ANNUAL WHEAT NEWSLETTER
 
 
 
                                    Volume 39
 
 
 
 Edited by J. S. Quick, Department of Agronomy, Colorado State University,
 Fort Collins, CO, USA; Financial arrangements made by Ian B. Edwards,
 Treasurer, Pioneer Overseas Corporation, Johnston, IA, USA.  Carolyn
 Schultz, Senior Secretary, CSU Department of Agronomy, typed and collated
 the information for the printing of this volume.  Facilities and assistance
 during manuscript editing were kindly provided by Colorado State University.
 
 
                                   * * * * * *
 
 
 Additional regional editing and manuscript solicitation were done by:
                  J. S. Noll, Canada Dept. of Agriculture, Winnipeg,          
                      Manitoba, Canada
                  R. A. Fischer, CIMMYT, Mexico, D. F., Mexico
                  K. S. Gill, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana,       
                      Punjab, India
                  T. E. Miller, Plant Sci. Res., Cambridge Laboratory,        
                      Norwich, England 
                  H. A. van Niekerk, Small Grain Center, Bethlehem, South     
                      Africa
                  B. C. Curtis, Former CIMMYT Wheat Director, Retired
 
                                   * * * * * *
 
 
 
 This volume was financed by voluntary contributions - list included.  The
 information in this Newsletter is considered as personal contributions. 
 Before citing any information herein, obtain the consent of the specific
 author(s).  The Newsletter is sponsored by the National Wheat Improvement
 Committee, USA.
 
 
                                   * * * * * *
 
 
                                   1 June 1993
 
 
 
                               460  copies printed
 
 
                                         
                    Publications Services, Colorado State University 
 
 
 
 --------------------
         TABLE OF CONTENTS                                           PAGE
 
 ZOLTAN BARABAS                                                             1
 
 ROBERT L. BURTON                                                           2
 
 DAVE JOHNSTON                                                              3
 
 HOWARD N. LAFEVER                                                          4
 
 COLIN N. LAW                                                               5
 
 CHARLES C. RUSSELL                                                         6
 
 ERVIN WILLIAMS, JR.                                                        7
 
 I.  SPECIAL REPORTS                                                        8
 
        Minutes - Wheat Crop Advisory Committee                             8
 
        Minutes - National Wheat Improvement Committee                      9
 
        Members - National Wheat Improvement Committee                     23
 
        Wheat Workers Code of Ethics                                       24
        
        Wheat Database Organization and 1992 Progress Report               24
 
        USDA Research on Wheat and Rye, 1863 to 1972                       27
 
  
 II.  CONTRIBUTIONS                                                        71
 
      PRIVATE COMPANIES
 
      AGRIPRO BIOSCIENCES
 
         Rob Bruns, John Moffat, Joe Smith, Jim Reeder - Berthoud, CO
 
         Barton Fogleman, Erwin Ridge - Jonesboro, AR
         Koy Miskin, Gregory Holland, Curtis Beazer - Brookston, IN
         
      CARGILL HYBRID SEEDS, INC.                                           74
 
          D. R. Johnston, S. W. Perry, J. E. Handwerk, Sally R. Clayshulte,
          D. P. Shellberg - Fort Collins, CO  
 
          Nestor Machado, Pedro Paulucci, Hector Mertinuzzi - Argentina       
  
 
          R. P. Daniel, D. Donaldson, Garry Lane, Michael Materne, M. J.      
          Nowland, C. J. Tyson, D. J. Wilson, P. Wilson - Tamworth, Australia
 
      GOERTZEN SEED COMPANY76
 
          Kenneth, Kevin, and Betty Goertzen - Haven, KS
 
      HYBRITECH SEED INTERNATIONAL, INC.                                   77
 
         John Erickson, Jerry Wilson, Steve Kuhr, Dennis Delaney, Jerry       
          Wilson, Bud Hardesty, Karolyn Ely - Wichita, KS; Gordon Cisar -     
          Lafayette, IN; Hal Lewis - Corvallis, OR
 
      HYBRINOVA78
           A. Gervais - Les Ulis Cedex, France
            
      NORTHRUP KING COMPANY79
           Fred Collins, June Hancock, Craig Allen - Bay, AR
 
      PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC.                                 80
           Johnston, IA - I. B. Edwards
           Windfall, IN - G. C. Marshall, W. J. Laskar, K. J. Lively
           St. Mathews, SC - B. E. Edge, P. L. Shields
           Frouville, France - G. Dorencourt, R. Marchand, O. Vanderpol
           Sevilla, Spain - J. M. urbano, M. Hidalgo, M. Peinado
           Sissa (Parma), Italy - M. Tanzi
           Pandorf, Austria - G. Reichenberger
           Winford, Cheshire, England - Ian Edwards, Simon Jones 
           Buxtehude, Germany - H. Schoenwallder, Ian Edwards 
 
      SVALOF WEIBULL AB85
           Poinville, France - J. P. Jossett, et al.
           Landskrona, Sweden - G. Svensson 
 
      TRIO RESEARCH, INC.                                                85
 
           J. Wilson - Wichita, KS 
 
 ARGENTINA                                                               86
      F. Bidinost, B. Ferro, F. Salvagiotti, S. Beas, N. C. Guzman,
      C. A. Pipoll, J. Casati, R. Roldan, W. Londero, J. C. Funes,
      J. C. Miranda, M. J. Miarka, D. Bonelli, G. Manera, R. Maich,
      C. Olmos, C. Ferraris, F. Gil, C. Bainotti, N. Contin - Cordoba
 
      M. L. Appendino, G. M. P. Camargo, N. Zelener, M. Argeaga,
      E. Suarez, G. Covas, Laura Bullrich, G. Tranquilli, E. Cetour,
      B. Formica, L. Faraldo - Castellar
 
 AUSTRALIA                                                              90
 
      NEW SOUTH WALES
 
           C. W. Wrigley, CSIRO, Sydney
        
           J. Bell, G. N. Brown, D. Backhouse, N. L. Darvey, 
           L. W. Burgess, R. A. McIntosh, D. R. Marshall, 
           J. D. Oates, R. Park, R. Roake, F. Stoddard, P. J. Sharp,
           D. The, C. R. Wellings - Sydney and Cobbitty
 
           L. O'Brien, F. W. Ellison, R. M. Trethowan, A. B. 
           Pattison, D. J. Mares, S. G. Moore et al.
 
           R. A. Hare - Tamworth 
 
      QUEENSLAND                                                           96
 
           P. S. Brennan, P.M. Banks, L. R. Mason, J. A. Sheppard, 
           R. W. Uebergang, P. J. Keys, M. L. Fiske, I. C. Haak, 
           P. I. Hocroft, J. C. Ross, P. J. Agius, S. Kammholz
  
           G. B. Wildermuth, R. B. McNamara - Toowoomba
 
           R. G. Rees, P. S. Brennan, G. J. Platz - Toowoomba 
         
 BRAZIL                                                                    99
 
      J. C. S. Moreira, C. N. A. de Sousa, E. P. Gomes, L. J. A. 
      Del Duca, J. F. Philipovsky, E. M. Guerianti, P. L. Scheeren,
      C. E. O. Camargo, S. D. dos A. de Silva, A. L. Barcellos et al. - 
      Passo Fundo 
 
      A. C. P. Goulart, F. de A. Paiva - Dourados, M. S.
 
 BULGARIA                                                                 112
 
      V. Vassilev, S. Stoyanova, K. Kolev, A. Dimov - Sadovo
 
 CANADA                                                                   114
 
      ALBERTA                                                             115
           D. F. Salmon, et al.   
  
      MANITOBA                                                            116
           J. A. Kolmer, F. Townley-Smith, D. Leisle, 
          P. L. Thomas, et al.
 
      PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND                                                123
           H.W. Johnston, H.G. Nass
 
      SASKATCHEWAN                                                        124
           R. M. De Pauw, J. M. Clarke, et al.
 
 CHINA, PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF                                               126
 
 Zhaosu Wu, Shirong Yu, Xizhong Wei, Quimei Xia, Youjia Shen, 
 Jiming Wu, Yong Xu, Xhaoxia Chen, Guoliang Jiang - Nanjing 
 
 Ying-Jie Wang - Henan 
       Zuoji Lin, Shenghui Jie, Xidan Zhou - Henan
      
       Li Huimin, Zhao Fengwu, Li Hongwa, et al. - Heibi
 
       Tiecheng Huang, Qixin Sun, et al. - Beijing 
 
       Luxiang Liu, et al. - Beijing 
 
 CROATIA                                                                  136
 
      Bogdan Koric - Zagreb
 
      Slobodan Tomasovic - Zagreb
      
 CZECH REPUBLIC                                                           138
 
      Z. Stehno, M. Vlasek, L. Dotlacil, P. Bartos, J. Kosner, 
      L. Kucera, V. Sip, M. Skorpik, et al. - Prague
 
 ESTONIA                                                                  144
 
      O. Priilinn, T. Enno, H. Peusha, M. Tohver - Tallinn
 
 GERMANY                                                                  146
 
      E. Kazman, R. Bothe, T. Lelley - Gottingen
 
      J. von Kietzell, A. Fessehaie, K. Rudolf - Gottingen
 
      A. Boerner, J. Plaschke, G. Schlegel, et al. - Gatersleben
 
 HUNGARY                                                                  153
 
      Z. Kertesz, J. Matuz, L. Bona, et al. - Szeged
 
      L. Balla, Z. Bedo, L. Lang, L. Szunics, Lu. Szunics, 
      I. Karsai, Gy. Vida, et al.  - Martonvasar
 
      B. Barnabas, et al. - Martonvasar 
 
 INDIA                                                                    168
 
      R. N. Sawhney, et al. -  New Delhi
      S.M.S. Tomar, et al. - Wellington 
      J. G. Bhowal and G. Guha - Wellington
      D. Singh - New Delhi
      R. G. Saini, et al. - Ludhiana
      R. Asir, V. R. K. Reddy - Coimbatore
      J. S. Bijral, et al. - R. S. Pura 
      H. S. Dhaliwal, et al. - Ludhiana
      G. S.  Sethi, et al. - Palampur
 
 ITALY                                                                    191
 
      B. Borghi, M. Perenzin, M. Cattaneo, Y.M. Qiao, R. Castagna,
      N.E. Pogna, R. Redaelli, M. Corbellini, et al.  - Lodigiano
 
      M. Pasquini, et al. - Rome 
 
 JAPAN                                                                    198
 
      S. Ito, M. Watanabe, A. Sato, T. Hoshino - Tohuku
 
      N. Watanabe -  Gifu
 
 MEXICO                                                                   200
 
      R. A. Fischer, G. Varughese  - CIMMYT
 
      P. N. Fox, et al. - CIMMYT
 
      A. Morgunov, R. J. Pena, S. Rajaram - CIMMYT
 
 MOROCCO206
 
      M. Mergoum, et al. - Settat
 
 PAKISTAN                                                                 208
 
      M. Husain - Bahawalpur
 
 PARAGUAY                                                                 210
 
      P. C. Wall - CIMMYT
  
 ROMANIA                                                                  210
 
      M. Moldovan, et al. - Turda
 
      N. S. Saulescu, Mariana Ittu, Gh. Ittu - Fundulea
 
 RUSSIA                                                                   212
 
      S. Polikarpov, et al. - Kurgan
      S. P. Martynov, T. V. Dobrotvorskaya - Tver
      M. Evdokinov - Omsk
      I. M. Shindin - Khabarovsk
      N. S. Vassiltchouk, et al. - Saratov
      A. Federov - Moscow 
 
 SOUTH AFRICA                                                             230
 
      Z. A. Pretorius, F. J. Kloppers, C. S. Van Deventer, 
      M. T. Labuschagne, M.C.B. Coetzee, A. M. Botha, et al -
      Bloemfontein
      
      G. F. Marais, R. de V. Pienaar, et al. - Stellenbosch
 
      H. A. Van Niekerk, H. A. Smit, J. L. Purchase, 
      D. B. Scott, et al. - Bethlehem
 
      B. Lombard, J. P. Jordaan, et al. - Sensako
 
      F. du Toit, S. S. Walters, A. Brummer - Pannar, Ltd.,
      Bainsvlei
 
 TURKEY                                                                   241
 
      H. Braun, T. S. Payne - Ankara
 
 UKRAINE                                                                  243
 
      L. A. Zhivotkov, et al. - Mironovka
 
 UNITED KINGDOM                                                           244
 
       NORWICH, Cambridge Laboratory, Institute of Plant Science Research
            A. J. Worland, J. W. Snape, T. E. Miller, et al.
 
       NORWICH, John Innes Institute
            J. S. Heslop-Harrison, A. R. Leitch, T. Schwarzacher, 
            K. Anamthawt-Jonsson, et al. 
 
       PBI, CAMBRIDGE
            S. J. Brown, P. I. Payne
           
   UNITED STATES OF AMERICA                                               252
 
        ARKANSAS                                                          252
           R. K. Bacon, E. A. Milus, et al. 
 
        CALIFORNIA                                                        256
          C.A. Curtis, Bahman Ehdaie, A.J. Lukaszewski,
            J. G. Waines, et al.
 
        COLORADO                                                          260
            J. S. Quick, G. H. Ellis, R. Normann, A. Saidi, 
            J. S. Stromberger, H. Dong
 
        GEORGIA                                                           262
            J. W. Johnson, B. N. Cunfer, J.J. Roberts, 
            G.D. Buntin, R.E. Wilkinson
 
        IDAHO                                                             265
            R.S. Zemetra, E. Souza, S. Guy, et al. - Moscow & Aberdeen
 
            Warren Pope - Moscow 
 
       ILLINOIS                                                           268
            F. L. Kolb, E. D. Nafziger, W. L. Pedersen, et al.      
          
       INDIANA                                                            269
            H. W. Ohm, H. C. Sharma, I.M. Dweikat, S.A. MacKenzie, D.         
            McFatridge, F. L. Patterson, G. Shaner, R.M. Lister, D. M. Huber, 
            G. Buechley, R.H. Ratcliffe, R.H. Shukle, S. Wellso, G. G.        
            Safranski, S. Cambron
          
       KANSAS                                                             277
            T.S. Cox, R.G. Sears, B. S. Gill, M. B. Kirkham, G. H. Liang, 
            T. Harvey, T. J. Martin, et al. 
 
            O. K. Chung, G. L. Lookhart, V. V. Smail, J. L. Steele, et al. 
 
            T.J. Byram
 
       KENTUCKY                                                           302
            D. A. Van Sanford, et al.
 
       LOUISIANA                                                          304
            S.A. Harrison, P. Colyer, S. H. Moore, C. Hallier
 
       MARYLAND                                                           305
            D. J. Sammons
 
       MICHIGAN                                                           307
            P. K. W. Ng
 
       MINNESOTA                                                          307
            R. Busch, L. Van Bueningen      
 
            A. P. Roelfs, D. L. Long, D. H. Casper, M. E. Hughes, J. J.       
            Roberts
 
            D. V. McVey, R. H. Busch
 
       MISSOURI                                                           317
            J. P. Gustafson, K. D. Kephart, G. Kimber, A. L. McKendry, et al.
 
       MONTANA                                                            319
            L. E. Talbert, P. L. Bruckner, et al.
 
       NEBRASKA                                                           321
            P.S. Baenziger, C.J. Peterson, D.R. Shelton, R.A. Graybosch, 
            D. D. Baltensperger, L. A. Nelson, D. J. Lyons, G.L. Hein, et al.
 
       NEW YORK                                                           327
            M. E. Sorrells, W. R. Coffman, G. C. Bergstrom, et al.
 
       NORTH DAKOTA                                                       332
            E. M. Elias, J. A. Anderson, C. R. Reide
 
            W. R. Moore, B. L. D'Appolonia, K. Khan
 
       OHIO                                                               339
            K. Garland, W.A. Berzonsky, et al.
 
       OKLAHOMA                                                           342
            D. R. Porter, J. A. Webster, C. A. Baker, J.D. Burd, N.C. Elliot,
            D. K. Reed, R.L. Burton 
 
            R. M. Hunger, G. L. Sherwood
 
       OREGON                                                             347
           W. E. Kronstad, R. S. Karow, C.S. Love, D. K. Kelly, R. W. Knight,
           M. D. Moore, S. E. Rowe, N. H. Scott, M. C. Verhoeven
 
       SOUTH DAKOTA                                                       349
            J. C. Rudd, H. J. Woodard,  G. Buchenau, et al.
 
       TEXAS                                                              352
            Mark Lazar, L.R. Nelson, G.E. Hart, D. Marshall,
            M.E. McDaniel, B. McDonald, Lloyd Rooney, John Sij, 
            N.A. Tuleen, W.D. Worrall, G. L. Peterson, et al.
 
       UTAH                                                               358
            D. J. Hole
 
            R. S. Albrechtsen
 
       VIRGINIA                                                           359
            C.A. Griffey, D.E. Brann, E. Stromberg, M.K. Das,
            A. Herbert, J. M. Johnson 
 
       WASHINGTON                                                         361
            C. F. Kozak, et al.
 
            T. D. Murray, et al.
   
            R. E. Allan, S. S. Jones, R. F. Line, M. W. Simmons,
            C. F. Morris, J. A. Pritchett, L. M. Little,
            B. K. Sowers, et al.
 
 YUGOSLOVIA                                                               373
            Miroslav Kuburovic, et al.
 
            M. S. Milovanovic, et al.
 
 III.  CULTIVARS AND GERMPLASM                                            378
            B. Skovmand - Wheat Cultivar Abbreviations
 
            H.E. Bockelman, D.M. Wesenberg, S. Niets, A. Urie, B. J. Goats
            - Evaluation of National Small Grains Collection Germplasm 
 
             J. S. Quick - CSSA Cultivar and Germplasm Registration
          
 IV.  CATALOGUE OF GENE SYMBOLS, 1991 SUPPLEMENT                         400
 
            R. A. McIntosh, G.E. Hart, M.D. Gale
 
 
 V.  ANNUAL WHEAT NEWSLETTER FUND                                        417
 
 VI.  VOLUME 40 MANUSCRIPT GUIDELINES                                    420
 
 VII.  MAILING LIST                                                      421
 
 VIII. FAX/TELEPHONE LIST                                                427
 
 
 --------------------
 ZOLTAN BARABAS
 
       
      Dr. Zoltan Barabas, Professor of Agronomy, Member of the Hungarian
 Academy of Sciences  died on 23 January 1993, after a serious illness at the
 age of 67 years, in Szeged, Hungary. He is survived by his wife Ilona, two
 children and 5 grand-children.  Dr. Barabas was born in 1926 in Budapest,
 Hungary. After getting his degree at the University of Agricultural Sciences
 he started his career at the same place as a teaching assistant. Later he 
 work as a seed production inspector for two years.
 
       In 1951 he started his research work on flax and sorghum breeding.
 From 1960 he was the head of sorghum breeding programme at the Agricultural
 Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Martonvasar for
 nine years. During this period he introduced grain 
 sorghum hybrids in Hungary. With this activity he was the first in Europe in
 improving sorghum hybrids. Four hybrid cultivars were released  by him.
 Those are still grown in Hungary.  Since 1969 he has served the Cereal
 Research Institute of the Hungarian Agriculture Ministry, as the Leader of
 the Wheat Breeding Programme. He contributed essentially in the development
 and release of 18 wheat cultivars. Meanwhile he introduced the durum wheat
 to Hungary.
 
       Zoltan had a wide range of scientific interests, and had an excellent
 ability to see the future trends in the science and governed his and his
 colleagues' activity to the oncoming problems. He studied the genetic and
 physiological background of male-sterility, hybrid vigour and mutations in
 sorghum and wheat. He demonstrated experimentally the evolutionary sex
 divergence, inducing monosex dioecious forms from bisexual monoecious
 plants. As a first he induced genetic male sterile series in sorghum. He
 used a number of special breeding methods  such as acceleration the
 vernalization process by cytokinins, experimental endeavours of the non-
 race-specific resistance in breeding studies of disease tolerance without
 pesticides by the Center Pivot method, and measurements in somatic and
 reproductive heterosis and mutation effects. He worked for achieving
 patented cultivars and methods to develop hybrid cereals by more profitable
 ways. The patents were based on marker genes and nutritional mutants. He
 first suggested and helped to apply the anther culture method to achieve
 adequate homogeneity during the breeding work.  He encouraged us also to
 think unconventionally. His scientific career will be an example for all of
 us.
 
        Z. Barabas  was a well known and respected person  among the
 scientists in Hungary and world-wide as well. He was a Member of EUCARPIA,
 Chairman of Scientific Council of Agricultural Biotechnology Center,
 Godollo, Hungary, and Vice-Chairman of the Szeged Academy Committee.
 He established the periodical, "Cereal Research Communications" and
 successfully edited it for over 20 years.  Zoltan was not only an
 outstanding theoretical and practical scientist, but he was our master at
 the same time. He established a successful "wheat breeding school" in
 Szeged.
 
 
 --------------------
 ROBERT L. BURTON
 
 
      Dr. Robert L. Burton of Stillwater, OK, died Wednesday, February 3,
 1993, in the St. Francis Medical Center in Tulsa at the age of 56.  Bob was
 born in the small town of Antlers, OK on August 23, 1936.  He received his
 B.S. degree in 1963, and his M.S. in 1964 working on insect diets and
 rearing techniques, both from Oklahoma State University (OSU).  He joined
 the USDA-ARS in 1964, and his first assignment was in Tifton, GA.  He
 transferred to Stillwater in 1970 and received his Ph.D. in Entomology, also
 at OSU, in 1974.  
 
      At the time of his death, Bob was director of the  USDA-ARS Plant
 Science and Water Conservation Laboratory and adjunct professor of
 entomology at OSU.  He also served as national technological coordinator for
 the ARS Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) program.  The RWA was first detected in
 the United States in 1986.  Since then, the pest has infested 16 of the
 western states and is now approaching a billion dollars in total damage.
 
      Under his direction, the laboratory responded dynamically to this pest. 
 It was the first to identify the RWA and then provided most of the initial
 information to the industry as literature and one-on-one communications
 through invited presentations and phone responses.  During the last five
 years, Dr. Burton dramatically changed the  direction of the research
 approach to deal with the urgency of this problem on the Great Plains.  To
 implement this change, he secured significant new funding for the unit,
 developed several new projects and redesigned others, hired and relocated
 scientists, and constructed new facilities.  His mission was to develop
 programs of fundamental and applied research that involve specific and novel
 approaches and multidisciplinary programs such as integrated pest management
 (IPM).  Stillwater is now recognized as having the most highly concentrated
 RWA effort with the broadest scope.  
 
      In addition, Bob pioneered research on the impact of conservation
 cropping systems on greenbug population dynamics by discovering the
 "repellency" action of crop residues and other background effects such as
 canopy.  This phenomenon, unknown in wheat and grain sorghum until his
 research, represents a significant breakthrough that is practical yet
 simple:  a cultural means of control ideally suited for use in present and
 future sustainable cropping systems.
 
      He authored and co-authored 126 scientific publications during the last
 28 years and made more than 100 scientific presentations in the United
 States and abroad.  He was recognized as a world authority in the area of
 insect diets and the laboratory production of insects.  
 
      Bob was a member of numerous professional societies including the
 Entomological Society of America, the Georgia Entomological Society, the
 Southwestern Entomological Society, the Kansas (Central States)
 Entomological Society, the South Carolina Entomological Society, the
 Oklahoma Academy of Science, the Soil and Water Conservation Society, and
 the International Soil Tillage Research Organization.  He also belonged to
 the honor societies Sigma Xi and Phi Sigma.  He had served as program
 chairman of the 1992 Southwest Branch meeting of the Entomological Society
 of America and had received the outstanding performance awards from ARS in
 1991 and 1992.  His interest in conservation and wildlife extended into his
 personal life as well.  He enjoyed hunting and was a member of Quail
 Unlimited and Ducks Unlimited.  
 
      Dr. Burton is survived by his wife Sylvia and his two sons Robert and
 Brian.  Memorials may go to the OSU Foundation, Dr. Robert L. Burton
 Memorial Fund for Entomology, H-100 Student Union, Stillwater, OK 74078.  
 
 
 
 
 --------------------
 DAVE JOHNSTON
 
      Dave Johnston retired December 31, 1992, after 35 years as a wheat
 breeder.
 
      Dave was born in Everett, Massachusetts, on November 14, 1930. Although
 a city boy by birth, he spent summers working on a farm and developed a love
 of agriculture.  This led him to attend the University of Massachusetts
 where he mastered in Agronomy.  After graduation in 1952, he spent four
 years in the Navy.
 
      In the Fall of 1956, he enrolled in Graduate School with the Department
 of Agronomy and Plant Genetics at the University of Minnesota.  In January
 of 1958, his wheat breeding career began as he was offered a University of
 Minnesota full time staff position as a Research Associate with the wheat
 program under Dr. Elmer Ausemus.  During his time there, the cultivar,
 Chris, was released and the lines which later became Polk, Fletcher, and Era
 were in advanced stages of testing.
 
      In July, 1967, Dave left the University and began working for Cargill,
 Inc. - the first person hired on the company's wheat research program.
 During the early years with Cargill, his efforts were mostly on development
 of spring cultivars and spring hybrid components.  Two cultivars were
 released during this period.  Since the mid-seventies, the major portion of
 his effort was on the development of restorer lines for the winter program. 
 Over the years, ten hybrids were made commercially available.  He is
 recognized as one of the foremost authorities on restorer breeding in wheat.
 
      Dave and his wife will remain in the Fort Collins area, dividing their
 time between the flatland and the hills to the west and maybe even a trip
 east or south or ?.  P.S.  Dave says thanks for the "surprise" cards from
 the breeders in the states of Colorado, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and
 Nebraska.  As you might guess, they were opened and appreciated over a cool
 brewski!
 
 --------------------
 
 
 
 
 
 HOWARD N. LAFEVER
 
   Dr. Howard "Hal" Lafever retired from the Ohio Agricultural Research and
 Development Center/The Ohio State University in 1992.  He attended Purdue
 University where he received his B.S. (1959), M.S. (1961), and Ph.D. (1963)
 degrees in agronomy and plant breeding/ genetics.
   During his 27-year career, Dr. Lafever was a leading breeder for the soft
 red winter wheat region.  His efforts resulted in the release of nine public
 soft red winter wheat varieties, including such widely-grown varieties as
 'Titan', 'Cardinal', and 'Dynasty'.  In 1985, he was instrumental in
 establishing a basic licensing agreement with the Agricultural Genetic
 Research Association (AGRA).  Since its inception, AGRA has marketed five
 soft red winter wheat varieties and has contributed funds, generated from
 the sales of these varieties, to further wheat breeding research.  Dr.
 Lafever also expanded the Ohio breeding effort by initiating new spelt and
 oat breeding programs.  'Champ' spelt and, the recently released, 'Armor'
 oat were developed from these programs.  In 1991, Dr. Lafever was recognized
 for his contributions to the seed industry of Ohio by being elected an
 Honorary Lifetime Member of the Ohio Seed Dealers Association.
   Dr. Lafever published and presented numerous papers on the tolerance to
 aluminum and the mineral nutrition of wheat.  The Ohio program was one of
 the first to include selection for aluminum tolerance in the development of
 new wheat varieties.  As a result, several of the Ohio varieties are
 productive in acid soil regions of Ohio.  In 1989, because of his
 significant service and research contributions to wheat breeding/genetics,
 Dr. Lafever was elected an Agronomy Society and a Crop Science Society of
 America Fellow.
   In retirement, Hal hopes to continue to do some small grains breeding as
 well as to travel and pursue his hobby interests.  His public career as a
 small grains breeder and researcher was truly a model of productivity.  We
 wish him the same success and productivity in all of his future endeavors.
 
 --------------------
 COLIN N LAW
 
      Professor Colin Law, the Head of the Cambridge Laboratory, Norwich,
 retired in November l992 after 32 years in the UK Agricultural and Food
 Research Council research service.  Colin joined the Plant Breeding
 Institute in Cambridge in l960 after his BSc in Genetics at Birmingham
 University and a PhD at University College of Wales, Aberystwyth.  His early
 years with Ralph Riley in the Cytogenetics Department at PBI were spent
 pioneering the use of wheat aneuploid genetic stocks for the genetical
 analysis of quantitative characters, particularly those of economic
 importance.  The methods of analysis and genetic stocks developed by Colin
 during the l960s and l970s are now in use worldwide both by geneticists and
 breeders.  During his career very few characters of the wheat plant escaped
 his attention and his work with genes controlling 
 vernalization response, photoperiod response, plant height, cold tolerance,
 salt tolerance, resistance to many important diseases and bread making
 quality has provided the foundation for the next generation of cereal
 geneticists.
 
      Throughout his career Colin was an inspiration to many students and
 colleagues and he instigated a great number of national and international
 collaborations.  One of the most successful collaborations was the formation
 of the European Wheat Aneuploid Cooperative in which he single-handedly
 brought together all the laboratories in Europe working on wheat and related
 species.  EWAC still thrives today and is the major vehicle for European
 cooperation on wheat genetics and cytogenetics.
 
      In l972 Colin took over as Head of the Cytogenetics Department.  In
 addition to actively pursuing his own research interests he was among the
 first to recognise the importance of molecular genetics.  Under his
 leadership, the Molecular Genetics Group grew to the point where it spawned
 a new Department, and the PBI became a model for other organizations
 worldwide in showing how practical and commercial breeding programmes could
 benefit from fundamental research in genetics, physiology and molecular
 biology.
 
      In l987 Colin took over as Head of the Cambridge Laboratory which was
 formed from the PBI research groups that were not part of the privatisation
 package sold to Unilever.  He sacrificed much to take on the considerable
 new responsibilities, but his success in this post can be judged from the
 excellent facilities of the present Cambridge Laboratory at the John Innes
 Centre, which he oversaw from design to completion, and from the fact that
 almost the entire mobile staff, and all the science, was transferred
 efficiently and intact to Norwich in the Spring of l990.
 
      Colin Law is one of the small handful of researchers to have shaped
 cereal genetics and cytogenetics and, in doing so, has provided tools that
 make life considerably easier for those of us who follow him.  We all wish
 him well in his retirement and we hope that he will now find time to return
 to some of the research that he has had to put aside while shouldering the
 administrative burden of Head of the Cambridge Laboratory during the last
 five years.
                                         
 --------------------
 CHARLES C. RUSSELL
 
      Dr. Charles (Charlie) C. Russell, Professor of Nematology, retired June
 31, 1992 after 25 years of teaching and research service in the Department
 of Plant Pathology at Oklahoma State University.  Charlie earned a B.S.
 degree in the Department of Entomology at the University of Florida in 1960. 
 He subsequently completed his degree requirements for the M.S. in Nematology
 in 1962, and continued on to earn the Ph.D. degree in 1967 from the same
 university.  Although an entomologist at heart and by training, he began his
 professional career as a Plant Nematologist in 1967 in the Department of
 Botany and Plant Pathology at Oklahoma State University.  His primary
 responsibilities involved research on plant parasitic nematodes on wheat. 
 However during his career, he cooperated with many collaborators across
 several disciplines. Thus, his research endeavors encompassed other crop
 species: peanuts, sweet potato, soybeans, and alfalfa, 
 
 and involved varied aspects of  nematicide testing, soil fumigation studies,
 biological control, nematode resistance, and other aspects too numerous to
 mention.
 
      Charlie is a native Floridian and grew up near Sanford Florida where he
 led an adventuresome life during his early years as an amateur herpetologist
 and avid fisherman.  Such hobbies among a myriad of other pursuits attest to
 the fact that he was never much for wasting time frivolously.
 
      Charlie's professional career as a graduate student and as a faculty
 member was highlighted by his enthusiastic approach toward life and his
 willingness to help others. He always had time for students with problems to
 provide wise counsel and guidance.  This also was reflected in his teaching
 responsibilities where his rapport with students and enthusiasm for teaching
 was always obvious.  He always received the highest teaching ratings from
 students because he was genuinely concerned about students and their growth
 as individuals and professionals.
 
      Dr. Russell's expertise as a plant nematologist contributed to many
 programs across several disciplines at Oklahoma State University.  His
 expertise will be missed in the Department.  Charlie and his wife are living
 on a farm near Glencoe, Oklahoma about 20 miles from Stillwater, Oklahoma.
 
 
 
 --------------------
 ERVIN WILLIAMS, JR.
 
      Ervin Williams, Jr. retired in June, 1992, after 18 years of service to
 Oklahoma State University and the Cooperative Extension Service.
 
      Ervin was born in Kansas in 1926.  
 After receiving his B.S. degree from Kansas State University in 1951 he
 joined the military and was part of a U.S. Army Military Police Company from 
 1951-1953.  After fulfilling his military service, Ervin returned to Kansas
 State University and worked as a technician in the cereal rust program of
 Dr. C. O. Johnston.  During this time, Ervin became a graduate student,
 studied the effects of environmental conditions on races of Puccinia
 recondita f. sp. tritici under the direction of Dr. Johnston, and received
 his M.S. degree in 1960.
 
      Ervin became an instructor (1960-1964) and than an assistant professor
 (1964-1969) in the Department of Agricultural Services at New Mexico State
 University.  He moved to Stillwater, 
 OK in 1969, where he begin to work toward a Ph.D. in the Botany and Plant
 Pathology Department at Oklahoma State University under the direction of Dr.
 Harry C. Young, Jr.  Ervin was not only a research assistant for Dr. Young
 where he assisted in the operation of Dr. Young's program of breeding for
 disease resistance in wheat, but also was an instructor for the department. 
 After receiving his Ph.D. in 1973, Ervin was a research associate for Dr.
 Young until 1974.  Ervin then became an Assistant Professor (Extension State
 Specialist) in the Department of Plant Pathology at Oklahoma State
 University.  During the next 18 years, Ervin became an Associate and than
 Full Professor in Extension Plant Pathology, and worked on many different
 crops, including peanuts, small grains, alfalfa, field corn, sorghum and
 cotton.  Ervin's primary responsibility, however, was extension plant
 pathology on wheat and other small grains.  He was well known for his
 research in the control of common bunt and loose smut, and had numerous
 extension and research publications in this area.  As a result of his work
 and other contributions to extension, Ervin received several awards during
 his career including recognition by the Oklahoma Association of County
 Extension Agents in 1986 for his Crop Production Program, a Ciba-Geigy
 Recognition Award in 1987 from the National Association of County
 Agricultural Agents for outstanding contributions to agriculture, and
 Extension Achievement Awards from the State Extension Service in both 1988
 and 1989.
 
