-
 5941, Coker brands 983 and 9835, Hoffman brand 89, Pioneer brands 2548
 and 2555, Southern States FFR 555W) also yielded in this range.  The
 highest statewide yields in the evaluation program were observed for
 Pioneer brands 2548 and 2555, both of which yielded an average of 77
 bu/a (5174 kg/ha) over the four lcoations at which the cultivar
 evaluation trials were planted.
 
 Two excellent elite breeding lines (MD 80004-62 and MD 80071-56) are
 currently under consideration for possible release in 1992.  Both are
 characterized by early maturity, short plant height, stiff straw,
 excellent winter hardiness, good test weight, and moderate resistance to
 powdery mildew, the most threatening disease in Maryland and the Middle
 Atlantic Region.
 
                                Publications
 
 Kratochvil, R.J. and D.J. Sammons.  1991.  Dormancy Screening for Soft
 Red Winter Wheat Cultivars.  Agronomy Abstracts, p. 102.
 
 Pan, Qiyuan.  1991.  Determination of Appropriate Seeding Rate for Late-
 Seeded Winter Wheat in Maryland.  M.S. Thesis, Department of Agronomy,
 University of Maryland.  68 pg.
 
 Sammons, D.J.  1991.  Maryland Barley and Wheat Variety Performance. 
 Agronomy Mimeo #19.  University of Maryland, Department of Agronomy.
 
 Sammons, D.J. and R.J. Kratochvil.  1991.  Small Grain Variety Testing
 in Maryland.  Agronomy Abstracts, p. 160.
 
 -------------------------
 MICHIGAN
 
 Michigan State University,  Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, East
 Lansing, Michigan 48824
 
 R. Ward, D. Glenn, J. Han, H. Kim, T. Kisha, and S. Wang.
 
 1990-91 Season.  Planting during the fall of 1990 was severely hampered
 by excessive rainfall resulting in both generally late planting and
 reduction in planted acres.  Winter conditions were generally mild with
 only few reports of winter damage.  Plant development up to flowering
 was excellent, despite severe and widespread evidence of wheat spindle
 streak virus (WSSV) during early spring.  WSSV appears to be virtually
 ubiquitous in lower Michigan soils.  Genetic variation for WSSV symptoms
 is marked, with many of our elite variety exhibiting good levels of
 apparent resistance.  Powdery mildew pressure, severe in 1990, was
 minimal though ubiquitous this year.  Leaf rust arrived in the state
 prior to flag leaf emergence and proceeded to cause severe losses in
 varieties exhibiting low levels of resistance.  The impact of leaf rust
 on yield was most apparent in our fungicide study where leaf rust was
 the most abundant disease and Tilt and Bayletan applied at flag leaf
 appearance resulted in yield increases of up to 35 bu/acre.  Head scab
 was also widespread and probably caused significant reductions in test
 weight.  High temperatures from flowering through harvest accelerated
 development markedly.  The
 
 combination of high temperatures and high disease pressure resulted in a
 disappointing low state wide yield average of 43.5 bushels/acre.  
 
 Fall planting conditions were excellent, and over 600,000 acres of wheat
 were planted in Michigan.  Over 70% of that is planted to white seeded
 varieties.
 
 Variety Development.  Michigan State continues to be engaged in large
 scale wheat variety development efforts.  We target both white and red
 seeded soft winter wheats with our main emphasis on white.  Our breeding
 strategy involves generation of about 300 F(1:3) bulks by bulk harvest
 of F(1:2) populations.  Two to three hundred heads are selected per
 F(1:3) bulk to generate 75,000 F(3:4) head rows.  Ten percent of the
 head rows are selected and bulk harvested to generate six to eight
 thousand F(3:5) bulks, of which six hundred are advanced to 3
 replication, 2 location preliminary yield tests.  Competitive lines are
 further advanced to state wide yield tests (6-8 locations).  Most of our
 populations are now derived from bi-parental mating of advanced or
 commercial lines.  We are actively trying to decrease our cycle time by
 using the best lines from our preliminary yield trials as parents of new
 breeding populations.
 
 We are moving to release three varieties: Chelsea (C5023) is a white
 wheat with excellent yield in the Thumb region of Michigan.  It is
 bearded, very late in maturity, excellent for reaction to prevailing
 pathotypes of leaf rust, powdery mildew, and WSSV, and exhibits
 excellent milling and baking properties.  C4227 and C4827 are red and
 white seeded varieties respectively.  Both are derived from the same
 F(5) plant.  These varieties are relatively early, with maturities
 similar to Pioneer 2548.  Both are very high yielding throughout
 Michigan wheat environments and exhibit excellent milling and baking
 properties.  Disease resistance is also generally good.  These sisters
 have a noticeably higher tendency to lodge than other elite varieties,
 but our seed industry has urged us to proceed with release because of
 their yield potential.  All three of these varieties were brought to an 
 advanced stage while the program was under the leadership of Dr. E.
 Everson who retired two years ago.      
 
 Research.  We are engaged in several areas of basic and applied
 research.   Begining with the 1990 planting season we have been trying
 to generate data on the response of elite varieties to altered
 management practices.  To that end, we are executing various trials
 including ones emphasizing fungicides, planting density, date of
 planting, and rates of spring fertilizer.  
 
 We are also engaged in several areas of more basic research.  H. Kim, a
 Ph.D. student from South Korea, is evaluating RFLP diversity among a
 range of genotypes including elite eastern soft wheats.  Mr. Kim is also
 applying RFLP technology to map slow rusting (leaf rust) loci in a
 population derived from the cross of Suwan 92(susceptible)  and CI13227
 (slow rusting).  We have also explored the use of RAPDs as tools for
 marking useful genes in wheat.  As expected, RAPD polymorphism is
 considerably higher than that for RFLPs.  However, we continue to have
 great difficulty in obtaining repeatable results with RAPDs.
 
 J. Han, a Ph.D. student from South Korea is studying growth and
 development strategies in wheat with particular emphasis on
 "phyllochron", or the rate of leaf emergence expressed in thermal time
 (i.e. degree-days).   Environmental or genetic based variation in
 phyllochron would influence performance and prediction of performance
 and is hence of scientific interest.  We are working with Dr. J.T.
 Ritchie and the CERES wheat model in this activity.  
 
 S. Wang, a Ph.D. student from the Chinese Academy of Agricultural
 Sciences in Beijing, is jointly supported by CIMMYT's wheat program,
 J.T. Ritchie, and the MSU wheat breeding project.  Wang is focusing on
 refining the modeling of phenological events in wheat development, with
 particular emphasis on the germination to anthesis period.
 
 T. Kisha, a Ph.D. student who until recently worked on the Montana State
 winter wheat breeding project, is working on the relationship of fructan
 metabolism to winter hardiness.  Ted has developed SSD populations whose
 parents contrasted for both winter survival characteristics and for
 rates of fructan accumulation.  Establishing the degree of co-
 segregation of these attributes is the general objective of his
 dissertation work.
 
 -------------------------
 MINNESOTA
 
      Cereal Rust Laboratory, USDA-ARS, St. Paul
 
      A. P. Roelfs, D. L. Long, D. H. Casper, M. E. Hughes and J. J.
      Roberts
 
      The Rusts of Wheat in the United States in 1991
 
      Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici).  Overwintering stem
 rust sites were found on susceptible cultivars in southern Louisiana and
 southwestern Georgia.  By late April, stem rust was severe in these
 plots but none was found in plots of susceptible cultivars in northern
 Texas.  By mid May, stem rust was found at 20% severities in fields in
 southwestern Oklahoma and north central Texas and at trace amounts in
 demonstration plots in southern Kansas and northwestern Arkansas.  In
 late May, plots of 2157 (susceptible to both Pgt-TPM and QCC) were
 lightly rusted (10-15% incidence) across the northern tier of Kansas
 counties.  Stem rust was more widely spread than last year in the
 central Great Plains where it developed from a point source in south
 central Kansas.  Although severities in the central Great Plains were
 slightly less than last year, conditions were favorable for rust
 infection in May and the inoculum which was carried northward was
 deposited over the spring grain area during late May.
  
      By early June, stem rust was present across Kansas and eastern
 Colorado.  Most cultivars in plots in Kansas were lightly rusted (less
 than 1% severity).  The exception was 2157 which had 50% severity in a
 north central Kansas location.  By the third week in June, the cultivars
 2157 and Quantum 542 in north central and northwestern Kansas plots had
 20% stem rust severities.  This is the second consecutive year that stem
 rust has been so widely distributed in Kansas.  Stem rust appeared
 earlier than normal throughout this area because the inoculum (race
 Pgt-QCC) produced in south central Oklahoma and adjacent areas in Texas
 (Table 1), was more abundant than normal.  The weather was very
 favorable for rust in early April and early May but less favorable in
 late April.
 
      Several centers of stem rust (20% severities) were found in
 southern Illinois fields during the first week in June.  Traces of stem
 rust were also found in fields in northwestern Illinois, south central
 Wisconsin and plots in west central Indiana.
 
      In most of the northern Great Plains locations stem rust was first
 detected 1-2 weeks earlier than normal.  In mid June, the rains and warm
 nights (60-65 F) created a favorable environment for spore deposition,
 infection and increase.  By the last week in June, wheat stem rust was
 found at severities of trace-40% in plots of susceptible spring and
 winter wheat cultivars from east central North Dakota to southeastern
 Minnesota.  By the second week in July, foci of 30% severity were
 observed in winter wheat plots in northwestern North Dakota and
 northeastern Montana.  Plots of susceptible winter wheat in southeastern
 North Dakota, had foci of 40% severity but only traces of rust were
 found in northeastern North Dakota.  Since most winter wheat was near
 maturity, losses were light.  By the last week in July, stem rust
 severities were as high as 60% on susceptible spring wheat cultivars in
 northeastern North Dakota plots, but no stem rust was found in spring or
 durum wheat fields in northern North Dakota.  The commonly grown spring
 and durum wheats remain resistant to stem rust,
 and no significant losses occurred this year.  Wheat stem rust developed
 slowly in the Pacific Northwest and was light on susceptible winter and
 spring wheats in late July.  
 
      Four Pgt races have been identified from 224 collections from wheat
 in the U.S.A. in 1991 (Table 1).  Race Pgt-QCC was the predominant race
 identified this year.  It comprised 38% of the isolates compared to 67%
 in 1990.  Pgt-TPM, the common race from 1974-1989, comprised 36% of the
 isolates identified in 1991 and 13% in 1990.
 
    Leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici).  By early April, leaf
 rust was severe on the most susceptible lines in southern and northern
 Texas plots but light on commercial cultivars in fields.  Early spring
 rains created conditions favorable for rust increase throughout Texas
 and Oklahoma.  In some southwestern Oklahoma fields, where the rust
 overwintered, 60% severities were reported in late April, while in
 adjacent fields only traces were present.  By mid May, leaf rust
 severities ranged from traces in northeastern Kansas to severe in
 southwestern Oklahoma.  Leaf rust increased slower than normal during
 late April and early May, primarily because of dry weather and high
 temperatures.  However, with lower temperatures in late May, leaf rust
 increased rapidly in Kansas production fields with traces found into
 east central Nebraska.  Leaf rust severities in the northern Great
 Plains in mid June ranged from traces in spring wheat plots in
 southeastern North Dakota to severe (80%) in northeastern Colorado.  By
 late June leaf rust severities ranged from 80% in winter wheat fields in
 south central South Dakota and northern Nebraska to traces in spring
 wheat fields in east central North Dakota.  In mid July, leaf rust
 severities in winter wheat fields ranged from 90% in northeastern North
 Dakota to 20% in northeastern Montana a 2 to 5% yield loss occurred in
 some fields.  Plots of susceptible spring wheat had slightly less leaf
 rust; severities at the mid-dough stage ranged from 70% in northeastern
 North Dakota to 10% in northwestern North Dakota.  The major winter
 wheat cultivars grown in this area are susceptible to leaf rust.  
 
      Fields of spring wheat over most of the area from north central
 South Dakota to west central Minnesota had traces of leaf rust, although
 20% severities were reported in a few fields in mid July.  Fields in
 north central South Dakota and nurseries of the cultivar Marshall in
 east central South Dakota and northwestern North Dakota had 20%
 severities.  Plots of susceptible spring wheat from west central
 Minnesota to northwestern North Dakota had 40% leaf rust severities at
 the early dough stage.  Since most of the spring wheat cultivars in the
 Great Plains are resistant to leaf rust, losses were light.  Spring
 durums in northeastern South Dakota plots had 20% severities on
 susceptible cultivars while only 1% severities were reported in
 northwestern North Dakota plots.  Plots of triticale cultivars in the
 same locations, had 20% severities.  Since the commercial durums are
 resistant to leaf rust, losses were nil.
 
      In the soft red winter wheat area, 80% leaf rust severities were
 common during early April in wheat fields and plots within 75 miles of
 the Gulf Coast from Louisiana to Georgia.  The most severe rust was in
 fields of Fla 302 and CK 9766 in southern Georgia where 10% losses
 occurred.  In the eastern U.S.A., leaf rust overwintered at sites in
 central North Carolina and eastern Virginia.  Light amounts of leaf rust
 were found by early May on susceptible cultivars in plots in east
 central Illinois, west central Indiana and south central Pennsylvania. 
 By early June leaf rust severities ranged from 80% in some fields of
 susceptible cultivars in southern Illinois and Indiana to traces in
 fields in western New York, southern Michigan, and southeastern
 Wisconsin.  Wheat yield losses due to leaf rust were limited to less
 than 2% from southern Missouri to southern Ohio because Septoria nodorum
 killed much of the leaf tissue and scab destroyed many of the heads. 
 From Wisconsin to New York, early crop maturity limited leaf rust
 development but losses were almost 3%.
 
      In the Pacific Northwest, leaf rust was lighter than normal by mid
 June because of abnormally cool weather and the small amount of initial
 inoculum, due to the severe winterkill of wheat.  When the temperatures
 warmed in July, leaf rust increased rapidly, resulting in up to 2%
 losses.
 
      The leaf rust Prt races identified in 1991 (Tables 2 and 3) showed
 that races MDB and MFB were most common in Texas.  Both are virulent to
 cultivars with Lr24 and MFB is also virulent to Lr26.  Races MBG and
 MBG-10 predominated in Alabama, Georgia, Virginia, Louisiana, Arkansas,
 and Kansas. 
 
      Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis).  By mid April, stripe rust was
 found in the Sacramento Valley of California and southeastern and
 northwestern Washington.  Stripe rust increased slowly until mid June
 when the adult plant resistance was expressed as temperatures increased. 
 Trace to 2% losses due to stripe rust were reported in the Pacific
 Northwest this year.  Traces of stripe rust were found in northeastern
 Colorado and southwestern Montana plots in 1991.
 
      Rust losses.  Acreage harvested and yield production records are
 based on 1991 Crop Production Summary, Agricultural Statistics Board,
 USDA.  Loss data summaries of estimates made by personnel of the State
 Departments of Agriculture, University extension and research projects,
 Agricultural Research Service and the Cereal Rust Laboratory.  Losses
 for 1991 are shown in Tables 4 and 5.  Losses were calculated for each
 rust as follows:
 
 
 
                             (Production) X (Percent loss)
 Loss (specific rust) =    ____________________________________
                           (100%) - (Percent loss due to rusts)
 
 
 Losses are indicated as a trace (T) when the disease was present but no
 fields were known to have suffered significant losses.  If a few fields
 suffered measurable losses this is reflected as a percent of the state's
 production.  Zeros indicate the disease was not reported in that state
 during the season.  Blanks for stripe rust indicate that the disease was
 not reported nor does it occur annually in that state.
 
 Table 1.  Races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici identified from
 wheat in 1991                                                            
                                                                          
                                                                   
  
                                               Percentage of
                       Number of            isolates of Pgt- race(a)
                  ________________________ __________________________
 State   Source   collections  isolates    HFL   QCC   QFC   TPM
  ____________________________________________________________________             
 AR      Nursery       1           3                         100 
 CO      Nursery       3           9              44    11    44 
 GA      Nursery      19          42                         100 
 IL      Field         4          11                    27    73 
 IN      Nursery       3           9                         100 
 KS      Field        17          46              48    35    17 
         Nursery      40          94              44    28    29 
 LA      Nursery       6          18              17          83 
 MN      Field         1           3              33          67 
         Nursery      20          58              36    21    43 
 MT      Nursery       2           6                    17    83 
 ND      Field         2           4              25          75 
         Nursery      40         115              43    43    15 
 NE      Field         1           3              67          33 
         Nursery      15          34              38    15    47 
 OH      Nursery       1           3                         100 
 OK      Field        12          36              81    19       
         Nursery      11          33              73    27       
 SD      Field         3           6                    33    67 
         Nursery      15          35              23    17    60 
 TX      Field         4           9              78    22       
         Nursery       2           6      100                    
 WA      Nursery       4          12              50    50       
 WI      Field         2           6                   100       
 
 USA(b)  Field        46         124              50    29    21 
         Nursery     178         465        1     35    23    40 
         Total       224         589        1     38    25    36 
                                                                          
                                                                          
 (a) Pgt- race code, after Roelfs and Martens, Phytopathology 78:526-533.
 (b) Does not include Washington.
 