      Ervin and his wife Johnna plan to remain in the Stillwater area,
 although trips are planned to enjoy their three children and (at this point
 in time) one grandchild.  We wish Ervin and Johnna a long, happy, and well-
 deserved retirement.
 
 --------------------
 CHARLES C. RUSSELL
 
      Dr. Charles (Charlie) C. Russell, Professor of Nematology, retired June
 31, 1992 after 25 years of teaching and research service in the Department
 of Plant Pathology at Oklahoma State University.  Charlie earned a B.S.
 degree in the Department of Entomology at the University of Florida in 1960. 
 He subsequently completed his degree requirements for the M.S. in Nematology
 in 1962, and continued on to earn the Ph.D. degree in 1967 from the same
 university.  Although an entomologist at heart and by training, he began his
 professional career as a Plant Nematologist in 1967 in the Department of
 Botany and Plant Pathology at Oklahoma State University.  His primary
 responsibilities involved research on plant parasitic nematodes on wheat. 
 However during his career, he cooperated with many collaborators across
 several disciplines. Thus, his research endeavors encompassed other crop
 species: peanuts, sweet potato, soybeans, and alfalfa, and involved varied
 aspects of  nematicide testing, soil fumigation studies, biological control,
 nematode resistance, and other aspects too numerous to mention.
 
      Charlie is a native Floridian and grew up near Sanford Florida where he
 led an adventuresome life during his early years as an amateur herpetologist
 and avid fisherman.  Such hobbies among a myriad of other pursuits attest to
 the fact that he was never much for wasting time frivolously.
 
      Charlie's professional career as a graduate student and as a faculty
 member was highlighted by his enthusiastic approach toward life and his
 willingness to help others. He always had time for students with problems to
 provide wise counsel and guidance.  This also was reflected in his teaching
 responsibilities where his rapport with students and enthusiasm for teaching
 was always obvious.  He always received the highest teaching ratings from
 students because he was genuinely concerned about students and their growth
 as individuals and professionals.
 
      Dr. Russell's expertise as a plant nematologist contributed to many
 programs across several disciplines at Oklahoma State University.  His
 expertise will be missed in the Department.  Charlie and his wife are living
 on a farm near Glencoe, Oklahoma about 20 miles from Stillwater, Oklahoma.
       
 
 --------------------
 I.     SPECIAL REPORTS 
     
            Minutes of The Wheat Crop Advisory Committee
 
                                Nov. 19, 1992
                              College Park, MD
 
 Committee members in attendance were T.S. Cox (acting Chair), O.
 Anderson, J.G. Waines, J.S. Quick, D.V. McVey, R.H. Busch, K.
 Briggs, B. Skovmand, I.B. Edwards, R.F. Line, C.F. Murphy (ex-
 officio), and H.E. Bockleman (ex-officio).  
 
 Minutes of the 1991 meeting, as published in the 1992 Annual Wheat
 Newsletter, were approved by voice vote.  
 Officers and membership.  The acting Chair will solicit nominations
 by mail for the offices of Chair and Vice-Chair to fill expiring
 terms, and for membership nominations to fill expiring first terms
 of Waines, Quick, and McVey (all three are eligible for second
 terms.)
 
 Germplasm collection.  Waines discussed a response by Dr. Calvin
 Spurling (ARS Plant Explorer) to a WCAC letter concerning the need
 to collect wild wheats in SE Turkey before a large irrigation
 project is installed there.  Dr. Spurling indicated those species
 that probably would not be endangered by the project (e.g., weedy
 Aegilops) and others that might (Ae. speltoides and wild Triticum
 spp.).  Since the latter species were those originally of most
 concern to the WCAC, Waines will write a proposal, to be approved
 by WCAC, to collect those species in specified areas of SE Turkey
 in 1994.
 
 Germplasm evaluation.  Bockleman reported that evaluation of wheat
 accessions in the US Small Grains Collection is proceeding, and
 that entry of data into GRIN is accelerating.  He submitted a list
 of PI assignments made in the past year.  The Committee briefly
 discussed the "core collection" or "subsample" concept, and as in
 past years, little enthusiasm was expressed for developing a core
 in wheat.
 
 Canadian germplasm activities.   Briggs reported on germplasm
 activities in Canada.  Ag Canada at Winnepeg has been designated a
 "node" for the small grains collection in Canada, in charge of
 collection, regeneration, and evaluation.  Winnepeg is also the
 biotech center for monocots.  Certain stations have been designated
 to take the leading role in wheat research for different regions,
 including the Northern area (Beaverlodge), Western Prairie - durum
 and dryland (Swift Current), Eastern Prairie (Winnepeg), and
 Rockies and Southwest (Lethbridge).  Ag Canada has virtually
 abandoned triticale research.
 
 CIMMYT germplasm activities.  Skovmand reported that CIMMYT is
 still working to complete its germplasm database, and is 2/3 of the
 way toward getting all data entered.  The database has three parts:
 pedigree management, gene bank system, and field-trial data
 management.  CIMMYT is struggling with the problem of deciding how
 much material to conserve; at present, they are storing 3 to 4000
 new lines per year.  One possibility is to bulk closely-related
 sister lines.  CIMMYT has proposed the formation of a Global
 Advisory Board on Genetic Resources, which would include
 representatives of CIMMYT, ICARDA, and IBPGR, among others.  This
 board would review the status and make recommendations regarding
 the nearly 600,000 wheat accessions held in collections worldwide. 
 The first action regarding formation of the board may occur at the
 International Wheat Genetics Symposium in Beijing in the summer of
 1993.
 
 Wheat Genome Database.  Anderson discussed progress being made on
 the Wheat Genome Database.  Five researchers around the country are
 taking responsibility for entering data on various marker and trait
 groups.  Entered so far are the molecular map of T. tauschii from
 Kansas State, the North American Barley map, and other
 miscellaneous data.  Access to the database is best done on a UNIX
 machine through INTERNET, but can be done over phone lines and/or
 with other equipment using XWindows.
 
 GRIN.  Bockleman and Mark Bohning (ARS, GRIN, Beltsville) discussed
 the GRIN 3 design and new computer to be used for running it. 
 There also is now a PC version of GRIN on diskettes, available on
 request.  The wheat database is the largest of any crop in GRIN, at
 50Mb.  Because all wheat accessions in GRIN have the original
 taxonomic designations they had when deposited, the nomenclature is
 often confusing.  Waines will work with Bohning and John Wiersma
 (ARS taxonomist, Beltsville) to make nomenclature in GRIN more
 informative.
 
 Quarantine.  Skovmand reported that there are no changes in the
 quarantine situation for seed coming to the US from Mexico.  CIMMYT
 seed production for international distribution has been moved to a
 site 3 hours south of Mexico City, in an area in which wheat has
 never been grown, to minimize chances of Karnal bunt infection. 
 Murphy and Bockleman noted that USDA Beltsville Quarantine Lab will
 still send seed overseas for wheat researchers for no charge. 
 Because of high APHIS fees for phytosanitary certificates,
 Beltsville spent $17,000 on certificates last year.
 
 Funding proposals.  The WCAC voted to recommend that $5000 from ARS
 Genetic Stocks funds be used to pay a portion of the $21,500 cost
 of a walk-in cold storage room at UC Riverside, to be used to store
 seed of wheat genetic stocks and related wild species.  The
 remainder of the cost has been pledged to Waines by various
 sources, so construction may begin in 1993.  Jim Peterson (ARS,
 Lincoln) noted that a previously allocated $4000 had been used to
 increase Dr. Rosalind Morris' genetic stocks and that these soon
 will be deposited at the Nat'l Seed Storage Lab.
  
 The Committee recommended that against funding this year by ARS
 through its germplasm evaluation program a proposal by Dr. Phil
 Bruckner et al. at Montana State for screening winter wheats for
 resistance to stem sawfly.  (See attached letter).
 
 PVP.  Alan Atchley of the Plant Variety Protection Office reported
 that the 50 wheat cultivar applications he faced when he took over
 his job in January '91 have been processed, and future applications
 should be taken care of expeditiously.  He expressed concern that
 the Variety Review Board in commenting on revised PVP exhibit C
 suggested dropping the use of standard cultivars.  The consensus of
 the WCAC was that standards should be retained.
 
 Next year's meeting.  Skovmand invited the WCAC to hold its 1993
 meeting at CIMMYT's headquarters in Mexico.  It was agreed to do so
 if the National Wheat Improvement Committee meeting is held there. 
 [The NWIC accepted an invitation to do so the next day.]
 
 The meeting was adjourned by voice vote.  Stan Cox, CAC Chair
 
 --------------------
         Minutes of the National Wheat Improvement Committee (NWIC)
 Meeting
                            November 20-21, 1992
                           College Park, Maryland
 
 Committee Members in attendance were:  R.G. Sears, Chair; C.J.
 Peterson, Secretary; R. Bacon; H.F. Bockelman; R. Bruns; R. Busch;
 D. Butcher; T.S. Cox; R. Frohberg; G. Hareland; D. Hole; L. Joppa;
 R. Line; D. Sammons; D. Van Sanford; W.D. Worrall; R. Zemetra. 
 Absent: C. Qualset; G. Statler; C. Haugeberg (ex-officio member).
 
 Non-Committee Members: O. Anderson, ARS, WRRC Albany, CA; A.
 Atchley, Plant Variety Protection Office, NAL Bldg, Beltsville MD;
 K. Briggs, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; H. Brooks, ARS-NPS,
 Beltsville, MD; I. Edwards, Pioneer, Johnston, IA; W. Martinez,
 ARS-NPS, Beltsville, MD; D. McVey, ARS, Cereal Rust, St. Paul, MN;
 C. Murphy, ARS-NPS, Beltsville, MD; J. Quick, Colorado State Univ.,
 Fort Collins, CO; H. Shands, ARS-NPS, Beltsville, MD; B. Skovmand,
 CIMMYT, Mexico; G. Waines, Univ. of California, CA. 
 
 PRELIMINARIES
 
      Chairman Sears called the meeting to order and members and
 guests were introduced.  WELCOMES were presented by Dr. Bryan
 Johnson, Director of the Maryland Agriculture Experiment Station,
 and Dr. Richard Weismiller, Chairman, Department of Agronomy,
 University of Maryland.
 
 MINUTES OF THE 1991 MEETING
 
      Minutes were published in  AWN38: Busch asked for a motion to
 waive reading them.  Zemetra moved, Bockelman seconded, passed.
 
 RESPONSES TO 1991 LETTERS
 
      Only one letter was sent in 1991, commending NPS staff
 Martinez and Murphy for their contributions to the NWIC.  The
 letter was acknowledged by Dr. Plowman, Administrator, ARS.
 
 ANNUAL WHEAT NEWSLETTER
 
      The following reports are included by J.S. Quick, Editor, and
 I. Edwards, Treasurer, of the Annual Wheat Newsletter. Cost of
 preparation and publication continue to be a problem relative to
 supporting revenue.  Suggestions for reducing and covering costs
 include a per copy charge, development of endowment account for
 Newsletter, or distribute copies on diskettes. 
 
               1992 Annual Report to NWIC, J.S. Quick, Editor
 
      The editing and publishing of Volume 38 of the Annual Wheat
 Newsletter (AWN) followed the format of previous newsletters and
 was the second volume directly printed in reduced font size
 entirely from computer files.  There were 465 copies printed and
 each copy had 343 pages.  Ten copies of Volume 38 and about 20 of
 Volume 35 are still available.  A summary of information about each
 volume printed since 1954 (Volume 1) was published in the AWN,
 Volume 32 (1986).  The number of pages has increased by 150 since
 1980, the number of contributions has increased considerably, and
 the cost of publication increased significantly in 1992.  Due to
 rising costs, an effort was made to reduce the number of copies
 printed by encouraging multiple use.  Cost of production was
 reduced from about $4500 in 1987 to about $3900 in 1988, increased
 to $5416 in 1989. to $4690 in 1991 due to limited distribution, and
 increased to $6310 in 1992 due to increased pages per volume.  Cost
 per copy is about $12.00.
 
      In addition to the total cost of production, Colorado State
 University Agronomy Department has contributed part of my time,
 computer facilities, and some occasional letter typing.  An
 Agronomy Department secretary, Carolyn Schultz, has done an
 excellent job of manuscript preparation since 1983.
 
      All AWN address lists are computerized, and mailing and
 sorting has become simple and routine.  We are requesting all
 workers provide their manuscripts on computer disks if at all
 possible.  All text will be entered into computer files and laser
 printed with reduced font size to save space.  Manuscripts can also
 be provided through the BITNET system.  About 300 requests for
 manuscripts and financial assistance are sent to U.S., Australian,
 and Canadian wheat workers each January.  The requests for
 manuscripts and financial contributions from other foreign
 scientists are included as an insert in the Newsletter mailing in
 June.  Additionally, regional manuscript and financial solicitation
 and coordination are done by scientists in other countries.
 
      The cost of producing Volume 39 will probably be similar to
 that for Volume 38.  I believe it is now feasible and financially
 necessary to consider: 1) AWN distribution by diskette, 2)
 reduction in distribution, 3) increase in voluntary contributions,
 4) subscriptions, etc.  Suggestions from the NWIC would be
 appreciated.  Ian Edwards, AWN treasurer, has done an excellent job
 of securing cooperative and institutional financial contributions
 allowing us to maintain a sound financial position.
 
 
                                      
 
 
                         1992 Annual Report to NWIC
                           I.B. Edwards, Treasurer
 
 ITEM                                     DEBIT      CREDIT     BALANCE     
 
 1.  Balance reported
     June 1, 1992 AWN                                           $5484.53
 
 2.  Mailing request letter           $   43.84                  5440.69
 
 3.  Envelopes                            11.00                  5429.69
 
 4.  Photocopy charges                    37.50                  5392.19
 
 5.  Mailing, Vol. 38, July 1992         966.91                  4425.28
 
 6.  Printing and binding               4550.86                  <125.58>
 
 7.  Typing and editing, Vol. 38         700.00                  <825.58>
     (Carolyn Schultz)
 
 8.  Misc. bank charges                    5.00                  <830.58>
 
 9.  New contributions (since June 1)                 $ 270.00   <560.58>
 
 10. Interest on checking                                53.83   <506.75>
 ====================================================================
 Comments:
 
 1.  The total cost of Volume 38 was $6,310.11.  This costs divided
 by 465 copies printed is about $12.06/copy.  Volume 38 is 108 pages
 longer than Volume 37 (343 vs 235), and 25 more copies of Volume 38
 were printed.  The total printed pages of Volume 38 was 54 percent
 greater than that of Volume 37, and the total cost was 35% higher. 
 Volume 38 was printed entirely from computer files.
 
 2.  Current funding balance, at the present time, is $<506.75>
 compared with $<247.22> a year ago.  It must be noted that there is
 still an outstanding balance owing for production costs in the
 amount of $610.11.  In the past four years, contributions have not
 matched the rising costs, and this is an area of concern.
 
 3.  Although corporate contributions have increased in recent
 years, this past year showed a decline.  A number of institutions
 and companies require an invoice in order to make payments.  We are
 encouraging them to notify your Treasurer as to the amount they
 wish to donate, and we will gladly furnish an invoice.  Private
 contributions remain our major source of revenue.  We will need
 very strong appeal in 1993 to keep the Annual Wheat Newsletter
 solvent.
 
 USDA-ARS RESEARCH FUNDING UPDATE
 
      Howard Brooks reported that ARS will have a flat budget in
 FY93, essentially losing $19 million to salary increases.  New
 monies are all coming from Congress with very specific target
 locations and research areas.  Frustration in ARS is Congress
 dictating to ARS where to locate funds and what to do with them,
 leaving no room for administrators to make needed or desired
 changes in current programs.  There were over 200 phrases in the
 current ARS budget approved by congress recommending ARS action,
 but providing no money to accomplish these actions.  ARS is also
 now over its personnel ceiling of 8,150 by about 300 employees. 
 ARS needs $250,000 per new scientist, and same funding goal for old
 projects.  Currently $25 million is spent on wheat for 116 SY's, so
 essentially would need additional $4 million or drop scientists by
 16.  Some concern exists over potential shifts in research
 priorities with new secretary of agriculture.  
 
      Purdue has received $900,000 new money direct from Congress
 for three wheat research positions: BYDV molecular biologist;
 Fungal pathology molecular biologist; and Entomology position with
 emphasis on Hessian Fly.  None of the positions have yet been
 filled.  The NWIC is pleased that new positions were established in
 areas that need research.  
 
      Dr. Murphy discussed problem areas in current ARS wheat
 research units.  Most critical is the Plant Science Unit at
 Manhattan which cannot maintain 3 positions at this time, with only
 $300,000 total funds.  Montana had asked for $200,000 new money for
 a Smut Research Position at Bozeman, but only received $100,000. 
 This is not enough to fund a full position so ARS will not fill
 until additional funds are obtained.  Funding for the program at
 Pullman, WA on foliar diseases and smuts, which includes rusts as
 well as flag smut, is only $125,000.  There are numerous other
 research units in various states of financial stress, but Manhattan
 is currently the worst.  Murphy repeated the frustration of the NPS
 with its inability to make funding or program changes due to lack
 of new funds and potential political backlash over changes.
 
      Drs. Shands and Murphy emphasized the need to keep ARS
 informed and work together to obtain new positions for specific
 commodities.   Shands indicated that the new administration will
 bring a new focus on mission oriented research and research
 enhancing national competitiveness.  The National Research
 Initiative (NRI) will be specifically targeted in the future. 
 
 GERMPLASM ISSUES
 
      Dr. Shands indicated the desire that germplasm be made
 available for use as parent material.  Status of Intellectual
 Property Rights was discussed.  Patent lawyers are now discussing
 ways to allow uses of germplasm when a utility patent is applied. 
 ARS is evolving a new policy on germplasm release, and germplasm
 exchange in relation to release policies.  The new policy is
 expected in a few months.  Included in the policy is that ARS
 researchers can participate in royalty bearing variety releases,
 and that states are not restricted to 0 cash return on co-releases
 with ARS.  ARS will take a more open stance in participation in
 licenses to promote products.  The policy also promotes a stronger
 research exemption in patented materials developed by ARS.  Shands
 wants to push for a stronger research exemption in all agricultural
 patents and separate out agricultural patents from other areas. 
 ARS and ASA are co-sponsoring a meeting on Intellectual Property
 Rights in January, 1993.  
 
      Shands discussed the challenge of the decision by ASA to not
 allow Crop Science registration for germplasms or varieties unless
 seed was deposited in the NSSL and made available for exchange. 
 Some researchers want complete control of seed and allow use only
 by contract while still registering in Crop Science.  Concern is
 over appearance of using Crop Science for advertising and potential
 compounding of problems with  international exchange.  Restrictive
 clauses in germplasm releases will continue to be a problem until
 challenged in court.  In a straw poll, the NWIC agreed with the
 current ASA position regarding deposition of seed with
 registration.  Crop Science also is considering requiring that
 originator be responsible for distribution of  seed when agreeing
 to registration.  ASA also has interest in registering patented
 materials, but not until a research exemption is obtained.
 
 LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE REPORT 
 
      Dave Sammons reported on 1992 NWIC legislative visits.  The
 Legislative teams visited for approximately a half an hour in 29
 congressional offices and left information packets at 3 additional
 offices; a total of 18 senate and 14 house offices were contacted. 
 Issues supported were those identified in the 1991 NWIC meeting: 1)
 funding for leaf rust position at Kansas State, Manhattan; 2) Wheat
 genetic stocks at Columbia, Mo.; and 3) Total grain quality issue
 at Grain Marketing Lab., Manhattan.  Sears indicated that he
 received acknowledgement from 8-10 legislators indicating need for
 NWIC involvement and appreciation of information.  However, Kansas
 representatives were obligated to support Phase II of Throckmorton
 Hall rather that leaf rust position.  NWIC is still learning how to
 work with legislature and identify a Champion for causes.  The NWIC
 needs follow up and: 1) recognition, 2) grower support, and 3) user
 group support.
 
 NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WHEAT GROWERS (NAWG) FOUNDATION
 
      Dina Butcher was introduced as the new Director of the NAWG
 Foundation.  She was formally with North Dakota Wheat Commission. 
 She expressed the desire to have the NWIC work closely with NAWG on
 national research issues and pledged NAWG's help with NWIC lobbying
 efforts by suggesting the need for growers with NWIC legislative
 committee to obtain additional interest from representatives. 
 Butcher suggested the need to maintain contact and communications
 and suggested that NAWG could help follow up when NWIC committee
 had completed their visit.  NAWG priorities include concentrating
 on alternative or industrial uses rather than food.  Murphy
 commented that NAWG and Corn Grower group have not helped much in
 research efforts as research is low on their priority list. 
 Butcher emphasized the need to generate local support of research
 and need for growers to understand issues.  An additional lobbyist
 at NAWG was needed.
 
      A possible joint meeting of North American Wheat Workers and
 NAWG was suggested for 1994 in New Orleans.  Bruns reported, after
 discussion with Regional Chairs, that a joint meeting would be
 difficult to coordinate and organize.  They suggested need for a
 more central location and less expensive site for the wheat workers
 meeting such as Kansas City or Dallas.
 
 WHEAT CROP ADVISORY COMMITTEE REPORT
 
      Chair Stan Cox reported on key issues from the previous
 evening meeting as follows:
 
 1)  G. Waines indicated that a proposal to collect wild wheats in
 SE Turkey prior to initiation of a large irrigation project was
 rejected.  In his reply to the proposal, Dr. Calvin Spurling, ARS,
 indicated that some species proposed for collection would not be
 endangered.  Waines will write a new proposal with more specific
 target areas and species.  
 
 2)  Funding proposals: The Wheat CAC recommended that $5,000 from
 ARS Genetics Stocks funds be used to pay a portion of the $21,000
 cost for a walk-in cold storage room at UC Riverside.  The walk-in
 is to be used for seed storage of wheat genetics stocks and related
 species.  The remainder of funds have already been pledged to
 Waines.  J. Peterson noted that $4,000 allocated in 1991 had been
 used for increase of Dr. Rosalind Morris' genetic stocks, and that
 these will soon be deposited in the National Seed Storage Lab.
 
 3) A. Atchley, Plant Variety Protection office reported that the 50
 wheat cultivar applications he faced when taking his new position
 in January '91 have been processed.  He expected that future
 applications will be processed more expeditiously.  Atchley
 discussed a proposal for dropping check cultivars on the revised
 PVP exhibit C.  The consensus of the CAC was that checks should be
 retained, but updating of the cultivars should be considered.  It
 was suggested that this be done in consultation with the NWIC and
 CAC.
 
 4) A suggestions was made that the CAC be a sub-committee of the
 NWIC rather than free-standing.  No action was taken.
 
 5)  B. Skovmand reported on CIMMYT germplasm database development. 
 CIMMYT is struggling with decisions on how much material to
 conserve, presently storing 3 to 4,000 new lines yearly.  Bulking
 of closely related sister lines was discussed.  CIMMYT has proposed
 formation of a Global Advisory Committee on Germplasm with first
 action occurring at the International Wheat Genetics Symposium in
 Beijing.  
 
 6)  H. Bockleman and M. Bohning discussed the GRIN 3 software
 design and new computer system for operations.  A PC version of
 GRIN on diskette is now available, on request.  The wheat database
 is largest of any crop and requires 50Mb storage.  Wheat accessions
 in GRIN have the original taxonomic designations entered when
 deposited, so that nomenclature is often confusing.  Waines will
 work with Bohning and John Wiersma, ARS Taxonomist, to clarify
 nomenclature and make information more useful.
 
 RESEARCH FUNDING NEEDS AND INITIATIVES
 
      D. Van Sanford reported on the need for a germplasm position
 in the southeast to work on resistances in Septoria, scab, and leaf
 rust.  Septoria Nodorum produces significant losses each year and
 scab is expected to increase with increased surface residues for
 erosion control.  Southern wheat workers have met with oat workers
 group and discussed possible joint wheat-oats disease specialist
 position.  Locations considered were Stuttgart, AR or Raleigh, NC. 
 Murphy favored locating position in North Carolina because of
 isolation and size of research unit at Stuttgart.  Possible
 legislative champions could be Bumpers from Arkansas or Price from
 North Carolina.  Concern was expressed for wide focus of position,
 which may affect potential for success.  Motion was made by Van
 Sanford: NWIC supports the need for a small grains germplasm
 enhancement position for diseases in the SE.  Seconded by D.
 Sammons and motion carried.  Item is to be included in legislative
 agenda.  Representatives of SE region are to consider optimal
 location and position focus and provide information to legislative
 committee.
 
      R. Sears reported on critical state of ARS funding in the
 Plant Science Unit at Kansas State Univ.   A 1991 initiative by the
 U.S.-Grain Marketing Research Lab to develop 4 new ARS positions,
 including funding for leaf rust work, and to bring the GMRL
 facility up to ACE code failed.  The need for regional germplasm
 support was discussed.  R. Bruns made a motion, seconded by J.
 Peterson, for the NWIC to vigorously support efforts to obtain
 additional funding for the ARS Plant Science Unit at Kansas State,
 using money from old or new sources.  Several expressed concern
 over potential impact of redirection of current funds and research
 efforts.  Murphy indicated that money could not be shifted between
 locations without permission from Congress.  D. Hole modified
 motion to drop use of either old or new money.  Modified motion
 passed.  Item will be added to legislative initiative.  
 
      R. Sears reported that the Smut research position at Bozeman,
 MT is not being filled due to inadequate funds.  R. Line indicated
 that others were working on smut, but efforts did not have focus. 
 Sears suggested writing letter to Plowman urging filling of the
 position.  Murphy agreed this would be appropriate, although it may
 not be filled anyway.  I. Edwards suggested including this item
 with legislative agenda as pathology package for wheat.  Discussion
 of advantages and disadvantages of single item or packaging of
 initiatives followed.  Intent is to include in legislative
 initiative, leaving legislative committee flexibility to package as
 appropriate.  
 
 STATUS OF U.S. RESEARCH FUNDING
 
      Regional representatives reported on surveys results regarding
 status of public research funding.  Peterson reported general
 trends in HRWW region were decreased research funding from state
 appropriations and Hatch funds.  State commodity board funding and
 industry contracts have increased.  There was disagreement on
 whether current research areas targeted in competitive grants were
 in the best interest of agriculture.  Most surveyed did not know
 how target areas were established or have not have input into the
 process.  Most also disagreed when asked if their peers were
 involved in the grant review and selection process.  Van Sanford
 reported on SE survey showing need for increased Hatch funds and
 difficulties in obtaining NRI grants for applied projects.  Zemetra
 indicated there is decreasing funding base for applied research and
 need for increased Hatch funds.  Joppa also indicated need for
 increased Hatch funds and survey suggested grants were appropriate
 for basic, but not applied, research efforts.  Dave Sammons will
 summarize results of the surveys and include as an informational
 item in the document prepared for the Legislative visit.
 
 DESIGN AND COORDINATION OF WHEAT GENOME DATABASE 
 
      Olin Anderson reported that significant progress has been made
 on computer programing for development of the Wheat Genome
 Database.  Data entry is concentrating on molecular markers at
 present.  Database access is free and four countries in addition to
 U.S. are now accessing system.  Anderson offered to demonstrate the
 system at the National Ag Library after the close of the NWIC
 meeting.  The database development is a five year program, and
 concern was expressed that budget cuts may abort the program.  A
 motion was made by Stan Cox for the NWIC to send letter to Plowman,
 ARS Administrator, supporting the Grain-Gene Database program. 
 Second by Van Sanford and motion passed.
 
      Updates of molecular mapping progress were presented at recent
 ITMI meeting and efforts are continuing.  Five wheat researchers
 have received $250,000 for mapping efforts in 1991 and $50,000 was
 made available for coordination of mapping efforts, meetings and
 workshops, and newsletter.  Anderson predicted that molecular
 isolation of genes in wheat will soon be forthcoming.  
 
 CIMMYT UPDATE
 
      Bent Skovmand reported on new Karnal Bunt infection that
 occurred at the CIMMYT Hermosillo seed increase site in 1992. 
 CIMMYT will not distribute seed for any International Wheat
 Nurseries this year.  Only durum and barley nurseries will be
 distributed.  They are developing new seed increase site 3 hours
 south of Mexico City in area that has never produced wheat before. 
 CIMMYT also has identified two resistant wheats which were released
 in Mexico.  They were derived from Chinese wheats and have low
 infection type.  
 
      Member of the NWIC expressed great concern over the CIMMYT
 press release that announced the end of leaf rust as an important
 wheat disease.  Several members indicated they have been placed in
 awkward situations in explaining current leaf rust status in the
 U.S.  Worrall suggested that NWIC draft a letter to Winkleman,
 CIMMYT Director General, expressing concern over statements made in
 the press release and to explain current U.S. situation.  Edwards
 suggested this might be used as basis of NWIC press release to
 document impact of wheat diseases in U.S. and generate support for
 NWIC initiatives for pathology funding.
 
 INTERNATIONAL GERMPLASM SUBCOMMITTEE REPORT
 
      Bockleman reported on approaches discussed with Busch,
 Peterson, Edwards, Briggs, and Skovmand.  The objective is to
 obtain new cultivars and breeding lines internationally for entry
 into the germplasm network.  The committee suggested the need to
 survey U.S. researchers to determine what and from where materials
 are now imported.  Key international programs need to be identified
 for exchange efforts.  Regional Committee Chairs will be asked to
 coordinate survey efforts and determine interests from each region. 
 Bockleman offered to help make contacts for exchange and increase
 up to 1,000 lines under quarantine each year for small scale
 distribution.  He also will develop statement for distribution for
 potential contributors regarding entry of germplasm into NSG
 Collection.  Materials to be targeted initially include germplasm
 from the Southern Cone, Turkey, and European contacts.  Bruns
 indicated that national lists and catalogs in European countries
 were available and could be helpful. 
 
 ELECTION OF NEW NWIC SECRETARY
 
      Busch nominated Jim Peterson for NWIC Secretary, Zemetra
 seconded.  Line moved nomination cease, Worrall seconded.  Peterson
 assumed duties as Secretary during meeting.  Peterson will prepare
 resolution of thanks to Bob Busch for his efforts as NWIC
 Secretary.
 
 WHEAT QUALITY COUNCIL
 
      Ben Handcock, Director of the Wheat Quality Council reported
 on efforts to merge HRW, HRS, eastern SW, and western SW into a
 National Wheat Quality Council.  Currently the HRW and eastern
 group have agreed to merger within a year.  Western and HRS groups
 are interested, but not yet committed.  The four groups will
 maintain autonomy with four major technical committees and separate
 annual meetings.  Every fifth year may be a single combined
 meeting.  A single board of trustees will oversee administration
 and fund raising only; it will not address technical issues. 
 Potential exists for consolidating significant political support
 from within the wheat industry for national lobbying efforts.  
      Concerns were expressed over potential for companies to
 earmark money to specific regions; i.e. providing money for eastern
 SW, rather than to the general fund.  Handcock indicated that
 separate budgets may be necessary for each group, but would prefer
 general fund with targeted discretionary funds.  WQC has developed
 a new mission statement that Handcock interprets as allowing
 Council to fund research efforts.  Long term goal may be to develop
 WQC as granting agency for wheat quality research efforts once
 initial funding is secured.  At a minimum, the WQC could serve as
 intermediary from research groups to interested companies. 
 Additional funding from Wheat Commissions based on production
 acreage in each state is also sought.
 
 WHEAT CLASSIFICATION UPDATE AND WHEAT QUALITY ISSUES
 
      Dr. W. Martinez reported on the Wheat Classification Working
 group and related activities.  The Single Kernel Wheat Hardness
 Tester (SKH), designed by the USDA Grain Marketing Research Lab at
 Manhattan, is now the machine of choice.  Pertin Instruments is
 working cooperatively with ARS on machine development, at no cost
 to ARS.  FGIS has two machines now and will put 6 more in the field
 for evaluation next spring.  The four Regional Quality Labs are
 planning to each have a machine in place by spring.  Goal of FGIS
 is implementation of the SKH tester for grain classification in
 1995.  FGIS has not yet dealt with methods for standardization of
 calibrations or development of calibration samples.  
 
       Cost of SKH tester is now projected at $10,000 to $15,000,
 much less than previously expected.  It will run 300 kernels in 10
 minutes and provide information on: means and standard deviations
 for hardness; weight of individual kernels; diameter of kernel from
 point of contact; moisture; and crush profile.  The machine could
 help measure milling efficiency, especially for kernel uniformity. 
 Goal of Pertin Instruments is to place a single kernel NIR unit up
 front of the SKH tester to measure protein, moisture, oil, etc. 
 Martinez stressed that the ARS and FGIS goal is to understand and
 document variation, not to dictate hardness goals.  Current
 breakpoint between hard and soft wheats is 38 on scale of 0 to 100.
 
      Martinez discussed possible development of a Test Weight
 Working Group similar to that for hardness.  NAWG is very
 interested and FGIS supports concept.  Van Sanford made a motion
 for NWIC to send a letter to FGIS supporting formation of the
 group.  Motion passed.  Possibly the SKH tester will be focus for
 the groups efforts to redefine TWT.
 
      Martinez commented that the next administration is big unknown
 since there has been no contact of Clinton transition team.  No
 chance and no interest at present time for new Wheat Variety
 Survey.  Some pressure to eliminate research effort in FGIS as
 duplication with ARS.  However, FGIS research delivers to the
 market and should not be decreased or seen as duplication.  Worrall
 recommended preparing a NWIC letter of support for FGIS research
 effort.  Sears suggested including it in a legislative packet as
 point of information and waiting to mail letter until new Secretary
 of Agriculture is appointed.  Preparation of letter supporting FGIS
 effort approved by consensus.
 
      Zemetra questioned ARS sprouting research and the need for
 rapid analyses during harvest.  Martinez indicated that basic
 research work exists but no instrumentation work at this time.  The
 ARS lab in Pullman is evaluating an instrument developed by the
 Australians for possible use in grain elevators.  However, cost of
 $30,000 for the unit is prohibitive for elevator use.  Goal is to
 add unit to SKH tester, when available and if possible, to measure
 sprouting.  Would like something NIR based, but nothing at present.
 
 
 PLANT VARIETY PROTECTION AND RELEASE POLICIES
 
      Regional Representatives reported on PVP surveys.  Peterson
 reported strong support in the HRWW region for PVP, as long as it
 does not infringe on germplasm exchange.  There was general support
 for restriction of the Farmers Exemption. Researchers oppose the
 use of Utility Patents for protecting varieties and expect their
 use will restrict germplasm exchange.  However, their parent
 organizations were generally in favor of Utility Patents.  Van
 Sanford reported support in the eastern region for restricting the
 Farmers Exemption in PVP.  The trend in the region is toward
 charging royalties for varieties and omission of the Registered
 class.  Joppa reported that the HRS group was mixed on support for
 PVP with only Minnesota currently protecting varieties.  Most did
 not support restriction of the Farmers Exemption.  Zemetra reported
 support for PVP in the SWW region and favor PVP over patenting. 
 The region split on support for restriction of Farmers Exemption
 with 60% in favor.  Edwards reminded the group that there is
 nothing in the PVP laws that would result in restriction of
 germplasm exchange. Utility patents would restrict exchange and
 require cross licence agreements. 
 
      Stan Cox reported on HRWWIC survey on variety release
 policies.  With the exception of Texas, most were standard release
 policies.  Texas allows for royalties to be charged on varieties
 and indicated the intent to handle germplasm on a 'more business
 like manner in the future'.  KS, NE, and MT anticipate no change in
 release policies.  OK and CO are open to change as needed to
 compete with programs in surrounding states.  Need the NWIC and
 Regional Committees to keep administrators aware of impact of
 release policy decisions on germplasm exchange and the Wheat
 Breeders Code of Ethics.  
 
      Shands discussed current position of '91 International
 Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV)
 treaty on plant variety protection.  The U.S. signed the treaty but
 it has not been introduced on floor of Senate.  Sen. Kerrey may
 introduce the bill sometime next year.  American Seed Trade
 Association is providing legal assistance to draft language in the
 bill.  UPOV '91 has two points which differ from past treaties. 
 First: no Farmers Exemption for selling protected varieties.
 Second: is introduction of the minimum distance or essentially
 derived concepts to protect a variety.  The Farm Bureau is a
 primary obstacle in getting the treaty passed.  Minimum distance is
 not yet defined.  To approve UPOV treaty, the Senate must first
 change the PVP laws, acknowledging that the objective of PVP is
 best served by adoption of UPOV.
 
      Busch reported on ASTA wheat subcommittee for development of
 essentially derived or minimum distance concepts.  Members include
 Busch; Edwards; Baenziger, Nebraska; Ohm, Purdue; Wilson, Trio;
 Heiner, AgriPro; and Erickson, HybriTech.  The subcommittee is to
 determine which methods result in essentially derived varieties,
 propose thresholds for genetic distance, and methods for measuring
 genetic distance.  Busch gave an update on directions of the group
 and concepts for essentially derived varieties and dependency
 currently under consideration.  The subcommittee is to prepare
 final recommendations for ASTA in the near future.
 
      Van Sanford moved that the NWIC prepare a letter reaffirming
 the NWIC PVP resolution of 1990, stating the foremost concern of
 the NWIC regarding PVP is free exchange of germplasm, and that the
 NWIC supports the UPOV '91 position restricting the farmer
 exemption in PVP.  Second by Bruns, motion carried.  Sears and
 Peterson to draft wording and circulate to Regional Chairs for
 comments and approval.  Letter is to be included in legislative
 packet and sent to ASTA.
 
 LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS
 
      Representatives of the NWIC Legislative Action Subcommittee
 will develop plans to visit Capitol Hill sometime in March, 1993. 
 Chairman Sears and the subcommittee will coordinate preparation of
 the legislative booklet and identify key congressional staff for
 contacts.  The primary goal of the visit will be to obtain funding
 for a 'National Wheat Pathology Research Initiative'.  This
 initiative is to cover the areas of pathology research identified
 earlier by the NWIC as both critical to the national interests and
 underfunded.  Areas targeted include: support for the Plant Science
 unit at Manhattan for Leaf Rust work; funds for the Smut position
 at Bozeman; and new position for pathology/germplasm enhancement in
 the eastern wheat region.  Key representatives from these states
 will be contacted to co-sponsor legislation and identify champions. 
 Emphasis will be placed on impact of Karnal Bunt and Dwarf Smut on
 export markets and other diseases which impact on competitiveness
 of U.S. growers and wheat quality.  Researchers not on the NWIC
 will likely be asked to participate in lobbying efforts, especially
 those from states with key congressional representatives.
 
 NEXT MEETING
 
      Bent Skovmand offered, on behalf of CIMMYT, to hold the next
 NWIC meeting at CIMMYT headquarters in El Batan, Mexico next
 November.  The move to Mexico for '93 was justified by the
 opportunity to discuss issues with CIMMYT regarding germplasm
 exchange and international quarantine problems.  Dates of November
 17-19 or 18-20 were suggested.  Bruns moved to accept the
 invitation, with Zemetra second.  Motion carried.  The meeting was
 then adjourned by Dr. Sears.
 
 Respectfully submitted, C. James Peterson, Secretary.
 
 
 RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED AT THE NATIONAL WHEAT IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE
 MEETING,
 COLLEGE PARK, MARYLAND, NOVEMBER 20-21, 1992
 
 
 SUBJECT: PLANT VARIETY PROTECTION
      TO: Dave Lambert and Art Armbrust, American Seed Trade
 Association
          Vance Watson, American Association of Seed Certifying
 Agencies
 
 WHEREAS, the National Wheat Improvement Committee recognizes the
 need for protection of, and return on, plant breeding investments. 
 The Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) of 1970 was passed with the
 intent to stimulate private plant breeding research and provide a
 mechanism for maintaining property rights on developed seed
 varieties.  
 
 WHEREAS, the PVPA has not provided adequate economic and
 intellectual protection of plant breeding products to justify
 research investments.  The farmer exemption in PVPA is too broad
 and has proven to be unenforceable.  The exemption has resulted in
 wide scale brown-bagging and unauthorized sales of protected
 varieties which has had a negative economic impact on private plant
 breeding efforts and seed companies.
 
 WHEREAS, the foremost concern of the NWIC is the potential impact
 of variety and germplasm protection on germplasm exchange.  The
 PVPA research exemption has provided for, and resulted in,
 continuation of free germplasm exchange and development.  Plant
 Utility Patents have, and are further expected, to result in
 restricted germplasm exchange among breeding programs.
 
 WHEREAS, the 1991 International Convention for the Protection of
 New Varieties of Plants, or UPOV treaty, provides for enhanced
 protection of intellectual property rights and plant varieties
 developed by breeding through restriction and clarification of the
 farmer exemption. 
 
 THEREFORE, be it resolved that the NWIC supports amendment of the
 Plant Variety Protection Act to restrict the farmer exemption
 clause as proposed in 1991 UPOV treaty.  The objective of the PVPA
 is best served by adoption of the UPOV policy. U.S. agriculture
 will directly benefit through enhanced development of new plant
 varieties.  The NWIC continues to strongly support the research
 exemption in the PVPA to provide for free exchange of plant
 germplasm.
 
 SUBJECT: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF HOSTS
 
 WHEREAS, the University Maryland has served as an excellent host of
 the 1992 National Wheat Improvement Committee and Wheat Crop
 Advisory Committee, and,
 
 WHEREAS, our hosts have expended much time and effort to ensure
 that the meetings were successful,
 
 THEREFORE, be it resolved that the members of the NWIC and WCAC
 sincerely thank our hosts from the University of Maryland: Dr.
 David Sammons; Dr. Bryan Johnson, Director of the Agricultural
 Experiment Station; Dr. Richard Weismiller, Chairman, Department of
 Agronomy; and the management and staff of the Quality Inn, College
 Park, Maryland.
 
 SUBJECT: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF DR. BOB BUSCH'S CONTRIBUTIONS AS NWIC
 SECRETARY
 
 WHEREAS, Dr. Bob Busch has provided three years of dedicated and
 able service to the wheat research community through his position
 as Secretary of the National Wheat Improvement Committee, and,
 
 WHEREAS, he has expended much time and effort in the organization
 of meetings, recording of activities, and distribution of
 resolutions and information,
 
 THEREFORE, be it resolved that member of the NWIC express their
 collective appreciation to Dr. Busch for his distinguished service
 and contributions to the National Wheat Improvement effort.
 
 
 December 2, 1992
 
 Dr. R. D. Plowman, Administrator
 USDA-ARS
 Room 302A Administration Bldg.
 Department of Agriculture
 Washington, D.C.  20250
 
 Dear Dr. Plowman,
 
 During the recent National Wheat Improvement Committee meetings in
 College Park, the committee discussed the actions we have taken
 regarding the Genetics Stocks position at the University of
 Missouri.  Although many members of the committee still feel
 strongly about this critical position, we elected to drop it from
 our legislative action items.  The committee chose to refocus their
 efforts on support for applied and basic wheat pathology-genetics
 positions within ARS.
 
 Although the wheat genetics stocks position is still extremely
 important, it appears to the committee that obtaining funding at
 this time would be difficult.  Maintenance of the stocks by Dr.
 Gustafson and characterization and creation of new stocks by Dr.
 Lukaszewski is proceeding well considering the limited funds that
 both scientists have to operate these programs.
 
 Sincerely, signed: R. G. Sears, Chairman, NWIC
 cc: Dr. Mitchell
 
 
 December 2, 1992
 
 Dr. R. D. Plowman, Administrator
 USDA-ARS
 Room 302A Administration Bldg.
 Department of Agriculture
 Washington, D.C.  20250
 
 Dear Dr. Plowman,
 
 During the recent National Wheat Improvement Committee meetings in
 College Park, MD, held Nov. 19-21, 1992, Dr. Brooks reported that
 the smut disease position located at Bozeman, MT, would not be
 filled in the immediate future because of funding constraints.  He
 indicated to the committee that, despite an additional $100,000 of
 new funds in 1990, this unit would still be inadequately funded
 should a third position be filled at this time.
 
 As you know, the NWIC, for nearly 8 years has been extremely
 concerned about the lack of a small grain smut pathologist within
 USDA-ARS.  We have written several letters indicating our concern. 
 Expertise is needed to assist APHIS in dealing with quarantine
 issues regarding both Karnal bunt and Flag smut.  Both loose and
 covered smut continue to cause economic damage in many wheat
 growing areas.  Dwarf bunt has impacted our ability to sell wheat
 to China.  Leadership in this vital research area is badly needed.
 
 At last years NWIC meeting in Reno, Nevada, we understood that the
 smut position would be filled at Bozeman, MT which the committee
 received with great enthusiasm.  We were dismayed to learn of the
 change in plans.
 
 I'm writing this letter to enforce the continued strong endorsement
 the NWIC feels in regard to filling this position at Bozeman.
 
 Sincerely, signed: R. G. Sears, Chairman, NWIC
 cc: Dr. Jacobson
 
 
 January 21, 1993
 
 Dr. R. D. Plowman, Administrator
 USDA-ARS
 Room 302A Administration Bldg.
 Department of Agriculture
 Washington, D.C.  20250
 
 Dear Dr. Plowman,
 
 The National Wheat Improvement Committee would like to take this
 opportunity to renew our support of the wheat genetic map database. 
 At the annual NWIC meeting in November, Dr. Olin Anderson, USDA-
 ARS, reported on the development and current status of the wheat
 genetic map database.
 
 Genetic maps of wheat and related species have grown rapidly in the
 past few years.  Scientists continue to add to our knowledge of
 wheat on an almost monthly basis, providing new information on
 linkage of molecular and other genetic loci, physical maps of
 chromosomes, special genetic stocks, chromosome banding, storage
 proteins, and disease or insect resistance.
 
 Much of this work has been, or is carried out by US scientists
 associated with the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative
 (ITMI).  This year, an ITMI mapping proposal was granted funding
 from the USA Plant Genome Program, so we can expect an acceleration
 in the generation of new genetic data for wheat.
 
 Over the past two years, the Plant Genome Database Program has done
 an excellent job of initiating a system to collect, process, and
 store genetic data from diverse sources.  This system allows
 researchers to retrieve information in a convenient and useful
 form.  In the case of the wheat database, the information is not
 limited to genetic map distances.  Pedigree and descriptor
 information for released US wheat cultivars is also included.  Such
 information will be useful to breeders searching for sources of
 pest resistance or quality traits, for example.
 
 Much work remains, however, if the wheat genome computer software
 is to be fully developed and the increasing volume of relevant data
 entered.  Because the Wheat Genome Database Program, coordinated by
 Dr. Anderson, has made great strides in pulling together diverse
 sources of expertise in creating and implementing this software,
 and because we expect an increasing need for a system to
 accommodate new genetic data, the NWIC urges USDA-ARS to continue
 full funding of the Wheat Genome Database Program.
 
 Sincerely, signed: R. G. Sears, Chairman, NWIC
 cc: H. Shands, USDA-ARS-NPS 
     C. Murphy, USDA-ARS-NPS
     J. Miksche, USDA-ARS-NPS
 
 
 January 21, 1993
 
 Mr. Dave Galliert, Acting Administrator
 Federal Grain Inspection Service
 Room 1094, South Agricultural Bldg.
 14th and Independence Ave., SW
 Washington, DC  20250
 
 Dear Mr. Galliert,
 
 The National Wheat Improvement Committee (NWIC) met recently in
 College Park, MD.  As it has since 1987, the NWIC reviewed and
 discussed the issue of low test weight wheat and the resultant
 discounts in prices received by wheat growers.  As you recall, our
 committee has sent resolutions to FGIS and other organizations
 which express our concerns for growers, particularly in the soft
 red winter wheat region, who have been penalized by a grading
 factor which, studies have shown, is not always a good predictor of
 grain quality.
 
 At this year's meeting, the discussion took on a different tone
 when Ms. Wilda Martinez, USDA-ARS-NPS, presented data on the single
 kernel hardness tester developed at the U.S. Grain Marketing
 Research Laboratory in Manhattan, KS.  In addition to its intended
 use as an indicator of grain hardness, the instrument shows
 considerable promise as a predictor of flour yield.  The
 preliminary data indicates that the hardness tester may be a better
 predictor of flour yield than test weight.  We were all quite
 impressed with the new technology, and especially pleased to learn
 of its potential utility in addressing the problem of test weight.
 
 We feel this effort should be extended by establishing a working
 group to evaluate and implement new technology could supplant test
 weight as a grading and marketing factor.  May I suggest that FGIS
 take the lead in this endeavor, with cooperation from USDA-ARS and
 the National Association of Wheat Growers, much as was done with
 the wheat hardness working group.  I would also take the liberty of
 suggesting names of several individuals who would be willing to
 help organize this working group: Wilda Martinez and Virgil Smail,
 USDA-ARS; David Sammons, wheat breeder, University of Maryland; and
 Robert Bacon, wheat breeder, University of Arkansas.
 
 We appreciate your willingness to consider this idea.  This is an
 eventful time in the wheat community, as millers, bakers, and
 breeders are forming new and effective lines of communication. 
 Their mutual interest lies in the accurate characterization and
 promotion of grain quality.  It appears that the technology is now
 available which may tell us more about grain quality than measuring
 test weight.  We urge FGIS to pursue this effort, and we pledge to
 cooperate in any way possible.
 
 Sincerely, R. G. Sears, Chair, NWIC
 cc: Ellen Ferguson, NAWG Foundation
     Jeff Lundberg, President, NAWG
     Dean Plowman, Administrator, ARS
 
 
 January 21, 1993
 
 The Honorable Mr. Mike Espy
 Secretary of Agriculture
 Room 200A
 14th and Independence Ave., SW
 Washington, DC  20250
 
 Dear Mr. Espy,
 
 Congratulations on your appointment as Secretary of Agriculture. 
 As a committee representing wheat researchers throughout the United
 States we look forward to working with you on the problems facing
 agriculture; both today and tomorrow.
 
 Recently during our annual 1992 meeting it was brought to our
 attention that there has been recent criticism of the applied
 research being conducted by the Federal Grain Inspection Service. 
 For the past 10 years, FGIS has been conducting research toward a
 more objective classification system for wheat, based upon single
 kernel hardness.  As a national committee, we feel strongly that
 the research conducted by FGIS has been timely, efficient, well
 done and has certainly met the needs of the industry.  As possible
 budget cuts are planned, the NWIC wants to restate our strong
 belief that the monies spent by FGIS on applied classification
 problems has been well spent and in the best interests of the US
 farm economy.
 
 In 1982, when the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station released
 the variety Arkan and subsequent classification problems developed,
 many questions were asked regarding accuracy of the current system. 
 At that time FGIS responded that they were a service organization
 charged with classification of grains and that they did not conduct
 research.  To NWIC's amazement, little research had been done
 verifying the accuracy and repeatability of FGIS classification
 over the years since the Grain Classification Act in 1919. 
 Although in large part considered reliable and efficient, no actual
 numbers existed to verify accuracy and repeatability.
 
 In 1984 the NWIC issued a series of statements regarding the
 current system of grain classification based upon kernel
 morphology.  We recommended to FGIS and ARS that research be
 directed toward an objective classification system as soon as
 possible.  In 1985 a task force was appointed by the administrator
 of FGIS, representing all segments of the wheat industry to work
 with both agencies on research and possible implementation of a new
 objective classification system.  This has evolved into the
 potential of a new single kernel hardness measurement to classify
 hard and soft wheats, with the potential of future classification
 of winter wheat and spring wheat.  I recalled these developments
 because much of the progress in this area has been contributed by
 applied research conducted by FGIS personnel.
 
 Since 1982 FGIS has been actively involved in applied research
 developments regarding future objective classification of wheat
 based upon single kernel hardness.  Their work has been pivotal in
 the rapid progress that has been made.  They have cooperated
 actively with state researchers as well as ARS and SAS.  As future
 problems develop involving classification, measurement, and
 handling of grain, the NWIC feels that it is important that FGIS
 retain funding for applied research in evaluating future tests and
 procedures.
 
 The money utilized for this research has been utilized very
 effectively.  As a committee, we acknowledge the excellent work
 FGIS has done in applied research areas involving grain
 classification and we endorse the continued support of FGIS to
 conduct applied research in the future.
 
 Sincerely, signed: R. G. Sears, Chairman, NWIC
 cc: Dave Galliert, Acting Administrator, FGIS
     R. D. Plowman, Administrator, ARS
 
 
 
 MEMBERS OF NATIONAL
 WHEAT IMPROVEMENT
 COMMITTEE
 February 1993
                    
                  
 Dr. R.G. Sears,
 Chair             
 Dept. of Agronomy
 Kansas State Unversity
 Manhattan, KS 66506
 (913) 532-7245
 FAX: (913)-532-6094
 
 Dr. C.J. Peterson,
 Secretary
 USDA-ARS
 Dept. of Agronomy
 University of Nebraska
 Lincoln, NE  68583
 (402) 472-5191
 FAX: (402) 437-5254
 
 Eastern Wheat
 Region
 
 Dr. D. Van Sanford,
 Chair
 Dept. of Agronomy
 University of Kentucky
 Lexington, KY 40506
 (606) 257-5811
 FAX: (606) 258-5842
 
 Dr. H.E.Bockelman,
 Secretary
 USDA-ARS
 P.O. Box 386
 Aberdeen, ID  83210
 (208) 397-4162
 FAX: (208) 397-4165
 
 Dr. D.J. Sammons
 Department of Agronomy
 University of Maryland
 College Park, MD 20742
 (301) 405-1340
 FAX: (301) 314-9041
 
 Dr. R. Bacon
 115 Plant Science
 University of Arkansas
 Fayetteville, AR 72701
 (501) 575-5725
 FAX: (501) 575-7465
 
 National Assoc. of
 Wheat Growers
 
 Ellen Ferguson
 Director, NAWG
 Foundation
 415 Second St. NE
 Suite 300
 Washington, DC 20002
 (202) 547-7800
 FAX: (202) 546-2638
 
 Great Plains Spring
 Wheat Region
 
 Dr. Gary Hareland,
 Chair
 USDA-ARS-NPA
 Northern Crop
 Science Lab
 P.O. Box 5677--
 Univ. Sta.
 Fargo, ND  58105
 (701) 237-7728
 
 Dr. R.H. Busch,
 Secretary
 USDA-ARS
 411 Borlaug Hall
 University of Minnesota
 St. Paul, MN  55108
 (612) 625-1975
 FAX: (612) 625-1268
 
 Dr. Leonard Joppa
 USDA-ARS-NPA
 Northern Crop
 Science Lab
 1307 N 18th St
 P.O. Box 5677--
 Univ. Sta.
 Fargo, ND  58105
 (701) 239-1339
 FAX:
 
 
 Dr. R. Frohberg
 Dept. of Crop &
 Weed Sci
 North Dakota State Univ.
 Fargo, ND  58105
 (701) 237-7971
 FAX:
 
 Great Plains Winter
 Wheat Region
 
 R. Bruns, Chair
 Agripro Bioscience, Inc.
 806 N. Second St.,
 P.O. Box 30
 Berthaud, CO  80513
 (303) 532-3721
 FAX: (303) 532-2035
 
 Dr. T.S. Cox,
 Secretary
 USDA-ARS
 Throckmorton Hall,
 Rm. 421
 Kansas State University
 Manhattan, KS 66506
 FAX:(913) 532-5692
 (913) 532-726
 
 Dr. W.D. Worrall
 P.O. Box 1658
 Vernon, TX  76384
 (817) 552-9941
 FAX: (817) 553-4657
 
 TBA
 
 Western Wheat
 Region
 
 Dr. R.S. Zemetra,
 Chair
 Dept. of Plant,
 Soil & Ent. Sci.
 University of Idaho
 Moscow, ID  83843
 (208) 885-7810
 FAX: (208) 885-7760
 
 Dr. R.F. Line,
 Secretary
 USDA-ARS
 361 Johnson Hall
 Washington State University
 Pullman, WA  99164
 (509) 335-3755
 FAX: (509) 335-7674
 
 Dr. C.O. Qualset
 Dept. of Agronomy &
 Range Science
 University of California - Davis
 Davis, CA  95616
 (916) 752-3265
 FAX:
 
 Dr. R.E. Allan
 USDA-ARS
 Johnson Hall
 Washington State University
 Pullman, WA  99164
 (509) 335-3632
 FAX: (509) 335-8674
 
 --------------------
                        WHEAT WORKERS CODE OF ETHICS
 
      "This seed is being distributed in accordance with the
      `Wheat Workers Code of Ethics for Distribution of Germplasm'
      developed by the National Wheat Improvement Committee
      10/27/76.  Acceptance of this seed constitutes Agreement."
 
      1.   The originating breeder, station or company has certain
           rights to the unreleased material.  These rights are
           not waived with the distribution of seeds or plant
           material but remain with the originator for disposal at
           this initiative.
 
      2.   The recipient of unreleased seeds or plant material
           shall make no secondary distributions of the germplasm
           without the permission of the owner/breeder.
 
      3.   The owner/breeder in distributing unreleased seeds or
           other propagating material, grants permission for use
           (1) in tests under the recipient's control, (2) as a
           parent for making crosses from which selections will be
           made, and (3) for induction of mutations. All other
           uses, such as testing in regional nurseries, increase
           and release as a cultivar, selection from the stock,
           use as parents in commercial F1 hybrids or synthetic or
           multiline cultivars, require the written approval of
           the owner/breeder.
 
      4.   Plant materials of this nature entered in crop cultivar
           trials shall not be used for seed increase.  Reasonable
           precautions to insure retention or recovery of plant
           materials at harvest shall be taken.
 
      5.   The distributor of wheat germplasm stocks may impose
           additional restrictions on use or may waiver any of the
           above.
 
 --------------------
             WHEAT DATABASE ORGANIZATION AND 1992 PROGRESS REPORT
 
             Olin D. Anderson and David Matthews
 
      A wheat prototype database is being assembled as part of the
 USDA's Plant Genome Program.  The initial priority of the
 database is to accumulate genome mapping and probe/clone/library
 information.  Additional data areas will include germplasm,
 genetics, and traits.  The goal of the USDA is to maintain a
 master database at the National Agricultural Library where data
 from all plant species is collated.  The data is intended for
 public access and distribution, and cooperation with the
 international research community is encouraged. 
 
     The USDA Genome Database Project is headed by Jerome Miksche,
 and the wheat database prototype is coordinated by Olin Anderson
 (Albany, CA).  The master wheat database is currently running at
 Cornell University (David Matthews and Mark Sorrells) and is
 accessible via INTERNET.  Copies have been downloaded to three
 other sites: Albany, California; Clermont, France (Philippe
 Leroy); Australian National Genetic Information Service, Sydney,
 Australia (Alex Reisner).  The main efforts in this program are
 to establish the hardware and software systems to construct and
 maintain a wheat database, and coordinate the loading of all
 available and useful data. Currently, two parrallel databases are
 in development; a future version will likely merge the different
 capabilities of the two systems.  The graphical interface
 database is based on ACEDB; originally writen for the
 Caenorhabditis elegans genome project.   This is the more
 sophisticated database with more capabilities, but also requires
 more hardware to access.  The ACEDB version at present contains
 limited data, but is in development.  Some of the items loaded
 are one map each for barley, Triticum tauschii, sugarcane, and
 oats, and the Australian clone bank list, plus clones from Mark
 Sorrells and Bikram Gill, etc.  The ACEDB version has graphic
 capability and there are approximately ten images loaded for
 examination and comment.  We are particularly interested in ideas
 about the scope and use of such graphic capability.
 
 
      The second "database" is termed a "gopher" (go-for-data),
 and is a text based system with easier access but more limited
 searching capability.  Two advantages of the gopher are the
 ability to browse and the ability to perform simple searches on
 large files.  Some of the files either currently on the gopher or
 planned are: Annual Wheat Newsletters (Jim Quick, editor); wheat
 gene catalog (Bob McIntosh, curator), Catalog of North American
 cultivars (Ken Kephart, editor), lists of germplasm (cultivars,
 genetic stocks, taxonomy, etc.), etc.  This medium is a natural
 for "lists" of data and review articles/monographs.  Anyone who
 assembles such data or is aware of a source of such data is
 encouraged to contact database personnel who will not edit such
 data but simply make it available without comment on the gopher
 system.
 
      The wheat database prototype is being designed and
 implemented in collaboration with the Computer Science Division
 of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (John McCarthy, 510-486-5307,
 principal contact).  The prototype operates on Sun workstations
 (plus mass storage devices) operating as servers.  Other UNIX
 systems can also run the programs, and there may be Mac and DOS
 versions in the next year.  Access is currently available by
 contacting David Matthews, Olin Anderson, or Susan Altenbach.
 Users should be aware that the database is still developmental. 
 Many data areas are sparse, but users are encouraged to explore
 what is available and feed back comments.  Particularly critical
 is information on additional data sources including
 researchers/sites which are already collating useful data. 
 
      DATA COORDINATORS: We have identified specific areas that
 require data assembly and organization, and have formed a
 committee of coordinators.  As is inherent in such databases many
 areas are overlapping and will require input from several areas
 of expertise.  As the need becomes apparent, 'subcommittees' will
 form around broad topics.  The following individuals have agreed
 to serve as the coordination committee for the wheat database:
 
 Cytology           Bikram Gill, Department of Plant Pathology,
                    Kansas State University, Throckmorton Hall, Manhattan, KS
 
                    66506, Tel: 913-532-6176 FAX: 913-532-5692,
                    Email:raupp@ksuvm.ksu.edu
 
 Database Assembly  Olin Anderson, USDA, ARS, WRRC, 800 Buchanan, Albany, CA
 & maintenance      94710, Tel: 510-559-5773  FAX: 510-559-5777
                    Email:oanderson@wheat.usda.gov 
 
 Genetics           Gary Hart, Department of Soil & Crop ciences, Texas A&M
 Nomenclature       University, College Station, TX 77843, Tel:409-845-8293
                    FAX: 409-845-0456,Email:geh2432@zeus.tamu.edu
 
 Genetic Stocks     Perry Gustafson, USDA, ARS, Department of Agronomy,
                    University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, Tel:
                    314-882-7318   FAX: 314-875-5359,
                    Email:gro1375@mizzou1.missouri.edu
 
 Germplasm          Ken Kephart, 214 Waters Hall, University of Missouri,
                    Columbia,MO 65211, Tel: 314-882-2001   FAX: 314-884-4317 
                    Email:Ken Kephart@teosinte.agron.missouri.edu
 
 Pathology          David Porter, USDA, ARS, Oklahoma State University,
                    Stillwater, OK 74075. Tel:405-624-4212   FAX:405-372-1398
 
                    Email:portdrp@vms.ucc.okstate.edu 
 
 Probe Library,     Susan Altenbach,  USDA, ARS, WRRC, 800 Buchanan St,
 References         Albany, CA 94710, Tel: 510-559-5614  FAX: 510-559-
                    5777  Email: altnbach@wheat.usda.gov
 
 Proteins; Gel      Bob Graybosch, USDA, ARS, Department of Agronomy, 322
 patterns,Wheat     Keim Hall, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska,
 Quality            Tel: 402-472-1563 FAX:402-437-5234,
                    Email:agro100@unlvm.unl.edu
 
 Data Entry,        Mark Sorrells, Dept. of Plant Breeding & Biometry,
 Coordination       Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, Tel:607-255-1665  FAX:
                    607-255-6683, mail:mark_sorrells@qmrelay.mail.cornell.edu
 
 Data Entry,        David Matthews, Dept. of Plant Breeding & Biometry,
 Coord., Main.,     Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, Tel: 607-255-9951 FAX:
 Database Design    607-255-6683, Email: matthews@greengenes.cit.cornell.edu
 
 Database Design,   John McCarthy, Computer Sciences Division, Lawrence,
 Coordination       Berkeley Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA
                    94720.0, Tel: 510-486-5307  FAX: 510-486-4004 
                    Email: JLMccarthy@lbl.gov
 
      Anyone with interests in participating in database design,
 data contributions, data assembly in any of these specific areas
 should contact the appropriate coordinator or Olin Anderson.
 
      To facilitate gathering of mapping data, the database
 personnel are working closely with the International Triticeae
 Mappping Initiative (ITMI) organization.  ITMI is an
 international group with the purpose of facilitating the mapping
 and dissemination of resulting data on important members of the
 grass tribe Triticeae, which includes wheat, rye, barley, and
 ancestral species and related wild grasses.  Dr. Calvin Qualset
 (Dept. of Agronomy & Range Science, Univ. Calif., Davis) is ITMI
 coordinator.  
 
      The wild ancestral genomes of wheat and wild grasses
 amenable to breeding with wheat are critical sources of new genes
 for traits such as yield, and pest and stress resistance. The
 database will therefore contain mapping (and other) data from
 these genomes as available. 
 COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS:  Contracts from the wheat database
 prototype project have been completed with several sites.  These
 include a contract to ITMI (Cal Qualset) for assisting in mapping
 coordination by ITMI and resource development with Jan Dvorak (UC
 Davis) and Gary Hart (Texas A&M).  Mark Sorrells and Steven
 Tanksley (Cornell) are supported for a programmer position for
 data input and the development of software routines, along with
 the necessary hardware to serve as a major site of data input and
 database access.  Cornell will also assist the Barley and Oat
 Groups, and possibly others, in data input as these group desire. 
 Bikram Gill (Kansas State) will be overseeing the assembly of
 wheat cytogenetic data for the database.  Wheat nomenclature and
 genetics will be the contribution of Gary Hart (Texas A&M).  Data
 on North American wheat cultivars already being cataloged by Ken
 Kephart (Missouri) will be further coordinated with other
 databases such as the Germplasm Information Network (GRIN) and
 the USDA Small Grains Repository at Aberdeen, Idaho, and CIMMYT
 in Mexico City.  Also at Missouri is Perry Gustafson who is
 coordinating data on genetic stocks.  Future Cooperative
 Agreements may be arranged for other areas such as pathology and
 wheat storage proteins.  David Porter (Oklahoma State) is
 assembling examples of data on pathology and pests to assess for
 database design and input.  Grain proteins are a major
 contributor to quality traits in wheat and examples are being
 organized by Bob Graybosch at Nebraska.
 
      PRIORITIES FOR THE NEXT YEAR:  The next year will
 concentrate on extensions of the database models and the
 gathering of available information.  We hope to have included all
 available mapping and probe information, significants amounts of
 data on genetics, and a large section on wheat germplasm.  
 
      LONG-TERM CONSIDERATONS:  Although the USDA is supporting
 the initial stages of database development, the success of this
 program will depend greatly on the cooperation and participation
 of laboratories throughtout the Triticeae research community
 world-wide.  We are particularly interested in cooperating with
 members of international community whom are recognized,
 officially or unofficially, as curators of data.  The USDA will
 concentrate on hardware, software, assembly of combined
 databases, database access, and will only preform minor curator
 functions; each plant community will be called on to organize and
 update their own plant system.  
 
      All laboratories possessing relevant data are urged to
 deposit their data with the database personnel.  Any laboratory
 interested in accessing the databases or running the databases
 locally can contact Olin Anderson, Susan Altenbach, or David
 Matthews.  Potential users are reminded again that this is a
 developing database effort, therefore gaps in data should be
 expected.  However, all users are encouraged to make both
 suggestions on improvements and new sources of data.
      
 --------------------
          USDA RESEARCH ON WHEAT AND RYE, 1863 TO 1972
 
          J. G. Moseman, J. H. Martin and c. R. Adair, Former USDA,
 Ag. Res. Service Employees1/
 
 
 1/  J. G Moseman, retired, present address: 1918 Blackbriar St.,
 Silver Spring, MD 20903. J. H. Martin, and C. R. Adair, deceased
                                   Preface
 
          The U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) initiated
 research on wheat and rye in 1863 when the Department of Ag. was
 assigned the area in Washington, D. C. between 12th and 14th
 streets as an experimental tract by the Commissioner of Public
 Buildings.  Many scientists within the Department have conducted
 research on wheat and rye.  Research in the Department was
 organized by specific crops until June of 1972 when the
 Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in the USDA was reorganized
 with research being conducted by areas and regions within the
 United States, and not by specific crops.
 