 Table 2.  Prt code and corresponding virulence
 formula for wheat leaf rust
  ___________________________________________________
 
 Prt code(a)      Virulence formula(b)
  ___________________________________________________
 BBG               11
 BBD               17
 CBG               3,11
 CBB               3,10
 CCB               3,10,26
 CCG               3,11,26
 CBM               3,3ka,10,30
 DBB               2c,10
 DBB               2c,18
 DBB               2c,10,18
 FBB               2c,3,10
 FBM               2c,3,3ka,18,30
 FBM               2c,3,3ka,10,18,30
 FBR               2c,3,3ka,11,18,30
 FLM               2c,3,3ka,9,30
 KBB               2a,2c,3,10
 KBG               2a,2c,3,10,11
 KDG               2a,2c,3,10,11,24
 KCG               2a,2c,3,10,11,26
 KFB               2a,2c,3,10,24,26
 LBB               1
 LCB               1,10,18,26
 MBB               1,3
 MBB               1,3,10
 MBG               1,3,11
 MBG               1,3,10,11
 MDB               1,3,10,24
 MDG               1,3,10,11,24
 MCG               1,3,11,26
 MCG               1,3,10,11,26
 MFB               1,3,24,26
 MFB               1,3,10,24,26
 NBB               1,2c,10
 NBB               1,2c,18
 NBG               1,2c,10,11,18
 NBD               1,2c,10,17,18
 PBL               1,2c,3,3ka,10
 PBG               1,2c,3,10,11
 PBM               1,2c,3,3ka,18,30
 PBJ               1,2a,2c,3,10,11,17
 PBR               1,2c,3,3ka,11,18,30
 PLM               1,2c,3,3ka,9,10,30
 PLM               1,2c,3,3ka,9,10,18,30
 PLR               1,2c,3,3ka,9,10,11,18,30
 TBB               1,2a,2c,3,10
 TBG               1,2a,2c,3,10,11
 TGB               1,2a,2c,3,10,16
 TBJ               1,2a,2c,3,10,11,17,18
 TDJ               1,2a,2c,3,10,11,17,18,24
 TDB               1,2a,2c,3,10,24
 TCB               1,2a,2c,3,26
 TCB               1,2a,2c,3,18,26
 TFB               1,2a,2c,3,10,24,26
 TFG               1,2a,2c,3,10,11,24,26
 TLG               1,2a,2a,3,9,11,18
  ___________________________________________________
 (a)     See Phytopathology 79:525-529.
 (b)     Resistances evaluated: Lr1, 2a, 2c, 3, 9, 16,
   24, 26, 3ka, 11, 17, 30, 10 and 18.
 
 
 Table 3.  Races of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici identified from
 wheat collections made in fields and 
 nurseries in 1991
  ________________________________________________________________________
 
              Percent of isolates per state by area(a)_         
 
 
    AL AR FL GA LA NC VA PA NY OH IN IL MI TX OK CO KS NE SD ND MN MT CA WA USA
  ______________________________________________________________________________
 
 BBG                               3                                        0.3
 BBD                                        1                               0.2
 CBG 6                                         2                            0.9
 CBB                            4                                           0.2
 CCB                                                                 100    0.3
 CCG                            4                                           0.2
 CBM                                    22                                  0.3
 DBB          8                         22                                  0.5
 DBB                        29          11                                  0.5
 DBB                        43                                              0.5
 FBB                               2                                        0.2
 FBM                               7                                        0.6
 FBM    3        6                          1                 5             0.6
 FBR                               3                                        0.3
 FLM                               3                                        0.3
 KBB                                             25                         0.3
 KBG 1                          4           8  4     2    18  5 35          5.5
 KDG                                           4                            0.3
 KCG    3 17                                         2                      0.5
 KFB                               2        4  9              5             1.5
 LBB                   9                                                    0.3
 LCB                  23                                                    0.8
 MBB 3                             3                                        0.6
 MBB 3                                                           5          0.6
 MBG19       17 11        6     9 10 50                                     5.5
 MBG51 34 33 33 39 33 23 13    35 41 19     2  2    20  7  3  5  2         19.8
 MDB    8                                  24 13    22 18 18     5 33       9.1
 MDG                                                    7        2          0.5
 MCG                            4                                           0.2
 MCG    3              9        9  3                                        1.1
 MFB                            9                                           0.3
 MFB 4 18       11     4        9          30 11    12 21 21 11  9         11.9
 NBB                        14                                              0.2
 NBB                        14  4                                           0.3
 NBG               33                                                       0.2
 NBD                                                                     60 0.5
 PBL                                    33                                  0.8
 PBG                               3                                        0.3
 PBM                     31        3                                        1.1
 PBJ                                                                     40 0.3
 PBR                     38        3                                        1.2
 PLM    8    17          13     4    31 11                                  2.2
 PLM 1                             2                                        0.3
 PLR                  23        4                                           0.9
 TBB 3  3              4                    9  9     6  4  6                3.5
 TBG 8 16 17 17  6 33              2       14 36 75 28 29 24 63 28 33      16.5
 TGB                               3                                        0.3
 TBJ 1           6                                                          0.3
 TDJ                                                             5          0.3
 TDB             6                          2  4     6  4        9          2.0
 TCB                                        3                               0.5
 TCB      17     6                                                          0.3
 TFB    5                                   2  4     2 11  9                2.0
 TFG                               2        1                      33       0.5
 TLG      17  8 11     4           2                          5             1.1
  _____________________________________________________________________________
 No.77 38  6 12 18 3  22 16  7 23 58 16 9 105 45 4  50 28 33 19 43  3  2  5 648
 isol.(b)
  ________________________________________________________________________
 (a)  States grouped according to agroecological areas (Plant Dis.
      73:294-297).
 (b)  Six additional isolates from four collections are included in the
      USA total: 
      South Carolina (1) MBG (p1,3,10,11); Mississippi (1) KBG
      (p2a,2c,3,10,11); Missouri (2), KBB (p2a,2c,3,10), 
      and MBG (p1,3,10,11); Wisconsin (2) PBL (p1,2c,3,3ka,10).
 
 
 Table 4. Estimated losses in winter wheat due to rust in 1991
 
                                                         Losses due to
      1,000 of  Yield in  Production     Stem rust    Leaf rust    Stripe rust
       acres    bushels   in 1,000           1,000        1,000         1,000
 State harvstd  per acre  of bushels     %   bushels  %   bushels   %   bushels
  ____________________________________________________________________________
 AL    110         25.0       2,750      0.1  2.7     2.5    70.6   0.0   0.0
 AK    930         22.0      20,460      0.0  0.0     3.0   632.8   0.0   0.0
 CA    410         80.0      32,800      0.0  0.0     T(a)    T      T     T
 CO  2,300         31.0      71,300      0.0  0.0     1.0   720.2   0.0   0.0
 FL     25         23.0         575      0.0  0.0     4.0    23.9
 GA    425         33.0      14,025       T    T      2.5   359.6
 ID    700         70.0      49,000      0.5 482.6    0.5   482.6   0.5 482.6
 IL  1,400         32.0      44,800      0.1  45.3    1.0   453.0   0.0   0.0
 IN    720         40.0      28,800      0.0   0.0    2.0   587.8   0.0   0.0
 IO     50         34.0       1,700      0.0   0.0    0.0     0.0
 KS 11,000         33.0     363,000      0.7 2768.0   7.5 29,556.9  0.0   0.0
 KN    400         27.0      10,800       T    T      2.0   220.4
 LA    190         20.0       3,800      0.5  20.1    5.0   201.1   0.0   0.0
 MI    560         43.0      24,080      0.0   0.0    1.0   243.2
 MN     55         36.0       1,980      0.0   0.0     T      T
 MS    250         18.0       4,500      0.5  22.5    4.0   188.5   0.0   0.0
 MO  1,500         32.0      48,000       T     T     1.0   484.8   0.0   0.0
 MT  1,800         40.0      72,000       T     T      T      T     0.0   0.0
 NE  2,100         32.0      67,200      0.1  69.0    2.5 1724.8
 NM    320         25.0       8,000      0.0   0.0    0.0    0.0
 NY    110         49.0       5,390      0.0   0.0     T      T
 NC    480         40.0      19,200      0.0   0.0    3.0   593.8
 ND     90         33.0       2,970      0.0   0.0     T      T
 OH  1,080         49.0      52,920      0.0   0.0    0.5   265.9
 OK  5,000         28.0     140,000      1.0 1428.6   1.0  1428.6   0.0   0.0
 OR    800         52.0      41,600      0.1  42.2    0.7   295.3   0.6 253.1
 PA    175         44.0       7,700      0.0   0.0    0.1     7.7
 SC    275         31.0       8,525      0.0   0.0    2.0   174.0
 SD  1,300         35.0      45,500      0.0   0.0    5.0  2394.7
 TN    320         24.0       7,680       T     T     2.0   156.7
 TX  2,800         30.0      84,000      0.1  84.9    1.0   849.3   0.0   0.0
 VA    250         49.0      12,250      0.0   0.0    0.5    61.6
 WA    700         58.0      40,600      0.5 212.6    2.0   850.3   2.0 850.3
 WV     10         45.0         450      0.0   0.0    0.2     1.0
 WI    120         49.0       5,880      0.0   0.0    1.0    59.4
 WY    190         29.0       5,510      0.0   0.0    0.0     0.0
  ____________________________________________________________________________
 Total
    38,945                1,349,745        5,178.5       43,088.5     1,586.0
 Average           34.7                  0.4          3.1           0.1
 U.S. total
    39,396         34.8   1,372,182
 T(a) = Trace
 
 Table 5.  Estimated losses in spring and durum wheat due to rust in 1991
 
                           Spring Wheat
 
                                                         Losses due to
      1,000 of  Yield in  Production     Stem rust    Leaf rust    Stripe rust
       acres    bushels   in 1,000           1,000        1,000        1,000
 State harvstd  per acre  of bushels     %   bushels  %   bushels  %   bushels
  ____________________________________________________________________________
 CO      36         75.0       2,700     0.0   0.0   T(a)    T    0.0    0.0
 ID     460         71.0      32,660     0.5 165.8   0.5  165.8   0.5  165.8
 MN   2,070         31.0      64,170     0.0   0.0   1.0  648.2
 MT   2,400         34.0      81,600      T     T     T      T     T      T
 ND   6,850         31.0     212,350     0.0   0.0    T      T
 OR      46         50.0       2,300     0.1   2.3   0.0   14.0   0.5   11.6
 SD   1,750         28.0      49,000     0.0   0.0   1.0  494.9
 UT      23         49.0       1,127     0.0   0.0   0.0    0.0
 WA   1,450         40.0      58,000     0.1  60.5   2.0 1209.6   2.0  1209.6
 WI       7         34.0         238     0.0   0.0    T      T
 WY       4         30.0         120     0.0   0.0   0.0    0.0
  ____________________________________________________________________________
 Total
     15,096                  504,265         228.6      2,532.5      1,387.0
 Average            33.4                 0.04        0.5         0.27
 U.S. total
     15,100         33.4     504,565
 
 
 
                           Durum Wheat
                                                         Losses due to
      1,000 of  Yield in  Production      Stem rust    Leaf rust    Stripe rust
       acres    bushels   in 1,000            1,000        1,000        1,000
 State harvstd  per acre  of bushels      %   bushels  %   bushels  %   bushels 
  ______________________________________________________________________________ 
 AZ      39         95.0       3,705     0.0    0.0   0.0    0.0
 CA      32        105.0       3,360     0.0    0.0   0.0    0.0   0.0    0.0
 MN      30         32.0         960     0.0    0.0    T      T
 MT     179         33.0       5,907     0.0    0.0   0.0    0.0   0.0    0.0
 ND   2,850         31.0      88,350     0.0    0.0    T      T
 SD      67         25.0       1,675     0.0    0.0    T      T
  ______________________________________________________________________________
 Total
      3,197                  103,957            0.0           T           0.0
 Average            32.5                 0.0           T           0.0
 U.S. total
      3,197         32.5     103,957
 
 T(a) = Trace
 
 -------------------------
      USDA-ARS and Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Department of
 Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul;  USDA-ARS University of
 Missouri
      
      R.H. Busch, and R. Wilcoxson
 
      Wheat Production , Breeding and Studies.  Minnesota produced an
 estimated 70 million bushels (1.93 million MT) from 2.1 million acres (0.97
 million ha) harvested.  The average yield of spring wheat in 1991 was
 estimated to be 31 bu/A compared to an average yield of 44 bu/A in 1990 and
 38 bu/A in 1989.  Weather conditions were favorable for April seeding again
 in 1991 but subsoil moisture was quite low.   The main growing area received
 an over abundance of rainfall late June and July.  The Red River Valley was
 quite dry in late May and most of June.  Production was badly reduced
 because of well above average temperatures in May and June (June, 1991 was
 2nd highest average temperature in 100 years) and much higher than normal
 humidity.  The early varieties of spring wheat were favored, primarily
 because tillering was reduced especially in the later heading varieties. 
 Scab was not a major problem in the main growing area but other diseases
 were rampant in most of the state.  Rainfall was abundant in the southwest
 and central areas resulting in severe scab infection in these areas.  
 Bacterial leaf blight, tan spot, some leaf rust, some wheat streak mosaic,
 and even Septoria nodorum were observed in field.  Grain fill was poor
 resulting in low test weight wheat even in areas where scab was not a
 problem.  Bread-making quality varies widely depending upon local growing
 conditions.
 
      A new cultivar `NORM' (MN85324), a line from the cross MN73167/MN81070
 will be released in 1992.  Norm is a high yielding semidwarf hard red spring
 wheat with high test weight, resistance to leaf and stem rust, and stiff
 straw.  Norm has acceptable bread-making quality and percent grain protein
 intermediate between Marshall and Vance and lower than Grandin.
 
      The survey of wheat varieties grown in Minnesota in 1990 was not taken
 but Marshall remained the major variety.  Marshall is a later maturing
 variety and did not perform well in 1991.  It is expected that other
 varieties such as Vance, Grandin, 2375, and Bergen will increase in acreage
 significantly.
 
      Scab screening by Roy Wilcoxson, Plant Pathology, in an inoculated
 nursery has been conducted since 1983.  The first several years were spent
 developing field screening methodology to attempt to  reduce the large
 environmental effect on genotypes-scab infections.  Frequently lines judged
 to be tolerant one year are judged to be susceptible the next because time
 of flower and incidence of infection must coincide before major infection
 results.  In the inoculated nursery, inoculum collected from at least 30
 different sites in Minnesota is increased, and mixed in a sprayer.  The
 lines being evaluated are sprayed in the evening beginning when the first
 heads of the earliest line start to emerge from the boot.  The lines are
 misted by irrigation at least for 1/2 hour after inoculation and for 1-2
 hours daily until nearing maturity.  Incidence and severity of Fusarium head
 scab infection are determined by counting 50 random heads in each plot (3
 replicates used) and determining affected spikes and percent of
 spiklets/spike infected.  Even using the inoculated nursery, several years
 of data are required to ensure accuracy of readings.  Susceptibility can be
 determined in one year but tolerance needs multiple year's data.  Upper-
 midwestern cultivars and introduced varieties from China have been tested
 for three years (Table 1).  Only two introductions from China seem to have
 potential tolerance equal to or better than the best upper midwestern
 cultivars.  In 1991 field observations of scab in the Minnesota Spring Wheat
 Variety Trial were available at two locations.  The results of these natural
 condition ratings are compared with those from two years in the inoculated
 nursery (Table 2).  The cultivars with the least infection in 1991
 correlated well between natural infection sites, but these results did not
 necessary relate well with the inoculated nursery.  Obviously, early heading
 was an important escape factor in natural infection in 1991 natural
 infection ratings.  Introductions with the best tolerance appear to be Fan
 #1 and Sumai #3.  Marshall, Stoa, Butte 86, 2375, and several Minnesota
 lines appear to offer promise for better tolerance to scab.
 
 Table 1. Percentage of spiklets affected by  Fusarium head blight in
 selected midwestern spring wheat varieties and Germplasm lines from China
 for 1989-1991 in an inoculated nursery at St. Paul, MN.
 
 Entry                 1989     1990    1991     Mean 
  ---------------------------------------------------------             
 Mid-western
 
 Butte 86              31c       8        8a       15.7
 Chris                 23b      14       15a       27.0
 Guard                 20b       8       15a       14.3
 Marshall              32c       4       15a       17.0
 Stoa                   9a       6       11a        8.6
 Wheaton               30c      13       32c       25.0
 
 Chinese
 
 Fan #1                16b       3        7a        8.7
 Shanghai #3           41d      14       15a       23.3
 Shanghai #5           32c      10       47d       29.7
 Sumai #3              18b       5        7a       10.0
 Suzhoe T3             31c       8       31c       23.3
 YMI 6                 31c      15       27c       24.3
  -----------------------------------------------------------
 
 Table 2.  Fusarium head blight index (incidence*severity) of upper 
 midwestern spring wheat varieties grown in inoculated nurseries at St.Paul
 in 1990 and 1991 and natural infection visual ratings at Morris and St.
 Paul.
  Entry                    Index                    Rating 1991
                                                  Morris St. Paul
                1990       1991      Mean            Mean
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 Marshall          4.9      15.7      10.3            2.3
 Wheaton          11.6      29.3      20.5            6.7
 Minnpro           5.1      13.0       9.0            4.4
 Vance            14.6      12.4      13.5            5.2
 Len               7.6      14.4      11.0            3.7
 Butte 86          8.2       1.8       5.0            3.0
 Stoa              5.1      14.3       9.7            4.0
 Grandin          14.8       6.0      10.4            5.4
 Gus               3.0      15.5       9.3            4.0
 Prospect         10.6      21.9      16.3            4.8
 Sharp            19.0       5.7      12.4            3.9
 Norseman          6.1      24.6      15.4            3.8
 Nordic            6.1      16.3      11.2            3.8
 Telemark          7.6      31.6      19.6            4.4
 Fjeld            15.0       4.5       9.8            6.9
 Bergen           12.8      24.7      18.8            4.5
 2370             16.0      13.7      14.9            6.0
 2375             13.6      30.6      22.1            2.5
 W2501            17.0      31.6      24.3            6.4
 Roblin           48.0      19.3      33.7            5.4
 Shield            7.5      15.0      11.3            3.7
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 LSD               6.8      17.8       4.7            1.2
 
 
 
      The Pioneer hard red spring wheat breeding program was discontinued in
 1990, and breeding materials were distributed to North Dakota, South Dakota,
 and Minnesota public breeding programs.  Lines which passed rust testing and
 agronomic evaluation were grown in an advanced trial in 1991.  
 