          This is a section of a publication entitled "Origin and
 History of Research on Wheat, Rye, Corn, Sorghum, Barley, Oats,
 Rice, and Weeds by the U. S. Department of Agriculture from 1836
 to 1972" which will be maintained in the National Agricultural
 Library (NAL) at Beltsville, MD. That publication is a historical
 review of the organizations and agencies in the U. S. Government,
 and projects and personnel that conducted research on cereal and
 the other grain crops from 1836 until 1972.  The administration
 of the agricultural research  is described in the first section. 
 Included in that section are the designations of the
 organizations and agencies, and the names of the administrators,
 and the years that they served.  The research conducted on each
 crop wheat and  rye, corn, sorghum, barley, oats, flax and weeds
 is summarized in separate sections.    
 
          The information was assembled over a period of about 30
 years.  J. H. Martin, who was a Dept. of Ag. employee from 1914
 until 1963, compiled most of the information from before he
 retired.  He reviewed many memoranda, official documents, and
 other information in the Cereal Crops Research Branch (CCRB)
 office at Beltsville, MD.  He also obtained information from many
 former and present employees of the Department.  The five crop
 investigation leaders, L. P. Reitz (wheat and rye), G. F. Sprague
 (corn and  sorghum), G. A. Wiebe (barley), H. C. Murphy (oats),
 and C. R. Adair (rice) each prepared a summary of research that
 had been conducted on their crop. 
 
          Following the 1972 reorganization of ARS, C. R. Adair, who
 had conducted research on rice in the Department  from 1931 until
 1972, and who had been Leader, Rice Invest. since 1952, continued
 the compilation of information.  Adair was senior author on two
 papers entitled "A summary of Rice Production Investigations in
 the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1898 to 1972"in Vol 26, The
 Rice Journal, 1975.  He also compiled, but never published,
 additional information relating to research on wheat and rye. 
  
          Since he retired in 1986, J. G. Moseman, who had conducted
 research of small grains (wheat, oats and barley) in the
 Department since 1950, and was Leader, Barley Invest. from 1969
 until 1972, continued the compilation of information.  He
 contacted administrators who had been involved in crops research
 in the Department before, and in 1972.  Many of those
 administrators verified and added to the information regarding
 personnel, and the time that they and other individuals were
 involved as administrators.  He contacted leading scientists, who
 were or had been involved in research on wheat and rye at most of
 the locations where research had been conducted on those crops. 
 Those scientists verified and modified the information which had
 been compiled, and added names and times when other scientists
 were at their location.  He also obtained information regarding
 specific individuals from the Am. Men of Science and other
 publications and records.
 
          This section, entitled "Research on Wheat and Rye by the U.
 S. Department of Agriculture from 1863 to 1972", is a
 summarization of the information which was compiled on research
 on wheat and rye.  The information has been greatly condensed. 
 Many of the administrators, and research scientists had long,
 exciting, and productive careers.  However, information regarding
 the education and experiences of only a few of the early
 administrators and research scientists has been included.  The
 research scientists at each location are listed in chronological
 order, and by discipline to better describe their research and
 changes in research conducted at each location.  Often the
 relationship of research between locations has been described. 
 
          Many individuals contributed information and suggestions
 included in this section.  Without their cooperation it would not
 have been possible to complete the review.  I thank each of those
 individuals.  They greatly increased the accuracy and value of
 the information.
 
                      Early History and Administration
 
          Research on wheat and rye in the U. S. Department of
 Agriculture (USDA) was initiated in 1863 when the area on the
 mall in Washington, D. C. between the 12th and 14th streets was
 assigned to the Dept. of Ag. as an experimental tract by the
 Commissioner of Public Buildings.  However, until April, 1865 the
 land was not available because it was "essentially necessary to
 the War Dept. as a cattle yard".  In the fall of 1865, part of
 the land was plowed, fertilized, and planted to 346 cultivars
 including 62 cultivars of winter wheat, mostly from France,
 Russia, Prussia, Great Britian, Chile, and China.  In the spring
 of 1866, 66 cultivars of spring wheat, including Arnautka durum,
 17 of oats, 13 of barley, including Oderbrucker, 17 of rye, 19 of
 corn and 4 of sorghum were planted.
   
          A tragedy occurred in connection with the experiments in
 1866.  In July, a thunderstorm was approaching during the
 harvesting of the wheat plots, and in helping to put some of the
 wheat under shelter, Commissioner Isaac Newton, who had hurried
 from his office dressed warmly and wearing a silk hat, was
 overcome by heat and over exertion.  He never fully recovered
 from this shock which caused his death on July 19, 1867 at the
 age of 67.  It is not recorded that any other Dept. of Ag.
 employee has died from over exertion in caring for cereal plots. 
 In 1867, the cereal cultivars in the plots included 43 winter
 wheat, 66 spring wheat, 5 winter rye, 16 spring rye, 21 barley,
 20 oats, 10 corn and 3 sorghum. 
 
          Commissioner Newton's successor, Horace Capron, was of the
 opinion that an adequate field test of cereal cultivars could not
 be made on the limited 40-acre area of the Experimental Farm. 
 Therefore, to reduce expenses, the experiments were discontinued
 in the fall of 1867.  The area was then landscaped and planted to
 ornamentals to furnish a suitable surrounding for the new
 original Dept. of Ag.  building that was completed in 1868.  
 
          In 1886, George Vasey, the Dept. of Ag. Botanist,
 investigated the grasses of the arid districts of KS, NE, and
 Eastern CO, and recommended that the "government should provide
 an experiment station for the trial of grasses and forage plants
 in properly conducted, and well continued experiments".   During
 the 1887 session of Congress, an unsuccessful attempt was made to
 establish an experimental station.  However, in 1888, the
 appropriation of the Div. of Botany was increased to provide for
 an experiment station.  
 
          In Aug. 1888, 240 acres of land on the north bank of the
 Arkansas River, two miles from Garden City, KS was leased without
 cost from J. M. Jones, and J. A. Sewall of Denver, CO was
 appointed superintendent.  This experimental farm was under the
 supervision of Vasey.  In 1888, small plots were covered with
 sods of six or eight kinds of native grasses.  Seedings in the
 spring of 1889, included alfalfa, several kinds of native and
 cultivated grasses including Johnson grass, and millet.  In the
 fall of 1889, red kafir, and several cultivars of sorghum, and
 forty acres of Arctic rye was sown.  In 1890, 8-10 acres of
 Polish Wheat, and 80 acres of different cultivars of sorghum
 including White Durra and Red Kaffir were sown.
 
          The Garden City Exp. Sta. was discontinued in Oct. 1893. 
 However, in his report for that year, F. V. Colville, Chief, Div.
 of Botany, recommended that similar experiments be tried on new
 areas.  No further field experiments with cereal crops were
 conducted by the Div. of Botany.  Seed of the grains mentioned
 above including Polish wheat, had been distributed free to
 farmers in small lots after their value was indicated in the
 experiments. 
 
          In 1891, research was initiated in the Dept. of Ag. on
 cereal rusts.  This research, which was conducted at Garrett
 Park, MD, near Washington, D. C., and in cooperation with the KS,
 NE, SD, and ND Ag. Exp. Stas.,  was continued for several years. 
 That research will be discussed in the section on Agronomic,
 Production, and Breeding Research.  
 
          The coordination of the research in the Dept. of Ag. on
 wheat, rye, and Triticum species was initiated when the Bureau of
 Plant Industry (BPI) was organized in 1901.  The leaders and
 assistant leaders of that research from 1901 to 1972 are shown in
 Table 1.  Until about 1944, those individuals were located in the
 Dept. of Ag. building in Washington, D. C.  After 1944 they were
 at the Beltsville Ag. Res. Center, Beltsville, MD.
 
          In 1901, when the BPI was organized, M. A. Carleton was
 designated Cerealist in charge of the Cereal Lab. in the Div. of
 Veg. Physiol. and Path.  Carleton was directly in charge of all
 wheat experiments from 1901 until his 14 month furlough from July
 1912 through Sept. 1913.  In 1901 and 1902 C. S. Scofield studied
 durum wheats and methods of classifying wheat in the Div. of
 Botany.  Carleton was assisted from 1902 to about 1906 by L. A.
 Fitz in the hard winter wheat region, by H. A. Miller in the
 eastern states, and by J. S. Cole in the spring wheat region. 
 From 1906 to 1909, H. J. C. Umberger assisted in supervising the
 testing and distribution of durum wheat.    Carleton directed
 most of the experiments on minor cereals including rye, spelt,
 and emmer until April 16, 1911 when A. B. Derr was appointed to
 be responsible for that project, and wheat experiments in the
 South Eastern States.  From 1907 to 1910 W. M. Jardine was
 responsible for the Dry Land Ag. Project.
 
          While Carleton was on furlough in 1912 and 1913, C. R. Ball
 was acting Cerealist in charge.  In Sept. 1912, C. E. Leighty was
 appointed to take charge of wheat investigations in the humid
 areas. From Oct. 3, 1913, when Carleton returned, until he
 resigned in 1918, Ball was made agronomist in charge of research
 on wheat in the western region, and since Derr had resigned on
 Sept. 15, 1913, Leighty was designated agronomist in charge of
 research on wheat in the eastern regions.  In July 1914, J. A.
 Clark was transferred to Washington, D. C. from the Dickinson,
 ND, Field Sta. to assist Ball on the western wheat project.  Ball
 and Leighty were also responsible for the research on minor
 cereals in the western and eastern regions, respectively.    
 However, the geographic line between the eastern and western
 wheat regions was never definitely and permanently established.  
 
          From 1918 until Nov. l8, 1930,  research on wheat and minor
 cereals was divided into western and eastern regions.  Leighty
 was in charge of the research in the eastern regions until Nov.
 18, 1930  when he transferred to the Div. of Dry Land Ag.   Ball
 was in charge of research in the western region until May 18,
 1918, when he became Cerealist in Charge, Office of Cereal
 Invest.  At that time, J. A. Clark was placed in charge of the
 western project. He was in charge until July l, 1931.  Clark was
 in charge of research in both the eastern and western regions
 from when Leighty was transferred in 1930 until July 1, 1931 when
 S. C. Salmon was appointed  Principal Agonomist and Leader, Wheat
 Investigations.. 
 
          Leighty had two assistants.  They were W. C. Eldridge, from
 Nov. l9, 1919 to March 22, 1920, and W. J. Sando after June 1,
 1921.  In Jan. 1919, J. H. Martin was transferred from the Burns,
 OR., Field Sta., and made an assistant to Clark, who was then in
 charge of research in the western region.  On August 1, 1925,
 Martin resigned to spend full time as Leader, Sorghum Invest.,
 and K. S. Quisenberry was hired to replace Martin as Clark's
 assistant.  
 
          Salmon was the appointed Leader, Wheat Investigations on
 July 1, 1931.  However, from 1946 until about1950, following
 World War II, Salmon was assigned to duty as Agricultural Advisor
 on General MacArthur's staff in Japan.  During his absence,
 Quisenberry, and B. B. Bayles acted as Leaders, Wheat Invest. 
 After Salmon returned in 1950, he served as Leader, Wheat Invest,
 until 1954 when he was appointed Assist. Head. Cereal Crops
 Section.  L. P. Reitz, who was Coordinator, agronomic production
 and breeding research in the Hard Red Winter Region, was then
 transferred from Lincoln, NE to Beltsville, to be Leader, Wheat
 Invest.  Reitz served as Leader, until the 1972 reorganization. 
 
          Salmon made several changes after becoming Leader, Wheat
 Invest.  Scientists trained in many disciplines were assigned to
 that Investigations.  On Sept 25, 1933, the pathologists in the
 Div. of Pl. Path. who were conducting research on wheat, were
 assigned to the Wheat Invest.  Beginning in the 1930s the four
 Wheat Quality Labs. with chemists, cereal tech, and physiologists
 were established, and the cytogenetic and interspecific
 hybridization research was greatly expanded.  Both Salmon from
 1937 until 1954, and Reitz from 1954 until the 1972
 reorganization had assistants who coordinated the agronomic,
 production and breeding research in each of the four regions,
 Eastern States, Hard Red Winter Wheat, Hard Red Spring and Durum
 Wheat, and Western States.  However, the scientists involved in
 pathologic, physiologic, quality, cytogenetic and interspecific
 hybridization research were supervised by a senior scientist or
 Lab. Leader, or directly by the Salmon and Reitz, Leaders, Wheat
 Invest.
 
 Agronomic, Production and Breeding Research
 
          The scientists, who conducted agronomic, production and
 breeding research on wheat or rye in the USDA are listed in Table
 2.  Included is where they were located, their primary
 discipline, the crops they studied, and the years they were at
 that location.  Some individuals have been included who were not
 full time employees of the Dept. of Ag., but were collaborators
 or agents of the Dept.  
 
          Some of the early research on Dry Land Agriculture and at
 Field Stations in the Great Plains, and in the Western States is
 discussed in this section.  That research was primarily related
 to production, and selection of crops adapted to growing with low
 rainfall.  Wheat, rye, emmer, and spelt were usually the primary
 crops in those studies.      
 
          Information relating to the introduction, and maintenance,
 of germplasm,  and to the classification, and distribution of
 wheat cultivars is included at the end of this section.  Although
 the research on classification of wheat cultivars was conducted
 by scientists at the Wheat Invest. Headquarters in Washington, D.
 C. and Beltsville, most of the scientists involved in agronomic,
 production or breeding research  at other locations cooperated
 and benefitted from that research.     
 
          On July 1, 1931, Bayles transferred to Washington, D. C.
 from the Mocasin, MT, Field Sta. to direct the wheat experiments
 in the pacific coast and intermountain region.  Clark assumed
 similar responsibilities in the hard spring wheat region, and
 Quisenberry in the hard winter wheat region.  On March l, l936,
 Quisenberry's headquarters was changed from Washington,  D. C. to
 the Univ. of NE at Lincoln.  When Quisenberry went to Lincoln, C.
 A. Suneson, who had been conducting research on wheat, oats, and
 barley at Lincoln, transferred to Univ. of CA at Davis.  In the
 summer of 1937,  Bayles was assigned the responsibilities for
 wheat research in the Eastern States, and Suneson the
 responsibilities for wheat research in the Western States that
 had been supervised by Bayles.
 
          Beginning in 1937 until the reorganization in 1972 the
 responsibility for agronomic, production and breeding research in
 the Wheat Invest. was divided into 4 regions: Eastern States,
 Hard Red Winter Wheat, Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat, and
 Western States.  The  individuals assigned the responsibility for
 coordinating that research in each region were designated 
 regional coordinators.  The coordinator in each region cooperated
 closely with the Leader, Wheat Invest. in coordinating the
 agronomic, production, and breeding research in their region.  By
 coordinating Regional Uniform Wheat Performance Nurseries they
 worked closely with most wheat breeders in their respective
 regions.  They visited most locations annually or even more
 often, and thus became familiar with the research on wheat
 cultivar improvement and production throughout their region.  The
 coordinators also conducted individual research programs on wheat
 improvement at their locations.  
 
          The discussion of this research will be divided by the four
 regions  The research in each region was coordinated by a
 different regional coordinator, and the research in each region
 was on a different market class of wheat.  
 
 
 
                            Eastern States Region 
          The Eastern States Region consisted primarily of those
 states east of the Mississippi River in which soft red winter and
 soft white winter wheat was grown. There were assistants to the
 Leader, Wheat Invest. who were specifically assigned to
 coordinate the research in this region, from 1902 until 1931 when
 Salmon became the Leader.  From 1931 until 1937 when Bayles was
 assigned as coordinator in this region, no one was specifically
 assigned as coordinator.  However, Bayles did assist Salmon in
 coordinating the research in the region during that period. 
 
 Washington, D. C. and Beltsville, MD        
          The coordinators, from 1937 to 1972, responsible for
 coordinating the agronomic, production, and breeding research in
 this region, were all located at either Washington, D. C. or at
 Beltsville, MD.  They worked closely with personnel in the Soft
 Wheat Quality Lab. which was established at Wooster, OH. in 1937. 
 
 
          Bayles was the regional coordinator from 1937 until his
 death in Beirut, Lebanon while on a business trip in April,1954. 
 In addition to being the regional coordinator, he often acted as
 Leader, Wheat Invest. in Salmon's absence.  He also assisted M.
 A. McCall, K. S. Quisenberry, and H. A. Rodenhiser, who were in
 Charge, Cereal Crops Research.  He was organizing the
 International Wheat Rust Nursery Program while on the trip to
 Beirut where he died.  That nursery program was implemented
 within a year after his death.  He also organized the Uniform
 Southern Soft Wheat and Uniform Eastern Soft Wheat Performance 
 Nurseries.
 
          In 1955, L. W. Briggle tranferred from Fargo, ND to
 Beltsville to be Regional Coordinator.  He retained that position
 until 1968 when he became Leader, Oats Invest.  He continued
 coordinating and expanding the Eastern Uniform Wheat Performance
 Nurseries.  He determined the genetics of resistance in wheat to
 the powdery mildew pathogen, and developed near-isogenic lines
 for resistance to powdery mildew.  Those lines have been used by
 many scientists in breeding, pathologic, physiologic, and genetic
 studies. 
 
          In 1969,  K. L. Lebsock transferred from Fargo, ND to
 Beltsville to be the Regional Coordinator. He served as
 coordinator until the 1972 reorganization.  He continued
 coordinating the Region Wheat Performance Nurseries, and the
 genetic research on resistance in wheat to the powdery mildew
 pathogen.  
 
          Some of the scientists located at Washington, D. C. or
 Beltsville, did not conduct research relating to wheat grown in
 the Eastern States Region. W. M. Jardine, who was Secretary of
 Agriculture from 1925 to 1929, and F. D. Farrell, coordinated the
 Tillage and Rotation Research which was being conducted in the
 Western Region from 1907 to 1910 and from 1912 to 1918,
 respectively.  J. A. Clark assisted Ball in coordinating the
 Western Wheat Project from 1914 to 1918, and coordinated the
 Project from 1918 to 1931, and then was Coordinator, Hard Red
 Spring and Durum Region from 1931 until he retired in 1951. 
 Quisenberry assisted Clark as Coordinator, Western Region from
 1925 until 1931 when  he became Coordinator, Hard Red Winter
 Wheat Region.  In 1936, he transferred to Lincoln, NE.
 
          V. H. Florell was on a special assignment from 1928 to 1930
 after leaving Davis, CA, and before transferring to Moscow, ID as
 a small grains breeder.  J. W. Taylor was the wheat breeder at
 Arlington Farm in VA, and at Beltsville from 1919 until he
 retired about 1950.  He cooperated closely with Bayles, and other
 wheat breeders throughout the Eastern States Region.  He
 developed and distributed improved wheat lines especially to
 breeders in the Southeastern States for use in their breeding
 programs.  Some of his lines were selected, increased, and
 released as wheat cultivars.  Atlas 66, and Atlas 50, which were
 released by the North Carolina Ag. Exp. Sta, are two examples.
 
 
 
 
 Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN 
 
          H. S. Jackson, an agronomist-pathologist conducted research
 on the improvement of wheat and other small grain cultivars at
 Purdue from 1918 to 1929.  His research was partially supported
 by the Wheat Invest.  
          R. M. Caldwell was supported as an agent part or full time
 from 1928 until 1937, when he became a full time employee of
 Purdue Univ., and leader of a very large and effective small
 grain breeding program. They developed and released many short
 strawed, productive, disease resistant, high quality cultivars
 that were grown extensively throuhgout the Region.  L. E.
 Compton, and J. J. Roberts were wheat Invest. employees who
 assisted on the breeding project from 1919 to 1962 and from 1966
 to 1972, respectively.
 
 MI State Univ., East Lansing, MI
 
          After the Cereal Leaf Beetle, which had been introduced from
 Europe,  was discovered in South Western Michigan, D. H. Smith
 Jr. was hired in l965 to identify sources of wheat resistant to
 that insect.  He identified several wheat accessions in the USDA
 Small Grains Collection with special leaf hairs that made them
 resistant to the beetle.  Those accessions were then used to
 develop Cereal Leaf Beetle resistant wheat cultivars.
 
 Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY
 
          W. T. Craig and H. H. Love were two wheat breeders who were
 jointly supported by the Wheat Invest. and Cornell Univ.
 beginning in 1924.  They developed several cultivars adapted and
 grown in New York, and adjacent states. 
 
 Coastal Plains Exp. Sta., Tifton, GA
 
          D. D. Morey at the GA Coastal Plains Exp. Sta. at Tifton
 collaborated with Reitz in the growing, testing and breeding of
 rye from about 1955 until the 1972 reorganization.  He developed
 and released some diploid and tetraploid rye cultivars that were
 grown in SE United States.
         
                        Hard Red Winter Wheat Region
 
          The Hard Red Winter Wheat Region consisted of the states,
 mostly in the Great Plains, where Hard Red Winter Wheat was
 grown.  That region extended from Texas and New Mexico on the
 south to Wyoming and South Dakota on the north.  Many of the
 State Ag. Exp. Stas. and Field Stas. in this region cooperated in
 the early research of Dry Land Ag. and other research on wheat,
 rye emmer and spelt.   That research is discussed at the end of
 this section, since the research was on agronomic practices,
 production, and cultivar and selection testing.  
 
 Univ. of NE, Lincoln, NE
 
          In 1898,  scientists at the NE Ag. Exp. Sta. at Lincoln
 began cooperating with the Dept. of Ag. project on testing wheat
 cultivars and selections for resistance to rust.  This
 collaboration continued on an unofficial basis until 1930, when
 C. A. Suneson was hired and assigned to Lincoln as a wheat
 breeder.
 
          After 1936, the coordinators for the Hard Red Winter Wheat
 Region were all located at Lincoln where they cooperated with
 breeders at the NE Ag. Exp. Sta.  They also cooperated closely
 with the Hard Red Winter Wheat Quality Lab. which was established
 in 1938 at Manhattan, KS.  The coordinators initially supervised
 regional wheat trials consisting of a Uniform Yield, and Uniform
 Winterhardiness Nurseries, and Uniform Field Plots.  In 1959, the
 regional trials were revised with the Uniform Yield and
 Winterhardiness Nurseries becoming the Southern Regional
 Performance and Northern Regional Performance Nurseries,
 respectively.  The Uniform Field Plots were discontinued.  An
 observation type Winterhardiness Nursery comprised of northern
 material and southern material sections was initiated.  The
 coordinators annually distributed reports on the nursery results,
 and regional meetings of wheat research workers were held at
 intervals of 3-5 years.
 
          C. A. Suneson was the first Wheat Invest. breeder at
 Lincoln.  He was there from 1930 until 1936, when he transferred
 to Davis, CA to be the Coordinator, Western Wheat Region.  In
 1936, Quisenberry, who had been the Regional Coordinator since
 1931, transferred from Washington, D.C. to Lincoln.  He was the
 Coordinator until 1946 when he transferred to Beltsville as Head
 Agron. in Charge, Div. Cereal Crops and Diseases.  L. P. Reitz,
 who was at KS State Univ, Manhattan, was hired to succeed
 Quisenberry as the Coordinator.  In 1954, when Reitz transferred
 to Beltsville to be Leader, Wheat Invest., V. A. Johnson, who was
 NE Ag. Exp. Sta. wheat breeder was appointed Coordinator. 
 Johnson was Regional Coordinator until the 1972 reorganization.
 
          Suneson initiated a broad breeding program.  He developed
 wheat germplasm with hard wheat quality and winter hardiness.  
 
          Quisenberry developed several cultivars including 'Pawnee',
 which was selected from a cross made at KS State Univ., and
 jointly released by NE and KS in 1943.  Pawnee became the most
 widely grown cultivar in U.S. because of it's productivity,
 performance stability, and wide adaption.  Quisenberry also
 supervised several graduate students, who cooperated with Luther
 Smith at Univ. of MO,, Columbia in studying the inheritance of
 traits in diploid wheat.
 
          Reitz continued Quisenberry's breeding program with
 additional emphasis on winterhardiness, quality, and disease
 resistance.  He developed valuable breeding stocks from which
 many outstanding cultivars were subsequently selected. 
 
          Johnson, in cooperation with J. W. Schmidt, the NE AG. Exp.
 Sta. wheat breeder, relied on germplasm developed by Quisenberry
 and Reitz in their cooperative breeding program.  Their cultivar
 'Scout' became the most widely grown cultivar in U. S. since
 'Pawnee', and for several years was grown on more than seven
 million acres.  Johnson initiated a program to enhance the
 protein in wheat.  He and his students identified genes affecting
 protein content and quality of wheat grain, and transferred some
 of those genes to hard red winter cultivars.  He also established
 an International Winter Wheat Evaluation Network to identify
 superior winter wheat germplasm. The network was comprised of
 nurseries grown in as many as 50 countries
 
 Texas A & M, Denton and College Station, TX
 
          I. M. Atkins, who was a joint Wheat Invest., and Texas A & M
 employee at Denton from 1930 until 1954 when he transferred to
 College Station, developed and released many productive wheat
 cultivars.  Those cultivars were high yielding, leaf and stem
 rust, and greenbug resistant, and adapted to growing conditions
 in TX.  D. E. Weibel, who was a Wheat Invest employee at Denton
 from 1953 to 1958, contributed to the development of wheat
 cultivars, and studied loose smut control and vernalization.  
 
          After Atkins transferred to TX A. & M, College Station in
 1954, he was Leader, of the small grain breeding programs in TX
 until he retired in 1969.  E. C. Gilmore was supported by the
 Wheat Invest. as a graduate student cooperating on the wheat
 breeding project from about 1957 until 1959 when he transferred
 as a graduate student on the wheat breeding project at Univ. of
 MN, St. Paul.  In 1958, O. J. Merkle was hired as a full time
 Wheat Invest. employee to assist with the wheat breeding program
 at College Station.  He was on that project until the 1972
 reorganization.
          
 Ok State Univ., Stillwater, OK
 
          A. M. Schlehuber, was a joint Wheat Invest. and OK State
 Univ. employee at Stillwater from 1945 to 1966.  He was leader of
 the small grain breeding program in Ok.  He and his staff
 developed several outstanding, high yielding, leaf and stem rust,
 and greenbug resistant hard red winter wheat cultivars adapted to
 Ok and adjacent states.  Several outstanding plant breeders and
 pathologists received their Master's Degree in Agronomy and Plant
 Path. while assisting on the program at Stillwater
 
 KS State Univ., Manhattan, KS
 
          J. H. Parker(1917 to 1939), L. P.. Reitz (1939 to 1946), and
 E. G. Heyne 1938 to 1961), were joint Wheat Invest, and KS State
 employees.  They were responsible for conducting wheat breeding
 and production research in KS.  Since KS is the largest wheat
 producing state, and grows several million acres of wheat
 annually, there were many state supported programs in KS.  D. E.
 Wiebel was a full time Cereal Crops employee at Manhattan from
 1947 to 1953.  He assisted with the wheat breeding program, but
 also worked on the Oats and Sorghum projects. 
 
 IA State Univ., Ames, IA
 
          L. C. Burnett was a joint employee with the Cereal Branch
 including Wheat Invest. and IA State Univ., Ames from 1907 until
 he retired in 1949.  He conducted yield nursery tests throughout
 IA, and cooperated with the IA wheat breeders in developing
 cultivars adapted to IA. 
 
                Dry Land Ag. Stas. in KS, TX, NE, SD, CO, OK
 
          M. A. Carleton, who was in charge of Wheat Invest,
 recognized the need for cultivation and rotation experiments for
 cereals in the dry land areas.  In 1904, through the efforts of
 B. T. Galloway, Chief BPI, who had become interested in dry land
 experiments, sufficient funds for beginning this work were made
 available from appropriations for cereals.  Carleton then
 employed E. C. Chilcott, Agriculturalist and Vice Director , SD.
 AG. Exp. Sta., Brookings, who had been a collaborator in cereal
 experiments since 1899.  On July 1, 1905, Chilcott reported for
 duty in Washington, D. C. 
 
          On July 1, 1905, an appropriation of $25,000 for several
 phases of grain investigations became available.  One phase of
 that appropriation was "to determine the best methods of
 cultivation of grain for different districts."  Although
 ostensibly responsible to Carleton, Chilcott almost immediately
 assumed independent control of plans for the tillage and rotation
 program.  On July 1, 1906, the Div. Veg. Physiol. and Path. was
 subdivided into 11 indepentent offices of the BPI.  The Office of
 Grain Invest. was headed by Carleton, and the Office of Dry Land
 Ag. by Chilcott.  
 
          Thirty  Dry Land Ag. Stas. were established.  Twenty four of
 those stations were in the Great Plains.  The scientists at those
 stations studied soil preparation and crop rotations.  When
 individuals trained in cereal breeding were present, they tested
 various crops and cultivars, and developed new cultivars better
 adapted to dry-land conditions. More information regarding the
 Dry Land Stations can be obtained in the publication by Karl
 Quisenberry 1/ Karl Quisenberry (Date ? After 1973). The Dry Land
 Stations; their Mission and the Men", Agricultural History  218
 to 228
 
 Dry Land Ag. Sta., Hays, KS  
 
          Carleton cooperated in establishing the first research
 station to study dry land agriculture at Hays, in 1901.  A. L.
 Halstead was in charge of the dry land research at Hays for
 several years.  He was recognized throughout KS and nationally
 for his innovative research.  In 1933, A. F. Swanson, a breeder,
 was supported by the Wheat Invest. at Hays.  He cooperated
 closely with J. H. Parker at Manhattan, who was responsible for
 wheat breeding research in KS at that time.   
 
 Dry Land Ag. Stas., Channing and Amarillo, TX    
 
          In the fall of 1903, experiments with winter grains were
 begun by A. H. Leidigh on the XIT Ranch at Channing, TX.  Sorghum
 and other spring grains including wheat were sown in 1904.  In
 the fall of 1905, a Dry Land Field Station was established at
 Amarillo, TX.  After the 1906 crop, all experiments were
 transferred from Channing to Amarillo.  Three years later the
 experiments were moved to another farm near Amarillo.  The
 research was continued under J. F. Ross until 1920 when that type
 of research was discontinued at Amarillo.  However, TX Ag. Exp.
 Sta. employees at Amarillo continued  cooperating with Wheat
 Invest. employees on the breeding and testing of wheat cultivars
 and selections.  They were still cooperating when ARS was
 reorganized in 1972.
 
 Dry Land Ag. Sta., North Platte, NE    
 
          The Dry Land Sta. at North Platte, was established in 1906. 
 In 1912, L. L. Zook transferred from the Corn Research Proj. at
 Washington, D. C. to be Director of that station.  He was in
 charge of the dry land research at that station for many years.  
 
          From 1924 to 1928, G. F. Sprague, and from 1929 to 1932, N.
 E. Jodon were Cereal Invest. employees at North Platte.  They
 were responsible for research on the production and testing of
 cereal crops including wheat, rye, spelt and emmer.  Sprague
 transferred from North Platte to the Corn Invest., Project at
 Washington, D. C., and later was Leader, Corn & Sorghum Invest. 
 Jodon transferred from North Platte to the Rice Proj at Crowley,
 LA where he bred and released many productive rice cultivars.
 
 Dry Land Ag. Stas., Newell and Highmore, SD 
 
          Some of the scientists at the two Dry Land Stas. at Newell,
 and Highmore  had long careers in the Dept. of Ag.  There were
 three scientists at the Newell station.  S. C. Salmon was there
 from 1908 until 1912.  He later became Leader, Wheat Invest.  J.
 H. Martin, replaced him in 1914. In1918, he transferred to Burns,
 OR for one year before transferred in 1919 to Washington, D. C as
 assist to the Leader, Wheat Research, Western Region. Martin
 later became Leader, Sorghum Invest.  A. D. Ellison, who had been
 at the Dry Land Sta. at Nephi, UT, replaced Martin.  He was there
 until 1920 when the station was closed because of lack of funds. 
 
          There were three scientists at the Highmore Station.  M.
 Champlain was there from 1909 to 1911.  J. D. Morrison, who
 became an outstanding Ag. Scientist, was there from 1911 to 1918. 
 He was succeeded by E. S. McFadden, who was there from 1918 until
 1920 when that station was also closed because of lack of funds. 
 He conducted some outstanding research on interspecific crosses
 with wheat.  That research will be discussed in the section on
 Cytogenetic and Interspecific Hybridization.  
 
 Dry Land Ag. Sta., Akron, CO 
 
          There were three scientists at the Akron, Dry Land Sta. 
 They were C. H. Clark from 1910 to 1913, G. A. McMurdo from 1914
 to 1917, and F. A. Coffman from 1917 to 1923.  Coffman
 transferred to the Oat Invest. Washington, D. C in 1924 where he
 had a long and distinguished career as an oat breeder. 
 
 Dry Land Ag. Sta., Woodward, OK
 
          E. Stephens and V. C. Hubbard, who were at Woodward from
 1931 until about 1948 conducted testing and production research,
 and cooperated closely with the wheat breeding program at
 Stillwater, OK. 
 
                      Hard Red Spring and Durum Region
 
          This region was the smallest of the four regions.  The
 region included MN, ND, SD, WI. and Eastern MT, where hard red
 spring and durum wheats were grown.  The Coordinators cooperated
 closely with the staff at the Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat
 Quality Lab. at Beltsville, which was moved to Fargo in 1963. 
 They cooperated with the breeders of Hard Red Spring and Durum
 Wheat and coordinated the Uniform Hard Hed Spring and Durum Wheat
 Performance Nurseries which were grown be breeders at several
 locations.  
 
          From 1931 until he retired in 1951, J. A. Clark was the
 Regional Coordinator.  Clark was located at Washington, D. C. and
 then at Beltsville, MD.  He had many additional administrative
 responsibilities in the Cereal Crops Office.
 
          In 1951, E. R. Ausemus at St. Paul, MN assumed  the
 responsibility as Coordinator, and continued until he retired in
 1963.  E. C. Gilmore was Acting Coordinator for a few months
 until K. L. Lebsock at Fargo, ND was appointed Coordinator in
 1964.  Lebsock was Coordinator until late 1968 when he
 transferred to Beltsville to be Coordinator, Eastern States
 Region.  From 1969 until the 1972 reorganization, R. E. Heiner,
 located at St. Paul, was the Coordinator.   
 