     Personnel.  Graduate student Brent Delzer completed requirements for a
 PhD. degree and has accepted a position as corn breeder with Northrup King
 at Jaynesville, Wisconsin.  Two new graduate students, Jocum Wiersma from
 the Netherlands and Martin Fabrizius, have joined the project.
 
 
 
                                Publications
 
 Abadie,T., R.H. Busch and J.P. Gustafson. 1991. The effect of 1B/1R on
 traits of spring wheat.  Agronomy Abstracts p.84.
 
 Rines,H.W.,D.W. Davis and R.H. Busch. 1991. Use of male steriles in
 producing haploid wheat and oat plants by wide cross hybridizations.
 Agronomy Abstracts p.114.
 
 Van Beuningen,L.T., and R.H. Busch.  Cluster analysis of 300 North American
 spring wheat cultivars. Agronomy Abstracts p.119.
 
 -------------------------
 MISSOURI
 
      University of Missouri and USDA-ARS, Columbia
 
      J. P. Gustafson, K. D. Kephart, G. Kimber, A. L. McKendry, H.
 Aswidinnoor, J. E. Berg, D. Bittel, J. Chen, H.        Daud,  P. Goicoechea,
 K. Houchins, F. Kidwaro, S. Madsen, J. Mehuys, J. Monte, K. Ross, D. N.
 Tague, M. M. Tague, M. Wanous, R. Wilman, B. Winberg and Z.Zhou
 
      Genetics and cytogenetics:  Progress has been made in the development
 of numerical  methods of analysis of meiotic data from hybrids.  New
 computer programs have been written that allow the derivation of data from
 incompletely documented meiotic analyses.  In addition new theory has been
 developed that allows the calculation of genomic affinities in situations
 where previously only symmetrical relationships were analyzable. 
 Re-examination of previous data using the newly developed expressions has,
 in most cases, confirmed previous  conclusions.  In some cases, new insights
 have been gained into the differentiation of the genomes in various
 polyploid species.  New accessions of A- and D-genome autotetraploids have
 been obtained and hybrids with these autotetraploids will allow the
 investigation of the relationships of the A- and D-genome donors to
 hexaploid wheat.
 
      Seed of M, and T genome diploids (Triticum comosum and T. tripsacoides)
 have been treated with colchicine to produce  autotetraploids of these
 species.  The M-genome autotetraploid will be a vital tool for the
 investigation of the Pivotal-differential evolutionary patterns in polyploid
 wild wheat relatives.
 
      New accessions of wild wheat species were grown, identified, 
 multiplied and added to the U.S.D.A. collections.  Seed of wild species were
 distributed to several workers in the U.S.A. and abroad.
 
      In collaboration with Dr. R. Pienaar, a set of aneuploid stocks is
 being created in the spring wheat "Pavon 76" from the International Maize
 and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Mexico, program.  This series has
 been completed to backcross seven and is currently being checked against the
 Chinese Spring monosomic series for any mistakes after which it will be made
 available for use.  Work is continuing on the development of a ditelocentric
 series in the highly aluminum tolerant spring wheat "BH1146" and is
 currently at the backcross 4 stage.  This series will be utilized in
 studying the genetics of aluminum tolerance in wheat as influenced by the
 genes present in rye (Secale cereale L.).  Genes and restriction fragment
 length polymorphisms (RFLP) that have been isolated from the genomes of
 wheat, rye, and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and are currently located on
 various genetic linkage maps, are being placed onto physical maps by the
 utilization of in situ hybridization techniques.  At the present time 0.6 kb
 unique sequence DNA fragments can be visualized.  Genome-specific DNA
 sequences are currently being isolated from the potential B genome donors of
 hexaploid wheat.  These sequences will be utilized for studies on the origin
 of the B genome of hexaploid wheat as well as for use by plant breeders as
 markers.  The sequences isolated from Triticum tauschii have been showed to
 be physically present and scattered along the length of seven chromosome
 pairs of hexaploid wheat.
 
 1991 Missouri Wheat Crop.  Missouri's 1991 wheat crop was harvested from
 1.55 million acres, down 23 percent from the wheat acreage harvested in
 1990.  The statewide average yield was 32 bu/acre, down from 47 and 38
 bu/acre reported for the 1989 and 1990 crop years respectively.  Average
 yields by district ranged from a high of 40 bu/acre for the northwest crop
 reporting district to a low of 22 bu/acre for the southcentral district. 
 Total production of the 1991 Missouri wheat crop was 48 million bushels.  
 Weather conditions were favorable for emergence and fall tillering
 throughout the state.   Above average rainfall throughout May combined with
 normal temperatures, however, resulted in significant levels of powdery
 mildew, Fusarium scab, bacterial streak and Septoria complex diseases.  
 Severe disease levels limited yields and reduced test weights throughout the
 state. 
 
      The survey of wheat varieties grown in Missouri in 1991 was as follows:
 Caldwell, 30.9%; Cardinal, 28.7%; Pioneer*, 27.9%; Coker*, 2.1%; AgriPro*,
 1.6%; Arthur 71, 1.2%; Merschman*, 1.2%; all others, 4.4%.  Names followed
 by an asterisk include all varieties within the product line grown in
 Missouri.
 
      Genetic studies of newly identified sources of resistance to Septoria
 tritici  found among accessions of the wild wheats Triticum tauschii and T.
 speltoides are currently underway.  Direct hybrids obtained between
 hexaploid soft red winter wheat cultivars and the S. tritici  resistant T.
 tauschii  accession 2377 from the Kansas State Collection will be field
 tested during the 1992 crop year.
 
 Field studies on the impact of S. tritici on grain quality in soft red
 winter wheat indicated that although S. tritici had a negative impact on
 both milling and baking quality, the effect was greatest on milling quality
 and its components.  Results indicated that the varietal effect was more
 important than test weight per se in determining milling quality of the
 grain and that environment x cultivar effects, although highly significant,
 were due primarily to changes in magnitude and not rank.  This suggested
 that screening for grain quality in early generations could be effectively
 carried out in one environment.
 
      Visitors:  H. Guedes Pinto, Portugal; G. Butnaru, Romania; W. Bluthner,
 Germany; R. Riley, England; S. Borojevic, Yugoslavia; and V.D. Reddy, India.
 
 
                              Publications
 
 Kimber, G. 1990.  Choice of the best method for the introduction of alien
 variation in wheat.  In: "Wheat breeding- Prospects and future approaches." 
 Ed. I. Panayotov.  Varna, Bulgaria. In press.
 
 Kimber, G. 1990.  Chromosome pairing in hybrids:  Basic studies and
 practical application.  Hungarian Academy of Sciences.  Invited paper.  In
 Press.
 
 Chapman, C. G. D. and Kimber, G. 1991.  Developments in the meiotic analysis
 of hybrids.  I.  Review of theory and optimization in triploids.  Heredity. 
 In press.
 
 Chapman, C. G. D. and Kimber, G. 1991.  Developments in the meiotic analysis
 of hybrids.  II.  Amended models for tetraploids.  Heredity.  In press.
 
 Chapman, C. G. D. and Kimber, G. 1991.  Developments in the meiotic analysis
 of hybrids.  III.  Amended models for pentaploids.  Heredity.  In press.
 
 Chapman, C. G. D. and Kimber, G. 1991.  Developments in the meiotic analysis
 of hybrids.  IV.  Utilizing data sets with merged figure classes.  Heredity. 
 In press.
 
 Chapman, C. G. D. and Kimber, G. 1991.  Developments in the meiotic analysis
 of hybrids.  V.  Second order models for tetraploids and pentaploids. 
 Heredity.  In press.
 
 Kimber, G. 1990.  Editor: Proceedings Second International Symposium on
 Chromosome Engineering in Plants. pp 346.  University of Missouri-Columbia.
 
 Jouve, N., McIntyre, C. L. and Gustafson, J. P. 1991.  Chromosome
 preparations from protoplasts:  In situ hybridization banding pattern of a
 dispersed DNA sequence in rye (Secale cereale L.).  Genome 34: 524-527.
 
 Aswidinnoor, H., Nelson, R. J., Dallas, J. F., McIntyre, C. L., Leungh, J.,
 and Gustafson, J. P.  1991.  Cloning and characterization of repetitive DNA
 sequences from genomes of Oryza minuta and Oryza australiensis. Genome 34:
 790-798.
 
 Kephart, K.D., A.L. McKendry, D.N. Tague, J.E. Berg, C.L. Hoenshell. 1991. 
 1991 Missouri Winter Wheat Performance Tests.  Special Report 429, Missouri
 Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, Food and Natural
 Resources, University of Missouri.
 
 Kephart, K.D., A.L. McKendry, D.N. Tague, J.E. Berg. 1991.  1991 Missouri
 Spring Oats Performance Tests.  Special Report 436, Missouri Agricultural
 Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources,
 University of Missouri.
 
 -------------------------
 NEBRASKA
 
       University of Nebraska and USDA-ARS, Lincoln
 
      P. S. Baenziger*, C. J. Peterson* (USDA-ARS), R. A. Graybosch* (USDA-
 ARS), D. R. Shelton*, L. A. Nelson*, D. D. Baltensperger*, D. J.
 Lyons*, G.L. Hein* 
 
      Growing conditions and production.  A below average crop was harvested
 in 1991 with production estimated at 67.2 million bushels harvested from 2.1
 million acres and with a state average of 32 bushels per acre.  In eastern
 Nebraska, a cool spring and excessive rains caused severe lodging, high
 levels of powdery mildew and scab, and an epidemic of leaf rust which was
 present throughout the state.  Stem rust was present, but fortunately was
 too late to damage the crop.  However, other parts of Nebraska were droughty
 and yields were reduced by insufficient moisture and heat.  Unfortunately,
 leaf rust appeared to change its pathogenic spectrum and formerly moderately
 resistant wheats now appear to be susceptible.  With this change in
 virulence, few wheats are available that have good leaf rust resistance. 
  
      Redland (14.9% of the total acreage) replaced Siouxland as the most
 popular variety in Nebraska.  Redland is a selection from Brule (5.4% of the
 total acreage), hence the combination of Redland and Brule are grown on
 20.3% of the total acreage.  Arapahoe has been quickly accepted by the
 growers and increased from 1.8% of the acreage in 1990 to 8.5% in 1991.  
 
 ------------------------- 
      P. S. Baenziger, C. J. Peterson (USDA-ARS), D. R. Shelton, and D. D.
 Baltensperger
 
      Release of New Cultivars and Increase of New Experimental Lines. No new
 cultivars were released in 1991.  Rawhide was formally released in December
 1990.  Its pedigree is Warrior*5/Agent//Kavkaz/4/Parker*4/Agent//
 Beloterkovskaia 198/Lancer/3/Vona.  Currently, it appears to be a TAM107
 replacement and has the variable performance and leaf rust susceptibility
 that TAM107 is also known for in Nebraska.
 
      Three experimental wheats are currently under large scale increase. 
 They are NE86501 [Colt/Cody], NE87612 [Newton//Warrior*5/Agent/3/NE69441]
 and NE87615 [NE68513/NE68457//Centurk/3/Brule].  NE69441 is an Agate sib. 
 NE68513 is Warrior//Atlas 66/Cheyenne/3/Cheyenne/Ottawa.  NE68457 is
 Ponca/*2 Cheyenne/4/ IL#1-Chinese Spring 2*/Triticum timopheevi//Cheyenne-
 Tenmarq-Michigan-Hope /3/ Sando 60.
   
      NE86501 is a taller wheat (similar in height to Cody and Centura) with
 moderately strong straw for a conventional height wheat, but less straw
 strength than many short statured wheats.  NE86501 is susceptible to leaf
 rust, soilborne mosaic virus, and wheat streak mosaic virus; resistant to
 stem rust (contains genes Sr6, Sr17, and Sr24); and moderately resistant to
 Hessian fly.  NE86501 has medium maturity.  The test weight of NE86501 is
 similar to Siouxland and superior to Redland or Brule.  NE86501, if
 released, would be targeted to areas where tall wheats are needed.  
 
      NE87612 is a medium height wheat (similar to Arapahoe and Brule) with
 moderate straw strength.  NE87612 is susceptible to leaf rust, and soilborne
 mosaic and wheat streak mosaic viruses; resistant to the Great Plains
 biotype of Hessian fly, and moderately resistant to stem rust (contains
 genes Sr17, Sr24, and segregates for Sr6).  NE87612 is a genetically lower
 test weight wheat, though superior to Redland.  If released, current
 performance data would suggest it be targeted for dryland production in
 western Nebraska.  While adapted to many of the same areas as Arapahoe and
 having satisfactory winterhardiness for Nebraska, NE87612 is not as
 winterhardy as Arapahoe.
 
      NE87615 is a "pretty" semidwarf.  It is shorter than Arapahoe and Brule
 with moderate straw strength.  NE87615 has exhibited moderate resistance to
 leaf rust (may be lost with recent leaf rust race changes), resistant to the
 Great Plains Biotype of Hessian fly, and moderately resistant to stem rust
 (contains genes Sr6, Sr17, and Sr36); and is susceptible to soilborne mosaic
 virus.  Its reaction to wheat streak mosaic virus needs further testing,
 however, in the greenhouse it appears to be superior to Brule and Redland. 
 The winterhardiness of NE87615 is good, superior to NE87612.  NE87615 is a
 genetically lower test weight wheat, though superior to Redland.  If
 released, NE87615 would probably be targeted to southwest and western
 Nebraska dryland wheat production though its short stature may pose problems
 in droughty years.  Its short stature is beneficial under irrigation which
 preliminary data indicate NE87615 performs well. 
 
 -------------------------
      P. S. Baenziger, W. R. Deaton (Monsanto Company), and D. M. Wesenberg
 (USDA-ARS)
      Doubled Haploid Breeding.  We continue to work on improving the anther
 culture systems for producing doubled haploid lines.  We continue to define
 the favorable effect of wheat starch as a gelling agent or nutrient in the
 medium.  The starch work has been coupled to research studying the effects
 of sugars in the media by Mr. W. Navarro, a graduate student on the project. 
 It appears that maltose with starch is beneficial (particularly for removing
 some of the genotype specificity of the anther culture system) when compared
 to starch with the more commonly used disaccharide, sucrose.
    
      We are in the process of analyzing an experiment which compares doubled
 haploid lines from wheat anther culture to conventionally derived single
 seed descent lines.  Preliminary analyses, done by Ms. L. Oberthur (a
 graduate student on the project), indicate the doubled haploid lines have
 lower yield when compared to the single seed descent lines which indicates
 the presence of deleterious gametoclonal variation.  Previously, we had
 reported deleterious gametoclonal variation in doubled haploids derived from
 pure lines.  However, other researchers have not found deleterious variation
 in lines derived from a cross.  Hence, we wondered if the genetic variation
 in a cross is sufficiently large to mask any gametoclonal variation.  For
 this cross and this experiment, it appears that gametoclonal variation can
 be identified.  
 
 -------------------------
      B. Moreno-Sevilla, P. S. Baenziger, C. J. Peterson (USDA-ARS), and R.
 A. Graybosch (USDA-ARS)
 
      Effect of 1B/1R on Agronomic Performance.  Siouxland is an important
 wheat in Nebraska and carries the 1BL/1RS translocation.  To determine if
 the 1BL/1RS translocation enhances yield, 60 F(3)-derived F(6) and F(7)
 lines were randomly selected from the cross Siouxland x Ram, classified into
 three groups (homozygous 1BL/1RS, heterogeneous 1BL/1RS, and homozygous 1B)
 and evaluated in seven environments in Nebraska.  The 1BL/1RS group averaged
 9% higher yield than the homozygous 1B and heterogeneous lines.  Hence the
 1BL/1RS translocation did possess genes that enhanced yield.  A recent
 Nebraska release, Rawhide, is heterogeneous for 1BL/1RS.  Future experiments
 will examine the effect of 1BL/1RS in this more homogeneous background. 
 
 -------------------------
      W. Stroup, Biometrics Department, D. Mulitze, Agronomix Software Inc.,
 and P. S. Baenziger
 
      Improved Statistical Analyses for Field Plot Research.  Historically,
 the wheat breeding effort has used randomized complete block designs for
 their convenience and ease of analysis.  With the advent of user friendly
 software, more complex analytical tools to measure spatial variation are
 available.  In this study using three different breeding trials at four
 locations, nearest neighbor analyses were found to be superior to randomized
 complete block analyses.  In the most extreme case, the nearest neighbor
 techniques identified genetic variation among breeding lines while the
 randomized complete block analysis was unable to identify genetic
 differences.  The greatest advantage was found in a low yielding environment
 with wind erosion, winterkilling, and variable soils.  These conditions are
 notoriously hard to block, but common in western Nebraska which is a major
 wheat producing area.  While nearest neighbor analysis is common in Europe,
 it is rare in the United States.  
 
 -------------------------
      A. Ouassou, P. S. Baenziger, and J. Schmidt
 
      Genetic Variation for Height in Durum Wheat.  A diallel cross was made
 between seven durum wheat lines representing semi-dwarf and tall wheats with
 considerable height variation within each class.  The height data was
 analyzed using generation means analysis and classical genetics.  Additive
 gene effects predominated, though small dominance and additive by additive
 effects were also identified.  What was particularly surprising was the
 overlap of lines within the semi-dwarf (determined by giberellic acid
 response) and tall wheat class.  The parents and progeny included tall semi-
 dwarfs and "short" tall wheats.  
  
 -------------------------
       A. Masrizal and P. S. Baenziger
 
      Triticale Breeding Efforts.  Nebraska has bred winter triticales for
 the past 20 years.  The goal of this program is to develop winterhardy, feed
 grain triticales, and to use triticale as a source of genes for improving
 winter wheat.  Forage triticales are a recent objective. 
 
 Examples of triticale grain yields in Nebraska are:
 
 
 
 
 Entry               Yield (kg/h)              Rank      Rank      Rank
              Lincoln   Sidney    Average      Lincoln   Sidney    Average   
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 TSW250783     3701      3906      3804           2         1         1
 LAD285        4031      3387      3709           1         6         2
 RYMIN RYE*    3026      3779      3402          13         3         3
 NE90T405      3473      3104      3288           4         8         4
 NE90T406      3551      2884      3218           3        12         5
 REDLAND*      2959      3408      3183          15         4         6
 SIOUXLAND*    2439      3830      3135          28         2         9
 PRESTO        3248      2836      3041           9        13        12
 NEWCALE       2851      2288      2570          20        20        22
 TRICAL        1709      1519      1613          33        31        32
 GRAND MEAN    2891      2596      2744 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Rye or wheat check cultivars.
 
      From the yield data three points are clear.  First, winterkilling was
 minimal at Lincoln and Sidney, hence lines which previously have been
 injured survived well at both locations.  Secondly, the key to improved
 triticale varieties is access to improved triticale germplasm (the two
 highest yielding triticales are European triticales).  Thirdly, winter
 triticale with high yield potential is available and may be useful as a feed
 grain or forage crop.  
 
 -------------------------
       C. J. Peterson (USDA-ARS), R. A. Graybosch (USDA-ARS), P. S.
 Baenziger, and D. R. Shelton
 
      Release of 'N86L177' Hard Red Winter Wheat Germplasm.  'N86L177' (PI
 559717) was selected and released as germplasm by USDA-ARS and University of
 Nebraska based on its superior grain protein concentrations and excellent
 bread-making qualities.  It was derived from the cross 'Nap Hal'/
 'Lancer'//'Karlik 1'/3/'NS 622'/4/'Centurk'/'GK-Tiszataj'/2/'Plainsman V',
 made in 1980.  Grain protein concentrations of N86L177 average 5 g/kg higher
 than 'Karl', 16 g/kg higher than 'Siouxland', and 24 g/kg higher than
 'Redland'.  N86L177 has very long dough mixing requirements, approximately
 0.5 min longer than Karl, accompanied by high levels of mixing tolerance. 
 In bread-making evaluations, N86L177 has shown superior loaf volume
 potential combined with excellent external and internal loaf grain and
 texture properties when compared with Karl and commonly grown Nebraska
 varieties.  N86L177 is an awned, white-glumed, short wheat.  It is equal in
 height to Karl with similar to slightly earlier maturity.  Its
 winterhardiness is better than 'TAM-200' and slightly less than Karl. 
 N86L177 has moderately erect leaves, very stiff straw, and is lower
 tillering than commonly grown Nebraska varieties.  Grain yield of N86L177
 averaged 87% of the Nebraska varieties Redland and Siouxland and 85% of
 Karl.  Its grain yield is superior to Redland and Siouxland under conditions
 favoring high levels of lodging.  Its test weight is higher than Redland or
 Siouxland, but less than Karl.  N86L177 was entered in the 23rd
 International Winter Wheat Performance Nursery for evaluation in 1991.
 
 -------------------------
      D. R. Shelton
 
      Computerization of Mixograph.  The Nebraska Wheat Quality Laboratory
 has been working closely with the National Manufacturing Division of TMCO,
 Lincoln, Nebraska, to develop various ways to computerize the output of the
 Mixograph.  One method is to convert the Mixogram chart into a digital
 format using a flatbed scanner.  A computer program has been written that
 takes this digital output from the scanner and performs analysis on the
 Mixogram curve.  Peak height and time along with a number of other
 parameters are determined by using the computer rather than subjective
 interpretations.  The program is being evaluated and modified at this time
 to remove errors and enhance user friendliness.
 
 -------------------------
      J. H. Lee, R. A. Graybosch (USDA-ARS), and C. J. Peterson (USDA-ARS)
 
      Improving the Quality of 1RS Wheats.  To assess the effects of genetic
 background on end-use quality of wheats carrying wheat-rye translocations,
 mixograph properties, SDSS volumes and flour protein concentrations of 1RS
 wheats were compared to those of non-1RS and heterogeneous sister lines
 obtained from 12 breeding populations (total 726 lines).  Quality
 characteristics were examined in relation to genetic background as measured
 by SDS-PAGE analysis of glutenin proteins, and to flour protein molecular
 weight distribution as measured by size-exclusion chromatography.  In 10 of
 12 populations, quality characteristics were significantly higher in non-1RS
 lines than in 1RS wheats; in the remaining two populations, no differences
 in quality parameters were observed.  Heterogeneous lines were intermediate
 in quality between 1RS and non-1RS lines.  In 11 of 12 populations, the
 amount of glutenin protein was higher in non-1RS wheats, and, in all
 populations, levels of salt-water soluble proteins were higher in 1RS
 wheats.  Twelve lines were selected as possessing both enhanced end-use
 quality (when compared to currently grown 1AL/1RS and 1BL/1RS cultivars) and
 suitable agronomic attributes.  These lines have been planted for additional
 testing/observation in 1992.
 
 -------------------------
 R. French (USDA-ARS) and N. L. Robertson (USDA-ARS)
 
 Cereal Virology.  A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure was developed
 to generate ca.2 kbp cDNA fragments from the RNA genomes hordeum mosaic
 virus (HoMV), two strains of agropyron mosaic virus (AgMV), and wheat streak
 mosaic virus (WSMV).  Sequences of a portion of the NIb and the entire coat
 protein gene and 3'-noncoding region of these suggest that HoMV and AgMV are
 more similar to each other than to WSMV. Sequence data were also used to
 develop specific PCR primers for diagnostic tests for WSMV, AgMV, and HorMV. 
 We now routinely use PCR for identifying theses viruses and the five major
 strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV).  Over 100 fields were surveyed
 in Colorado, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming in
 late Spring of 1991.  WSMV and BYDV-PAV strain were the only viruses
 detected.  
 
      Personnel.  Dr. Yang Yen joined the wheat cytogenetics project and is
 developing recombinant chromosome lines and studying wheat RNases.  Mr.
 Necdet Budak, a Ph.D. student from Turkey, who is sponsored by Rotary
 International, joined the wheat breeding project and will probably work on
 determining factors affecting plant height in winter wheat, with particular
 emphasis on developing tall wheats for western Nebraska.  Dr. Fawzy Fathy
 Saad, from Cairo University, worked on the wheat breeding project for five
 months to learn new breeding methods.  Mr. Ouyang Jen-wen, from the Academia
 Sinica in Beijing, China, spent three months working on ways to improve
 wheat anther culture.  Marizanne Hugo, from Stellenbosch University, South
 Africa, joined the project and will work for one year on heat stress
 tolerance in winter wheat.  Chaohui Wang arrived in December, 1991 to pursue
 a Ph.D degree in Plant Pathology.  She will work on wheat virus molecular
 genetics in the USDA Wheat Virology program.
 
 
                                Publications
 
 Baenziger, P. S. and T. G. Berke.  1991.  The past and future of chromosome
 engineering.  In G. Kimber (ed.) Proceedings of the 2nd Internat. Symp. on
 Chromosome Engineering in Plants.   August 13-15, 1990,  Columbia, 
 Missouri.  pp. 90-98.
 
 Baenziger, P. S., V. D. Keppenne, M. R. Morris, C. J. Peterson, and P.
 J.Mattern.  1991.  Quantifying gametoclonal variation in wheat doubled
 haploids. Cereal Res. Comm. 19:33-42.
 
 Baenziger, P. S. and J. W. Schmidt.  1991.  Registration of 'Newcale' winter
 triticale.  Crop Sci. 31:489-490.
 
 Berke, T. G. and P. S. Baenziger.  1992.  Portable and desktop computer
 integrated field book and data collection system for agronomists.  Agron. J.
 84:119-121.
 
 Eskridge, K. M. and C. J. Peterson.  1991.  Selection for quality traits in
 wheat based on probability of the traits falling within established limits.
 Agronomy Abstracts.
 
 Graybosch, R. A., C. J. Peterson, W. D. Worrall, D. R. Shelton, and A.
 Lukaszewski.  1991.  Comparative quality characteristics of 1BL/1RS and
 1AL/1RS wheat-rye translocation lines.  Agronomy Abstracts.
 
 Graybosch, R., C. J. Peterson, K. Moore, and M. Stearns.  1991.  Flour
 quality evaluation among hard red wheats:  an integrated biochemical
 approach. Cereal Foods World.
 
 Graybosch, R. A.  The high-molecular-weight glutenin composition of U.S.
 winter wheats and parental lines.  Crop Science.  Accepted 2-9-92.
 
 Griffey, C. A., C. J. Peterson, and P. J. Mattern.  Wheat protein
 concentrations after two cycles of divergent selection for seed density. 
 Crop Science.  Accepted 8-6-91.
 
 Jackson, A. O., Petty, I. T. D., Jones, R. W., Edwards, M. C., and French,
 R. 1991.  Analysis of barley stripe mosaic virus pathogenicity.  Seminars in
 Virology 2:107-119.
 
 Jackson, A. O., Petty, I. T. D., Jones, R. W., Edwards, M. C., and French,
 R. 1991.  Molecular genetic analysis of barley stripe mosaic virus
 pathogenicity determinants.  Can. J. of Plant Pathol. 13:163-177.
 
 Lee, J., R. A. Graybosch, and C. J. Peterson.  1991.  Relationships between
 genetic background and quality characteristics of 1RS wheats.  Agronomy
 Abstracts.
 
 Masrizal, R. L. Simonson, and P. S. Baenziger.  1991.  Response of different
 wheat tissues to increasing doses of ethyl methanesulfonate.  Plant Cell,
 Tissue and Organ Culture 26:141-146.
   
 Moreno, B., P. S. Baenziger, C. J. Peterson, and R. A. Graybosch.  1991. 
 Effect of the 1B/1R translocation on agronomic performance of hard red
 winter wheat in Nebraska.  Agronomy Abstracts.
 
 Niaz, N., C. J. Peterson, and R. A. Graybosch.  1991.  Accumulation of
 protein within solubility classes during grain fill in hard red winter wheat
 cultivars. Cereal Foods World.
 
 Niaz, N., C. J. Peterson, and R. A. Graybosch.  1991.  Influence of cultivar
 and N fertilization on accumulation of protein components during grain fill
 in hard red winter wheat.  Agronomy Abstracts.
 
 Peterson, C. J., R. A. Graybosch, P. S. Baenziger, and A. W. Grombacher. 
 1992. Genotype and environment effects on quality characteristics of hard
 red winter wheat.  Crop Science 32:98-103.
 
 Peterson, C. J.  Similarities among test sites based on cultivar performance
 in the hard red winter wheat region.  Crop Science.  Accepted 12-26-91.
 
 Primard, S., R. Graybosch, C. J. Peterson, and J. H. Lee.  1991. 
 Relationships  between gluten protein composition and end-use quality in
 four populations of high protein hard red winter wheat.  Cereal Chem.
 68:305-312.
 
 Robertson, N. L., French, R., and Gray, S. M.  1991.  Use of group-specific
 primers and the polymerase chain reaction for the detection and
 identification of luteoviruses.  J. Gen. Virol. 72:1473-1477.
 
 Rybczynski, J. J., R. L. Simonson, and P. S. Baenziger.  1991.  Wheat
 morphogenesis in anther culture using starch as a gelling agent.  In Vitro
 Cell. Dev. Biol. 27P:168-174.
 
 -------------------------
 NEW YORK
 
      Department of Plant Breeding and Biometry, Cornell University, Ithaca
 
      M. E. Sorrells* and W. R. Coffman*
 
      1991 Winter Wheat Production:   The 1991 soft white winter wheat crop
 for New York was 110,000 acres, down about 35,000 acres from 1990.  Yield
 was estimated to be 49 b/a, identical to 1990 and down 9 b/a from the record
 yield of 1985.  The 1991 growing season was 1 to 3øF warmer than normal. 
 Record levels of precipitation were received for March and April were
 followed by a very dry May and June.
 Soft White Winter Wheat:  Harus, Houser, and Geneva are cultivars currently
 recommended to New York farmers.  No new cultivars are pending release;
 however, we are increasing seed of two preharvest sprouting resistant
 advanced selections that are candidates.  
 Soft Red Winter Wheat:  Susquehanna soft red winter wheat was first
 available to farmers for 1991 production and production reports were
 favorable.
 Hard Red Spring Wheat:  Production of hard red spring wheat continues at a
 low level.  Stoa and lines related to Stoa have demonstrated very good
 milling and baking quality and yield performance.  We are currently testing
 cultivars and breeding lines from other regions as well as powdery mildew
 resistant selections from our own program.  We plan to propose a release
 sometime this year.
 
      RFLP Mapping:  Development of hypervariable hybridization probes and
 mapping techniques for wheat:  The level of polymorphism among common wheat
 varieties is very low when randomly chosen clones are used for RFLP studies. 
 Therefore we have initiated work to determine if other technical approaches
 could be useful for obtaining higher levels of polymorphism in wheat. We are
 in the process of investigating how well the so called 'GA-mapping
 technique' (Weber & May, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 44: 388-396 (1989)) works in
 wheat. This technique is based on a PCR reaction.with primers flanking
 genomic (GA)n or (GT)n sites. 
 
      We recently received a genomic wheat lambda library from Dr. Olin
 Anderson (USDA, Albany, CA). By probing this library with synthetic (GA)n
 and (GT)n sequences we determined the frequency of (GA)n sites as being 3.6
 x 104 per haploid wheat genome and the frequency of (GT)n sites as 2.3 x
 104. We have purified several phages containing (GA)n and (GT)n sites and
 are currently in the process of subcloning them. It is also planned to
 screen the wheat phage library with the Jeffrey's minisatellite probes in
 order to try to pull out hypervariable single copy clones containing
 stretches of minisatellite sequences. (Dr. M Roder, Post-doctorate)
 A-genome mapping:  We just received F2 seed from two intraspecific T.
 boeoticum crosses from Prof. Ananiev (Moscow, USSR). Previous RFLP studies
 have shown, that the parents involved show ca. 50 % polymorphism by
 surveying with one enzyme (Eco RI). We plan to grow these populations for
 another generation and use DNA of pooled F3 families for constructing a RFLP
 map of the A-genome. (Dr. M Roder)
 Development of a Chromosomal Arm Map for Wheat Based on RFLP Markers* - J.A.
 Anderson, Y. Ogihara, M.E. Sorrells, and S.D. Tanksley:  A chromosomal arm
 map has been developed for common wheat using aneuploid stocks to locate
 more than eight hundred restriction fragments corresponding to 210 low copy
 DNA clones from barley cDNA, oat cDNA, and wheat genomic libraries.  The
 number of restriction fragments per chromosome arm correlates moderately
 well with relative DNA content and length of somatic chromosomes.  The
 chromosomal arm locations of loci detected with six different clones support
 an earlier hypothesis for the occurrence of a two-step translocation (4AL to
 5AL, 5AL to 7BS, and 7BS to 4AL) in the ancestral wheat genomes.  In
 addition, one clone revealed the presence of a 5AL segment translocated to
 4AL.  Anomalies in aneuploid stocks were also observed and can be explained
 by intrahomoeologous recombination and polymorphisms among the stocks.  We
 view the development of this chromosomal arm map as a complement to, rather
 than as a substitute for a conventional RFLP linkage map in wheat.
 
 * Theor. Appl. Genet. Accepted
 
      Use of DNA markers to identify genomic regions associated with
 pre-harvest sprouting resistance in white wheat:  Our objective is to
 identify genomic regions associated with resistance to pre-harvest sprouting
 (PHS) in two single-seed descent populations using DNA markers.  One
 population is from the cross of NY 6432-18 (moderately resistant) X Clark's
 Cream (highly resistant).  The second population is from a cross between
 closely related lines, NY 6432-18 and NY 6432-10 (susceptible).  Both
 populations have been evaluated for PHS for two years with three locations
 per year by examining physiologically mature spikes under simulated
 rainfall.  Both populations are being grown out for another year of
 evaluation in 1992.  RFLP probes are currently being used to identify
 polymorphisms that are associated with PHS.  To date, 110 RFLP clones have
 been probed onto filters containing parents and a bulk of the 5 most
 resistant and susceptible individuals in each population digested with 4
 restriction enzymes.  Thus far, 3 of these clones reveal restriction
 fragment polymorphism associated with resistance in these populations. 
 Putative markers will be verified on a larger sample of single-seed descent
 lines from each population. (J.A. Anderson, Ph.D. student)
 RFLP Tagging of Two Hessian Fly-Resistant Genes in Wheat from Triticum
 tauschii - Z.-Q. Ma, B. S. Gill (Kansas State Univ.), M. E. Sorrells, S. D.
 Tanksley:  RFLP markers linked to loci controlling Hessian fly-resistance
 from Triticum tauschii  were identified for two wheat germplasm lines
 KS89WGRC3 and KS89WGRC6.  Forty-six clones with loci on chromosomes of
 homoeologous group 3 and 28 clones on those of group 6 were surveyed for
 polymorphisms. Eleven and twelve clones detected T. tauschii loci in the two
 lines, respectively. Analysis of F2 progenies indicated that the Hessian fly
 resistance gene H23 identified in KS89WGRC3 is linked to XksuH4 (7.0cM) and
 XksuG48(A) (13.7cM), located on 6D. The resistance gene H24 in KS89WGRC6 is
 linked to XcnlBCD451 (5.9cM), XcnlCDO482 (5.9cM) and XksuG48(B) (12.9cM),
 located on 3DL. 
 
      Leaf Rust gene tagging:  Putative markers were detected for six leaf
 rust resistant genes and one stem rust gene.  The genes with putative
 markers and the number of markers for each of them is as follows: Lr19 (3),
 Lr20 (7), Lr24 (4), Lr28 (10), Lr32 (2), Lr36 (3), and Sr35 (3).  For Lr9, a
 leaf rust gene located near the centromere in chromosome 6B, no putative
 marker has been detected, as well as for two new genes transferred from Ae.
 squarrosa (Lr3y and Lr3x) and for Lr21.  
 