 Univ. of MN, St. Paul, MN
 
          J. H. Parker was the first Cereal Crops breeder at St. Paul. 
 He was responsible for the research on breeding and production of
 small grains from 1913 until 1917 when he transferred to
 Manhattan, KS where he continued that research.  O. S. Aamodt was
 the plant breeder from 1917 until 1928 when he transferred to
 Washington, D. C.  Both he and Parker conducted breeding programs
 to transfer the resistance to stem rust into new cultivars. 
 
          Ausemus was the wheat breeder at St. Paul from 1928 until he
 retired in 1963.  In addition to being the Regional Coordinator
 from 1951 to 1963, he conducted a large wheat breeding program
 and trained many plant breeders.  D. W. Sunderman and E. C.
 Gilmore , from 1952 to 1960, and from 1959 to 1965, respectively,
 assisted Ausemus with the breeding program while they were
 graduate students at Univ. of MN.  In cooperation with
 pathologists at the Univ. of Mn, and the USDA Cereal Rust Lab.,
 which was established in 1962, they developed wheat cultivars and
 selections with outstanding resistance to leaf and stem rust
 which have been used by wheat breeders world-wide.  They
 developed the first US spring wheat semidwarf, rust resistant,
 high yielding cultivar, 'Era', which set a new standard for grain
 yield in the hard red spring wheat production area. 
 
          After Ausemus retired in 1963, R. E. Heiner was hired in
 1965.  Heiner continued Ausemus's breeding program, and initiated
 basic studies on breeding techniques using mutagens, and special
 genetic and statistical procedures.  He was Coordinator until the
 1972 reorganization. 
 
 ND. Ag. Field Stas., Dickinson and Mandan, ND
 
          The first research on wheat in ND was conducted at the two
 Field Stations at Dickinson and Mandan.  J. A. Clark was
 responsible for the wheat cultivar and selection testing, and
 production research at both Dickinson and Mandan from 1911 until
 1914 when he tranferred to Washington, D. C.  R. W. Smith
 continued the research on all small grains at Dickinson from 1914
 until 1947 when that research was discontinued.  E. R. Ausemus
 was responsible for wheat breeding research at Mandan from 1925
 until 1928 when he transferred to St. Paul, MN.  The wheat
 breeding research in ND was transferred from Mandan to Fargo when
 G. S. Smith was hired in 1929.  
 
 ND State Univ., Fargo, ND
 
          The wheat breeding and genetics programs at Fargo were
 conducted in cooperation with ND State Univ.  From 1929 to 1947,
 when he became a state employee, G. S. Smith developed durum
 cultivars resistant to the prevalent stem rust races, including
 race 56.  However, those cultivars were susceptible to race 15B,
 and were heavily damaged by that race in 1953 and 1954.
 
          From 1948 until he resigned in 1956, R. M. Heerman conducted
 the breeding program on durum wheat.  He also studied sawfly
 resistance in hard red spring wheat until 1953, when K. L.
 Lebsock was hired to lead that part of the program.  The sawfly
 resistant cultivar, 'Fortuna', the first to be developed by this
 program, was released in 1966.  Lebsock assumed the
 responsibility for the durum breeding program after Heerman's
 resignation in 1956.  Heerman and Lebsock in cooperation with the
 Cereal Rust Lab at St. Paul, MN developed several durum cultivars
 and germplasm lines that were highly resistant to leaf and stem
 rust, and with shorter, and stronger straw, and good grain yield
 and quality.
 
          In 1954, L. W. Briggle was hired as a Geneticist to
 cooperate with the wheat breeding programs.  After Briggle
 transferred to Beltsville, MD in 1956, N. D. Williams was hired
 in 1957 to continue that program.  They identified and determined
 the number and linkage of genes for resistance to stem rust, and
 assisted in developing rust resistant cultivars and germplasm. In
 1968, L. R. Joppa was hired to concentrate on basic
 genetic-cytogenetic research on durum.  He employed aneuploid
 techniques to identify genes and gene locations for important
 agronomic and quality characteristics.  When Lebsock transferred
 to Belftsville in 1969, Joppa temporarily assumed the
 responsibilities for breeding new durum cultivars.  The Wheat
 Invest. discontinued the wheat cultivar breeding programs in1970
 when ND Stat Univ. hired a durum breeder, and Joppa continued his
 basic genetic and cytogenetic research until the 1972
 reorganization.  
 
 Univ of WI, Madison, WI
 
          R. G. Shands was employed as a plant breeder jointly by the
 Wheat and Barley Invests. from 1929 until his death in 1965.  He
 developed some disease resistant, (powdery mildew), productive,
 high quality cultivars adapted to WI and adjacent states.
 
 South Dakota and Montana
 
          The research on Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat in these two
 states was conducted by either Wheat Invest. or State Ag. Exp.
 Sta.  breeders, who also breed other types of wheat.  The
 research on wheat in SD is discussed in the section on Hard Red
 Winter Wheat, and that in MT is discussed in the section on
 Western State Region.
 
                            Western States Region
 
          The Western States Region included those states in Western
 U. S. and the Intermountain Area.  There was a great diversity in
 classes of wheat grown in that region.  The coordinators were
 responsible for three Regional Wheat Performance Nurseries grown
 throughout most of that region, and small nurseries with durum
 wheat and Triticale grown at fewer locations.  The three Regional
 Nurseries were Spring,(both white and red) White Winter
 (primarily soft), and Hard Red Winter Wheat.  The coordinators
 cooperated closely with the staff at the Western Wheat Quality
 Lab. which was established in 1946 at Pullman, WA.  
 
          C. A. Suneson at Davis, CA was the Coordinator from 1937
 until 1946.  R. H. Bamberg, a pathologist at Bozeman, MT., served
 as Acting Coordinator after Suneson resigned until in late 1946,
 when O. A. Vogel, at Pullman, WA was appointed Coordinator. 
 After Vogel resigned as Coordinator in 1956, F. H. McNeal at
 Bozeman, became the Coordinator.  McNeal was the Coordinator
 until the 1972 reorganization.
 
 Univ. of CA, Yuba City, Modesto, Davis, Chico, and Berkeley
 
          Cooperative investigations on cereals were begun with the
 CA. Ag. Exp. Sta. in the fall of 1904.  Two tracts of land were
 leased, one near Yuba City, and the other near Modesto.  The
 tests were continued at those locations until after the 1907 crop
 when they were transferred to Davis, and Ceres.  The cooperation
 ended after 1909, and the Dept. of Ag. experiments in CA were
 conducted at the U. S. Pl. Introduction Garden at Chico.  In the
 fall of 1921, the cooperation with the CA. Ag. Exp. Sta. at Davis
 was resumed, and the cereal experiments at Chico were
 discontinued.  
 
          In the fall of 1904, and in 1905 L. A. Fitz was in charge of
 the experiments in CA, and from 1906 to 1911 they were in charge
 of H. F. Blanchard.  From 1912 to 1917, the experiments at Chico
 were directed by E. L. Adams from the Biggs Rice Field Sta, and
 from 1918 to 1921 by V. H. Florell, who was located at Chico. In
 1921, Florell moved to Davis where he continued his breeding
 research on all three small grains until he transferred to
 Washington, D. C. in 1928.  The cultivar 'White Federation',
 which Florell released in 1920 while at Chico, was an important
 cultivar in CA, and was the foundation for many subsequent
 cultivars developed in CA.  
 
          In 1929, G. A. Wiebe  transferred from Aberdeen, ID to
 replace Florell as breeder of all small grains in CA.  Wiebe
 initiated a program of incorporating Hessian Fly resistance into
 wheat cultivars.  Two Hessian Fly cultivars 'Poso 44', and 'Big
 Club 43' were later released from that program.  Wiebe
 transferred to Washington, D. C. in 1935.
 
          In 1936, C. A. Suneson transferred from Lincoln, NE to
 Davis, and was made the Coordinator of the Western State Region. 
 In addition to being Regional Coordinator from 1936 to 1945,
 Suneson finished developing and released the two Hessian Fly
 resistant cultivars from Wiebe's program.  He also collaborated
 in genetic studies, and transferred the awnless character and
 resistance to stem rust into new cultivars.  When Suneson retired
 in 1968, the Wheat Invest. discontinued the wheat breeding
 research in Davis.
 
          W. W. Mackie, who was a joint employee with the Cereal Crops
 and the  Univ. of CA at Davis from 1917 until 1926, and F. N.
 Briggs, who was a pathologist with Cereal Crops located at
 Berkeley from 1919 until 1930 when he was appointed to the Univ.
 of CA faculty, cooperated closely on small grain improvement. 
 Although located at Berkeley, Briggs conducted his field research
 at Davis.  Briggs pioneered in the backcross procedure of
 breeding, and emphasized the use of single race of pathogens in
 studying the inheritance of bunt and powdery mildew resistance in
 wheat.
 
 WA State Univ., Pullman, WA.
 
          In 1931, O. A. Vogel was assigned to Pullman.  Vogel was in
 charge of the wheat breeding research at Pullman from 1931 until
 the 1972 reorganization.  He has been recognized as one of the
 most successful plant breeders in the U. S.  He crossed 'Norin
 10', a short productive wheat introduced from Japan by S. C.
 Salmon, with 'Brevor', a smut resistant cultivar.  The cultivar
 'Gaines;, selected from that cross, was the first of several
 highly productive, short strawed, lodging resistant wheat
 cultivars developed in U. S. and in other countries.  Selections
 from Vogel's cross of 'Norin 10' by 'Brevor' were the foundation
 of the short, productive, daylength insensitive cultivars
 developed by the Rockefeller Foundation in Mexico.  The"Green
 Revolution" in Mexico, and Asia resulted from those cultivars. 
 Vogel also developed small plot thrashers, planters, and
 harvesters, which have been used by small grain breeders
 world-wide.  He was Coordinator for the Western States Region
 from 1936 until Febr. 16, 1956.
 
          In 1970, C. J. Peterson was hired to continue Vogel's
 breeding program after he retired.  Peterson was with the
 breeding program when ARS was reorganized in 1972.
 
          From 1954 to 1956, E. H. Everson was hired as a geneticist
 to cooperate with the wheat breeding program.  After Everson
 resigned, R. E. Allan was hired in 1957.  Allan was with the
 program until the 1972 reorganization.  He identified the genes
 that controlled straw shortness and other characteristics of the
 short strawed wheat cultivars.  
 
          J. C. Craddock also assisted with the breeding program while
 a graduate student from 1953 until 1958 when he transferred to
 Beltsville.
 
 MT State Univ., Bozeman, MT
 
          F. H. McNeal was in charge of the spring wheat breeding
 program at Bozeman from 1948 until the 1972 reorganization.  He
 was hired after Bamberg, a pathologist resigned.  McNeal
 developed and released several high yielding, good quality,
 disease and Wheat Stem Sawfly resistant cultivars.  In
 cooperation with entomologists he screened the USDA World Wheat
 Collection for resistance to Wheat Stem Sawfly.  He developed
 near-isogenic populations for evaluating plant characters, a
 recurrent selection program for improving grain protein content,
 inheritance of stem solidness, and other plant characters.  
 
          M. A. Berg, and C. R. Haun assisted with the winter wheat
 breeding at Bozeman from 1953 to 1972, and from 1953 to 1968,
 respectively.
 
 ID Ag. Exp. Sta., Aberdeen, ID.
 
          L. C. Aicher was the first of several Wheat Invest.
 employees at Aberdeen.  He was responsible for the dry land
 research at that location from 1911 until 1921 when irrigation
 was installed.
 
          G. A. Wiebe, was hired in 1922 to conduct breeding research
 on all small grains.  He was there until 1929 when he transferred
 to Univ. of CA at Davis.  L. L. Davis succeeded Wiebe, and was
 responsible for the research until 1931 when H. Stevens was
 hired.  Stevens was responsible for the program until he retired
 on disability in 1965.  Wiebe, Davis and Stevens were responsible
 for breeding all small grains, and also for growing seed
 increases for many other Cereal Crop Office scientists.  When
 Stevens retired the responsibility for growing seed increases was
 assumed by F. C. Petr from 1965 to 1967 and by D. M. Wesenberg
 from 1968 until the 1972 reorganization.
 
          In 1954, P. J. Fitzgerald was hired as a full time wheat
 breeder.  After Fitzgerald resigned in 1960, D. W. Sunderman
 transferred from St. Paul, MN.  Sunderman was there until the
 1972 reorganization.  Fitzgerald and Sunderman developed several
 productive good quality, smut and snow mold resistant cultivars.
 
 Univ of ID, Moscow, ID
 
          V. H. Florell was transferred to Moscow from Washington, D.
 C. in 1930.  He cooperated with the wheat breeding program until
 he resigned in 1933.
 
 OR. Ag. Exp. Sta., Pendleton, OR       
 
          The wheat breeding and production research at Pendleton was
 in cooperation with the breeding programs at OR State Univ,
 Corvallis, and at WA State Univ, Pullman.  J. F. Martin, who
 transferred from Moro, Or, was in charge of that program from
 1929 until 1955.  In 1947 and 1948, while Martin was in Korea, F.
 H. McNeal was in charge of that program.  C. R. Rohde cooperated,
 as an agronomist, on that program from 1953 until 1957 when the
 breeding research was discontinued.  Many cultivars released by
 OR and WA State Ag. Exp. Stas. were developed or selected from
 nurseries and other tests conducted at 
 Pendleton. 
 
 Univ. of AZ, Tucson, AZ
 
          A. T. Bartel was a joint employee between the Cereal Crops
 Office and Univ of AZ from 1930 to about 1953.  He cooperated
 with many small grain scientists by growing a winter crop of
 small grains at various locations in AZ.  
 
 UT State  Univ., Logan, UT.
 
          R. W. Woodward was a joint employee with the Cereal Crops
 Office and Utah State Univ. from 1930 to 1966.  He cooperated in
 genetic studies with breeders in other states, and developed
 productive resistant cultivars grown in UT and adjacent states.
 
                 Dry Land Ag. Stas., UT, MT, OR, WA, and WY
 
          There were Dry Land Ag. Stas. established in 5 states in the
 Western States Region beginning in 1907.  The individuals in
 charge of those stations conducted studies on production and
 rotation practices of crops adapted to areas of low rainfall. 
 Research at some of those stations was discontinued when
 irrigation became available  or when Federal Gov't funds were
 reduced.  Wheat was the main crop used at most of the locations. 
 Some of the scientists moved between stations, and many of them
 became leaders in the USDA, or at State Ag. Exp. Stas.  The
 following is information regarding some of the personnel at 6 of
 the Dry Land Stas.:
 
 Dry Land Ag. Sta., Nephi, UT
 
          There were five scientists located at the Dry Land Sta. at
 Nephi from 1904 until 1918.  W. M. Jardine, and F. D. Farrell
 were in charge from 1904 to 1906, and from 1907 to 1910,
 respectively.  They both became Dean of the Ag. Exp. Sta, and
 president of KS State Univ. at Manhattan, and Jardine was
 Secretary of Ag. from 1925 to 1929.  P. V. Cardon, who succeeded
 Farrell was at Nephi from 1910 to 1912, was later Administrator
 of Ag. Res. Service.  A. D. Ellson, who succeeded Cardon was at
 Nephi from 1912 to 1915, and was succeeded by J. W. Jones who was
 there from 1915 until 1918.  Ellison was in charge of the Dry
 Land Sta at Newell, SD. when it was closed in 1920 because of
 lack of funds.  Jones transferred to Nephi from the Dry Land Sta.
 at Archer, WY.
 
 Dry Land Ag. Sta., Mocassin, MT
 
          The Dry Land AG. Sta. at Mocassin was started in 1909 with
 E. L. Adams in charge.  That station was still being operated as
 a Branch Ag. Exp. Sta. of MT. State Univ. in 1972.  Adams was in
 charge of the station until 1911 when he transferred to the USDA,
 Rice Res. Sta. at Biggs, CA.  J. L. Sutherland, who was Director
 of that station from 1911 until after 1933, was partially
 supported by the Cereal Office.  P. V. Cardon, who was at Nephi
 from 1910 to 1912 and with the USDA from 1913 to 1918, was at
 Moccasin and Bozeman from 1918 to 1921.  R. W. May was in charge
 of the cereal project at Mocassin from 1921 until 1927 when B. B.
 Bayles transferred to that station from the Dry Land sta. at
 Moro, OR.  In 1931, Bayles transferred to the Wheat Invest. in
 Washington, D. C. where he held several positions in the Wheat
 Invest. and the Cereal Office. 
 
 Dry Land Ag Stas.,  Burns, and Moro, OR
 
          The two Dry Land Stas. at Burns and Moro, were started in
 1911 and 1910, respectively.  L. R. Breithaupt was in charge at
 Burns from 1911 to 1918 when J. H. Martin transferred from the
 Dry Land Sta. at Newell, SD for one year from 1918 to 1919,
 before transferring to Wheat Invest. in Washington, D. C. to be
 assistant to J. A. Clark, who was in charge of the Western
 Region.  Martin was later Leader, Sorghum Invest. In 1919, L. R.
 Shattuck succeeded Martin.  The Dry Land research was terminated
 in 1920 because of lack of funds.  However, the station remained
 as a Branch Ag. Exp. Sta., OR State Univ. through the 1972
 reorganization.  
 
          At least six scientists conducted research on wheat at the
 Dry Land Ag. Sta. at Moro between 1910 and 1938.  They were H. J.
 C. Umberger, 1910 to 1912, D. E. Stevens, 1913 to 1938?, B. B.
 Bayles, 1923 to 1927, and J. F. Martin, 1927 to 1930, who studied
 primarily wheat, and  F. J. Schneiderhan, 1917 to 1918, and R. B.
 Hoskinson  1928 to 1932 who studied wheat only.  After Bayles
 transferred to the Dry Land Ag. Sta. at Mocassin, MT in 1927 he
 was succeeded by Martin.  Martin transferred to Pendleton, OR in
 1929, and  was at Pendleton at the time of the 1972
 reorganizatlion of ARS. 
 
 Dry Land Ag. Sta., Lind, WA
 
          M. A. McCall was in charge of the Dry Land Ag. Field Sta. at
 Lind from 1915 until 1924 when he transferred to Washington, D.
 C. where he later became Leader, Cereal Office.  After the
 support of the Dry Land Ag. Sta. was terminated the station
 continued to operate as a Branch  Ag. Exp. Sta.    
 
 Dry Land Ag. Sta., Archer, WY.
 
          J. W. Jones was in charge of the Dry Land Sta. at Archer
 from 1912 until 1915 when he transferred to the Dry Land Sta. at
 Nephi, UT.  Jones was  later Leader, Rice Invest.  V. H. Florell
 was in charge from 1915 until 1918 when he transferred to the
 USDA Plant Introduction Station at Chico, CA.  
 
         
                                     
          Introduction and Maintenance of Wheat and Rye Germplasm
                                     
          The introduction and maintenance of wheat and rye germplasm 
 is  included because some of that germplasm was very important in
 the Agronomic, Production and Breeding Research of wheat, rye and
 tricicum Sp. 
 
          In 1898 Congress appropriated $20,000 for the introduction,
 from foreign countries, of rare and valuable seeds, plants, etc.,
 to be tested in cooperation with State Ag. Exp. Stas. This was
 the beginning of organized introduction of wheat and rye
 germplasm.  In 1898, M. A. Carleton was sent to Russia to obtain
 cereals resistant to cold, drought, and fungal diseases.  In 1897
 and 1898, N. E. Hansen, Horticulturist, SD Ag. Exp. Sta., made a
 trip to  Russia, Siberia, and Turkestan under the auspices of the
 USDA.  He collected many samples of cereals.
 
          The Plant Introduction Project was an independent unit of
 the Ag. Dept. under D. G. Fairchild from July l to Oct. 28, 1898
 when it became a Section of the Div. of Botany under O. F. Cook. 
 The Section was supervised by O. F. Cook from 1898 until 1900,
 and by Jared G. Smith from then until March 1, l901 when Foreign
 Plant Introduction was separated from the Div. of Botany with
 Ernest A. Bessey in charge.  In 1902, Foreign Plant Introduction
 was merged with the Div. of Seed Distribution under the direction
 of A. J. Pieters.  In 1904, Fairchild, who had continued as the
 Plant Explorer in the Dept. since 1898, was appointed supervisor
 of foreign plant introductions in the Div. of Seed and Pl.
 Introduction and Distribution.  On Sept. 20, 1906, Pieters
 resigned and shortly thereafter Fairchild was placed in charge of
 a separate Div. Seed and Plant Introduction.  In 1927, K. A.
 Ryerson, assumed charge of the Div., and he was succeeded by B.
 Y. Morrison in 1933.  In 1948 C. O. Erlanson succeeded Morrison. 
 In 1957, the Div. Seed and Pl. Introduction, and Distribution was
 renamed the New Crops Res. Br., Crops Res. Div., ARS, and
 Erlanson was Chief until he retired in 1965.  J. E. Creech was
 then Br. Chief from 1965 until the reorganization of ARS in 1972. 
 A more complete documentation of the history, objective and
 accomplishments of this research is in, "The National Program for
 Conservation of Crop germplasm" (Edited by Sam Burgess and
 published by ARS and Cooperating St. Ag. Exp. Stas. in 1971)
 
          Miscellaneous seed lots of cereals were received from time
 to time from when the Ag. Dept. was first organized in 1862 until
 1897.  Beginning in 1898 special plant and seed exploration trips
 were organized and many accessions of wheat and other cereal crop
 germplasm were introduced.  Some of the early exploration trips
 from which wheat and rye germplasm was introduced are included in
 Table 3.  Included are the names of the explorers, the years and
 countries they visited and crops they introduced.  The trips by
 Carleton, and Hansen in 1898, and in 1897 and 1898, respectively
 were mentioned previously.  On his exploration trip in 1900,
 Carleton stopped at the World's Fair in Paris where he collected
 samples of wheat and barley which were being grown in other
 countries such as Korea, and China.  He then proceeded to collect
 Durum and other wheat in Russia.  In 1900, Fairchild and C. S.
 Scofield conducted an exploration trip into Algeria in North
 Africa where they collected durum wheat and barley adapled to the
 Mediterrean region.  In 1903, Bessey, who was then in charge of
 Pl. Introduction, conducted an exploration trip into Russia, and
 Turkestan where he collected wheat.  In 1923 and 1924, H. V.
 Harlan, who was Leader, Barley Invest.,conducted an extensive
 exploration trip through Eastern Russia, India, Ethiopia and
 North Africa.  He collected primarily barley but also obtained
 some wheat accessions.  In 1926, H. H. McKinney obtained many
 wheat accessions while on a plant exploration trip in  West
 Africa to collect cereals which may be resistant to virus
 diseases. 
 
          In 1948 D. J. Ward was hired by the Div. Cereal Crops and
 Diseases to develop, maintain, and distribute seed from the USDA
 Small Grains Collection at Beltsville.  That collection contained
 wheat and other small grains ( rye, barley, and oats) that had
 been collected world wide by scientists in the Div. Cereal. Crops
 and Diseases located in Washington, D. C., and Beltsville, and
 many of the cultivars developed and released in North America. 
 When Ward resigned in 1958, J. C. Craddock transferred from
 Pullman, WA to be responsible for that collection.  Craddock was
 in charge of the collection when ARS was reorganized in 1972.  At
 that time there were over 70,000 accessions in the collection. 
 Over 30,000 of those accessions were wheat.   Seed from that
 collection had been distributed free to scientists in the United
 States and throughout the world.    
 
 Classification and Distribution of Wheat Cultivars
          
          Information on the classification and distribution of wheat
 cultivars is being included in this section, because the Leaders,
 Wheat Invest. pioneered in the publication of bulletins in which
 cultivars were classified and their distribution reported. 
 Although the bulletins were prepared by scientists in the Wheat
 Invest. at Washington, D. C. or Beltsville, many wheat
 breederthroughout the U. S. assisted by growing material and
 furnishing information for those bulletins.  The bulletins have
 been used not only by scientists interested in cultivar
 improvement and production, but by individuals including farmers
 interest in wheat.
 
          Four bulletins were published in which wheat cultivars grown
 in specific years were classified.  The first wheat
 classification bulletin published in 1922, by J. A. Clark, J. H.
 Martin and C. R. Ball was Classification of American Wheat 
 Varieties,  U.S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 1074.  That bulletin set the
 pattern for the next three classification bulletins.  The
 information in that publication consisted of a key to species and
 cultivars of wheat, a description and historical information
 about some 200 cultivars, sorting of synonyms used to denote the
 same cultivar, and an estimate of the number of acres of each
 cultivar grown state by state.  The other three classification
 bulletins were published at about 10 year intervals.  The last
 bulletin was by Briggle, L. W. and Reitz L. P., 1963.
 Classification of Triticum species and of Wheat Varieties Grown
 in the United States  U.S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1278. 
 
          The surveys and publication of bulletins on the distribution
 of wheat cultivars were conducted in cooperation with Economic
 Res. Service.  The first bulletin was published in 1919.  There
 were 12 subsequent bulletins.  The surveys, reported in those
 bulletins, recorded the shifts in cultivars as new cultivars were
 developed.  The survey reported in each bulletin included the
 acreage and percentage of each wheat cultivar in each state and
 included from 175 to 235 cultivars.  The last bulletin on surveys
 of wheat cultivars prior to the 1972 reorganization was by Reitz,
 L. P., Lebsock, K. L., and Hasenmyer, G. D. 1972 Distribution of
 the Varieties and Classes of Wheat in the United States in 1969.
 U.S. Dept. Agr. Statistics Bull. 475. 
 
 Table l. - Leaders and Assist. Leaders, Wheat Invest., Cereal Crops Research
 Branch, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1901 to 1972
 ===================================================================         
 
 Years      Leaders           Years     Assistants        Regions     
  -------------------------------------------------------------------        
 
 1901-12  M. A. Carleton 1/   1901-02   C. S Scofield     Durum
                              1902-06  L. A. Fitz         HRW 4/
                              1902-06  H. A. Miller       Eastern
                              1902-06  J. S. Cole         SW 4/
                              1906-09  H. J. C. Umberger  Durum
                              1907-10  W. M Jardine       Dry Land Ag
                              1911-12  A. B.  Derr        Minor Crops
 1912-13 C. R. Ball 2/        1912-13  C. E. Leighty      Humid Area
                              1912-13  A. B. Derr         SE U.S. 4/
 1913-18 M. A. Carleton       1913-18  C. R. Ball         Western 
                              1914-18  J. A. Clark        Western
                              1913-18  C. E. Leighty      Eastern
 1918-30 C. E. Leighty        1919-20  W. C. Eldridge     Eastern 
           (Eastern)          1921-31  W. J. Sando        Eastern
 1919-25 J. H. Martin                                     Western
           (Western) 
 1925-31 K. S. Quisenberry                                 Western
 1930-31 J. A. Clark
 1931-46 S. C. Salmon        
 1946-50 K. S. Quisenberry 3/
      B. B. Bayles  3/
 1950-54 S. C. Salmon
 1955-72 L. P. Reitz
 =========================================================================== 
 
 1/  Many individuals assisted Carleton, and Ball on specific
 projects, but they maintained overall responsibility for all research on
 wheat.  The other leaders delegated responsibilities to their assistants
 including the supervision of other scientists.  
 2/  Ball was acting Leader while Carleton was on leave for
 14 months in 1912-1913. 
 3/  Quisenberry and Bayles shared the responsibilities as
 Leader while Salmon was an Ag. Advisor to MacArthur in
 Japan from 1946 to about 1950 following WWII.
 4/  HRW = Hard Red Winter  SW = Spring Wheat, and SE U.S. =
 Southeastern United States.
   
   
   Table 2. - Scientists, who conducted Agronomic, Production
   and Breeding Research on Wheat and Rye in the U. S.
   Department of Agriculture, 1903 to 1972.
   ========================================================================  
 
   Name      Discipline          Crops             Years of Service          
 
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------  
 
              Washington, D. C. and Beltsville, MD
   Bayles, B. B.       Agronomy       Wheat          1931 to 1953
   Briggle, L. W.      Agronomy       Wheat, Oats    1955 to 1972
   Lebsock, K. L.      Agronomy       Wheat          1969 to 1972
   Jardine, W. M.      Agronomy       Dry Land Ag.   1907 to 1910
   Farrell, F. D.      Agronomy       Dry Land Ag.   1912 to 1918
   Clark, J. A.        Agronomy       Wheat          1914 to 1951
   Quisenberry, K. S.  Agronomy       Wheat          1925 to 1936
   Florell, V. H.      Agronomy       Wheat          1928 to 1930
   Taylor, J. W.       Agronomy       Wheat, Barley  1919 to 1950
   
                         Univ. of AZ,  Tucson, AZ
   Bartel, A. T.       Agronomy       Small Grains   1930 to 1953 1/
   
                      Univ. of CA, Chico, Modesto,  and Yuba City, CA
   Fitz, L. A.         Agronomy       Primarily Wheat   1904 to 1905
   Blanchard, H. F.    Agronomy       Primarily Wheat   1906 to 1911
   Adams, E. L.        Agronomy       Primarily Wheat   1912 to 1917
   Florell, V. H.      Agronomy       Primarily Wheat   1918 to 1921
   
                     Univ. of CA, Berkeley, and Davis, CA
   Florell, V. H.      Agronomy       Small Grains      1921 to 1928
   Wiebe, G. A.        Agronomy       Small Grains      1929 to 1935
   Suneson, C. A.      Agronomy       Small Grains      1936 to 1968
   Mackie, W. W.       Agronomy       Primarily Wheat   1917 to 1926 1/
   Briggs, F. N.       Agron.-Path.   Small Grains      1919 to 1930 1/
   
                            Dry Land Ag. Sta., Akron, CO
   Clark, C. H.        Agronomy       Primarily Wheat   1910 to 1913
   McMurdo, G. A.      Agronomy       Primarily Wheat   1914 to 1917
   Coffman, F. A.      Agronomy       Primarily Wheat   1917 to 1923
   
   
                       Coastal Plains Exp. Sta., Tifton, GA
   Morey, D. D.        Agronomy       Rye,Small Grains  1955 to 1972 1/ 
                  
   
            
                    ID Ag. Exp. Sta., Aberdeen, ID
   Aicher, L. C.       Agronomy       Primarily Wheat   1911 to 1921
   Wiebe, G. A.        Agronomy       Small Grains      1922 to 1929
   Davis, L. L.        Agronomy       Small Grains      1929 to 1931
   Stevens, H.         Agronomy       Small Grains      1931 to 1965
   Petr, F. C.         Agronomy       Primarily Barley  1953 to 1967
   Wesenberg, D. M.    Agronomy       Primarily Barley  1968 to 1972
   Fitzgerald, P. J.   Agronomy       Wheat             1954 to 1960
   Sunderman, D. W.    Agronomy       Wheat             1960 to 1972
   
                           Univ. of ID, Moscow, ID
   Florell, V. H.      Agronomy       Wheat             1930 to 1933
   
                         Purdue Univ.,West Lafayette, IN
   Jackson, H. S.      Agron.-Path.   Small Grains      1918 to 1929 1/
   Caldwell, R. M.     Path.-Agron.   Small Grains      1928 to 1937 1/
   Compton, L. E.      Agronomy       Wheat             1919 to 1962
   Roberts, J. J.      Agronomy       Small Grains      1966 to 1972
   
                          IA State Univ., Ames, IA
   Burnett, L. C.      Agronomy       Small Grains      1907 to 1949 1/
   
                        Dry Land Ag. Sta., Hayes, KS
   Halstead, A. L.     Agronomy       Dry Land Ag.      Several Years
   Swanson, A. F.      Agronomy       Wheat             1933 to 195?
   
                      KS State Univ., Manhattan, KS
   Parker, J. H.       Agronomy       Sm.Grains,Sorgh.  1917 to 1939 1/
   Reitz, L. P.        Agronomy       Wheat             1939 to 1946 1/
   Heyne, E. G.        Agronomy       Wheat, Oats       1938 to 1961 1/
   Weibel, D. E.       Agronomy       Oat, Wheat, Sorgh.1947 to 1953
   
                                MI State Univ., East Lansing, MI
   Smith, D. H., Jr    Genetics       Small Grains      1965 to 1972
   
                                 Univ. of MN, St. Paul, MN
   Parker, J. H.       Agron,Path.    Small Grains      1913 to 1917 1/
   Aamodt, O. S.       Agronomy       Wheat             1917 to 1928
   Ausemus, E. R.      Agronomy       Wheat             1928 to 1964
   Sunderman, D. W.    Agronomy       Wheat             1952 to 1960
   Gilmore, E. C.      Agronomy       Wheat, Flax       1959 to 1965
   Heiner, R. E.       Genetics       Wheat             1965 to 1972
   
                           MT State Univ., Bozeman, MT
   Cardine, W. M.      Agronomy       Dry Land Ag.      1918 to 1921
   McNeal, F. H.       Agronomy       Wheat             1949 to 1972
   Berg, M. A.         Agronomy       Wheat             1953 to 1972
   Haun, C. R.         Agronomy       Wheat             1957 to 1968 1/
   
                     Dry Land Ag. Sta., Moccasin, MT
   Adams, E. L.        Agronomy       Dry Land Ag.      1909 to 1911
   Sutherland, J. L.   Agronomy       Dry Land Ag.      1911 to 1933 1/
   May, R. W.          Agronomy       Dry Land Ag.      1921 to 1927
   Bayles, B. B.       Agronomy       Dry Land Ag.      1928 to 1930
   
                         Univ. of NE, Lincoln, NE
   Suneson, C. A.      Agronomy       Wheat             1930 to 1936
   Quisenberry, K. S.  Agronomy       Wheat             1936 to 1946
   Reitz, L. P.        Agronomy       Wheat             1946 to 1954
   Johnson, V. A.      Agronomy       Wheat             1954 to 1972
   
                         Dry Land Ag. Sta., North Platte, NE
   Zook, L. L.         Agronomy       Dry Land Ag.      1912 to 195?
   Sprague, G. F.      Agronomy       Primarily Wheat   1924 to 1928
   Jodon, N. E.        Agronomy       Primarily Wheat   1929 to 1932
   
                              Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY
   Craig, W. T.        Agronomy       Small Grains      1924 to 19?? 1/
   Love, H. H.         Agronomy       Small Grains      1924 to 1940 1/
   
                             Dry Land Ag. Sta., Dickinson, ND
   Clark, J. A.        Agronomy       Dry Land Ag.      1911 to 1914
   Smith, R. W.        Agronomy       Primarily Wheat   1914 to 1947
   
                              ND State Univ., Fargo, ND
   Smith, G. S.        Agronomy       Wheat             1929 to 1947 1/
   Heerman, R. M.      Agronomy       Wheat             1948 to 1956
   Lebsock, K. L.      Agronomy       Wheat             1953 to 1969
   Briggle, L. W.      Genetics       Wheat             1954 to 1956
   Williams, N. D.     Genetics       Wheat             1957 to 1972
   Joppa, L. R.        Genetics       Wheat             1968 to 1972
   
                           Dry Land Ag. Sta., Mandan, ND
   Ausemus, E. R.      Agronomy       Primarily Wheat   1925 to 1928
   Hubbard, V. C.      Agronomy       Wheat             1929 to 1936
   
                           OK State Univ., Stillwater, OK
   Schlehuber, A. M.   Agronomy       Small Grains      1945 to 1966 1/
   
                           Dry Land Ag. Sta., Woodward, OK
   Stephens, E.        Agronomy       Wheat             1931 to 1948?
   Hubbard, V. C.      Agronomy       Wheat             1936 to 1940
   
                             Dry Land Ag. Sta., Burns, OR
   Breithaupt, L. R.   Agronomy       Dry Land Ag.      1911 to 1918
   Martin, J. H.       Agronomy       Dry Land Ag.      1918 to 1919
   Shattuck, L. R.     Agronomy       Dry Land Ag.      1919 to 1920
   
                         Dry Land Ag. Sta., Moro, OR
   Umberger, H. J. C.  Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1910 to 1912
   Stevens, D. E.      Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1913 to 1838
   Schneiderhan, F.J.  Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1917 to 1918
   Bayles, B. B.       Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1923 to 1927
   Martin, J. F.       Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1927 to 1929
   Schneiderhan, F.    Agronomy      Wheat              1917 to 1018
   Hoskinson, R. B.    Agronomy      Wheat              1929 to 1933?
   
                                        
                           OR Ag. Exp. Sta., Pendleton, OR
   Martin, J. F.       Agronomy      Primarily Whea     1929 to 1955
   McNeal, F. H.       Agronomy      Wheat              1947 to 1948
   Rohde, C. R.        Agronomy      Wheat              1953 to 1957
   
                          Dry Land Ag. Sta., Highmore, SD
   Champlain, M.       Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1909 to 1911
   Morrison, J. D.     Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1911 to 1919?
   Mcfadden, E. S.     Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1918 to 1920
             
                         Dry Land Ag. Sta., Newell, SD
   Salmon, S. C.       Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1908 to 1912
   Martin, J. H.       Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1914 to 1918
   Ellison, A. D.      Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1919 to 1920
                            
                   Dry Land Ag. Sta., Amarillo, and Channing TX
   Leidigh, A. H.      Agronomy      Sorghum, Wheat     1904 to 1908
   Ross, J. F.         Agronomy      Primarily Wheat    1905 to 1920
     
                   TX A & M Univ., College Station, TX
   Atkins, I. M.       Agronomy      Small Grains, Flax 1954 to 1969 1/
   Gilmore, F. C.      Agronomy      Wheat              1957 to 1959
   Merkle, O. J.       Agronomy      Wheat              1958 to 1972
   
                        TX Ag. Exp. Sta., Denton, TX
   Atkins, I. M.       Agronomy      Small Grains       1930 to 1954 1/
   Weibel, D. E.       Agronomy      Wheat, Oats        1953 to 1958
   
                         UT State Univ., Logan, UT
   Leidigh, A. H.      Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1903 to ?
   Woodward, R. W.     Agronomy      Small Grains       1930 to 1966
   
                     Dry Land Ag. Sta.,  Nephi, UT
   Jardine, W. M.      Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1904 to 1906
   Farrell, F. D.      Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1907 to 1910
   Cardon, P. V.       Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1910 to 1912
   Ellison, A. D.      Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1912 to 1915 
   Jones, J. W.        Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1915 to 1918
   
                            Dry Land Ag. Sta., Lind, WA
   McCall, M. A.       Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1915 to 1924?
   
                       WA State Univ., Pullman, WA
   Vogel, O. A.        Agronomy      Wheat              1931 to 1972
   Peterson, C. J.     Agronomy      Wheat              1963 to 1972
   Everson, E. H.      Agronomy      Wheat              1954 to 1956
   Allen, R. E.        Genetics      Wheat              1957 to 1972
   Craddock, J. C.     Agronomy      Wheat, Oats        1953 to 1958
   
                        Univ. of WI., Madison, WI
   Shands, R. G.       Agronomy      Wheat, Barley      1929 to 1965
   
                     Dry Land Ag. Sta., Archer, WY
   Jones, J. W.        Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1912 to 1915
   Florell, V. H.      Agronomy      Dry Land Ag.       1915 to 1918
   ==================================================================        
 
    1/  State employees who cooperated closely with USDA, and
   may have received some financial support from USDA.
   
   
 Table 3 - Introduction and Maintenance of Wheat and Rye Germplasm in the U.
 S. Department of Agriculture, 1897 to 1972
 ========================================================================
 Years   Explorers         Countries visited             Cereal Introduced
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1897-98 N. E. Hansen      Russia, Turkestan,             Kubanka Wheat, 
                             and Siberia                 and other Cereals
     
 1898    M. A. Carleton    Russia                         Durum Wheat, Oats, 
                                                            and Barley
   
 1900    M. A. Carleton    France, Russia                Kharkov Wheat,
                                                           and Barley
   
 1900    D. G. Fairchild,  Algeria                       Durum Wheat, and
         C. S. Scofield                                      Barley
   
 1903    E. A. Bessey      Russia and                         Wheat
                           Turkestan
   
 1923-24 H. V. Harlan      Russia, India, Ethiopia        Barley, and other
                             and North Africa                Grains
   
 1926    H. H. McKinney    Weat Africa                    Virus Diseases of 
                                                          Cereals (Wheat)
   
 1948-58 D. J. Ward        In charge, USDA                Small Wheat, Rye,
                           Grains Collection              Barley, and Oats
   
 1958-72 J. C. Craddock    In charge, USDA Small          Wheat, Rye, Barley,
                            Grains Collection                 and Oats
 ============================================================================
 
 
 
 
                     Pathologic and Physiologic Research
 
      Prior to 1933, most of the pathologists, who were studying
 diseases of cereal crops in the Dept. of Ag., were in the Div. of
 Pathology and Mycology. In a reorganization in Sept. 1933, those
 pathologist were reassigned to specific Crop Invest. in the Div.
 of Cereal Crops and Diseases.  However, prior to 1933 some
 pathologist-breeders, who were in the Div. of Cereal Crops and
 Diseases, conducted research on the resistance of wheat to
 pathogens.  The discussion of the pathologic and physiologic
 research on wheat will be divided into research that was
 conducted prior to the 1933 reorganization, and to research that
 was conducted after that reorganization.  The research prior to
 the 1933 reorganization will be described by when, who and where
 the research on specific pathogens of wheat was conducted.  The
 research following the 1933 reorganization will be divided into
 diseases caused by rusts, smuts, fungal pathogens other than
 rusts and smuts, viruses, and physiologic research not disease
 related.
 
          The scientists who conducted pathologic and physiologic
 research on wheat and rye are listed by location in Table 4. 
 Included is their major discipline, crops and diseases, and years
 of service at specific locations.  Since some scientists studied
 many different diseases or physiologic stresses, the diseases or
 stresses they studied are not indicated on the table.  However,
 when known they are mentioned in the discussion of the research.
 
             Research on Wheat Pathogens conducted prior to 1933
 
          The Commissioners of Ag. in articles or correspondence
 dealing with cereal culture frequently included statements
 regarding diseases of cereals, their causes and remedies.  In
 1886, the investigation of plant diseases was assigned to the
 Div. of Botany.  In 1887, a separate Section of Mycology under F.
 Lamson-Scribner was created in the Div. of Botany.  In 1888,
 Lamson-Scribner was succeeded by B. T. Galloway, and in 1890, the
 Section of Mycology was made a separate Div. of Veg. Path.  In
 1895, this Div. was reorganized as the Div. of Veg. Physiol. and
 Path.  In 1901, Galloway became Chief, of the Bureau of Plant
 Industry (BPI), and A. F. Woods succeeded him as Head, Div. of
 Veg. Physiol. and Path. which was continued until split into
 separate offices in 1906. 
 
          The first contribution of the Dept. of Ag. to cereal
 pathology was a description and illustration of corn smut, corn
 rust, and remedies for wheat bunt in the 1887 report of
 Mycologist, Lamson-Scribner.  On March 30, 1891, W. T. Swingle
 was appointed to the Div. of Veg. Path. to conduct studies of
 cereal diseases.  He wrote Farmers Bull. No. 5, "Treatment of
 Smuts of Oats and Wheat" that was published in 1892.  After
 additional experiments he wrote Farmers Bull. No. 75, "The Grain
 Smuts" How they are caused, and how to prevent them".  That
 bulletin was published in 1898.
 
          In the autumn of 1891, a small grain nursery was planted at
 Garrett Park, MD to investigate methods of  controlling rust by
 seed, and soil treatments, spraying and dusting.  Those
 experiments were continued for two years under the supervision of
 Galloway, Swingle, P. H. Dorsett, and D. G. Fairchild, and were
 supplemented by similar experiments near Manhattan and Rockport,
 KS.  It was concluded, from those experiments, that the best
 method for controlling rust would be by developing rust resistant
 cultivars.  This led to the appointment of M. A. Carleton, in the
 Div. of Veg. Path. on a full-time basis on Jan. 23, 1894.  In
 March, Carleton came to Washington, D. C., and began a search for
 rust resistant grains.  Field experiments with wheat, principally
 for determining rust resistance, were conducted at Garrett Park,
 MD in 1894, and 1895, at Salina, KS in 1896, at Manhattan, KS in
 1897, and at Lincoln, NE in 1898.  Laboratory and greenhouse
 studies, and field collections of all cereals were conducted in
 conjunction with the field experiments.  After July 1898, when
 Carleton began introducing and testing cereals from Russia and
 other countries, only limited attention was given to cereal
 diseases. 
 
          Carleton was the only cereal pathologist in the Dept. of Ag.
 for more than 10 years from 1894 to 1905.  The rust epidemic of
 1904 again focused attention on pathological problems, and
 emphasized the resistance of durum wheat to stem rust,
 particularly the cultivar 'Iumillo'.  On Aug. 17, 1905, E. M.
 Freeman was appointed as pathologist at the Univ. Farm, Univ. of
 MN, St. Paul.  Carleton then devoted his time largely to agonomic
 and administrative problems.  Freeman's experiments dealt
 principally with the causal organisms and the life history of
 rusts and smuts, and the breeding for rust resistance.  On June
 13, 1907, E. C. Johnson became Freeman's assistant, and succeeded
 to the position of cereal pathologist after Freeman's resignation
 on Dec. 31, 1907 to become the first Plant pathologist of the Mn
 Ag. Exp. Sta.  Freeman continued his association with the Office
 of Cereal Invest. on a part-time basis. 
 
          On July 16, 1908, A. A. Potter was appointed special agent
 to assist with cereal disease experiments at Univ. Farm, St.
 Paul, MN.  On July 1, 1909, Potter was appointed as an expert on
 cereal diseases, and was tranferred to Washington, D. C. to study
 primarily sorghum smuts, and loose smuts of small grains
 including wheat.  Johnson resigned on Sept. 30, 1912, to become
 Superintendent of Farmer's Inst. Work in KS.  During the next
 five months Potter was the only cereal pathologist in the Dept.
 of Ag.
 
          On March 1, 1913, H. B. Humphrey was appointed cereal
 pathologist.  Extensive cereal disease investigations were
 established under Humphrey's direction.  However, the expansion
 was gradual previous to America's entrance into World War I.  J.
 H. Parker was appointed at St. Paul, Mn on July 1, 1913 to take
 charge of cereal breeding for rust resistance, and other rust
 investigations.  Humphrey was directly in charge of the
 experiments with bunt, until H. M. Woolman was appointed on Aug.
 16, 1913, as a part time collaborator at Pullman, WA, to assist
 in the bunt investigations in that  state.  In 1914, three of the
 four full-time cereal plant pathologists were Christian
 Scientists.  On July 1, 1915, F. J. Piemeisel was appointed as an
 agent to study the pathological phases of rust at Univ. Farm, St.
 Paul where J. H. Parker was engaged in breeding wheat, and other
 cereals for rust resistance.
 
          Kolpin-Ravn of Denmark, who visited the U. S. in the summer
 of 1915, was appointed a collaborator in the Office of Cereal
 Invest. to survey cereal diseases and pathological research in
 cooperation with various members of that Office.  Kolpin-Ravn's
 discovery of stripe rust, Puccinia glumarum, in western U. S.
 resulted in the appointment of C. W. Hungerford on Oct. 1, 1915
 to investigate that disease.  By examining herbarium specimens,
 Humphrey found that stripe rust had been present in Western WA
 state as early as 1892.
 
          After July 1, 1917, additional funds became available for
 studying cereal diseases from increased appropriations, and from
 was emergency funds designated for "stimulating Agriculture". 
 Consequently, numerous appointments were made for field surveys
 to determine the losses from smut, rust and other diseases, for
 conducting demonstrations on smut control, for the study of
 overwintering and phases of the epidemiology of rusts.  On Febr.
 25, 1917, O. C. Drechsler was appointed field assistant to study
 rust epidemiology at the Univ. of WI at Madison. 
 
          New appropriations available on July 1, 1918, included
 $150,000 for barberry eradication, $100,000 for smut control, and
 $100,000 for "black and stripe rust" investigations.
 
      On July 1, 1918, E. C. Stakman was given immediate charge of
 stem rust investigations, and until April 16, 1919 also directed
 the barberry eradication campaign.  From April 16 to July 1,
 1919, C. R. Ball assumed direct supervision of the barberry
 programs.  From July 1, 1919, until Nov. 1927 F. E. Kempton was
 in charge of barberry eradication, and on the latter date his
 assistant, L. D. Dutton, took charge of that project.  Kempton
 remained in the barberry eradication work until his resignation
 on Dec. 15, 1929, when a separate Office of Barberry Eradication
 was set up with F. E. Meier in charge.
 
          C. S. Reddy, at ND State Univ, Fargo, temporarily dropped
 his flax disease investigations, to direct the smut eradication
 campaign from July, 1918 to May, 1919.  On Oct. 22, 1918 G. M.
 Reed was appointed to take charge of smut investigations. 
 
          On Oct. 11, 1919, V. F. Tapke was transferred from Cereal
 disease survey and extension work in pathology to take charge of
 the loose smut investigation which Potter had been conducting
 since his transfer to Washington, D. C. in 1909.  Following
 Tapke's appointment Potter devoted his efforts to the planning
 and constructing a greenhouse at Arlington Farm, Arlington, VA,
 which was to contain large chambers with controlled temperature
 and humidity.  Potter resigned on Dec. 31, 1919, after work on
 the greenhouse was suspended owing to a shortage of funds. 
 Eventually, the greenhouse was completed without the control
 chambers. 
 
      Reed resigned on Dec. 31, 1920, and on Jan. 1, 1921, W. H.
 Tisdale was transferred from rice disease studies, and placed in
 charge of smut investigations.  From when Tisdale resigned on
 Dec. 15, 1926 until J. A. Faris was appointed on June 1, 1931 to
 take charge of smut investigations, Tapke was acting in charge of
 smut investigations.  Faris continued to direct the smut research
 until his death on Sept. 24, 1933.  In 1930, H. A. Rodenhiser was
 transferred to Arlington Farm, Arlington, VA to work on the smut
 project.  From 1929 to 1931, when he transferred to conduct
 research on flax rust at Fargo, ND, H. H. Flor conducted research
 on wheat smut and other diseases at WA State Univ., Pullman. 
 After Flor left, the smut project was expanded in 1931 by the
 addition of C. S. Holton to the staff at Pullman, WA. 
 
          On July 16, 1918, A. G. Johnson, at Univ. of WI, Madison,
 was placed in charge of investigations of imperfect and sac
 fungi, which included nearly all disease problems other than
 those of rusts and smuts.  About 1919, wheat scab research was
 initiated at Univ. of Wi, Madison by Johnson.  On July 1, 1925
 Johnson transferred from Madison, to Washington, DC to be in
 charge of all cereal disease investigations.  At that time,
 Humphrey assumed direct charge of rust investigations.  Johnson
 was in charge on Sept 25, 1933 when the Div. of Cereal Crops and
 Diseases was reorganized on a crop investigation basis and all
 pathologists were assigned to one or more of the Crop
 Investigations. 
 
          During World War I the greatly augmented funds for emergency
 pathological problems were difficult to administer.  Appointees
 were continually drafted for military service, and many were
 poorly trained to conduct the studies.  Delays in payment of
 salary, and expenses occasionally resulted in individuals being
 stranded in hotels for several days until money was received to
 enable them to check out.  One member of the staff on a field
 trip was arrested as a suspicious charactor (or probably a German
 spy), and escorted to the city limits.  Two others were locked up
 on suspicion of being draft evaders.  In 1919, three barberry
 scouts, due to mistaken identity, were jailed and charged with
 bank robbery and murder. 
 
          In April 1919, the flag smut and rosette diseases of wheat,
 (the latter at the time believed to be the Take-all disease,
 Ophiobolus graminis) were discovered near Granite City, IL.  An
 appropriation of $50,000 for "Cereal disease control",. beginning
 July 1, 1919, was obtained to study and eradicate those two
 diseases.  On April 8, 1919, H. H. McKinney was appointed at
 Univ. of WI, Madison, and assigned to investigate those two
 diseases.  After several years, McKinney demonstrated that
 "rosette" was a soil borne virus disease.  On Aug. 16, 1926,
 McKinney transferred to Arlington Farm, Arlington, VA to take
 charge of virus diseases of cereals.
 
               Research on Wheat Diseases conducted after 1933
      This research is discussed by the diseases caused by rusts,
 by smuts, by fungal pathogens other than rusts and smuts, and  by
 viruses, and physiologic research not related to diseases.  Some
 research initiated prior to the1933 reorganization, and continued
 after that reorganization will be discussed. 
 
 DISEASES CAUSED BY RUST PATHOGENS
          There were three rust diseases on wheat.  Stem and leaf
 rusts were most severe on Hard Red and Soft Red Winter, Hard Red
 Spring, and Durum wheats.  Stripe rust was restricted to wheat
 grown in the Pacific Northwest.  Much of the early research on
 wheat stem and leaf rusts was conducted at the Univ. of MN at St.
 Paul MN.  However, some research was conducted by individual
 scientists at other locations.  The following is a discussion of
 research on wheat rust diseases at various locations.
 
 Univ. of MN, St. Paul, MN 
          E. C. Stakman, who was supported by the Cereal Office from
 1915 until he retired in 1953, directed the USDA personnel
 assigned to cooperative wheat rust projects at St. Paul.  As
 Head, Plant Pathology Dept, he initiated, and supervised many
 special projects such as physiologic race surveys, uniform rust
 nurseries, barberry eradication, breeding wheat for resistance to
 rusts, and epidemiological studies.
 
          The severe stem rust epidemics of 1953 and 1954 caused by
 race15B, greatly reduced the production of Hard Red Winter, Hard
 Red Spring, and Durum wheats throughout the midwest.  E. B.
 Hayden, who had been a graduate student since 1950, was appointed
 in 1954 to cooperate with the wheat breeders in developing stem
 rust resistant cultivars.  When he resigned in 1955,  J. D.
 Miller, who had been a graduate student since 1953, was hired. 
 Miller initiated studies on genetics of host-pathogen
 interactions between wheat and the stem rust pathogen.  When
 Miller transferred to Puerto Rico in 1965, D. V. McVey
 transferred from Puerto Rico to St. Paul to be responsible for
 that research.  McVey was on that project through the 1972
 reorganization.
 
          In 1962, the Cereal Rust Lab. (CRL) was organized at St.
 Paul.  J. B. Rowell was acting Lab. Director until R. W. Romig
 was hired in 1963 to be the Director.  Romig was responsible for
 planning the new Lab. facilities, and developed an elaborate
 statistical procedure for determining the development of rust
 epidemics in North America and in other countries.  When Romig
 resigned in 1968, Rowell became the Director, and was the
 Director when ARS was reorganized in 1972. 
 
          Three scientists conducted physiologic studies on rust
 diseases.  Helen Hart conducted physiologic studies from 1924
 until 1933 when she became a full time employee of the Univ. of
 MN.  She determined that one resistance mechanism of wheat to
 stem rust was the exclusion of the infection peg of the fungus. 
 She also dermined other physiologic and morphologic relationships
 between the wheat plant and the  rust pathogens.  In 1955, Rowell
 was hired to conduct laboratory and field studies on the efficacy
 of fungicides for controlling rusts.  He continued those studies
 while Leader CRL from 1968 through the 1972 reorganzation.  In
 1960, W. R. Bushnell was hired to study the physiology of rust. 
 Bushnell was the first to successfully culture rust fungi on
 artifical media.  He also developed procedures for photographing
 the infection of wheat plants by rust and powdery mildew
 pathogens.
 
 ND State Univ., Fargo, ND
 
          Support for pathologic research on wheat stem rust was
 initiated at Fargo in about 1953 when E. A. Schwinghamer was
 hired as part of a team to study the inheritance of resistance in
 wheat to stem rust.  After he resigned in 1955, F. J. Gough was
 hired in 1957 to continue that research.  When Gough transferred
 to College Station, TX in 1967, J. D. Miller transferred from
 Mayaguez, PR to Fargo.  Miller continued that research through
 the 1972 reorganization.  Those pathologists cooperated closely
 with the USDA wheat geneticists, Briggle, and Williams, in using
 specific cultures of the stem rust pathogen to identify, and
 transfer genes for resistance to stem rust into advanced
 selections and cultivars. 
 
 
 
 Washington, D. C. and Beltsville, Ag. Res. Center, Beltsville, MD
 
          Prior to 1933 many scientists, who were conducting
 pathologic research on wheat rusts in Washington, D. C ., became
 administrators and discontinued their rust research.  From 1933
 until 1950 little wheat rust research was conducted in
 Washington, D. C. or at Beltsville. 
 
          In 1950, C. Lowther was hired to conduct research on wheat
 stem rust.  Lowther was initiating research on resistance of
 wheat to stem rust when he suddenly died in 1953. 
 
          In the 1940s, during World War II, Rodenhiser conducted
 cooperative 
 research on wheat rust with Fort Detrick, at Frederick, MD.  They
 established nurseries in Argentina, Peru, Chile, Brazil and
 Puerto Rico to study reactions of wheat to rusts in those
 countries.  In 1954, Bayles in cooperation with the Rockefeller
 Foundation in Mexico was arranging for the expansion of the world
 wide testing program of wheat for reactions to rusts, when he
 died in Beirut, Lebanon.
 
          W. Q. Leogering, who had been on wheat rust project in St.
 Paul for several years, was hired in 1953 to develop the
 International Rust Nursery (IRN) program.  The two primary
 objectives of those nurseries were (1) to evaluate the reactions
 of advanced breeding lines, and new cultivars for wheat breeders
 world wide, and (2) to distribute outstanding new sources of rust
 resistant wheat to all wheat breeders.  In about 1955, Loegering
 began coordinating the URNs, which had been coordinated at St. 
 Paul.  The objectives of the URN program was to identify new
 physiologic races of the wheat stem and leaf rust pathogens by
 the reactions of differential varietes, and from collections of
 the pathogens made at several locations in North America. 
 Loegering expanded the IRN to include over 50 countries and over
 1000 entries.  He also studied the genetics of host pathogen
 interactions between wheat and stem rust.
 
          When Loegering retired in 1967, R. A. Kilpatrick transferred
 from College Station, TX to assume the responsibilities for the
 IRN and URN programs.  Kilpatrick was in charge of those two
 programs until the 1972 reorganization.  Both Loegering and
 Kilpatrick conducted studies on lypholization and preservation of
 rust spores, and  cooperated with the evaluation of wheat
 reactions to specific physiologic races of stem rust in Puerto
 Rico. 
 
 USDA Plant Introduction Sta., Mayaguez, PR
 
          Following the stem rust epidemics in 1953 and 1954 caused by
 15B, the rust nursery program was established at Mayaguez.  The
 objective of that program was to evaluate the reactions of
 advanced selections, and new cultivars of cereals developed by
 both USDA and State Ag. Exp. Sta. breeders for their reactions to
 physiologic races of rusts with new virulence characteristics
 found at only a few locations in North America.
 
          In 1954, T. N. Theis was hired to be in charge of that
 program. He was in charge until 1961 when he was reassigned
 within ARS.  From 1959 until 1965, when he transferred to the CRL
 at St. Paul, D. V. McVey assisted with that nursery program. 
 When McVey transferred to St. Paul, J. D. Miller transferred from
 St. Paul to Mayaguez.  Since the breeders became less interested
 in having their breeding material tested, Miller transferred from
 Mayaquez to Fargo, ND in 1967.  From 1967 until the 1972
 reorganization the program was supervised by L. P. Reitz, Leader,
 Wheat Invest. at Beltsville, through technicians located in
 Puerto Rico, and the assistance of Loegering and Kilpatrick. 
 
 Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN
 
          The wheat rust research at Purdue was initiated by E. B.
 Mains, a pathologist, and H. S. Jackson a breeder-pathologist.  
 From 1918 until 1930 when he resigned, Mains identified
 physiologic races of leaf rust in cooperation with C. O. Johnston
 at Manhattan, KS, and on breeding wheat for resistance to leaf
 rust with Jackson from 1918 until 1928 when Jackson resigned. 
 
          In 1928, R. M. Caldwell was hired and assumed responsibility
 for both the pathology of leaf rust and breeding of wheat for
 resistance to diseases including leaf rust.   Caldwell was
 jointly supported by the Cereal Office and Purdue Univ. until
 1937 when he became a full time employee of Purdue Univ., and the
 direct support for pathology research at Lafayette was
 discontinued. 
 
 Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS
 
      The wheat leaf rust research at Manhattan was initiated by
 C. O. Johnston in 1919.  Johnston cooperated with Mains at Purdue
 on the identification of physiologic races of wheat leaf rust. 
 After Mains retired in 1930, Johnston assumed complete
 responsibility for that project.  Until he retired in 1963, he
 cooperated closely with the KSU, wheat breeder in developing
 resistant cultivars.
 
          In 1958, L. R. Browder was hired to study wheat stem rust. 
 By 1963, when Johnston retired, most of the new wheat cultivars
 were resistant to stem rust, but most were susceptible to leaf
 rust.  Therefore, Browder assumed the responsibility for the
 physiologic race identification of wheat leaf rust.  Browder also
 studied the genetics of host-pathogen interactions between wheat
 and leaf rust pathogen, and the effect of environment on those
 interactions.
 
          In 1965 J.  R. Burleigh, and M. Eversmeyer were hired to
 study the epidemiology of wheat leaf rust.  Burleigh resigned in
 1971, and his position was discontinued.  Eversmeyer continued
 his research through the 1972 reorganization.
 
 TX A. & M Univ., College Station, TX.
 
          About 1952, M. C. Futtrell was hired to study wheat stem and
 leaf rust at College Station.  When R. A. Kilpatrick was hired in
 1964, Futrell  transferred to the Flax Invest.  In 1967,
 Kilpatrick transferred to Beltsville, MD, and F. J. Gough
 transferred from Fargo, ND to College Station.  The rust research
 in TX was oriented toward surveying rusts in South TX and Mexico
 as part of the rust epidemiologic surveys.  They also cooperated
 with the breeding programs.  From 1958 to 1965, C. Hobbs assisted
 on that rust project.
 
 OK State Univ., Stillwater, OK
 
          R. C. Bellingham was assigned to Stillwater as a pathologist
 from 1957 until 1967,  Bellingham cooperated closely with the
 wheat breeders in OK and adjacent states in developing rust, and
 virus resistant cultivars.
 
 Univ of CA, Berkeley, CA
 
          R. F. Allen's research at Berkeley, on the physiology and
 cytology of the infection process of the wheat leaf rust
 pathogen, was partially supported by ARS from 1918 to 1936 when
 she became a full time state employee.  Studies on the infection
 process of rust were then discontinued in the Wheat Invest. until
 W. R. Bushnell was hired in 1960, and assigned to the CRL, St.
 Paul.
 
 Univ. of ID, Moscow, ID
 
      C. W. Hungerford began his studies on stripe rust in 1915 in
 Washington, D. C.  In 1919, he transferred to Moscow where he
 conducted disease surveys, studies on the life cycle of the
 stripe rust pathogen and resistance of wheat and grasses.  After
 Hungerford retired in 1927, W. M. Bever was hired in 1928.  Bever
 studied the effect of environment  on the rust, and the
 identification of physiologic races.  When Bever transferred to
 Urbana, IL in 1940, the research on wheat stripe rust in the
 Wheat Invest. was discontinued. 
 
 WA State Univ., Pullman, WA
 
          In 1953, L. H. Purdy began studies on stripe rust resistance
 in wheat and pathogenicity of the pathogen at Pullman in
 cooperation with State employees.  After Purdy resigned in 1966,
 R. F. Line was hired in 1968 to conduct the research on stripe
 rust.  Line expanded the studies on resistance, pathogenicity and
 surveys.  By 1972 he had conducted research on disease
 forecasting, loss assessment, and the use of chemicals.
 
                      Diseases caused by smut pathogens
 
          Smut diseases of wheat including loose smut (Ustilago Sp.)
 and bunt (stinking smut) (Tilletia spp.), were among the first
 diseases of wheat studied in the Dept. of Ag.  Two of the
 pathologist that were assigned to the Wheat Invest. when the Div.
 of Cereal Crops and Diseases was reorganized in 1933 were
 studying smuts.  They were C. S. Holton at Pullman, WA and H. A.
 Rodenhiser at Arlington, VA.
 
 Arlington Farm, Arlington, VA, and Beltsville Ag. Res. Center
 Beltsville, MD
 
      Rodenhiser, who was at Arlington Farm and Beltsville, MD,
 studied the effects of environmnent and physiology of the smut
 fungi from 1930 until 1951 when he became Assist. Head Div.
 Cereal Crops & Diseases. 
 
 WA Sta. Univ., Pullman, WA
 
          From 1929 until 1931 when he transferred to study flax rust
 at Fargo, ND, H. H. flor conducted studies on wheat smuts at
 Pullman.  Holton, who was at Pullman from 1931 until he retired
 in 1968, studied all aspects of bunt and flag smut of wheat.  In
 1953, following a series of smut epidemics in the Pacific
 Northwest the Northwest Regional Smut Lab. was established in
 Pullman.  Holton also studied oat smuts and part of his salary
 came from Oat Investigations.  J.  P. Meiners and L. H. Purdy
 were assigned to the Lab. in that same year, followed by E. L.
 Kendrick in 1954.
 
      Meiners studied the biology of dwarf bunt in wheat and the
 relationships of bunts on grasses to those on wheat until he
 transferred to Beltsville in 1958 as Assist. Chief Cereal Crops
 Res. Branch (CCRB).  The research on bunts on grasses was in
 cooperation with J. R. Hardison of the Forage Crops Res. Branch
 at Corvallis, OR.  Meiners was succeeded by J. A. Hoffman in
 1958.  Hoffman, who reoriented that research to include dwarf
 bunt, transferred to Logan, UT in 1971. 
 
          Purdy studied the efficacy of fungicides for the control of
 smuts.  Purdy's research was discontinued after  he resigned in
 1966. 
 
          Kendrick was responsible for cooperating with the breeders
 in the identification and development of smut resistant wheat
 cultivars.  The research, that Kendrick conducted was
 discontinued after Kendrick transferred to Beltsville, MD, as
 Assist. Chief CCRB in 1965. 
 
          The research at the Regional Smut Lab. was in cooperation
 with the Pacific Nortwest states of ID, MT, OR, UT, and WA, and
 experimental nurseries were maintained in each of those states. 
 The comprehensive pathology and breeding programs on the wheat
 smuts resulted in such effective control of the smut diseases
 that all of the research on wheat smut conducted at Pullman had
 been discontinued at the time of the reorganization in 1972.
 
 Ut. State Univ., Logan, UT
 
          From 1971 until the reorganization in 1972 Hoffman continued
 much of the research on dwarf bunt and flag smut that he had been
 conducting at Pullman.
 
 OR. State Univ., Corvallis, OR
 
          In 1954, research on wheat bunt was initiated at Corvallis
 in cooperation with Or. State Univ.  R. J. Metzger a genetists-
 pathologist  was hired to study host resistance to wheat bunt. 
 He determined the genetic resistance of wheat to different
 pathogenic strains of the smut pathogen present in OR and in WA. 
 He also conducted studies on dwarf bunt and flag smut.
 
          From 1954 to 1959 when he resigned, R. W. Newburgh studied
 the physiology of the wheat smut smut fungi.  Newburgh was
 succeeded in 1959 by E. J. Trione who continued those studies. 
 Trione was conducting those studies in 1972.  
             Diseases caused by fungi other than rusts and smuts
 
          Fungal diseases other that rusts and smuts were studied by
 single pathologists at several locations.  The following is a
 list of those pathologists, and where, when and what diseases
 they studied.
 