      Dr. Alan Roelfs, at the Cereal Rust Laboratory, is running the initial
 screenings for the selection of the rust races to be used for the screening
 of the segregating populations for each one of the genes.  F3 lines were
 produced for each one of the isolines tested for polymorphism.  These
 segregating populations will be used to estimate linkages between probes and
 resistance gene. (E. Autrique, Ph.D. student)
 Durum survey:  Ten landraces and 32 cultivars were surveyed for RFLPs.  From
 39 probes, 31 showed polymorphism using three different enzymes.  Landraces
 showed greater level of polymorphism than the cultivars and advanced lines. 
 RFLP data was used to calculate the genetic distance between the 42
 genotypes and generate a dendrogram.  Five different clusters were found. 
 In one of them, three of the ten landraces were clustered within a group of
 cultivars, and six other landraces were grouped in a separate cluster.  One
 landrace from the middle east region showed the greatest genetic distance to
 all the other genotypes.
 
 The three landraces that were clustered with the bred cultivars were
 originally collected in North Africa.  Based on the coefficient of parentage
 (COP), one of them is present as ancestral parent in most of the cultivars
 evaluated in this study.  Thus, the genetic distance between these north
 African landraces is not very large.  Another landrace, Haurani, that has
 been used recently in crosses was grouped within the landrace cluster,
 showing a larger distance to the cultivated genotypes.
 
      A matrix of COP that compares all cultivars and advanced lines was
 generated.  The COP values and the Nei genetic distance were use in
 correlation analysis and the correlation coefficient was significant but low
 (R2=.15).
 
      From this information, we conclude that the COP does not accurately
 predict the genetic differences between any two individuals.  The
 assumptions used to calculate the COP values, do not consider the effect of
 selection and assume an equal initial relationship for two unrelated
 cultivars or for a cultivar and a wild species.
 
      Pedigrees of cultivars trace back to 42 different ancestral lines that
 include landraces, wild relatives and some improved varieties.  Testing the
 ancestral genotypes for the same probes would enable us to detect the effect
 from selection and to identify the major contributors of the recently
 developed cultivars. (E. Autrique)
 
 -------------------------
      Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
 
      G.C. Bergstrom*, J.E. Carroll, D.W. Kalb, A.M.C. Schilder, and D. Shah
 
 Winter wheat pathology research:
 
      Agricultural scale evaluation of Baytan seed treatment and Tilt foliar
 application on winter wheat occurred on three western and central New York
 farms in 1990-91.  Baytan-treated crops yielded 2, 0, and 4 bushels of grain
 per acre more than did crops from Vitavax 200-treated seed, representing a
 negative average return over variable costs for New York growers in 1991, a
 year with minimal foliar disease pressure.  Tilt application also produced a
 negative average
 return over variable costs, reinforcing extension recommendations that
 foliar fungicides be applied only if warranted by level of disease observed
 at flag leaf emergence.
 
      In a field test in Ithaca, NY, under natural infection, the Kansas
 wheat breeding lines U1273-5-18-3 and U1266-4-11-6 and the hard red winter
 wheat cultivar Century appeared to be as or more resistant to wheat spindle
 streak mosaic virus as the resistant soft white winter wheat cultivar
 Geneva.  The test provided an extremely stringent selection for resistance.
 
      Research continues in collaboration with Dr. Peter Ueng (ARS,
 Beltsville, MD) to develop RFLP probes for Stagonospora nodorum.  Genetic
 fingerprinting is being used for studies of the epidemiology of Septoria
 nodorum blotch of wheat.  Graduate students Annemiek Schilder and Denis Shah
 are completing thesis projects on the epidemiology of tan spot and Septoria
 nodorum bloth of winter wheat, respectively, both emphasizing the role of
 seedborne inoculum in initiation of epidemics.  Juliet Carroll has initiated
 a thesis project addressing fundamental aspects of the interaction between
 wheat spindle streak mosaic virus, its vector Polymyxa graminis, and wheat.
 
                         Publications
 
 Anderson, J.A., Y. Ogihara, M.E. Sorrells, and S.D. Tanksley. 1992.
 Development of a chromosomal arm map for wheat based on RFLP markers. Theor.
 Appl. Genet. In Press.
 
 Bergstrom, G.C., D.W. Kalb, and W.J. Cox 1991.  Effects of Baytan seed
 treatment on powdery mildew, leaf spots, and yield of winter wheat in farm
 scale plots in New York, 1990.  Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 46:281.
 
 Heun, M., A.E. Kennedy, J.A. Anderson, N.L.V. Lapitan, M.E. Sorrells, and
 S.D. Tanksley. 1991. Construction of an RFLP map for barley (Hordeum vulgare
 L.). Genome 34:437-446.
 
 Kalb, D.W., G.C. Bergstrom, and M.E. Sorrells.  1991.  Effects of planting
 date, and foliar-and seed-applied fungicides on eyespot of winter wheat in a
 continuous wheat culture site with a history of foot rot diseases, 1990. 
 Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 46:207.
 
 Miller, N.R., G.C. Bergstrom, and S.M. Gray.  1991.  Identify, prevalence,
 and distribution of viral diseases of winter wheat in New York in 1988 and
 1989.  Plant Dis. 75:1105-1109.
 
 Minella E., and M.E. Sorrells. 1992. Aluminum tolerance in barley: Genetic
 relationships among genotypes of diverse origin.  Crop Sci. In Press.
 
 Paolillo, D.J., Jr., M.E. Sorrells, and G.J. Keyes. 1991. Gibberellic acid
 sensitivity determines the length of the extension zone in wheat leaves. 
 Ann. Bot. 67:479-485.
 
 Paterson, A.H., S.D. Tanksley, and M.E. Sorrells. 1991. DNA Markers in plant
 improvement. Adv. Agron. 46:40-90.
 
 Roder, M.S.,M.E. Sorrells, and S.D. Tanksley. 1992. 5S ribosomal gene
 clusters in wheat: pulsed field gel electrophoresis reveals a high degree of
 polymorphism. PNAS:In Press.
 
 Schilder, A.M.C. and G.C. Bergstrom.  1991.  Effects of wheat genotype,
 growth stage, and foliar disease severity on incidence of seed infection by
 Pyrenophora tritici-repentis.  Phytopathology 81:1146-1147.
 
 Schilder, A.M.C. and G.C. Bergstrom.  1992.  A low-cost spore trap for
 sampling at multiple field sites.  Phytopathology 82:247.
 
 Shah, D. and G.C. Bergstrom.  1991.  Extensive occurrence of seedborne
 Stagonospora nodorum in New York winter wheat.  Phytopathology 81:1146.
 
 Sorrells, M.E. 1991. New technologies and their application to wheat
 breeding in warmer areas. Wheat for the Non-Traditional Warmer Areas.
 UNDP/CIMMYT Intl. Conf. Iguazu Falls, Brazil, July 29-Aug. 3, 1990.
 
 Ueng, PP., R.M. Slay, E.A. Geiger, G. Shaner, A.L. Scharen, and G.C.
 Bergstrom.  1991.  RFLP maps in the fungus Stagonospora nodorum, a causal
 agent of wheat glume blotch disease.  Phytopathology 81:1229.
 
 Wu, K.K., W. Burnquist, M.E. Sorrells, T.L. Tew, P.H. Moore, and S.D.
 Tanksley. 1991. The detection and estimation of linkage in polyploids using
 single-dose restriction fragments. Theor. Appl. Genet. In Press.
 
 -------------------------
 NORTH CAROLINA
        
      North Carolina State University, Raleigh
           
      R.E. Jarrett,* S.Leath and J.P. Murphy
 
 
      PRODUCTION.  During the 1991 growing season, seeding was 90 percent
 complete by the end of November which was approximately three weeks earlier
 than in 1990. Temperatures were again above normal throughout the growing
 season, particularly January through May.  Rainfall was normal (25 inches)
 during the growing season (November-May). Management practices were
 implemented at the appropriate times. As usual, diseases were very
 prevalent. Powdery mildew was the most prevalent disease although leaf rust
 and glume blotch were evident as well. There was also a greater number of
 incidences with the Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus  occurring over the state.
 Harvesting occurred 7 to 10 days earlier than normal and was 90 percent
 complete by the end of June. Test weights were low to average, but not as
 low as in other areas of the Southeast.
 
      Production from the 1991 winter wheat crop was 19.2 million bushels, a
 decrease of 15 percent from last year's (1990) 22.55 million bushels. The
 total acreage harvested for grain was 480,000, a 13 percent decrease from
 the 550,000  acres harvested in 1990. The 1991 state average yield, was 40
 bushels per acre, only one less than last year. Wheat contributed
 approximately $50.9 million to the economy of North Carolina in 1991.
 
      Data from the USDA-ARS International Winter Wheat Powdery Mildew
 Program indicate that genes Pm4b and Pm17 remain effective in the Southeast. 
 Virulence to Pm1 is now widespread and virulent to Pm8 is increasing and it
 can no longer be considered effective.  No virulence to the recently
 developed lines carrying Pm12 and Pm16 has been detected.  
 
      Field studies concerning yield relationships between powdery mildew,
 leaf rust and wheat yields continue.  Population genetic studies with the
 powdery mildew fungus and a study to quantify somaclonal variation in soft
 wheat continue.
 
      PERSONNEL CHANGES:  Dr. K. L. Everts has left her post-doctoral
 position to join the program at Busch Agricultural Resources, Inc. as a
 plant pathologist; she has been replaced by Dr. C. Garcia, a recent graduate
 of Dr. David Marshall's program at Texas A&M.
 
                                REFERENCES:
 
 Bowen, K. L., Everts, K. L., and Leath, S.   1991.  Reduction in yield of
 winter wheat in North Carolina due to powdery mildew and leaf rust. 
 Phytopathology 81:503-511.
 
 Leath, S., Bruckner, P. L., and Wilson, J. P.  1991.  Reaction of winter oat
 germ plasm to an epidemic of oat powdery mildew.  Plant Dis. 75:807-809.
 
 Leath, S.  1991.  Screening the virulence of Erysiphe graminis DC, Ex Merat
 f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal in mobile nurseries.  Plant Prot. 42:21-31.
 
 -------------------------
 NORTH DAKOTA
 
      Crop & Weed Sciences Dept., North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND.
 
      E.M. Elias*, D.K. Steiger, O. Olmedo-Arcega, N. Nasrellah, A. Stancyk,
 and C.M. Rystedt
 
      1991 Durum Wheat Production.  North Dakota growers produced 88.4
 million bushels (2.4 million MT) of durum which was 85% of the total U.S.
 production.  Both the North Dakota and national production was down 15% from
 1990. The average yield of durum in 1991 was estimated to be 31 bu/A
 compared to an average yield of 34.0 bu/A in 1990.  Producers harvested 2.85
 million acres (1.54 million ha), a 9% decrease from 1990. 
 
      Weather conditions were favorable for timely planting and rainfall was
 adequate to above average for the main durum growing region of ND in 1991. 
 Disease pressure was relatively intense with tan spot (Pyrenophora
 tritici-repentis), scab (Fusarium spp.), septoria (Septoria nodorum), and
 bacterial stripe (Xanthomonas translucens) being the most prevalent.  Yields
 in the southeastern part of the state may have been affected by a moderate
 greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) infestation early in the growing
 season.  There were also localized moderate infestations of Hessian fly
 (Mayetiola destructor (Say)). 
 
      The 1991 survey of durum cultivars grown in North Dakota by percentage
 of acreage was as follows:  Monroe, 1985 ND release, 20%; Medora, 1984
 Canadian release, 17%; Renville, 1988 ND release, 15%; Vic, 1979 ND release,
 12%; Sceptre, 1985 Canadian release, 8%;  Rugby, 1973 ND release, 7%; Ward,
 1972 ND release, 5%; Cando, 1975 ND release, 4%; Fjord, 1987 Western Plant
 Breeders release, 4%; Crosby, 1973 ND release, 2%; and Laker, 1986 Western
 Plant Breeders release, 2%.  The cultivar Monroe has occupied the largest
 percentage of acreage for the past three years. 
 
      Langdon (dicoccoides) x Vic Population Study.  The durum project
 studied the potential of using Langdon (dicoccoides) [LDN(DIC)] substitution
 lines as parents for deriving lines with increased protein content and
 acceptable gluten strength.  The F4 and F5 lines derived from 14 populations
 developed by crossing each of the LDN(DIC) substitution lines to a common
 male parent VIC were evaluated at two locations in 1989 and 1991,
 respectively.  A base population LDN/VIC was also developed. 
 
 Parents and lines were grown in replicated trials and evaluated for yield,
 kernel weight, heading date, height, grain protein, and sedimentation
 volume. 
 
      The LDN and VIC parents had equivalent protein content but VIC had
 significantly greater sedimentation volume than LDN.  Three populations
 (those with DIC-5A, DIC-3B, and DIC-4B) were significantly higher yielding
 than the base population.  Populations were significantly shorter in height
 (except that with DIC-3A) and earlier in heading (except that with DIC-5B)
 than the mean of the base population.  Eight populations had mean kernel
 weights significantly greater than the base.  Two populations (those with
 DIC-7A, and DIC-1B) had mean sedimentation volumes significantly greater
 than the base but far less than VIC. Six of the populations had mean protein
 content significantly greater than the base population (Table 1) and all had
 lines with significantly greater protein content than the highest protein
 line of the base.  The level of genetic variance in populations
 LDN(DIC-5B/VIC and LDN(DIC-6B)/VIC versus the base indicates the use of
 LDN(DIC-5B) and LDN(DIC-6B) as parents may result in measurable gain from
 selection among derived lines for increased grain protein content.
 
 
 Table 1.  Mean protein content and genetic variance of populations with
 significantly greater grain protein than the base population and minimum &
 maximum performance of lines within populations evaluated at two locations
 in 1989 and 1991, respectively.
 
 
                Total
 Population    # of   Pop'n       Line Means    Genetic
 Pedigree      Lines Mean        Min.  Max.    Variance
  ----------------------------------------------------------
 LDN(1A)/VIC     47  15.82**     14.1 17.8   .13  +/- .04
 LDN(2A)/VIC     46  15.63*      14.0 17.7   .112 +/- .042
 LDN(3A)/VIC     47  15.68**     14.2 17.4   .08  +/- .043
 LDN(6A)/VIC     46  15.74**     12.6 17.3   .168 +/- .05
 LDN(5B)/VIC     32  15.88**     14.5 17.5   .213 +/- .053
 LDN(6B)/VIC     32  15.90**     14.1 18.0   .354 +/- .063
                          
 LDN/VIC          34 15.56       14.3 16.9   .088 +/- .052
                          
 Parent LDN          15.66       15.3 16.1 
 Parent VIC          15.47       15.3 16.0 
  ----------------------------------------------------------
 
      Recurrent selection for grain yield.  Nineteen semidwarf durum
 genotypes were intermated in a partial diallel in 1982 to initiate the base
 population.  Fifty-five randomly selected S3 lines each from C0, C1 and C2
 were evaluated at two locations in 1989.  A significant 6.5% increase in
 grain yield was observed from C0 to C2.  Plants were 4.4 cm taller whereas
 no changes occurred in days to heading.  Lines with high grain yield were
 recovered with higher frequency in C2 than in C0 or C1.  Mean grain yield of
 top 10% lines in C2 exceeded the highest yielding check (Table 2).  No
 reduction in genetic variability was observed, in fact, a significant amount
 of genetic variability was present in C2.  The genetic variability in this
 population should allow further development of high yielding semidwarf durum
 wheat cultivars.
 
 Table 2. Mean of selected agronomic traits for the top 10% of lines from
 cycle 0, 1 and 2 and checks of recurrent selection for grain yield.
 
                Grain     Days to    Plant 
 Cycle/checks   Yield     Heading   Height
                kg/ha     days        cm
  ----------------------------------------------
 CO              3248     56          73
 C1              3140     56          74
 C2              3519     56          78
 Cando           2833     56          64
 Lloyd           2988     58          67
 Laker           3406     57          72
 Yav-79          3184     55          62
  ----------------------------------------------
  
               Publications and presentations at meetings
 
 Cantrell, R.G., and L.R. Joppa.  1991.  Genetic analysis of quantitative
 traits in wild emmers (Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides).  Crop Sci.
 31:645-649.
 
 Joppa, L.R., and R.G. Cantrell.  1990.  Chromosomal location of genes for
 grain protein content of wild tetraploid wheat.  Crop Sci. 30:1059-1064.
 
 Joppa, L.R., G.A. Hareland, and R.G. Cantrell.  1991.  Quality
 characteristics of the Langdon durum-dicoccoides chromosome substitution
 lines.  Crop Sci. 31:1513-1517.
 
 Nsarellah, N., E.M. Elias, and R.G. Cantrell.  1991.  Relationship of growth
 stage and expression of tan spot in wheats.  Agron. Abstr. 83:108.
 
 Olmedo-Arcega, O., E.M. Elias, and R.G. Cantrell.  1991.  Recurrent
 selection for grain yield in durum wheat.  Agron. Abstr. 83:109.
 
 Steiger, D.K., E.M. Elias, L.R. Joppa, and R.G. Cantrell.  1991. Quality
 evaluation of lines derived from crosses of Langdon (T. dicoccoides)
 substitution lines to a common durum wheat.  Agron. Abstr. 83:117.
 
 ------------------------- 
 Cereal Science, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND
 
 B.L. D'Appolonia, K. Khan, C.E. McDonald, W.R. Moore, W. Pitz, Cereal
 Science and Food Technology; B. Donnelly, Northern Crops Institute; G.
 Hareland and L.A Grant, USDA/ARS Wheat Quality Laboratory.
 
      General Activities:  Foreign travel during 1991, was undertaken by Dr.
 Bert D'Appolonia, Dr. Vernon Youngs, Dr. Brendan Donnelly and Mr. Truman
 Olson representing the Department of Cereal Science and Food Technology.
 
      Dr.'s  D'Appolonia and Youngs travelled to Singapore in January of
 1991, to present a Cereal Chemistry Short Course to milling representatives
 from India, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand on behalf
 of U.S. Wheat Associates. 
 