 R. Sprague        Corvallis, OR       1929-40     Septoria, foot & root rots
                   Mandan, ND          1940-47     All fungal diseases but
                                                   Rusts and Smuts
 H. Fellows        Manhattan, KS       1926-59     Root rots, eptoria tritici
 R. A. Kilpatrick  College Station,TX  1964-1967   Root rots, Seed borne
                                                   pathogens
 C. Lowther        Beltsville, MD      1950-1953   Powdery Mildew 
 H. R. Powers, Jr spp.  "              1954-1959   P. Mildew,Septoria 
 A. L. Scharen spp.                    1960-1972   P. Mildew, Septoria 
 D. M. Kline       Raleigh, NC         1956-1972   Septoria spp.
 R. J. Cook        Pullman, WA         1965-1972   Soil borne diseases
 A. G. Johnson     Madison, WI         1914-1925   fungi imperfecti
 J. G. Dickson          "              1918-1961   Wheat scab
 H. H. McKinney         "              1919-1925   Ergot (rye),Take-all
                                                   (Virus Diseases)
 H. Fellows             "              1923-1926   Leaf spotting diseases
                                                   (Virus Diseases)
 
 OR State Univ., Corvallis, OR, & ND Field Sta., Mandan, ND
 
          R. Sprague conducted the first extensive studies of
 epidemiology, taxonomy, and host range of many fungi pathogenic
 on cereals and grasses throughout U. S.  While at Corvallis from
 1929 to 1940 he studied Septoria, Cercosporell, phaeoseptoria,
 and Selenophora  spp.  His 1950 volume "Diseases of Cereals and
 Grasses in North America: prepared while at Mandan from 1940 to
 1947, which pertains to all fungi except smuts and rusts, remains
 a classic reference today.
 
 KS State Univ., Manhattan, KS.
 
          At Manhattan from 1926 to 1959, H. Fellows studied many of
 the root and foot rotting diseases affecting winter wheat in the
 dry areas of Kansas, and Septoria tritici.  He also cooperated
 with the wheat breeding program
 
 Texas A & M, College Station, TX
 
          R. A. Kilpatrick studied seed borne fungi, and factors
 affecting black point of wheat, and the root rotting pathogen
 Sclerotium rolfsii while at College Station from 1964 until 1967
 when he transferred to Beltsville, MD.
 
 Beltsville Ag. Res. Center, Beltsville, MD
 
          Three pathoogists were involved in research on diseases
 other then the rusts and smuts at Beltsville from 1950 to 1972. 
 From 1950 until his death in 1953, C. Lowther initiated a
 research program on wheat powdery mildew by collecting cultures
 of the pathogen from many locations in U. S.  From 1954 until he
 resigned in 1959, H. R. Powers, Jr. conducted studies on the
 genetics of the host-pathogen interaction between wheat and
 powdery mildew.  A. L. Scharen, who succeeded Powers in 1960,
 continued the studies on powdery mildew, and initiated studies on
 determining differences in physiologic resistance of wheat to
 powdery mildew and Septoria pathogens.  By using CO2 analysis
 equipment to measure CO2 uptake (Photosynthesis) and CO2
 evolution (respiration) he determined the effects of Septoria and
 other diseases on plant growth and development.  Scharen also
 initiated uniform nurseries to determine the resistance of wheat
 to powdery mildew and Septoria pathogens, and the pathogenicity
 of those  pathogens at various locations.
 
 NC State Univ., Raleigh, NC
 
          From 1956 until the 1972 reorganization, D. M. Kline
 conducted lab. studies on environmental factors affecting the
 growth and reproduction of Septoria, and the reactions of many
 winter wheats in the field.
 
 WA State Univ., Pullman, WA.
 
          From 1965 until the 1972 reorganization R. J. Cook initiated
 extensive studies to identify the pathogens causing foot and root
 rotting of winter wheat in the dry soils in WA.
 
 Univ. WI, Madison, WI
 
          Four pathologists at Madison were involved in research
 diseases of wheat caused by other than rust and smut fungi prior
 to the 1933 reorganization.  All that research was in cooperation
 with the Univ. of WI.  The research of those pathologists has
 been described.
 
                         Diseases Caused by Viruses
 
      Beltsville, Ag. Res. Center, Beltsville, MD.
 
          McKinney  was the pioneer in studying virus diseases of
 cereals. He began studying the rosetting of winter wheat in
 fields in IL while at Madison, WI from 1919 to 1925.  He assumed
 the rosetting was caused by a soil borne pathogen.  He continued
 those studies after coming to  Washington, D. C. in 1926.  Later
 he proved that a  soil borne virus transported by a motile spore
 fungus caused that disease.  McKinney use host plants to identify
 and differentiate viruses, and to determine the pathogenic
 variability and stability of several viruses which infect wheat. 
 His studies on wheat virus diseases were discontinued when he
 retired in 1959. However, McKinney continued those studies until
 the 1972 reorganization.
  
 Univ. of NE., Lincoln, NE
 
          The studies on wheat viruses at Lincoln were initated by W.
 C. Burger, a biochemist, while he was at Lincoln for one year in
 1953 to 1954.  M. K. Brakke, pathologist-biochemist was hired in
 1955 to expand the studies on wheat virus diseases.  Brakke was
 there through the 1972 reorganization.  He developed new sucrose
 density gradient procedures and other biochemical techniques for
 identifying and differentiating viruses.  In about 1970 he was
 recognized as the pathologist whose papers were referred to more
 than those of any other pathologist in U. S.
 
 Disease and Insect Lab., Brookings, SD
 
          E. D. Gerloff, a physiologist, and S. G. Jenson were at
 Brookings from 1965 through 1972, and from 1962 through 1972,
 respectively.  They had a project on the determining the
 resistance  or tolerance of wheat to the Barley Yellow Dwarf
 Virus (BYDV).  They cooperated with wheat breeders in  several
 states on that project.
 
 NC State Univ., Raleigh, NC
 
          From 1950 until 1954, when he transferred to Beltsville,
 MD.,  J. G. Moseman conducted field studies evaluating wheat
 germplasm and cultivars for reactions to the soil borne viruses
 in NC and VA.  He cooperated with plant breeders in the Soft Red
 Winter Wheat region.  After Moseman transferred to Beltsville, MD
 in 1954, N. F. Sommers was hired in 1955.  Sommers continued that
 research on viruses for the one year he was at Raleigh.  The
 research on wheat diseases at Raleigh was reoriented after
 Sommers left, and the research on viruses was discontinued at
 that location.
 
                  Physiologic Research not Disease Related
 
      There were three physiologists involved in studies that were
 not related to diseases.  Two physiologists studied winter
 hardiness and one studied drought resistance.
 
 KS State Univ., Manhattan, KS
 
          From 1954 until 1957, G. C. Throneberry cooperated closely
 with plant breeders in developing methods for measuring the
 drought resistance of hard red winter wheat  grown in KS.  When
 he resigned, the research on drought resistance was discontinued
 by the Wheat Invest., but continued by KS Ag. Exp. .
 
 MI State Univ., East Lansing, MI
 
          A. V. Barker was hired at East Lansing to study winter
 hardiness of wheats in eastern U. S.  He was only there for about
 one year in 1967 to 1968.  Although, primarily on the Barley
 Invest., C. R. Olien did some research on winter hardiness in
 cooperation with the MI State wheat breeder E. H. Everson between
 1957 and the1972 reorganization.
 
 OR Field Station, Pendleton, OR, and WA State Univ., Pullman, WA
 
          D. W. George conducted research on winter hardiness of winter
 wheat in the Pacific Nortwest at Pendleton from 1954 until 1965
 when he transferred to Pullman, WA.  He continued that research
 at Pullman until the 1972 reorganization.  He developed 
 effective methods for measuring the winter hardiness of winter
 wheat that were used by plant breeders in developing winter hardy
 cultivars for that region.
 
                                 * * * * * *
 
 
   
   Table 4. - Scientists, who conducted Pathologic and
   Physiologic Research on Wheat and Rye in the U. S.
   Department of Agriculture, 1887 to 1972
  =====================================================================      
 
  Names               Discipline           Crops           Years of Service  
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------      
 
          Washington, DC, and Beltsville Ag. Res. Center,Beltsville, MD
 Lamson-Scribner, F.     Pathology      Wheat, Corn (Smut)   1887 to 1889
 Galloway, B. T.         Pathology      Small Grains (Rust)  1891 to 1893
 Swingle, W. T.          Pathology      Wheat, Oats (Rust)   1891 to 1898
 Carleton, M. A.         Path-Agron.    Cereals (Rust)       1894 to 1918
 Potter, A. A.           Pathology      Cereals (Smut)       1909 to 1918
 Humphrey, H. B.         Pathology      Cereals (All, Rust)  1913 to 1946
 Johnson, A. G.          Pathology      Cereals (All)        1925 to 1940
 Kolpin-Ravn, F.         Pathology      Wheat (Stripe Rust)  1916 to 1916
 Hungerford, C. W.       Pathology      Wheat (Stripe Rust)  1915 to 1919
 Ball, C. R.             Agron-Path.    Cereals (Barberry)   1918 to 1919
 Kempton, F. E.          Pathology      Wheat (Barberry)     1919 to 1929
 Dutton, L. D.           Pathology      Wheat (Barberry)     1927 to 1929
 Meier, F. E.            Pathology      Wheat (Barberry)     1929 to 1938
 Reed, G. M.             Pathology      Cereals (Smut)       1918 to 1920
 Tapke, V. F.            Pathology      Cereals (Smut)       1919 to 1953
 Tisdale, W. H.          Pathology      Cereals (Smut)       1921 to 1926
 Faris, J. A.            Pathology      Cereals (Smut)       1926 to 1933
 Rodenhiser, H. A.       Pathology      Wheat (Smut, Rust)   1930 to 1951
 Lowther, C.             Pathology      Wheat (P. Mildew)    1950 to 1953
 Powers, H. R. Jr.       Pathology      Wheat (P. Mildew)    1954 to 1959
 Scharen, A. L.          Pathology      Wheat (P. M., Sept.) 1960 to 1972
 McKinney, H. H.         Pathology      Small Grains (Virus) 1926 to 1959
 Bayles, B. B.           Agron-Path.    Wheat (Rust)         1930 to 1954
 Loegering, W. Q.        Pathology      Cereals (Rust)       1954 to 1968
 Kilpatrick, R. A.       Pathology      Cereals (Rust)       1967 to 1972
 Elliott, C.             Pathology      Cereals (Bacteria)   1918 to 1947
 Hurd-Karrer, A. M.      Physiology     Wheat, Weeds         1918 to 1949
 Boyle, L. W.            Pathology      Wheat                1931 to 1934
   
                           Univ. of CA, Berkeley, CA
 Allen, R. F.            Physiology     Wheat (Rust)         1918 to 1936
                                                         
                             Univ. of ID, Moscow, ID
 Hungerford, C. W.       Pathology      Wheat (Stripe Rust)  1919 to 1927
 Bever, W. M.            Pathology      Wheat (Stripe Rust)  1928 to 1940
 Raeder, J. M.           Pathology      Wheat                1922 to 1932 1/
   
                            Univ. of IL, Urbana, IL
 Bever, W. M.            Pathology      Wheat (Smut)         1940 to 1959
   
                       Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN
 Mains, E. B.            Pathology      Wheat, Barley (Rust) 1918 to 1930
 Caldwell, R. M.         Path-Agron.    Small Grains (All)   1928 to 1937 1/
   
                        KS State Univ., Manhattan, KS
 Johnston, C. O.         Pathology      Wheat (Rust)         1919 to 1963
 Browder, L. E.          Pathology      Wheat (Rust)         1958 to 1972
 Burleigh, J. R.         Pathology      Wheat (Rust)         1965 to 1971
 Eversmeyer, M.          Pathology      Wheat (Rust)         1965 to 1972
 Fellows, H.             Pathology      Wheat (Other)        1926 to 1959
 Throneberry,            Physiology     Wheat (Drought)      1954 to 1957
 Ficke, C. H.            Pathology      Wheat                1930 to 1940
 Haskett, W. C.          Pathology      Wheat, Oats          1952 to 1955
   
                      MI Stat Univ., East Lansin, MI    
 Barker, A. V.           Physiology  Small Grains (W. Hardy) 1967 to 1968
 Olien, C. R.            Physiology   Barley, Wheat(W.Hardy) 1957 to 1972
   
                        Univ. of MN, St. Paul, MN
 Freeman, E. M.          Pathology      Small Grains (Rust)  1905 to 1907
 Johnson, E. C.          Pathology      Wheat (Rust)         1907 to 1912
 Potter, A. A.           Pathology      Small Grains(General)1908 to 1909
 Parker, J. H.           Path-Agron.    Small Grains (Rust)  1913 to 1917
 Piemeisel, F. J.        Pathology      Small Grains (Rust)  1915 to 1918?
 Stakman, E. C.          Pathology      Small Grains (Rust)  1918 to 1953 1/
 Levine, M. N.           Pathology      Wheat, Barley(Rust)  1917 to 1955
 Bamberg, R. H.          Pathology      Small Grains (All)   1929 to 1936
 Hayden, E. B.           Pathology      Wheat (Rust)         1954 to 1956
 Miller, J. D.           Pathology      Wheat (Rust)         1957 to 1965
 McVey, D. V.            Pathology      Wheat (Rust)         1965 to 1972
 Rowell, J. B.           Physiology     Wheat (Rust)         1955 to 1972
 Romig, R. W.            Pathology      Wheat, Oats (Rust)   1962 to 1968
 Hart, Helen             Phys-Path.     Wheat (Rust)         1924 to 1933
 Bushnell, W. R.         Physiology     Wheat (Rust, P.Mild.)1960 to 1972
   
                        MT State Univ, Bozeman, MT
 Bamberg, R. H.          Pathology      Wheat                1936 to 1948
   
                          Univ. of NE, Lincoln, NE
 Burger, W. C.           Biochemistry   Wheat (Virus)        1953 to 1954
 Brakke, M. K.           Path-Biochem.  Wheat (Virus)        1955 to 1972
 Langerberg, W. G.       Path-Biochem.  Wheat (Virus)        1968 to 1972
   
                       NC State Univ., Raleigh, NC
 Moseman, J. G.          Pathology      Small Grains (Virus) 1950 to 1954
 Sommers, N. F.          Pathology      Small Grains (Virus) 1955 to 1956
 Kline, D. M.            Pathology      Small Grains (Sept.) 1956 to 1972
   
                        ND State Univ., Fargo, ND
 Reddy, C. S.            Pathology      Small Grain 
 Schwinghamer, E. A.     Pathology      Wheat(Rust)     
 Gough, F. J.            Pathology      Wheat (Rust) 
 Miller, J. D.           Pathology      Wheat (Rust)         1967 
   
                       ND Ag. Fld Sta., Mandan, ND
 Sprague, R.             Pathology      Wheat(Root Rots,Sep.)1940 to 1947
   
                      OK State Univ., Stillwater, OK
 Bellingham, R. C.       Pathology      Wheat (Virus)        1957 to 1967
    
                       OR State Univ., Corvallis, OR
 Metzger, R. J.          Path-Genetics  Wheat (Smut)         1954 to 1972
 Newburgh, R. W.         Chemistry      Wheat (Smut)         1954 to 1959
 Trione, E. J.           Chemistry      Wheat (Smut)         1959 to 1972
 Sprague, R.             Pathology      Wheat(Root Rots,Sep.)1926 to 1940
   
                      OR Br. Ag. Exp. Sta., Pendleton, OR
 George, D. W.           Physiology     Wheat (W. Hardy)     1954 to 1965
   
                  North Grain and Insect Lab., Brookings, SD
 Jensen, S. G.           Pathology      Wheat, Corn (Virus)  1962 to
   1972
 Fitzgerald, P. J.       Agron-Path     Wheat, Corn (Virus)  1962 to 1968
 Gerloff, E. D.          Physiology     Wheat, Corn (Virus)  1965 to 1972
   
                  TX A and M Univ., College Station,    TX
 Futrell, M. C.         Pathology      Wheat, Sorgh. (Rust)  1962 to 1964
 Kilpatrick, R. A.      Pathology      Wheat (Rust, Other)   1964 to 1967
 Gough, F. J.           Pathology      Wheat (Rust, Sept.)   1967 to 1972
 Hobbs, C. D.           Pathology      Wheat (Rust)          1958 to 1965
   
                           UT State Univ., Logan, UT
 Hoffman, J. A.         Pathology      Wheat (Smut, Bunt)    1971 to 1972
   
                          WA State Univ., Pullman, WA
 Woolman, H. M.         Pathology      Wheat (Bunt)          1913 to 19?
 Gaines, E. F.          Pathology      Wheat                 1933 to 1960 1/
 Flor, H. H.            Pathology      Wheat (Smut)          1929 to 1931
 Holton, C. S.          Pathology      Wheat, Oats (Smut)    1931 to 1968
 Meiners, J. P.         Pathology      Wheat (Smut)          1953 to 1958
 Hoffman, J. A.         Pathology      Wheat (Smut)          1958 to 1971
 Purdy, L. H.           Pathology      Wheat (Smut, Rust)    1953 to 1966
 Line, R. F.            Pathology      Wheat (Stripe Rust)   1968 to 1972
 Kendrick, E. L.        Pathology      Wheat (Smut)          1954 to 1965
 Deitz, S. M.           Pathology      Wheat (Rust)          1957 to 1966 1/
 Cook, R. J.            Pathology      Wheat (Root Rots)     1965 to 1972
 George, D. W.          Physiology     Wheat (W. Hardy)      1965 to 1972
   
                                        
                         Univ. of WI, Madison, WI
 Johnson, A. G.         Pathology      Wheat (Imperf.,Sac)   1918 to 1925
 Drechsler, O. C.       Pathology      Wheat (Rust)          1917 to 1919
 Leukel, R. W.          Pathology      All Cereals           1919 to 1920
 McKinney, H. H.        Pathology      Wheat (Smut,Take-all) 1919 to 1926
 Dickson, J. G.         Pathology      All Cereals           1918 to 1961 1/
 Fellows, H.            Pathology      Wheat (Root Rots)     1923 to 1926
   
                   USDA Plant Introd. Sta., Mayag uez, PR
 Theis, T. N.           Pathology      Wheat, Oats, Sorgh.   1954 to 1961
 McVey, D. V.           Pathology      Wheat, Oats, (Rust)   1959 to 1965
 Miller, J. D.          Pathology      Wheat, Oats, (Rust)   1965 to 1967
 Reitz, L. P.           Agronomy       Wheat                 1967 to 1972
 ============================================================================
 
   1/ State employees who cooperated closely with USDA, and may
   have received some financial support from USDA.              
     
                               * * * * * *
   
                         Wheat Quality Research
   
        Analyses and quality determinations of cereals were
   conducted in the Div. of Chemistry almost from the inception
   of that Div.   Those investigations were continued in the
   Food Res. Div., Bureau of chemistry and Soils, and later in
   the Regional Res. and Development Div., ARS.
   
        The scientists who conducted wheat quality research are
   listed by the five locations at which there were quality
   laboratories.  Included in the table are the names of the
   scientists, their discipline, crops they studied and the
   time of service at that location.       
   
        Studies of commercial grading and handling of grain
   were begun in the Div. of Botany in the Bureau of Plant
   Industry (BPI) in 1901 under F. V. Coville.  C. S. Scofield
   was in charge of those studies.  In 1905, Scofield became
   officer in charge of the Office of Western Ag. Ext., and the
   grain grading investigations were transferred to the Seed
   Lab. under Edgar Brown.
   
        On July 1, 1906, a special authority in the BPI
   appropriation permitted the sampling and examining of grain
   as a basis of establishing grain grades.  One Lab. was
   established at Baltimore, MD under L. A. Fitz, and another
   at New Orleans under C. E. Leighty.  Additional Labs. were
   established, and S. W. T. Duval transferred from the Seed
   Lab. to take charge of laboratory methods.  On Oct. 1, 1906,
   the Office of Grain Standardization was established under J.
   D. Shanahan.  When Shanahan resigned in 1911, Duval was
   appointed to be in charge of the Office of Grain
   Standardization until 1916, when that Office was transferred
   to the Bureau of Markets, and designated the Grain Div.  In
   1921, the Bureau of Markets was merged with other
   organizations to form the Bureau of Ag. Econ. 
   
        M. A. Carleton became interested in the utilization of
   durum wheat after introducing that crop in 1899. 
   Consequently, Carleton entered into a cooperative
   arrangement with the Bureau of Chemistry to analysis and
   test durum wheat and other cereals.  In 1903, J. S.
   Chamberlain was transferred, as Physiological Chemist, from
   the Bureau of Chemistry to Carleton's payroll to cooperate
   in the cereal technology studies.  Chamberlain continued on
   those cooperative studies until his resignation in 1909.
   
        In 1905, Le Clarc, of the Bureau of Chemistry, was
   assigned to investigate the relationship of crop environment
   to cereal grain composition in cooperation with Carleton. 
   Those experiments were continued until about 1917.  During
   that period, the so call "tri-local" experiments in which
   seed was exchanged between three stations was undertaken
   with various grains. 
   
        In 1908, the Office of Grain Standardization, later
   designated Grain Div., transferred Fitz from Chicago, IL, to
   the ND. Ag. Ex.p. Sta. at Fargo, to take charge of the
   Department's cooperative milling and baking experiments in
   which samples of wheat from plot experiments at various
   Cereal Field Stations were sent for testing.  Beginning with 
   the 1915 crop, a uniform list of cultivars was sent to each
   Field Sta.  This cooperative arrangement continued until
   1918, when the Dept. staff was transferred to Washington, D.
   C., where a new laboratory of milling and baking quality was
   established under the direction of J. A. Shellenberger. 
   
        Wheat Quality Lab. Washington, D. C., and Beltsville, MD
        In 1924, J. A. Clark, who was in charge of Western
   Wheat Research, began special studies on the inheritance of
   protein content in wheat.  Different individuals 
   were employed from time to time by the Cereal Div., and were
   first detailed to the Grain Div. of the Bureau of Ag. Econ.
   and later to the Bureau of Chemistry. 
   
        On July 1, 1929, experiments were undertaken in
   cooperation with the Grain Div. to determine the quality of
   wheat cultivars.  On Dec. 16, 1929, C. C. Fifield was
   appointed as Baking Technologist.  Fifield was in charge of
   that Lab. Res. until 1963, when the research on hard red
   spring, & durum wheat was transferred to a Lab. at Fargo,
   ND.  Several chemists were assigned to the Lab. at
   Washington, D. C. and then at Beltsville between 1929 and
   1963.  C. E. Bode was there from 1935 until 1937 when he
   transferred to the new Soft Wheat Quality Lab. at Wooster,
   OH.  A. J. Pinckney, who joined the Lab. in 1941, was
   transferred to the Hard Red Spring & Durum Wheat Lab. in
   Fargo when the Lab at Beltsville was closed in 1963.  W. T.
   Greenway was in that Lab. from 1957 until 1963 when the Lab.
   was closed.  He accepted another position in the Beltsville
   area.  S. R.. Snider was a chemist in that Lab sometime
   while it was associated with the wheat quality research.
   
        Wheat quality research was an important part of the
   Wheat Invest.  Those earlier projects were expanded over the
   years, so that, a laboratory facility was established to
   study each of the four major classes of wheat.  The
   following is a description of the development, operation,
   and objectives of each of those four Labs.
               Soft Wheat Quality Lab. (SWQL), Wooster, OH
        Prior to the l936 crop, the milling, chemical, and
   baking quality of all classes of wheat were evaluated in the
   USDA Lab. located in Washington, D. C., where C. C. Fifield
   was in charge.  In l936, the U. S. Congress established the
   SWQL at Wooster, to work with plant breeders in the eastern
   soft wheat region  in cooperation with the OH Ag. Exp. Sta.
   (Later renamed the OH Ag. Res. and Development Center,
   OARDC).  Studies were begun in that Lab. in 1937 with E. G.
   Bayfield in charge.  Bayfield was followed by V. H. Morris
   from 1939 to 1948;  by C. E. Bode, who had been transferred
   from the Wheat Quality Lab. in Washington, D. C. in 1937, 
   from 1948 to 1961;  and by W. T. Yamazaki, who had been in
   the Lab. since 1944,  from 1961 to 1972
   
        In 1936, most of the commercial cultivars had poor
   milling and baking quality, which generated demands by
   processors for an eastern soft wheat improvement program. 
   The tests in use at that time were neither applicable to
   small samples of wheat nor  reliable for evaluating soft
   wheat cultivars or   breeding lines for confectionery
   products such as cookies, cakes, and crackers, their
   intended applications. The objectives of the SWQL were to
   determine the biochemical bases for differences in milling
   and baking quality, determine the contribution of flour
   components to specific performance attributes, develop
   appropriate tests based on those findings to more accurately
   measure quality potential in breeding lines, adapt such
   tests to micro scale for early generation screening, and
   carry out cooperative evaluations of breeding lines to
   ensure the quality level of released cultivars.             
   Chemists who were involved in research at that laboratory
   are listed in Table 5.  Many of those scientists were later
   assigned to other quality laboratories.      
   
        Hard Red Winter Wheat Quality Lab. (HRWWQL) Manhattan, KS
   
        In l937, the U. S. Congress established the HRWWQL at
   Manhattan to work with plant breeders of the Great Plains,
   and in cooperation with the KS Ag. Exp. Sta. at Manhattan. 
   Research began in the Lab. in l938 with M. A. Barmore in
   charge, and K. F. Finney, as Res. Chemist,  and M. E.
   McCluggage as Experimental miller.
   
        In 1937, a significant percentage of the commercial
   Hard Winter Wheat cultivars included 'Chiefkan', 'Early
   Blackhull', and 'Blackhull' which had undesirably short
   dough mixing requirements, poor mixing tolerances, and
   unsatisfactory loaf volumes.  Also, in l937, there was a
   lack of basic information on the effect of formula
   ingredients and techniques in experimental breadmaking, and
   breadmaking quality meant different things to different
   people.  The objectives of the HRWWQL were to develop bread 
   making methods that would give a full expression of the
   potential quality of commercial cultivars and breeding
   lines; apply those methods to reveal how protein content,
   environment, harvesting at various stages of maturity,
   disease infection, and processing variables affect
   functional properties and breadmaking;  develop micro tests;
   and determine why cultivars 
   varied in quality.  The researh in that Lab. resulted in the
   identification and development of many outstanding high
   quality hard red winter wheat cultivars.
   
        In 1942 McCluggage left the Lab.  In l943, Barmore and
   Finney, together with research underway on hundreds of hard
   winter and hard spring wheat flours, were transferred to the
   SWQL at Wooster, where they continued research that included
   soft winter wheats.  In Dec. l946, J. A. Shellenberger, Head
   Dept. Milling Industry, who was associated with Lab. until
   l970, requested that Finney be transferred back to Manhattan
   in charge of the HRWWQL.  Finney was in charge of the Lab.
   through the 1972 reorganization.
   
        Other scientists and when they were at the HRWWQL are
   listed in Table 5.  Included is their discipline and when
   they were at the laboratory.  
   
   Western Wheat Quality Lab. (WWQL), Pullman, WA
   
        In l946, the WWQL was established as a part of the 
   Dept. of Ag. Chemistry of the WA. Ag. Exp. Sta. at Pullman. 
   M. A. Barmore  transferred from the SWQL at Wooster to be in
   charge of the WWQL.  Barmore was in charge of that Lab.
   until he retired in l969.  G. L. Rubenthaler, who
   transferred from the HRWWQL at Manhattan in l966, succeeded
   Barmore, and was in charge in l972. 
   
        The primary purpose of the WWQL was to cooperate with
   plant breeders of the western states by evaluating the
   processing properties of new selections or hybrids being
   developed, and those of commercial wheat cultivars;  to
   develop new and improved methods of determining and
   evaluating processing properties (particularly those
   required by major export customers of soft white wheat); and
   to study factors responsible for quality differences  in
   wheats.
   
        The scientists who were at the WWQL are listed in Table
   5.  Some of them were involved in special research projects.
   
   
   Hard Red Spring & Durum Wheat Quality Lab. (HRS&DQL) Fargo,
   ND
   
        The quality Lab. for hard red spring and durum wheats
   was in Washington, D. C., or Beltsville from l918 until
   1963.  During those years the laboratory was operated in
   cooperation with the Ag. Marketing Service.  C. C. Fifield
   was in charge of the Lab. from l929 until l963.  In 1963,
   the HRS& DWQL was established in cooperation with the ND
   State Univ. at Fargo.  W. C. Shuey was in the charge of the
   Lab. from l963 until l972. 
   
        The objectives of the HRS&DWQL were similiar to those
   of the other Quality Labs.  They cooperated with plant
   breeders in the evaluation of their selections and advanced
   lines and new cultivars, and conducted research related to
   wheat quality.
   
        Since the four quality laboratories were established,
   there has been a profound improvement in the functional
   properties of cultivars representing all classes of wheat,
   and a highly significant understanding of what constitutes
   wheat quality.  Many of the contributions of the wheat
   quality labs. were discussed in the publication, Finney, K.
   F., and W. T. Yamazaki. 1967. "Quality of Hard, Soft, and
   Durum Wheat",  In K. S. Quisenberry and L. P. Reitz (ed.)
   Wheat and Wheat Improvement.  1st. ed.  Amer. Soc Agron.
   Monograph 13:471-503.
       
 Table 5. - Scientists, who conducted Quality Research on Wheat and Rye in
 the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1901 to 1972
 =========================================================================  
   Name                Discipline          Crops     Years of Service
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------   
 
                           Washington, DC and Beltsville, MD
   Scofield, C. S.          Chemist        Grain          1901 to 1905
   Brown, Edgar             Chemist        Grain          1905 to 190?
   Duval, S. W. T.          Chemist        Grain          1906 to 1916
   Shanahan, J. D.          Chemist        Grain          1906 to 1911
   Chamberlain, J. S.       Chemist        Grain          1903 to 1909
   Le clarc,                Chemist        Cereals        1905 to 1917
   Shellenberger, J. A.     Chemist        Wheat          1918 to ?
   Fifield, C. C.           Chemist        Wheat          1929 to 1963
   Bode, C. E.              Chemist        Wheat          1935 to 1937
   Pinckney, A. J.          Chemist        Wheat          1941 to 1963
   Greenway, W. T.          Chemist        Wheat          1957 to 1963
     
                      Soft Wheat Quality Lab. Wooster, OH
   Bayfield, E. G.          Chemist        Wheat          1937 to 1939
   Morris, V. H.            Chemist        Wheat          1939 to 1948
   Bode, C. E.              Chemist        Wheat          1937 to 1961
   Yamazaki, W. E.          Chemist        Wheat          1944 to 1972
   Heiser, H. K.            Chemist        Wheat          1938 to 1968
   Finney, K. F.            Chemist        Wheat          1943 to 1946
   Barmore, M. A.           Chemist        Wheat          1943 to 1946
   Pascoe, E. d.            Chemist        Wheat          1943 to 1945
   Kissell, L. T.           Chemist        Wheat          1948 to 1972
   McCammon, J. F.          Chemist        Wheat          1950 to 1952   
   Abbott, D. C.            Chemist        Wheat          1951 to 1954
   Donelson, J. R           Chemist        Wheat          1955 to 1972
   Clements, R. L.          Chemist        Wheat          1968 to 1972
   
                    Hard Red Winter Wheat Lab., Manhattan, KS
   Barmore, M. A.           Chemist        Wheat          1938 to 1943
   Finney, K. F.            Chemist        Wheat          1938 to 1943
   McCluggage, M. E.        Chemist        Wheat          1938 to 1942
   Shellenberger, J. A.     Chemist        Wheat            ?  to 1970 1/   
   Miller, B. S             Chemist        Wheat          1946 to 1961
   McCammon, J. F.          Chemist        Wheat          1947 to 1949
   Meyer, J. W.             Chemist        Wheat          1950 to 1952
   Konecny, J. F.           Chemist        Wheat          1953 to 1955
   Bolte, L. C.             Milling Tech.  Wheat          1955 to 1972
   Hoseney, R. C.           Chemist        Wheat          1956 to 1970
   Shogren, M. D.           Cereal Tech.   Wheat          1957 to 1972
   Rubenthaler, G. L.       Cereal Tech.   Wheat          1961 to 1966
   Pomeranz, Y.             Cereal Tech.   Wheat          1962 to 1969
   Hubbard, J. D.           Chemist        Wheat          1968 to 1972
   
                  Western Wheat Quality Lab., Pullman, WA
   Barmore, M. A.           Chemist        Wheat          1946 to 1969
   Rubenthaler, G. L.       Chemist        Wheat          1966 to 1972
   Seeborg, E. F.           Chemist        Wheat          1948 to 1960
   Sollars, W. F.           Chemist        Wheat          1949 to 1972
   Udy, D. C.               Cereal Tech.   Wheat          1950 to 1959
   Bresson, C. R.           Cereal Tech.   Wheat          1951 to 1954
   Barrett, F. F.           Cereal Tech.   Wheat          1956 to 1966
   Kitterman, S. J.         Chemist        Wheat          1956 to 1972
   Elling, H. R.            Cereal Tech.   Wheat          1957 to  ?
   Bequette, R. K.          Cereal Tech.   Wheat          1961 to 1966
   Archiszewski, H. E.      Cereal Tech.   Wheat          1961 to 1966
   Jeffers, H. C.           Food Tech.     Wheat          1966 to 1972
   
           Hard Red Spring & Durum Wheat Quality Lab., Fargo, ND
   Fitz, L. A.              Chemist        Wheat          1908 to 1918
   Shuey, W. C.             Cereal Tech.   Wheat          1963 to 1972
   Pinckney, A. J.          Chemist        Wheat          1963 to 1970
   Youngs, V. L.            Chemist        Wheat          1965 to 1970
   ====================================================================
 
 
   Cytogenetic and Interspecific Hybridization Research
       Cytogenetics and interspecific hybridization was an
   important part of the Wheat Invest.  The scientists who
   conducted cytogenetic and interspecific hybridization
   research on wheat, rye, and
   wheat related species are listed by location in Table 6. 
   Included are their names, discipline, major crops they
   studied, and the years at specific locations.             
   
        The following is a discussion of the cytogenetic and
   interspecific hybridization research conducted on wheat. 
   The genetic and cytogenetic research at Fargo, ND by L. W.
   Briggle, N. D. Williams, and L. R. Joppa, was discussed
   previously because it was part of a large project on
   developing resistance in wheat to leaf and stem rust.  That
   project involved genetists,  breeders and pathologists for
   many years.
   