      Mr. Truman Olson, Cereal Technologist in Cereal Science and Food
 Technology, participated in a number of seminars as a member of a crop
 quality team presenting information on the quality of the 1991 HRS and durum
 wheat crops in Japan, Korea and Taiwan.
 
      Dr. Brendan Donnelly, Director of the Northern Crops Institute,
 represented the Department of Cereal Science and Food Technology by
 presenting seminars as a member of the crop quality team in several European
 countries in November of 1991.
 
      Faculty and staff of the department by invitation participated in short
 courses presented by the Northern Crops Institute as well as giving
 presentations to numerous trade team delegations.
 
      A successful AACC short course entitled "Pasta and Durum Wheat Quality"
 directed by Mr. Jim Jacobs, Technical Director of the Northern Crops
 Institute was presented on behalf of the Cereal Science and Food Technology
 Department during April of 1991.
 
      Several new laboratories in the Harris Hall complex were occupied
 during 1991, including the dedication of a baking-teaching laboratory.
 
      Construction of a new Industrial Agriculture and Communications Center
 is underway, the third floor of which will house Industrial Agriculture
 research and the Food Science undergraduate program offered in the Cereal
 Science and Food Technology program.
 
      Three new staff and faculty appointments occurred in the department
 during 1991.  Dr. Wayne R. Moore has been named associate professor.  Moore
 has a Ph.D. from Kansas State University and will be engaged in hard red
 spring quality and research starches.  Walter Pitz was also named associate
 professor in the department.  Pitz has a Ph.D. from the University of
 Saskatchewan and will be engaged in durum wheat and pasta research.  William
 L. Robinson was named Milling Specialist in a three-way appointment
 including the Cereal Science and Food Technology Department, the Northern
 Crops Institute and the USDA Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality
 laboratory.
 
      Hard Red Spring and Hard Red Winter Wheat Research.  Department of
 Cereal Science and Food Technology continued to conduct evaluations of hard
 red spring (HRS) and hard red winter (HRW) wheats.  The majority of
 evaluations were performed on a macro scale (Buhler- or Brabender Quad Sr.
 and 100 g flour bake evaluations) or micro scale (Brabender Quad Jr. and 25
 g flour bake test) and the requisite chemical and physical dough analyses to
 adequately evaluate wheat and flour quality.  Macro testing was performed on
 23 HRS wheat flour samples for the Spring Wheat Quality Advisory Council and
 11 hard red winter (HRW) wheat samples for the Wheat Quality Council.  Large
 scale testing of 30 HRS and 117 HRW samples from the plant breeding program
 was completed.  Small scale quality evaluation was performed on 481 HRS and
 272 HRW samples from wheat breeders.  Protein evaluations were conducted on
 more than 1000 wheat samples grown at off-site locations in conjunction with
 the various agriculture experiment stations.  Falling number evaluations
 were conducted on approximately 148, early generation materials for plant
 breeders. 
 
      The Department of Cereal Science and Food Technology conducted the
 four-state regional HRS wheat crop quality survey.  More than 1300 samples
 were collected throughout the region and utilized for the analysis.  A
 summary is provided below.
 
      The HRS cargo sampling program evaluated 40 export cargos from ports of
 Duluth/Superior, Pacific Northwest, and the Gulf Coast.   An additional 148
 cargo sublots were tested for U.S. Wheat Associates.  The results of the
 cargo sampling projects were prepared, published and distributed
 periodically.  
 
 1991 Wheat Quality Summary
 
 Hard Red Spring Wheat
 
      Considerable variation in moisture and growing conditions was observed
 throughout the four-state region this year.  Spring wheat planting was
 initiated earlier than long term average planting dates.  Timely rainfall
 during and after planting generally improved soil moisture conditions
 throughout the region.  The weather pattern could be characterized as warmer
 than normal and more rainfall than normal.  Certain areas that had adequate
 to surplus moisture while others remained dryer than average.
 
      The USDA estimated (October, 1991) the 1991 regional (Montana, North
 Dakota,  South Dakota and Minnesota) production of hard red spring wheat to
 be 407.2 million bushels (11.0 million metric tons).  Estimated average
 yield for the 1991 crop for the region was approximately 31 bushels per
 acre, or 2.05 metric tons/hectare, which was also lower than the 1990 crop. 
 Average 1991 crop test weight for the region was 59.7 pounds per bushel
 which was 1.2 pounds/bushel lower than last year.  Approximately 71 percent
 of the 1991 hard red spring wheat crop was graded U.S. No. 2 Northern Spring
 or better, down from 83 % in the 1990 crop year.  Wheat protein content
 averaged 14.5 percent (12.0 percent moisture basis) for the four-state
 region.  Some crop reporting districts received high rainfall levels and
 were subject to disease related problems such as scab.  These areas were
 generally isolated and not representative of the overall crop quality. 
 Average wheat falling number values (389 seconds) were indicative of a
 generally sound crop with little sprout damage.  Flour extraction and flour
 ash, as determined no the Buhler experimental mill, were equivalent to the
 1990 crop.  Farinogram peak viscosity was lower and mixing tolerance was
 slightly weaker than the 1990 crop.  Baking properties for the 1991 hard red
 spring wheat crop are considered good to very good.  Dough handling was good
 to very good for most of the flours evaluated.  Loaf volume, grain and
 texture, and both crumb and crust color values were equivalent to their
 respective five-year average values.
 
      Durum Wheat.  Cereal Science and Food Technology conducted the eleventh
 consecutive regional (Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota)
 durum crop quality survey.  Total durum production in this region was
 estimated to be 97.7 million bushels (2.6 million metric tons),
 approximately 94 percent of the U.S. total.  Total of durum harvested was
 down 14 percent compared to the 1990 crop.  
 
      Grade quality determination, based on physical appearance and grading
 factors, of the 1991 crop from the four-state region found 36 percent of the
 crop graded U.S. No. 1 hard amber Durum (HAD).  Seventy-four graded No. 3
 HAD, or better.  Additional grain quality factors evaluated included test
 weight (60.0 lbs/bu) vitreous kernels (91 percent), dockage (0.8 percent),
 thousand kernel weights (35.6 g) and total defects (2.8 percent).  High
 average falling number values (381 seconds) indicated little, if any  sprout
 damage. Regions of Minnesota and South Dakota received environmental
 conditions detrimental to wheat crop quality.  Quality evaluations from
 these limited areas were lower
 than the four-state quality averages.  Overall quality of the 1991 durum
 wheat crop from the northern four-state region was very good.
 
      Average semolina extraction, as obtained using a modified Buhler
 experimental mill, was 59.2 percent, down compared to the 1990 value (60.8
 percent). Speck counts averaged higher than the 1990 crop, however, the
 color of spaghetti was exceptionally good.  Spaghetti firmness was greater
 than last year and the overall cooking quality was rated very good. 
 
      Basic Research Studies.  Studies were underway in 1991 to study the
 end-use potential of ND643, a high protein hard red spring wheat derived
 from crosses of HRS wheat, Len and RL4352-1 with a high protein donor,
 Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides.  ND643 has a protein content of three
 percentage points high on the average than its HRS wheat parental genotype.
 
      A study is in progress to investigate the utilization of durum wheat in
 breadmaking.  The objectives of this study are to determine the difference
 in the chemical, rheological and baking properties of durum flour, durum
 first clear flour, semolina and bread flour and investigate the changes in
 baking quality by replacing part of the bread flour with durum flour, durum
 first clear flour and semolina and to improve the properties of bread by
 using certain additives.
 
      A collaborative study was initiated with the All-Union Research
 Institute of Grain and Grain Products, Moscow, U.S.S.R. for the comparison
 of wheat grain and flour gluten quantity and quality determination methods. 
 Methods employed include ICC Standard No. 137 and U.S.S.R. for the
 determination of gluten quality and quantity.
 Studies on the inheritance of the protein components of a high protein HRS
 wheat line, ND-643, derived from crosses with T. dicoccoides were continued. 
 Results from SDS-PAGE, semi-preparative RP-HPLC and amino acid composition
 studies indicated that ND-643 inherited most of its gliadin proteins from T.
 dicoccoides while its glutenin proteins were inherited from its HRS wheat
 parents Len and RL-4352-1 (a selection of Columbus for rust resistance).
 
      Studies on the hydrophobic properties of the acetic acid soluble
 glutenins were continued.  Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC)
 indicated that HRS wheats of good breadmaking quality contained more
 hydrophobic proteins.  Analysis by HIC also indicated that the high
 molecular weight (HMW) subunits 8, 9, 10, and 12 had lower surface
 hydrophobicity than HMW subunits 1, 2, 2*, 5, and 10.
 
      Gel electrophoresis was used to purify two genotypes of the HRS wheat
 cultivar "Marshall".  These genotypes are being propagated by Dr. R.
 Frohberg, Crop and Weed Science Dept., North Dakota State University.
 
      A number of HRS wheat cultivars and lines of similar protein content,
 but diverse milling and baking quality are being investigated with respect
 to their HMW and low molecular weight (LMW) glutenin subunit compositions. 
 The majority of these wheats contain identical HMW subunit composition.
 
 
                                Publications
 
 Khan, K. Huckle, L. and Jones, B.L. 1991. Inheritance of the gluten protein
 components of a high protein hare red spring wheat line derived from
 Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides - semipreparative RP-HPLC, gel
 electrophoresis and amino acid composition studies.  Cereal Chem. In press.
 
 Figueroa, J.D.C. and Khan, K. 1991. The relationship of bromate requirement
 and sugar in breadmaking and implications in loaf volume potential of HRS
 wheat flours. Cereal Chem. 68:284.
 
 Aktam, B. and Khan, K. 1991 Effects of high temperature drying of pasta on
 quality parameters and on solubility, gel electrophoresis and reversed phase
 - high performance liquid chromatography of protein components. Cereal Chem.
 In press.
 
 Boyacioglu, M.H., Youngs, V.L., Khan, K. and D'Appolonia, B.L. 1991. A
 comparison of durum wheats grown in Turkey and in the United States.  Pasta
 J. Sept./Oct. p 24.
 
 -------------------------
 OHIO
      Ohio State University/ Ohio Agricultural Research and Development
 Center
 
      H. N. Lafever, W. A. Berzonsky, R. W. Gooding, L. D. Herald, R. J.
 Minyo, Jr., and T. L. Hoover
 
      Personnel Changes:  Dr. Howard Lafever retired as Soft Red Winter Wheat
 Breeder at the end of 1991.  Dr. William Berzonsky is currently serving as
 the SRWW Breeder in his capacity as Senior Researcher.
 
      1991 SRWW Production.    In 1991, an estimated 53.9 million bushels of
 wheat were produced in Ohio on 1.1 million acres (Ohio Ag. Statistics
 Service).  Acres harvested were down approximately 250,000 resulting in a
 reduction in production of 25.75 million bushels from 1990.  The state-wide
 average yield was 49 bu/a, an average of 10 bu/a less than in 1990.  Reduced
 production and yield was in large part due to the hot, dry spring and summer
 which shortened the wheat growing season in Ohio.  Despite the reduced
 state-wide yield, Ohio wheat quality was generally acceptable since most of
 the state essentially avoided a severe scab epidemic which was prevalent in
 surrounding states.
 
      New Varieties.    'Freedom' wheat (formerly OH 413) and 'GR 915'
 (formerly OH 394) were approved for release in 1991.  Freedom was released
 as a public variety and carries a 1RS/1BL 'Kavkaz' rye/wheat chromosome
 translocation.  'GR 915' was released to the Agricultural Genetic Research
 Association.
 
      Winter Durum Wheat Breeding.    The Ohio Winter Durum Wheat Breeding
 Project entered into its third year of existence in 1991.  Approximately 91
 winter x winter and 50 winter x spring durum wheat hybridizations were made. 
 Average yield for the best winter durums was 54% of the SRWW checks. 
 Powdery mildew and Septoria diseases were less severe on Ohio durum wheats
 in 1991, despite a general lack of genetic resistance within the winter
 durum germplasm.
 
      Cytogenetics.    Forty-two-chromosome plants derived from a cross
 between tetraploid 'Canthatch' and 'Atlas 66' were tested for tolerance to
 aluminum.  Results suggest that the A and/or B-genome chromosomes of Atlas
 66 may carry a gene or genes for tolerance to aluminum.  A backcrossing
 scheme is being continued to develop a tetraploid Atlas 66 to further
 examine the genetic mechanism of aluminum tolerance in this variety. 
 Advanced breeding lines are being examined for the presence of rye/wheat
 chromosome translocations.  We continue to proceed with studies designed to
 induce specific rye/wheat chromosome translocations and to determine the
 effects of such translocations on important agronomic characteristics.
 
                                Publications
 
 Berzonsky, W. A., R. L. Clements, and H. N. Lafever. 1991. Identification of
 'Amigo' and 'Kavkaz' translocations in Ohio soft red winter wheats (Triticum
 aestivum L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 81: 629-634.
 
 -------------------------
 OKLAHOMA
 
    Agronomy Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater
 
    E. L. Smith, G. H. Morgan, D. L. Jones, R. J. Sidwell - Breeding and
 Production
 
    Production.  An estimated 5.0 million acres of wheat were harvested for
 grain in Oklahoma.  The state average yield was 28.0 Bu/A, which is 2.2 Bu/A
 below the 1986-1990 average.  Total grain production for 1991 was 140.0
 million bushels.  In 1991 some 32% of the planted acreage was diverted or
 abandoned as compared to 16% for last year.  Wheat production statistics for
 the past 5 years are shown below.
 
 
      Harvested acreage     Yield       Production (Bu)
 Year   X 1,000,000          Bu/A         X 1,000,000
  --------------------------------------------------------
 1987      4.8                27.0          129.6
 1988      4.8                36.0          172.8
 1989      5.7                27.0          153.9
 1990      6.3                32.0          201.6
 1991      5.0                28.0          140.0
  --------------------------------------------------------
 
    Performance Test.  Our 1991 wheat performance test was composed of five
 hybrids (HybriTech), 16 private semidwarf pureline cultivars, 17 public
 cultivars, and 2 long-term checks.  Data are reported from 6 locations in
 the state.  These locations were Tonkawa, Lahoma, Stillwater, Cordell,
 Goodwell-dryland, and Goodwell,irrigated.  The test at Altus was abandoned
 due to severe storm damage.  The test at Woodward was not reported due to
 non-uniform drought stress and hail damage.  SBMV was a factor at Stillwater
 and Tonkawa.  Drought and WSMV were evident at Lahoma.  Averaged over the 6
 locations, the private varieties as a group outfielded the hybrids as a
 group and the public varieties as a group.  In fact, the top five best
 yielders across locations were all private semidwarf varieties.  Tomahawk
 and Mesa (AgriPro) ranked first and second with yields of 52.6 and 51.9
 Bu/A, respectively.  The best hybrid in the test, Q598, ranked seventh with
 a yield of 50.2 Bu/A.  Yields of different groups of hybrids and pureline
 varieties are presented below.
 
 
                               Yield in %     Yld in % 4%    Yield in % of
                  Avg Yield     of 17 Public   of 5 Best        2 Long-term
 Group          (Bu/A)(Kg/ha)  Varieties      Varieties        Chk Varieties
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Hybri-Tech 
 Hybrids(5)      47.1  3168       106           91                113
 
 Private 
 Varieties(16)   49.1  3302       110           95                117
 
 Public 
 Varieties(17)   44.5  2993       110           86                106
 
 Best 
 5 Varieties(5)  51.6  3471       116          100                123
    
 Long-term 
 Checks(2)       41.8  2811        94           81                100
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Grazing Potential of Wheat.  Grower interest in grazing and grain (dual
 purpose) wheats varieties remains at a high level in the state, and we are
 giving this a higher priority in our breeding program.  In addition to
 conducting visual estimates of grazing potential in our performance trials
 and breeding nurseries (on a scale of 1 to 5, which takes into account semi-
 erect juvenile growth habit and amount of top growth), we have initiated a
 replicated clipping study at Stillwater of potentially promising dual
 purpose varieties and advanced lines.  Preliminary results from the first
 clipping (1-10-92) indicate promising fall forage production for the
 following genotypes:  Longhorn (AgriPro), OK88767 (Oklahoma), Karl (Kansas),
 2157 (Kansas) and TAM 109 (Texas).  The clipping trial and juvenile growth
 evaluation system will be continued next year.
 
       Kernel Hardness Study.  The objectives were to examine kernel hardness
 levels of the Oklahoma wheat breeding lines and to study the relationship of
 kernel hardness with important milling and baking characteristics. 
 Information on kernel hardness would impact breeding strategies in the
 Oklahoma program.  Based on NIR kernel hardness values over two locations in
 1989 and 1990, the range in hardness for 24 advanced strains was 50.0 to
 76.1 units.  The range in hardness for 33 lines in the intermediate tests
 was 45.6 to 90.1 units.  Kernel hardness was positively correlated with
 flour yield but negatively correlated with mixing time and specific
 sedimentation.  Results of this study do not support the assumption that NIR
 hardness could be used to predict baking quality values; rather, it is
 suggested that good quality HRW wheats can be found within a wide range of
 hardness value (E. Smith and E. Olmedo-Arcega). 
 
 -------------------------
      Plant Pathology Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater
 
      R. M. Hunger*, J. L. Sherwood*, R. E. Pennington, C. K. Evans, and J.
 R. Montana
 
      Tan spot.  A procedure was developed that allows production of nearly-
 pure conidial suspensions of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis.  The use of a
 nearly-pure suspension of conidia will facilitate studies involving this
 pathogen because the effects of other infective units (i.e. aerial hyphae
 and conidiophores) are significantly reduced.  -  Evans and Hunger
 
      The reactions of entries in the 1992 Southern Regional Performance
 nursery to tan spot were determined in the greenhouse by measuring the
 largest lesions formed on leaves following inoculation with conidia of P.
 tritici-repentis.  Results from two tests demonstrated that entries 10
 (TX88V5440; Karl Resel.), 15 (TX88V5433; Karl Resel.), 23 (KS831374-142;
 Karl sib), 24 [KS84170E-8-3; Hawk/(Pkg16/Lov13//Jgw13)//TAM108], and the
 check Red Chief had the greatest resistance to tan spot.  The complete
 results from these tests will be presented at the Second International Tan
 Spot Workshop at Fargo, ND from June 25-27, 1992.  -  Evans and Hunger
 
 
      Wheat soilborne mosaic virus.  The reactions of entries in the 1991
 Southern Regional Performance nursery and the USDA Soilborne Mosaic Nursery
 to wheat soilborne mosaic virus (WSBMV) were determined in the field using
 symptomatology and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).  Results
 from both nurseries should be published in the 1991 USDA-ARS report that
 summarizes results from testing cooperative nurseries, and also were
 submitted for publication in the 1992 edition of Biological and Cultural
 Tests for Control of Plant Diseases (volume 7, American Phytopathological
 Society Press).  -  Hunger, Sherwood, and Pennington
 
      A field study to characterize the mechanism of resistance to WSBMV is
 in progress.  Initial results obtained by ELISA indicate that virus becomes
 established in the roots of resistant (Hawk and Newton) and susceptible
 (Vona and Sage) cvs.  Spread of virus to the foliage, however, appears to be
 delayed or inhibited in resistant cvs indicating that resistance may be due
 to inhibition of systemic virus movement.  A polymerase chain reaction-based
 assay has been developed to detect individually the large and small
 particles of WSBMV, and is being used to further characterize virus spread
 in resistant and susceptible cvs.  -  Pennington, Sherwood, and Hunger
 
      Wheat streak mosaic virus.  Studies documenting the effect of planting
 date, time of infection, and the effect of grazing on incidence of wheat
 streak mosaic are continuing.  -  Montana, Hunger, and Sherwood
 
      Personnel changes.  Dr. Francis J. Gough, USDA-ARS, retired from the
 USDA effective January 1, 1992.  Dr. Gough and his wife Ruby plan to remain
 in Stillwater for most of 1992, but will eventually move to Alabama to enjoy
 their retirement.  Dr. Rodney E. Pennington was hired in January, 1991, as a
 postdoctoral/senior research specialist to investigate mechanisms of
 resistance to WSBMV.  Dr. Pennington received his Ph.D. in biochemistry at
 Oklahoma State University in 1991.
 
                                Publications
 
 Evans, C. K., and Hunger, R. M.  1991.  An improved method to produce
 conidial suspensions of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis.  Phytopathology
 81:1238.
 
 Farih, A., Gough, F. J., Hunger, R. M., and Montana, J. R.  1991.  Effect of
 surfactants and wheat leaf leachate on production, germination, and
 infectivity of Septoria tritici conidia.  Phytopathology 81:811.
 
 Hunger, R. M., Sherwood, J. L., and Smith, E. L.  1991.  Identification of
 wheat resistant to wheat soilborne mosaic virus.  Proceedings of Symposium
 on Plant Breeding, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, March 10-
 14, 1991, 86 pp.
 
 Hunger, R. M., Sherwood, J. L., Smith, E. L., and Armitage, C. R.  1991. 
 Symptomatology and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to facilitate
 breeding for resistance to wheat soilborne mosaic virus. Crop Sci. 31:900-
 905.
 
 Hunger, R. M., and Siegerist, W. C.  1991.  Reaction of winter wheat to leaf
 rust, 1990.  Biological and Cultural Tests for Control of Plant Diseases
 6:71.
 
 Sherwood, J. L., Hunger, R. M., Keyser, G. C., and Myers, L. D.  1990. 
 Production of a monoclonal antibody for evaluation of hard red winter wheat
 cultivars to wheat streak mosaic virus.  Food and Agricultural Immunology
 2:155-161.
 
 Sherwood, J. L., Myers, L. D., and Hunger, R. M.  1991.  Replication and
 movement of wheat soilborne mosaic virus (WSBMV) in hard red winter wheat. 
 Phytopathology 81:1216.
 
 -------------------------
      Plant Science Research Laboratory, USDA, Agricultural Research Service,
 Stillwater, OK
 
      C.A. Baker, J.D. Burd, R.L. Burton, N.C. Elliott, F.J. Gough, E. Levy,
 D.R. Porter, D.K. Reed, J.A. Webster                      
 
      Russian Wheat Aphid Research.  The Russian wheat aphid (RWA) continues
 to be the focus of research activities at Stillwater.  The cumulative
 economic loss attributed to RWA now exceeds $657 million, with over $70
 million being spent on control, $250 million in lost production, and $325
 million in additional lost economic activity to local communities (Massey
 and Amosson, 1991).
 
      Plant damage. Comparative analyses of in vivo chlorophyll and
 chlorophyll fluorescence using susceptible (Tam W-101) and tolerant (PI
 372129) wheat lines has revealed that both the amount of chlorophyll and the
 relative efficiency of extant chlorophyll is significantly diminished in the
 susceptible entry.  Total chlorophyll and chloroplast functional integrity
 were not impacted in the tolerant wheat.  Moreover, chlorophyll a:b ratios
 were significantly reduced in the susceptible wheat, suggesting that
 substantial damage to photosystem II occurred.  Analysis of chlorophyll
 fluorescence transients indicated that electron transport from photosystem
 II to photosystem I was disrupted in the susceptible wheat and may be
 attributable to the loss or dysfunction of the primary acceptor (Q(A)) pool.
 (Burd)
 
      Biological control. Tests continued on the interactions among various
 wheat and grass entries, either resistant or susceptible to the RWA, and it
 was confirmed that plant entries with antibiosis as the mode of resistance,
 whether wheat or wheatgrass, conferred a detrimental effect on Diaretiella
 rapae, the braconid parasitoid used in the experiments.  Further testing is
 being done on long-term associations of the host, pest, and parasitoid, as
 well as field research in caged situations, and tritrophic effects of those
 entries on fungal pathogens of the aphid.
 
      Field releases of several exotic parasitoids and predators were made in
 Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, and Nebraska in the spring.  Releases made into
 cages were more successful than open field releases, but evaluation of
 recovery will not be made until the spring of 1992.
 
      Experiments were conducted to determine the potential of selected RWA
 parasitoids to overwinter in various locations throughout the Great Plains. 
 None of the parasitoids overwintered successfully in South Dakota, but all
 species tested overwintered in Kansas and Oklahoma.  The suitability of
 several aphids common to the Great Plains as hosts for exotic parasitoids
 and predators is being investigated.  Results of these studies may lead to
 methods for selecting sites to release natural enemies that improve chances
 for successful establishment. (Elliott, Reed)                          
 
      Host plant resistance and germplasm enhancement. To date, over 10,000
 wheat lines have been evaluated for RWA resistance.  As previously reported
 (AWN 1991), over 400 RWA-resistant lines were identified, and continued
 screening has resulted in the identification of additional sources of
 resistance.  We will continue to screen the wheat collection in a systematic
 manner in order to identify as many different sources of resistance as
 possible.  A core collection of 29 RWA-resistant lines was established. 
 These selections have useful levels of resistance; few have acceptable
 agronomic traits.  Each of the 29 selections in this core collection was
 hybridized with adapted RWA-susceptible wheat cultivars; BC1 seed, F2
 populations, and F3 families have been produced; genetic analysis of this
 material will determine the inheritance of RWA resistance in these lines. 
 In order to determine if these 29 selections carry different genes for RWA
 resistance, crosses were made between as many lines as possible; F2
 populations will be screened for RWA resistance.
 
      Mechanisms of resistance of PI 140207 (a RWA-resistant spring wheat)
 were determined.  Antibiosis and a moderate level of tolerance both appear
 to play a role in the resistance reaction.  The size, weight, and
 developmental time of 2nd generation aphids produced on PI 140207 were all
 detrimentally affected.
 
      Uniform segregants within several F4 families derived from a cross
 between Bobwhite (a RWA-susceptible spring wheat cultivar) and PI 149898 (a
 RWA-resistant wheat accession) were identified and are being increased for
 release as a source of RWA resistance for cultivar development.
 
      The development of greenbug-resistant wheat germplasm continued in
 1991.  The new source of resistance to biotype G, which also confers
 resistance to biotypes B, C, E, and I, is now available as germplasm release
 GRS 1201.  The release announcement will be circulated in 1992, and seed
 requests can be made through the Plant Science Research Laboratory,
 Stillwater.  Biotype H is now being used to systematically screen for new
 sources of resistance in wheat and related species. (Baker, Porter, Webster)
 
      Wheat pathology. An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens
 (PFM2), identified as 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, at 50 micro-g/ml inhibited
 growth, in vitro, of fungal plant pathogens Pyrenophora tritici-repentis,
 Pythium irregulare, Sclerotinia rolfsii, and Septoria tritici; and of
 bacterial plant pathogens Clavibacter m. michiganense, Erwinia c.
 carotovera, Pseudomonas solanacearum, and Xanthomonas c. phaseoli.  Growth
 of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum and of the bacterium Agrobacterium
 tumefaciens was not significantly reduced.  Two other antibiotics produced
 by P. fluorescens were not fully characterized.  (Gough, Levy)
 
      Personnel Changes. Dr. Francis Gough retired from the USDA-ARS in
 January 1991 after a productive and very distinguished career.  Francis will
 be moving to Alabama as soon as he can sell his house in Stillwater.  Dr.
 Helen Belefant joined the staff at the Plant Science Research Laboratory as
 a Research Associate.  Dr. Belefant will be working on the physiological and
 biochemical basis of RWA resistance in barley.  Dr. Edna Levy completed her
 work at Stillwater and has returned to Israel.  
 
 
                                Publications
 
 Baker, C.A., J.A. Webster, and D.R. Porter. 1991. Characterization of a
 Russian wheat aphid-resistant hexaploid wheat plant introduction - PI
 140207. Agron. Abstr. p. 86.
 
 Bechere, E., E.L. Smith, F.J. Gough, and O.G. Merkle. 1991. Genetics of stem
 rust resistance in the durum wheat accession "Reichenbachii". Euphytica
 53:103-106.
 
 Burton, R.L., D.R. Porter, C.A. Baker, J.A. Webster, J.D. Burd, and G.J.
 Puterka.  1991. Breeding wheat for resistance to aphids, pp. 203-213. IN:
 Saunders, D.A. (ed.) Wheat for Non-traditional Warm Areas. CIMMYT.
 
 Elliott, N. C.  1991.  Biological control of the Russian wheat aphid, pp. 3-
 5.  Proc. Wheat Technology Conference: Focus on the Russian Wheat Aphid,
 Chappel and Kimball, Nebraska, February 27-28, 1991.
 
 Farih, A., F.J. Gough, R.M. Hunger, and J.R. Montana. 1991. Effect of
 surfactants and wheat leaf leachate on production, germination, and
 infectivity of Septoria tritici conidia. Phytopathology 81:811.
 
 Friebe, B., J.H. Hatchett, B.S. Gill, Y. Mukai, and E.E. Sebesta. 1991.
 Transfer of Hessian fly resistance from rye to wheat via radiation-induced
 terminal and intercalary chromosomal translocations. Theor. Appl. Genet.
 83:33-40.
 
 Holmes, R.S., R.L. Burton, J.D. Burd, and J.D. Ownby. 1991. Effect of
 greenbug (Homoptera:Aphididae) feeding on carbohydrate levels in wheat. J.
 Econ. Entomol.  84:897-901.
 
 Levy, E., and F.J. Gough. 1991. Biocontrol of Septoria tritici by
 fluorescent pseudomonas. Phytopathology 81:1178. Merkle, O.G., J.A. Webster,
 K.J. Starks, and E.L. Smith. 1991. Registration of yellow sugarcane aphid-
 tolerant wheat germplasm YSCA-1. Crop Sci. 31:1394.
 
 Porter, D.R., C.A. Baker, R. Veal, and D. Mornhinweg. 1991. Russian wheat
 aphid resistance germplasm enhancement, p. 274. IN: Peters, D.C....(eds)
 Aphid-Plant Interactions:Populations to Molecules. Proc.Int. Aphid Symp.,
 Okla. State Univ. MP-132.
 
 Porter, D.R., J.A. Webster, R.L. Burton, G.J. Puterka, and E.L. Smith. 1991.
 Detection of greenbug biotype G resistance in wheat. Agron. Abstr. p. 112.
 
 Porter, D.R., J.A. Webster, R.L. Burton, G.J. Puterka, and E.L. Smith. 1991.
 New sources of resistance to greenbug in wheat. Crop Sci. 31:1502-1504.
 
 Reed, D. K., J. A. Webster, B. G. Jones, and J. D. Burd.  1991.  Tritrophic
 relationships of Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae), a
 hymenopterousn parasitoid (Diaretiella rapae McIntosh), and resistant and
 susceptible small grains.  Biol. Control 1:35-41.
 
 Webster, J.A. 1991. Developing aphid-resistant cultivars, pp. 59-69.
 IN:Peters, D.C....(eds.) Aphid-Plant Interactions: Populations to Molecules.
 Proc. Int. Aphid Symp., Okla. State Univ. MP-132.
 
 Weeks, J.T., A.C. Guenzi, and D.R. Porter. 1991. Protein synthesis in wheat
 callus tissue exposed to low water potentials. Agron. Abstr. p. 202.
 
 -------------------------
 OREGON
 
      R. S. Karow*
 
     Production.  Wheat was harvested from 846,000 Oregon acres in 1991 in
 comparison to 968,000 acres in 1990.  The ten-year acreage average is 1.05
 million.  Average yield was 51.9 bu/a, down 7.6 bu from the 1990 figure of
 59.5 bu/a. Farm programs, including CRP, and an extreme cold snap the end of
 December 1990 lead to lower acreage.  Winter wheat seedings were lost due to
 cold weather in some areas.    While precipitation levels have been below
 normal for the last four years as a whole, unusual late spring and summer
 rains fell across many dryland production areas.  As a result, yield levels
 were near normal.  In areas not receiving rains, crop yield and quality was
 poor.
 
     Irrigated production areas across the state faced water shortages in
 1990-91 and worse conditions are anticipated in 1992 .  Growers in irrigated
 areas have tended to focus water resources on higher value crops and grain
 yields have suffered as a result. 
 
     As a result of late rains and winter injury, disease pressure was higher
 than normal.  Stripe rust, Septoria, powdery mildew, strawbreaker foot rot
 and a non-pathologic leaf spot were concerns in some areas.  Fusarium foot
 rot and Cephalosporium stripe were also commonly found.  Crop quality varied
 significantly.  In areas receiving late rains, quality was good and protein
 levels low - 8 to 10%.  In areas with precipitation shortages, test weights
 were lower and protein levels above 10.5%.  Protein values on a statewide
 basis ranged from 6.3 to 16.1% for soft white wheat with an average near
 10.5%.  Sales of protein specified soft white wheat have been made.
 
     Three winter wheat cultivar releases were made by OSU in 1991.  "Gene"
 is an awnless, short-statured, early maturing common soft white with
 Septoria tritici resistance. Gene was released by the Cereal Breeding
 Project lead by Warren Kronstad. "MacVicar" is an awned, mid-season,
 mid-height common soft white with excellent yield potential in the irrigated
 production region of SE Oregon and SW Idaho. MacVicar was developed by Matt
 Kolding.  ORCR8313 is a hard red winter wheat with excellent yield potential
 across Oregon.  It is an awned, early maturing, mid-height cultivar.  It was
 developed by Warren Kronstad and members of his cereal breeding project.
 
 ------------------------- 
      Oregon State University - Wheat Breeding and Genetics.
 
      C.S. Love, D.K. Kelly, R.W. Knight, W.E. Kronstad*, M.D. Moore, S.E.
 Rowe, N.H. Scott, M.C. Verhoeven 
 
     1991 Crop Conditions.  The 1991 winter wheat crop emerged well
 throughout the state despite limited moisturein some regions.  Late spring
 rains in the North Central area of the state alleviated moisture stress with
 average or above average yields being realized.  A late December cold period
 severely damaged stands throughout the state, resulting in losses in much of
 the winter wheat growing region. Germplasm developed in the wheat breeding
 program for use in short-season regions of the world is derived from spring
 x winter crosses selected for earliness and winter-type.  The winter
 hardiness of this germplasm, as well as germplasm derived from winter x
 winter crosses and selectedfor adaptation to the Pacific Northwest, is often
 unknown since damaging low winter temperatures occur infrequently in
 Oregon, making selection for cold tolerance difficult. This rare freeze
 enabled an evaluation of the low temperatureresponse of the breeding
 material including parental lines, segregating populations and advanced
 breeding lines.  A prolonged, cool wet spring provided excellent conditions
 for the development of powdery mildew.  Other diseases causing damage to the
 wheat crop included septoria tritici blotch, strawbreaker foot rot, and
 stripe rust.
     Breeding.  Efforts in the breeding program continue to emphasize disease
 resistance.  Gene, an awnless, early-maturing, semi-dwarf soft white winter
 wheat with excellent resistance to septoria tritici blotch, was released in
 1991.  Gene has good resistance to stripe and leaf rust, but is susceptible
 to septoria nodorum blotch.  Although this line is best adapted to areas in
 which extreme winter hardiness is not required, it has yielded well across
 all testinglocations in the state.  Breeding efforts also focus on dwarf
 bunt (TCK) resistance. Initial screening of segregating populations using
 four races of the common bunt fungus is conducted each year.  The selected
 common bunt races identify resistant genes Bt 5,8,9,10.  Resistant lines are
 included in replicated yield trials and planted near Flora, Oregon in the
 extreme northeastern corner of the state.  In 1991, the entries in the yield
 trial were also treated with three levels of the seed treatment Dividend
 (Ciba-Geigy).  Disease severity data indicate that Dividend provides 100%
 control of dwarf bunt.  The breeding line OR 880494 (OR7946/Hill//Hill)
 out-yielded the resistant check Lewjain, and had very low disease incidence
 in the absence of seed treatment.
 
      In the international wheat germplasm enhancement program a shuttle
 breeding approach has been established between Oregon State University,
 CIMMYT (Mexico and Turkey), and ICARDA (Syria).  Selected F3 winter and
 facultative lines are selected in Oregon and sent to the international
 centers for additional cycles of selection and subsequent inclusion in
 international screening nurseries.  Promising lines are also recycled back
 to Toluca, Mexico and Corvallis, Oregon for developing single or top
 crosses, as part of the overall probing of winter and spring gene pools to
 enhance genetic variability.
 
                             Theses Completed
 
 Bruzzone, C. 1991. Bridging upland-irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) gene
 pools via anther culture.  Ph.D. Thesis.
 Oregon State University.
 
 Costa, J. 1990. Possible association of grain protein content, harvest index
 and biological yield in winter wheat
 populations.  Ph.D. Thesis. Oregon State University.
 
 Encinas-Mungarro, A. 1991. Assessment of genetic resistance to strawbreaker
 foot rot (Pseudocercosporella
 herpotrichoides) in selected winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.
 Ph.D. Thesis. Oregon State University.
 
 Wang, S. 1990. Influence of planting density on spike size and grain yield
 in five winter wheat cultivars. M.S. Thesis.
 Oregon State University.
 
 ------------------------- 
      Club Wheat Breeding Program, Columbia Basin Agricultural, Research
 Center, Pendleton.
 
      P.K. Zwer*  , D.L. Sutherland, and S.D. Dunnagan
 
     Winter club wheat is a significant albeit small class of wheat produced
 in the Pacific Northwest (PNW).  Club wheat is primarily grown in regions
 with fallow/wheat rotations characterized by low rainfall and shallow soils.
 The region encompasses northcentral/eastern Oregon as well as
 southcentral/eastern Washington.  The emphasis of the breeding program is to
 develop club wheat cultivars possessing disease and insect resistance, yield
 potential competitive with common wheat cultivars, and superior milling and
 baking qualities. 
 
     Disease and Insect Resistance.  The early generation populations and
 headrows were inoculated with Puccinia striiformis, collected from the field
 at Pendleton.  A uniform infection resulted from the inoculation.  Heads
 were selected from resistant plants in F2 populations and head row
 selections were made on the basis of notes collected in late June.  
 Advanced club selections and new introductions were evaluated for
 strawbreaker foot rot (eyespot) tolerance. The nursery, composed of 270
 lines and two replications, was inoculated with spores of
 Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides in early December at a rate of 250,000
 spores per ml.  A one meter sample was dug in late June and 25 random culms
 per row were evaluated for percentage of necrotic tissue in a culm cross
 section taken near the soil level.  A rating scale from 0 to 4 was used to
 characterize the variability, where 0 had no necrosis, 1 less than 10%, 2
 less than 30%, 3 less than 60%, and 4 more than 60%.  Scores 0 to 2 were
 immune to tolerant whereas scores 3 and 4 were susceptible.  The 270 entries
 were primarily susceptible, however 28 lines and varieties were tolerant. 
 the two most tolerant lines were a triticale, Flora, and an advanced club
 line.  Seven lines, possessing mean scores in the 1.5 range, were from
 diverse backgrounds; France, China, New Zealand, the Netherlands, and one
 advanced club line from the breeding program.  An additional nineteen
 tolerant lines classified with a mean score of 2 were of similar parentages.
 
     A natural infection of Cephalosporium stripe occurred in the crossing
 block at Pendleton.  Notes were collected for advanced club breeding lines,
 common wheat introductions, and F1 plants. Incorporating Russian wheat aphid
 (RWA) tolerance into the club wheat background continues.  Several sources
 of tolerance are being used in the crossing program.  Field evaluations of
 F2 populations with PI137739 and PI294994 as the tolerant parents showed
 effective protection under heavy RWA populations.   Quality.  The club wheat
 class has inherently superior milling yield and produces finer textured
 sponge cake than the soft common wheat class.  Quality evaluations are
 conducted by the ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory, Pullman, WA.  Two
 characters, grain protein and hardness, are evaluated in F4 seed. Advanced
 lines are evaluated for several milling and baking characters, including
 grain hardness, grain and flour protein, flour yield, break flour yield,
 flour ash, milling score, mixograph type, cookie diameter, top grain score,
 cake volume, and sponge cake score.
 
     Advanced Club Material.  Several advanced club lines have a combination
 of stripe rust resistance, competitive yield potential, strawbreaker foot
 rot tolerance, and excellent milling and baking characters.  The lines are
 being evaluated at Pendleton and Moro, Oregon as well as Washington and
 Idaho. 
 
 -------------------------
 SOUTH DAKOTA
 
      Plant Science, Bot-Bio Departments and Northern Grain Insect Lab.
 
      F.A. Cholick* , C.H.Chen, B.G. Farber, B.E. Ruden, and S. Shin
 
      Production: Hard Red Spring (HRS) wheat production was estimated at
 49.0 million bushels from 1.75 million acres harvested, for an average yield
 of 28.0 bu/a.  When compared to the record high production of 1990, total
 production was 27% lower, with yield per acre being 4.0 bushels lower. 
 Yield was, however, 6.0 bu/a higher than the 1989 crop.  Acres harvested
 were 17% lower than the previous two years.  Average temperatures were more
 than six degrees above normal for the period May 1 through June 15.  The
 above normal temperatures, especially nighttime temperatures, adversely
 affected two major components of yield: tiller number and head size, thus
 reducing yield potential.  These temperatures, combined with relatively wet,
 humid environments also created conditions favorable for severe disease
 infestations.  Fusarium head blight infestation was widespread over eastern
 South Dakota, and bacterial leaf blight and tan spot were also present.  The
 combination of above normal temperatures and disease problems substantially
 decreased the quality of the 1991 crop in eastern South Dakota.  Durum 
 production was 1.68 million bushels from 67,000 acres, with an average yield 
 of 25.0 bu/a.
 
      Breeding: Anthers from field-grown plants containing mid- to late-
 uninucleate microspores were cultured in the dark at 25ø C.  Twenty-five of
 35 spring wheat hybrids (red x white seeded) cultured produced 122 green
 pollen plants. Tsay's and Potato IV were more effective than 85D12 medium in
 callus/embryoid initiation.  Eighteen percent of the green plants were white
 seeded.  Almost all of these plants were homozygous as verified in the
 progeny test.  In the second experiment, 10 spring wheat F1 hybrids between
 pollen plant H1's and breeding lines from South Dakota's spring wheat
 breeding program were cultured.  Anthers from greenhouse-grown plants were
 cool-treated at 4øC for 4 days, inoculated with on W14 medium and placed in
 the dark at 32øC for 3 days.  Incubation temperature was then reduced to
 25øC for callus/embryoid induction.  Of 212 plants regenerated, 130 (61.3%)
 were green.  Breeding efficiencies in the eight responding crosses were:
 1.05, H1-1(Stoa/Pavon)/Prospect; 1.02, H1-1(Grandin/Crow)/Prospect; 0.66,
 H1-2(Stoa/Pavon)/Norm; 0.64, H1-3(Stoa/Pavon)/SD 8070; 0.35
 H1-4(Stoa/Pavon)/Norm; 0.16 H1-2(Grandin/Crow)/SD 8072; 0.10
 H1-5(Stoa/Pavon)SD 3119; and H1(SD 3000/V9)/Butte 86, 0.09.  Plants bearing
 white seeds were regenerated in four of the five crosses in which 'Pavon'
 inherited the trait.  Fifty-one percent of the green plants were dihaploid,
 which will be tested in the field for agronomic desirability.  Androgenetic
 responses were detected by the presence of multicellular pollen grains (MPG)
 as early as 2 weeks after anther inoculation.  The frequency of MPG might
 serve as an early indicator of genotype responsiveness to W14 medium.  For
 example, 7.2% were observed in the high performer H1(Grandin/Crow)/Prospect
 whereas 0.3% in the low performer H1(SD 3000/V9)/Butte 86.  In general,
 anthers at inoculation density of 15 anthers/ml initiated calli 15 times as
 those at 3 anthers/ml of medium.  Anthers collected from greenhouse-grown
 plants generally did not respond as well as those from field-grown plants.
 
      Other anther culture research projects, including (1) methods for
 dihaploid green plant regeneration, and (2) in vitro selection for tan-spot
 disease resistance, are being carried out. 
 
      A series 16 HRS wheat cultivars which are adapted to the Northern Great
 Plains Region are currently being tested to determine their ability to
 osmoregulate.  Water stress during the growing season is an inevitable fact
 in the Northern Great Plains.  Osmoregulation is one mechanism by which
 plants may tolerate water stress.  The coleoptile evaluation technique as
 described by J. Morgan in Australia is being used, with some modifications
 to the method described, including the use of polyethylene glycol (MW 8000)
 as the osmoticum to create an osmotic gradient around the seedling roots,
 partial sealing of the petri dishes to limit differential water loss from
 dish to dish, and growing the seedlings in dark conditions.  The advantages
 of the coleoptile technique are twofold: 1) one repetition of each
 experiment requires 5-7 days to complete, a significant reduction of time as
 compared to measuring osmoregulation at later stages of plant development;
 and 2) the experiments can be conducted in a limited amount of space, as
 seedlings are grown in 9 cm petri dishes in a benchtop-size growth chamber,
 instead of greenhouse pots and larger growth chambers.  After the completion
 of one experiment, the data show that a range of osmoregulation is present
 in the adapted cultivars.  The range appears to be similar to the range
 found by Morgan, but statistical analysis of the data has not been completed
 at this time. 
 
      The HRS wheat line SD 3056 will be increased with intent to release in
 1993.  SD 3056 is an awned, early heading, standard height, F4-derived head
 selection from the cross ND 604/SD 2971 made in 1984.  The pedigree of ND
 604 is Len/Butte//ND 526 and SD 2971 is Agt/3/ND 441//Wld/BB/4/Butte/5/Len. 
 SD 3056 has demonstrated good yield potential and very good yield stability
 in state wide yield trials in South Dakota.  The probable genes for stem
 rust resistance are Waldron and/or SR 24 and segregating SR 5.  Quality data
 for SD 3056 appears promising.
 
      Personnel Changes:  Dr. Fred Cholick has moved from the position of
 spring wheat breeder to head of the Plant Science Department. He may be
 reached at the same address as before.  His new phone number is (605) 688-
 5125.  The search for a new spring wheat breeder is nearing completion, and
 it is hoped that we will have a new person on board before spring planting
 is completed.
 
 -------------------------
 Wheat Diseases
 
      G.W Buchenau*, D.J. Gallenberg, Marie Langham & Shaukat Ali
 
      April surveys of wheat fields in western SD indicated a very low
 incidence of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis pseudothecia and leaf infection
 was nil in the majority of fields.  Follow-up surveys in mid-may in both
 spring and winter wheat regions indicated that primary infection had
 occurred but was very light in all areas except where moderate to heavy
 wheat residue was present; no infection was detected where spring wheat was
 planted in the absence on wheat residue.  These observations reflect low
 background inoculum from the light tan spot epidemics of 1989 and 1990.  At
 some locations, fungicides resulted in substantial yield increases, whereas
 no yield improvement occurred at other locations with relatively light
 tanspot and severe scab.  Once established, tan spot developed at a
 moderately rapid rate, r=0.23 logits/day. Five infection periods were
 indicated by our modification of EPINFORM at the two locations where
 automated weather stations were utilized, but the modified EPINFORM systems
 overestimated disease development at all locations.  It is apparent that a
 primary inoculum/primary infection parameter is needed for these models. 
 Wheat scab was epidemic in east central and north eastern SD.  Limited
 surveys detected t-21% of florets scabbed, and fields showed 10-20% by 15
 July.  An experimental fungicide bromoconazole showed promise in controlling
 scab.
 
 -------------------------
 Chloride Soil Treatment
 
      H. J. Woodard & G.W. Buchenau
 
      Chloride and fungicide effects on yield of Marshall spring wheat were
 additive at a site near Brookings, where each factor increased yield by 5
 bu/A.  Both chloride and fungicide treatments reduced leaf rust but the
 reductions were not additive.  Butte 86 escaped/resisted leaf rust and its
 yield was not improved by chloride nor fungicide.  In four other fungicide
 by chloride studies at other sites, neither chloride nor fungicides improved
 yield of Prospect spring wheat, nor did chloride reduce leaf rust or tan
 spot. 
   
 -------------------------
                              Winter Wheat   
 
           J.L. Gellner*, R.A. Schut, R.W. Kieckhefer, and G.W. Buchenau
 
     Yields in the state were good and averaged 2356 kg/ha (35 bu/acre). 
 Production was 1.24 million metric tons (45.5 million bu) harvested from
 526,500 ha.  Plantings for the 1992 harvest year were estimated at 668,250
 ha (1.65 million acres) 10% above last year.
 
     Breeding material was harvested from five locations.  Winner, a new
 location, was abandoned due to poor seedling emergence (severe drought). For
 the 1992 harvest year, duplicate plots of our advanced yield trials have
 been planted under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions at Dakota Lakes
 Research Station (Pierre).  We feel that simultaneously growing our material
 under stress and nonstressed environments will increase efficiency of
 selection for yield stability.
 
     We continue to study the effect of aphid feeding on seedling wheat.  In
 our present research, a drought stress of one week duration (no watering of
 the pot for one week) was applied to pre-vernalized seedlings of 'Arapahoe'
 at the 2.5 leaf Haun growth stage.  In addition, aphid infestation
 treatments of 2 or 4 adult Russian wheat aphids (RWA), D. noxia, were
 superimposed over the drought stress treatment.  Data were combined over two
 identical studies.  Percent relative water content (RWC) was reduced from
 97% for the control plants to 67% for the drought-stressed plants.  Aphid
 feeding did not affect RWC greatly.  Seed yield was reduced 12% by the
 drought stress and 16% by the RWA feeding.  The interaction term drought
 stress x aphid feeding was not significant. 
 
     We attempted to find a seedling trait which is correlated with
 winterhardiness level and nondestructive.  Rate of water (RWL) loss was
 measured for four winter wheat cultivars (TAM101, Vona, Agassiz, and
 Norstar).  Seedlings were clipped at the soil surface at three Haun growth
 stages (1.5, 2.0 after four weeks of cold treatment (3 C), and 2.0 after
 four weeks of cold treatment and 48 hr. warm treatment (10 C). Fresh weight
 for each seedling was measured at nine time intervals after clipping.  RWL
 was not found to be correlated to winterhardiness level at any growth stage.
 
     Earliness is important for yield stability in the Northern Plains.  We
 are studying conditions that effect days to complete spike emergence.  We
 are mimicing effect of leaf "die back" in winter due to cold temperatures by
 clipping winter wheat pre- and post-vernalization.  In our first study, four
 winter wheat and one spring wheat cultivars at the 1.5 leaf Haun leaf growth
 stage but either per- or postvernalization were clipped 3 cm above the soil
 surface.  Compared to the unclipped, control plants, prevernalized clipping
 significantly (p=0.01) delayed days to complete spike emergence. 
 Postvernalized clipping did not significantly delay days to complete spike
 emergence.
 
     Twenty-seven accessions of T. tauschii from the NSCG (Aberdeen, ID) were
 screened for reaction to tanspot isolates collected in SD.  Three, found
 highly resistant,  were crossed to Agassiz, Abilene, and Arapahoe winter
 wheats varieties by C. Curtis at UC, Riverside.  A backcross program will
 begin in the fall of 1992.
 
 
 
    
                                Publications    
 
 Gellner, J.L., R.W. Kieckhefer, and W.E. Riedell. 1991. Seedling and mature
 plant response to aphid feeding in spring wheat. (in) Aphid-Plant
 Interactions: Populations to molecules. (ed) D.C. Peters, J.A. Webster, and
 C.S. Chlouber. Oklahoma Ag. Exp. Stat. Miscellaneous Publication No. 132. p.
 303.
 
 Gellner, J.L., F.A. Cholick, and J.J. Bonnemann. 1991. The use of yield
 trial data in predicting subsequent cultivar yield rankings. Plant varieties
 and seeds 4:67-72.
 
 Gellner, J.L., T.E. Schumacher and D.G. Kenefick. 1991. Increase in the
 number of days to spike emergence in winter wheat due to clipping prior to
 vernalization. Cereal Research Communications 19:413-417.
 
 Kafawin, O.M., J.L. Gellner, R.W. Kieckhefer, and D.L. Reeves. 1990.
 Seedling growth response in oat to inoculation with barley yellow dwarf
 virus. Proc. SD Acad. Sci. 69:51-60.
 
 Gellner, J.L., and K.D. Kephart. 1991. Possible use of rate of water loss
 from clipped plants as a measure of winterhardiness level in winter wheat.
 p. 94. (in) Agronomy abstracts. ASA, Madison, WI.
 
 Schumacher, T.E, and J.L. Gellner. 1991. Delayed heading in clipped, pre-
 vernalized winter wheat. p. 160. (in) Agronomy abstracts. ASA, Madison, WI.
 
 -------------------------
 TEXAS
 
      Texas Agricultural Experiment Station/Texas A&M University
 
      Mark Lazar, M. E. McDaniel, B. McDonald, W. D. Worrall, D. Marshall, C.
 A. Erickson, G. E. Hart, Lloyd Rooney, John Sij, J. E. Slosser, Neal Tuleen,
 R. Sutton, M. Harrington, L. R. Nelson, R. Montandon, W. A.             
 Frank, G. L. Peterson, and J. Hu
 
      High Plains:  The 1990-91 crop year on the high plains was a very dry
 one, as no measurable precipitation occurred at Bushland from mid-January to
 late May.  Late rain saved nurseries at Bushland and Washburn, but produced
 damaging hail at Stinnett.  Yields under irrigation approached 120 bu/ac for
 TAM 200, Quantum 588 and a few experimentals.  Best yields on dryland
 nurseries were obtained from TAM-107, TAM-105, and Siouxla