   Univ. of MO., Columbia, MO
   
        Columbia was an important center for cytogenetic and
   interspecific hybridization research on wheat and rye.  In
   the late 1920s, L. J. Stadler used both diploid and
   polyploid wheats in his pioneering X-ray mutation
   experiments.  The wheat cytogenetics research was started
   about 1932 by Luther Smith when he was a Ph. D. student
   under Stadler.  Smith conducted a genetic analysis of
   diploid wheat using varietal differences and induced
   mutations.  In 1935, a projected was established under
   Stadler to investigate polyploidy in wheat, with Smith the
   first employee.  Smith continued studying diploid wheat in
   cooperation with graduate students under K. S. Quisenberry
   at NE Univ., until he joined the Army in World War II in
   1943.
   
        In 1936, J. G. O'Mara and E. R. Sears joined the
   project. They studied procedures for chromosome doubling and
   behavior in diploid and amphidiploid hybrids.  O'Mara
   pioneered in the production of wheat-rye addition lines and
   developed the first systematic method for producing such
   lines.  He produced the first hexaploid triticale before
   leaving the project for war-related service in 1942.  In
   1937, Sears began producing aneuploids and exploiting them
   in the genetic analysis of common wheat.  Sears extended the
   knowledge of the origin and evolution of wheat by using
   aneuploids, and transferred chromosome segments from wild
   relatives to cultivated wheat.  He developed the first set
   of nullisomic and monosomic lines of wheat in the cultivar
   'Chinese Spring', and many other cytogenetic stocks.  Those
   stocks have been used by many scientists throughout the
   world in genetic studies and for cultivar improvement. 
   Sears received international recognition for developing the
   highly resistant cultivar 'Transfer' by transferring high
   rust resistance from Aegilops species, and later for
   discovering and exploiting a genetic method for inducing the
   transfer of genes from wild relatives.  Sears continued his
   research through the 1972 reorganization.
   
   SD Field Sta., Redfield, SD, and TX A & M, College Station,
   TX
        E. S. McFadden was an intermittent USDA employee at
   Redfield, SD from 1918 to 1934.  In 1930, McFadden's
   development of 'Hope' and 'H44' from a cross of 'Marquis'
   wheat by 'Yaroslav' emmer was the first demonstration of
   useful genes being transferred to bread wheat from other
   Triticum species.  The resistance of 'Yaroslav' emmer to
   stem and leaf rust, bunt, and powdery mildew in 'Hope' and
   'H44' has been transferred by other scientists into many
   wheat cultivars. In 1934, after six months at the Univ. of
   MN, St. Paul, McFadden transferred to College Station, TX. 
   Although assigned primarily to breeding wheat cultivars, he
   maintained his research program on interspecific hybrids. 
   In 1944, in cooperation with E. R. Sears, he showed that
   bread wheat had arisen as a constant hybrid (amphiploid)
   between a macaroni-type wheat and a wild grass, Aegilops
   squarrosa.
   
   Washington, D. C. & Beltsville Ag. Res. Center, Beltsville,
   MD
        W. J. Sando, who was located in Washington, D. C. and
   Beltsville, MD from 1921 until he retired in 1955, was
   successful in crossing wheat with Agropyron, rye and other
   related genera and species.  He developed a tetraploid rye
   that contained a high percentage of rutin.  Rutin is used to
   treat capillary fragility, a condition that may result in a
   stroke.  The fertile derivatives from Sando's numerous
   crosses have been used by many wheat breeders.  Sando
   continued his research at Beltsville for several years after
   he retired.
   
   OK State Univ., Stillwater, OK
   
        E. E. Sebesta, who was at Stillwater from 1958 through
   the 1972 reorganization, cooperated closely with the wheat
   breeding program at that location.  Sebesta successfully
   employed X-radiation for inducing the transfer of useful
   genes to wheat from related species and genera. 
       
                                   
   Table 6. - Scientists, who conducted Cytogenetic and
   Interspecific Hybridization Research on Wheat and Rye in the
   U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1921 to 1972
   ====================================================================      
 
   Name           Discipline          Crops            Years of Service
   --------------------------------------------------------------------
         Washington, DC, and Beltsville Ag. Res. Center,Beltsville, MD
   Sando, W. J.     Genetics          Wheat          1921 to 1955
   
                Univ. of MO, Columbia, MO
   Stadler, L. J.   Genetics       Corn, Wheat       1930 to 1943 1/
   Smith, L.        Genetics       Wheat, Sp.,Barley 1935 to 1943
   O'Mara, J. G.    Genetics       Wheat Sp., Oats   1936 to 1942
                                                     1944 to 1950
   Sears, E. R.     Genetics       Wheat Sp., Rye    1936 to 1972
   
                      ND State Univ., Fargo, ND
   Briggle, L. W.   Genetics       Wheat             1954 to 1956
   Williams, N. D.  Genetics       Wheat             1957 to 1972
   Joppa, L. R.     Genetics       Wheat Sp.         1966 to 1972
   
                  Dry Land Ag. Sta., Redfield, SD
   McFadden, E. S.  Genetics       Wheat Sp.         1929 to 1934
   
                 TX A & M Univ., College Station, TX
   McFadden, E. S.  Genetics       Wheat Sp          1935-1955
   
                      OK State Univ., Stillwater, OK
   Sebesta, E. E.   Genetics       Wheat Sp.         1958 to 1972
   =======================================================================
    1/  Employee supported by Univ. of Mo. and USDA.
   
 --------------------  
   II.     CONTRIBUTIONS
   
           PRIVATE COMPANIES
   
           AGRIPRO BIOSCIENCES, INC.
                                    
   
   Joe Smith*, John Moffatt*, Jim Reeder* --Berthoud, CO; (303-
   532-3721)
   
   
        Hard Red Winter Wheat.  Research Assistant Steve Perry
   resigned effective  December 31, 1992.  Steve will be taking
   on managerial responsibilities for a family cattle operation
   in Montana.  We want to acknowledge the great contribution
   that Steve made  to our program  and wish him well in his
   new endeavor.
   
        The 1991/92 crop year provided relatively good yield
   information from only five of eleven locations planted with
   those trial means ranging from 44 bu/a at Rome, KS to 129
   bu/a at Berthoud, CO.  We experienced significant levels of
   leaf rust at every core site in Oklahoma  and Kansas.  Most
   of our northern and western sites were affected or destroyed
   by either hail or freeze damage late in the season.  Severe
   foliar disease pressure from both leaf rust and Septoria
   were experienced at locations from Salina, KS south.
   
        AgriPro Varieties "Laredo" and "Pecos" were released to
   our associate network in 1992 and will be available to the
   farmer in 1993.  AgriPro Laredo (formerly tested as W87-018)
   is a "Victory-type" with a much improved response to wheat
   streak mosaic virus. AgriPro Laredo's performance to date is
   comparable to that of AgriPro Tomahawk.  AgriPro Laredo
   displays yellowing symptoms to both soilborne and spindle
   streak mosaic viruses and is being positioned as a western
   wheat with good standability under irrigated conditions.
   AgriPro Variety Pecos, formerly tested as WI88-181 and more
   recently as Falcon, is a short statured semidwarf with early
   maturity.  It has resistance to Hessian fly (tracing to
   Arkan). AgriPro Pecos has good performance in the west under
   irrigation and in southern Kansas and Oklahoma.  AgriPro
   Pecos is resistant to the soilborne and spindle streak
   mosaic viruses and has a fairly good response to wheat
   streak mosaic virus, similar to that of Mesa.
   
        Hard Red Spring Wheat.  The hard red spring wheat
   project personnel consist of Joe A. Smith, Breeder; John
   Martin, Assistant Breeder; Barb Cook, Technician; Jerry
   Betz, Technician.
   
        The cool season of 1992 was good for generating high
   yields and low disease infections.  We were able to complete
   harvest at three of our four Red River Valley sites.  The
   northern site at Stephen, MN was very late and very lodged,
   therefore it was discarded.  Our yield data was highly
   correlated between sites with medium and late maturing
   cultivars usually yielding the highest.  AgriPro Nordic,
   Norm and AgriPro Krona were in the top three spots.
   
        We will be releasing a new hard red spring wheat
   cultivar in 1993 to be named AgriPro Sonja.  It was
   previously tested as N87-0306. AgriPro Sonja is a strong
   strawed semidwarf with medium-early maturity.  It has very
   good protection to leaf and stem rust and foliar diseases. 
   Its protein levels are intermediate, similar to Vance. 
   While AgriPro Sonja has performed very well across the
   spring wheat region, its short height may limit it to the
   high production areas.
   
        Hard Wheat Hybrid Development.  The Hard Wheat Hybrid
   Development Project includes Jim Reeder, Manager, and Steve
   Askelson, Sr. Assistant Plant Breeder.
   
        Almost 950 hard red winter wheat hybrids were made in
   1992 at Berthoud, CO and Hereford, TX.  Chemical hybridizing
   agent (CHA) technology was used to produce these hybrids. 
   The top 500 seed yielders will be performance tested in 1993
   throughout the region.  The yield advantages of previously
   made hybrids continue to be very encouraging.  The yield
   stability of hybrids over locations and over years continues
   to be high.  During the 1993 season, we will continue out-
   location test hybrid production at either Dumas or Hereford,
   TX in anticipation of full hybrid production as CHA's become
   registered.
   
        Approximately 680 hard red spring wheat hybrids were
   made at Berthoud using CHA technology.  Approximately 300 of
   these will be tested for heterosis in the Red River Valley
   of North Dakota and Minnesota.  The heterosis observed in
   1992 was very encouraging.  In addition to Berthoud, test
   hybrids will be produced at two locations in North Dakota
   and/or Minnesota in 1993.
   
        Purification of inbreds is progressing so that pilot
   production can be done as soon as a CHA is registered.
   
 --------------------
       Barton Fogleman, Keith Taylor -Jonesboro, AR (501-935-
   3941)
   
   
        Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat.   The gentle spring of
   1992 salvaged some very questionable wheat fields in the mid-
   south and, coupled with a relatively dry heading and anthesis
   period, produced some superior yields of scab-free grain. 
   Disease pressures were much less intense compared to the last
   few seasons.  A two week rainy period that began just as the
   earliest cultivars were ready for harvest negated their ten
   day time advantage and probably saved the late maturing wheats
   from drought related test weight problems.  This also led to
   some minor head-sprouting problems.  We did collect sprouting
   data on harvested plots from our location near Stuttgart, AR. 
   Data from this location for maturity (based on average green
   peduncles and heads on 5/12) and sprouting of harvested grain
   is reported below with maturity on a 1-9 scale (1.5 - 6.0 =
   early variety; 8.5 - 9.0 = late variety) and sprouting as a
   percentage of 500 randomly selected kernels.  Test weights
   were very good to fair.
   
   
   1991-92 ABI MATURITY AND PRE-HARVEST SPROUTING DATA
   ===================================================
             5/12              %
   Cultivar         Mat.    Sprout
   -----------------------------------------
   AGRIPRO HUNTER   1.5       1.0
   NK/COKER 9227    2.0       1.4
   MADISON          2.5       0.6
   AGRIPRO SAVANNAH 3.5       0.8
   NK/COKER 9803    4.5       0.2
   
   AGRIPRO TRAVELER 5.0       0.8
   FFR 525W         6.0       0.6
   AGRIPRO MAGNUM   6.0       1.0
   BAYLES           6.5       0.4
   NK/COKER 9105    6.5       0.6
   
   AGRIPRO CHEROKEE 6.5      10.6
   ABI 88-1903      7.0       0.4
   CLARK            7.5       0.2
   PIONEER brd.2555 7.5       0.6
   NK/COKER 9835    7.5       0.6
   
   NK/COKER 9543    8.0       0.0
   SALUDA           8.0       0.2
   PIONEER brd.2548 8.0       0.2
   AGRIPRO SAWYER   8.0       0.4
   KEISER           8.0       0.4
   
   AGRIPRO MALLARD  8.0       0.6
   FLORIDA 302      8.5       0.0
   NK/COKER 9024    8.5       0.2
   TERRAL 101       8.5       0.4
   AGRATECH 91W     8.5       0.6
   
   NK/COKER 9877    9.0       0.4
   VERNE            9.0       0.8
   PIONEER brd.2510 9.0       1.8
   NK/COKER 833     9.0       2.2
   CARDINAL         9.0       44.0
   =========================================
   
   
        Keith Taylor has assumed responsibility for parent
   identification and test cross production for our southern
   hybrid program.  Our hybrid data continues to be very
   encouraging.
   
        ABI 88-1903 is being released as a new variety and will
   be named before the 1993 harvest.  This cultivar is broadly
   adapted and has shown high yields and good test weights from
   southern Indiana to Maryland and from northern Louisiana to
   South Carolina.  This variety should be available to farmers
   in the fall of 1994.
   
   Koy E. Miskin, Gregory J. Holland, Curtis L. Beazer. 
   Brookston, IN 47923
   
        Soft Red Winter Wheat.  1992 was a devastating year in
   the northern soft wheat region. We had a very warm fall
   which did not allow the wheat to properly harden off and
   prepare for freezing temperatures.  About October 31, the
   temperature dropped from about 60 degrees to 7 degrees F.
   This killed all of the top growth but the wheat did green up
   again. However, these severe temperature fluctuations
   occurred three more times killing most of the wheat.  If any
   wheat did survive, Rhizoctonia took full advantage of the
   weakened plants and killed all survivors.  Our main breeding
   location was totally destroyed.
   
        February 7 we had a break in the weather, the soil
   thawed a little, and we replanted 16.5 acres on a sandy
   field about 25 miles south of Brookston.  It was very cold
   and wet.  It was snowing and the ground was freezing up as
   we finished.  All of our F2, F3, F4, F5, Pure Seed Increases
   and 45 test  hybrid production and Male Identification
   blocks were re- planted.  F1 seed from the fall crossing
   block was vernalized  and transplanted to the field in
   April.
   
        The February 7, planting was right at the limit of the
   vernalization requirement for several lines.  Varieties that
   missed or nearly missed vernalization are listed below:
   
     Nearly missed vern.                Missed Vernalization
     Caldwell                           Pioneer 2510
     Cardinal                           Pioneer 2545
     AgriPro Lincoln
     Coker 833
     Excel
     Howell
     Dynasty
   
        Several of our experimentals missed vernalization
   completely. We also observed a number of lines that seemed
   to be segregating for spring type.  We have seen this in the
   South and mid-south but never in the northern soft wheat
   area.  The spring planting conditions allowed this
   characteristic to be expressed.
   
   Later in the spring we experienced a severe drought.  In May
   and June, we received a total of 0.5 inch of rainfall.  The
   late planting and drought resulted in lower yields and
   reduced seed sets in test hybrid production.  Frequent rain,
   on the other hand, made harvest difficult and some sprouting
   was observed.  The Pure Seed Increase plots had yields in
   the 30 to 40 bu/A range.  Hybrid seed set averaged only 34
   %.  The climatic conditions of the year caused a number of
   the hybrid combinations to miss nick.
   
        Hybrid performance data was limited mainly to the lower
   midwestern and the mid-south soft wheat regions since most
   wheat  across the northern region winterkilled.  Only one
   northern location, Findlay, Ohio, survived sufficiently to
   produce reasonably good data.  However, the yield of 250
   hybrids averaged 11 bu/A above 150 advanced lines in yield
   trials.
   
        AgriPro Boone, is the name given to ABI88*2451.  It
   will likely be limited to the Kansas - Missouri area and
   will be released to growers fall of 1993.  AgriPro Boone is
   a selection from an acquired F2 from the University of
   Guelph.  Its parentage is Tecumseh/Hybrid 841.  It is an
   awned, white chaffed, short strong strawed variety.  It is
   early in maturity (equal to Caldwell) and has excellent
   milling and baking quality.  Its test weight is a pound
   higher than Caldwell.  AgriPro Boone exhibits high
   resistance to WSSMV, SBMV, and good to very good resistance
   to powdery mildew, the Septoria complex, and leaf rust.
   
 --------------------  
   CARGILL HYBRID SEEDS, Fort Collins, Colorado
   
        Sid Perry * , Dave Johnston, Sally Clayshulte, Jill
   Handwerk, and Dana Shellberg
   
        1991-1992 SEASON.  We evaluated F1's, F2's, and lines
   at five locations, plus six contract test sites.  Dry
   planting conditions were present at several sites.  The
   winter survival differential in Nebraska was relatively
   poor, and only slightly better in Colorado.  Significant
   leaf rust levels occurred at all locations.  Infections of
   septoria tritici and powdery mildew occurred in our Kansas
   nurseries.  Test weights were generally ower across the
   region.  Trial means ranged from 30 bu/acre at Coffeyville,
   Kansas, to 116 bu/acre at Fort Collins, Colorado.
   
        F1 PERFORMANCE.  Almost 2200 hybrids were evaluated. 
   The donor lines, testers, tester hybrid, and variety checks
   were included in the trials.  There were 291 hybrids which
   exceeded the yield of BH203 (the tester hybrid combination)
   and possessed acceptable agronomics.  The best performance
   exceeded BH203 by 16%.
   
        F2 PERFORMANCE.  We continue to evaluate the potential
   of F2 populations as a marketable product.  There were 550
   selected F2's tested over five locations.  From these
   trials, 52 combinations exceeded the performance of the best
   check, and also had acceptable agronomics.  Two years of
   data have indicated F2 yields to be about 90% of their
   corresponding F1 yields, although the best F2 yield in 1992
   was 107% of its corresponding F1.
   
        PERSONNEL.  Dave Johnston, senior plant breeder, has
   announced his retirement, effective January 1, 1993.  Dave
   has served with Cargill for 25 years, primarily as R-line
   breeder.  His contributions to Cargill, the hard winter
   wheat region, and hybrid wheat in particular, are greatly
   appreciated.  His experience will be greatly missed.  We
   wish Dave a happy retirement.
   
 --------------------  
   CARGILL ARGENTINA HYBRID WHEAT PROGRAM 
   
        N. Machado, P. Paulucci, H. Martinuzzi
   
        We have had a very good season for selection and
   production in our country.  In the wide area of production,
   different conditions affected the crop, but in general,
   yields were above pre-harvest estimations.  Diseases were
   not signifi-cant and weather at harvest was moderately good.
   
        The most important diseases were Xanthomonas and
   Fusarium.Bacterial infection started before heading on upper
   leavesand continued on peduncles and in some genotypes, on
   the heads.  The symptoms were very clear and selection notes
   were quite effective.  Apparently, when the infection did
   not reach the head, the plant did not reduce its yield.  For
   the second consecutive year, excessive rain in the south
   east delayed planting until early August(normal is
   June/July).  As in the 1991 season, an extremely cold spring
   allowed good tillering, excellent head fertility and an
   optimum grain quality expressed as 1000 kernel weight.
   
        Yield Trials.  Late plantings affected the evaluation
   of intermediate cycles and also results for short cycles
   will have to be considered very carefully due to the
   abnormal weather conditions.  Averages of years will be
   considered.
   
        Hybrid Production.  Five hundred seventy CMS hybrids
   were produced using 23 different restorers.  The seed set
   was fairly good in those combinations with good nicking. 
   Most new hybrids were produced based on results we obtained
   from chemical hybrids.  B-lines showing good combining
   ability were used with different restorers and new restorers
   were selected with the same criteria.  We will see next year
   if this procedure is efficient to predict the best
   combinations.
   
        Hybrid Evaluation.  Four hundred seventy-eight CMS
   hybrids were evaluated in our three main research stations
   and twenty pre-commercials were tested in six locations. 
   Out of these twenty, we think we will select two new
   commercials. Seven hundred chemical hybrids produced with
   Monsanto 21200 were evaluated in one location.  Results are
   not ready yet.
   
   Commercial Hybrids in Market.
   Trigomax 204      Intermediate cycle     Released 1992
   Trigomax 201      Intermediate cycle     Released 1987
   Trigomax 200      Intermediate cycle     Released 1986
   Trigomax 100      Semi-short cycle       Released 1988
   Trigomax 101      Semi-short cycle       Released 1993
   Trigomax 202      Short cycle            Released 1989
   
 --------------------  
   CARGILL AUSTRALIA
   
        Richard Daniel, David Donaldson, Garry Lane, Michael
   Materne, Michael Nowland, Chris Tyson, Jane           Wilson
   & Peter Wilson - Tamworth, N.S.W., Australia
   
        A SIMPLE HYBRID PRODUCTION SYSTEM? An investigation is
   underway to examine the production of hybrid wheat using
   material which expresses complete male sterility under
   certain environmental conditions, yet is completely male
   fertile under normal conditions.
   
        RELEASE OF NEW HYBRID Cargill Seeds has released a new
   F1 hybrid, named Hybrid Pulsar, for sowing in the 1993
   season. This hybrid will complement our existing hybrid,
   Hybrid Meteor.
   
        Hybrid Pulsar has better leaf rust resistance than
   Hybrid Meteor and is slightly higher yielding, especially
   under more productive conditions.  These two factors should
   see Hybrid Pulsar find a niche in the better rainfall areas.
   
        Hybrid Pulsar's outstanding feature is its high yield
   in the seed production phase.  Yields of 4.2 and 4.9 t/ha of
   female were obtained in A x B and A x R production blocks
   respectively, last season.  This compares with 2.9 t/ha and
   3.4 t/ha for Hybrid Meteor under similar conditions.
   
        The higher yields in seed production fields help to
   reduce seed costs.
   
        Root lesion nematode (RLN) resistance. Root Lesion
   Nematodes (Pratylenchus thornei) are a major problem in
   large areas of the Queensland and northern N.S.W. wheat
   belt.  To date no resistant cultivars are available although
   sources of resistance are currently being incorporated into
   several adapted cultivars by other breeding programs.
   
        In advanced trials this year a hybrid with RLN
   resistance performed particularly well, outyielding the best
   check by 13%.  In the presence  of RLNs it would be expected
   that this advantage  would be much greater.  We hope to have
   this hybrid released by 1995, giving farmers in badly
   affected RLN areas a chance to return to wheat growing.            
   
 --------------------  
   GOERTZEN SEED COMPANY, Haven, Kansas
                                                            
        Kenneth*, Betty and Kevin Goertzen
   
        Hard white winter wheat.  In 1992 wheat the variety
   Snow White was introduced.  It has genetically high protein,
   very good bread quality and will be grown on an identity
   preserved basis under contract.  It has good winter
   hardiness and sprouting in the head resistance.  Several new
   white wheat lines are being considered for release.  These
   have a wide range of quality characteristics, and sprouting
   in the head resistance.  Some of these whites exceeded
   yields of all the commercial hard red winter wheats in our
   trials.  The variety Haven which is grown on an identify
   preserved basis was available to mills for the first time in
   1992.  The grain has been well received by millers.
   
   Hard red winter wheat.  The new variety Discovery is
   being marketed.  It is early and produced quite well in
   South Central, Kansas in 1992.  
   
   Triticale.  The forage variety Roughrider is now being
   marketed.
   
       Goertzen Seed Research will continue its development of
   added value cereals and will focus much of its efforts on
   white and red hybrid wheat and hybrid Agrotriticums.
   
       Roy Lanning, a former employee of Goertzen Seed
   Research was made Manager of Goertzen Quality Wheat Inc. and
   is responsible for coordinating production and marketing of
   Goertzen Seed Research developed identity preserved grain. 
   Goertzen Quality Wheat Inc. is owned by employees of
   Goertzen Seed Research.
   
 --------------------
          HYBRITECH SEED INTERNATIONAL, INC.
   
   John Erickson, Steve Kuhr, Karolyn Ely, Dennis Delaney,
   Bud Hardesty, Jerry Wilson - Wichita, KS;                            
   Gordon Cisar - Lafayette, IN; Hal Lewis - Corvallis, OR
   
   Hybrid Development.  Our program continues to grow as
   we initiated work in two additional market classes in 1992. 
   Dudley Leaphart transferred to Billings, MT to reestablish
   our HRS project.  Hal Lewis of Corvallis, Oregon was
   employed to develop the SWW project.  Hal has experience in
   CHA technology and breeding.  He will utilize our Genesis
   compound in SWW hybrid development.
   
      Our SRW program was devastated by severe cold in the
   fall of 1991.  All of the crossing blocks and much of the
   breeding material at Lafayette, IN were destroyed.
   
      We have begun testing our HRW germplasm for aluminum
   tolerance.  About 65% of the hybrids tested were rated
   intermediate to tolerant, while 50% of the parents attained
   the same level, and only 34% of commercial varieties
   expressed this level of tolerance.  Inheritance ranged from
   partial to full dominance.
   
      Male Project.  Access to GHA (Genesis hybridizing
   agent) technology continues to cause procedural evolution in
   developing new males.  We are gradually shifting emphasis
   from cyto-sterile/restorer work toward developing male
   parents with Triticum aestivum cytoplasm.  More than 600 new
   crosses for parent development were made in 1992 and 30%
   have normal cytoplasm.  We welcome the opportunity to
   introduce new germplasm while not always being restricted to
   the need for restorer genes.
   Male breeding nurseries for 1993 are located at Wichita
   (17,000 F4 headrows) and Leoti (6,000 F4 headrows) in Kansas
   and Billings, Montana (8,000 F4 headrows).  Bulk observation
   plots are planted at these additional sites:  Hoxie, KS
   under irrigation, Hastings and Sidney in Nebraska, and Ft.
   Benton in Montana.  We are also evaluating 550 lines for
   performance, 224 as lines and 326 in hybrids for 1993. 
   Seventy-seven of these are candidates for crossing block
   males in 1994.
   
       Spring freeze damage caused less than desired results
   in our 1992 crossing blocks.  The mean female yield on 1769
   GHA hybrids produced at our Mt. Hope, KS farm was 41.5 BPA. 
   This was 83% of the mean male yield.  We produced 884 CMS
   and 440 GHA hybrids combined at the Wichita and Halstead, KS
   sites.  Yield levels were lower than at Mt. Hope.
   
       Female Project.  The 1991-1992 growing season provided
   some good information, a March 10 freeze at Wichita
   separated our winter tender material.  Good leaf rust
   infections at Wichita and Mt. Hope allowed us to select
   different reactions.  Stem rust was not prevalent at our
   locations in 1992.  We advanced 98 new lines to be used as
   parents in our Southern crossing blocks, while 30 lines from
   our Central area and approximately 100 entries from the
   Northern program were selected.
   
        For 1993, we have moved our Western Kansas breeding
   material from Leoti to an irrigated site near Hugoton, and
   have placed our line trials in the western areas of the
   Great Plains solely under irrigation in addition to our more
   eastern and northern locations.
   
       We have also sent many of our advanced Central lines to
   the University of Nebraska where they will be inoculated in
   their stem rust nursery.  The Cereal Rust Lab is also
   screening several of our advanced lines to determine which
   stem rust genes they contain.
   
       Three A-lines were advanced to our foundation seed
   division for initial seed increase.
   
       Brett Sowers joined our project in 1992 as a research
   assistant in charge of parent seedstocks and breeder seed. 
   Brett received his B.S. from Kansas State University and
   M.S. from Washington State University.
   
       Quality Lab.  We finished the 1991 crop with slightly
   over 10,000 samples tested.  This was about 1,000 less
   samples than the year before.  Bread baking was completed
   about mid-June, just as the 1992 crop samples began
   arriving.  So far we have tested, or are in the process of
   testing, over 9,000 samples.
   
       This past year was plagued by equipment breakdowns. 
   Our NIR (near infrared) analyzer needed major repair three
   times during the year and in December we lost the use of our
   Brabender Quadramat Sr. mill.  We have devised an alternate
   milling method using our Quadramat Jr. mill and a series of
   sieve stacks.  The alternate method is slower and more labor
   intensive.
   
       In conjunction with local AACC meetings, laboratory
   staff have toured the USDA Grain Marketing and Research
   Laboratories and the Kansas State University Milling and
   Baking Department facilities in Manhattan, Kansas.  We also
   toured Kice Industries, a milling equipment manufacturer in
   Wichita, Kansas.
   
       Chemical Technology Department.  Dennis Dunphy, Sam
   Wallace, Richard Evans - Lafayette, IN; Kent Baker, Wally
   Bates - Mt. Hope, KS; Sally Metz - St. Louis, MO
   
       Performance of GENESIS in 1992.  We continued to test
   GENESIS (MON 21200) hybridizing agent over a wide range of
   environments and genotypes in 1992.  Excellent sterility was
   obtained in all regions.  Much of the wheat in Northern
   Indiana was lost due to Rhizoctonia/winter injury, so
   testing in the SRW region was concentrated north and south
   of this area.  Seed yields of the long term SRW check line
   in research plots averaged 72 to 74 percent outcrossing,
   compared to the seven year average for this region of 79%. 
   Seed set in the western HRW region was again excellent at
   all locations, ranging from 60 to 100%, with an average of
   83%.  The six year average for this region is 87%.
   
   Commercialization.  HybriTech will market GENESIS
   hybridizing agent for wheat as soon as regulatory approval
   is received.  Registration of GENESIS is proceeding on
   schedule, and we anticipate receiving full registration for
   this compound.  We are continuing to provide technical
   support to cooperating breeding programs who license the
   GENESIS technology, and expect to have approval to produce
   limited amounts of hybrid seed during the 1994 season.
   
 --------------------  
   HYBRINOVA
   
          Hybrid Wheat Research Developed by ORSAN/ORSEM, France
   
   A. Gervais
   
       In July 1992 HYBRINOVA was created by ORSAN with the
   purpose of bringing to a fully successful commercial
   operation the hybrid wheat research project which was
   initially and mainly developed by SOGETAL and ORSEM, its
   subsidiaries.  In order to meet its goals the new company
   has been equipped with the best technology and research
   resources as follows:
   
       A Chemical Hybridizing Agent (CHA):  Initially
   developed by SOGETAL laboratory, this CHA has been studied
   since the fall of 1989.  An application for registration was
   filed in mid-1992 in France.  A provisional approval is
   expected in mid-1993.
   
       A hybrid and parental line breeding program which is
   performing today:  This program was originated by ORSEM. 
   The first three hybrids entered CTPS registration trials in
   France in 1992.  Our breeding program is being pursued with
   well-known partners located in the public sector (especially
   INRA) and in the private sector (Partners of GIE HYBRIBLE, a
   Research Association: UCASP, Momont, Blondeau).  In 1993,
   the company will extend its breeding activity to all
   European countries where wheat crops play a strategic role.
   
       A dynamic research activity in the field of industrial
   production of F1 hybrid wheat seeds.  The strength of our
   research is based on the use of the previously mentioned CHA
   and the mastering of its results.  All the work is done
   under the direction of HYBRINOVA and is being conducted with
   the collaboration of French professionals in the wheat seed
   sector.
   
      An increasing marketing activity on hybrid wheats:  Our
   marketing activity focuses especially on the definition of a
   technical itinerary to be used for each new developing
   hybrid.
   
       The management is confident that, with all the work
   done, HYBRINOVA will be in a position to market its
   varieties of hybrid wheats in two to four years in France.
   
       HYBRINOVA'S organization centers around four location
   sites:
   
   1)   Head Office:  HYBRINOVA, Z. A., de Courtaboeuf 1, 16
   Avenue de la Baltique, 91953 LES ULIS CEDEX (France). 
   General Manager: Alain Gervais.  In his position, Alain
   Gervais is responsible for the management of the company and
   for setting up a distribution system for marketing the
   products in the upcoming years.
   
   2)   Two breeding stations:
   (a)  Northern France: HYBRINOVA 56, Ryue Theophile Havy, 60190
   ESTREES ST DENIS.  Manager: Stephen Sunderwirth.  In his
   position, Stephen is responsible for the management of the
   station and the hybrid wheat breeding program for Northern
   Europe, including France, Great Britain, Belgium and
   Germany.
   
   (b)  Southern France: HYBRINOVA - 32480 POUY-ROQUELAURE. 
   Manager: Christian Quandalle.  In his position, Christian is
   managing the station and the contiguous haplodiploidization
   laboratory.  He is also responsible for the hybrid wheat
   breeding program for the Southern France, Spain, Italy and
   other Southern European countries.  He works in close
   relationship with other hybrid durum wheat breeders.
   
   3)   A development station:  Central France: HYBRINOVA, ST
   Germain, 28310 FRESNAY L'EVEQUE.  Manager: Laurent Batreau. 
   In his position, Laurent is responsible for the management
   of the station and for the development of industrial
   production techniques of F1 seeds for each developed hybrid
   and of F1 cultivating techniques.
   
        Prospects for 1993:  In 1993, the industrial production
   of hybrid wheat seed will be conducted on lots covering at
   least one hectare and in close relationship with the Control
   Assessment officials' department to obtain certified seeds.
   
        Several hybrids, identified during the 1991 and 1992
   testing programs, are multiplied in view of filling an
   application for registration to the CTPS in August 1993. 
   Moreover, in 1993 we expect to create approximately 1800 new
   hybrids and to test 1200 hybrid varieties.  We have
   integrated into our breeding program the new market
   requirements and farmer needs which are changing under the
   impact of the present economic environment.  
 --------------------  
                          NORTHRUP KING COMPANY
   
        Fred Collins*, June Hancock, and Craig Allen - Bay, AR
   
   
        Production Season.  Whereas the previous season was the
   worst for production in the Mid-South and Mid-West, the 1992
   season was probably one of the best in the Mid-South and
   Southeast.  Production in the Mid-West, however, was
   severely reduced by winter conditions.  Wheat acreage is
   being impacted by multiple years of poor production.
   
        Race patterns of leaf rust and powdery mildew pathogens
   are shifting.  The pattern for leaf rust (LR) and powdery
   mildew (PM) has changed little, if any, in the Southeast;
   however, the new PM race(s) prevalent in the Southeast
   appear to be moving east.  Apparently it has entered eastern
   Mississippi.  A new LR race pattern has shown up in SW
   Arkansas; Coker 9733 is susceptible to the new race(s) which
   appear to be moving westward from Texas.
   
        New Releases.  Two new varieties were offered to TGN
   (Two Great Names) seed growers/dealers who will produce
   certified seed for sale in the fall of 1993.  Coker 9134
   (tested as C 87-13 wh) will be positioned to replace Coker
   9766.  Coker 9904 (tested as CL850643) will be a replacement
   for Coker 9907 which succumbed to the new race(s) of PM in
   the Southeast.
   
        Coker 9474 has been approved for release and turned
   over to our production department.  It was tested as
   AL880437.  It will be positioned for Missouri, S.Illinois,
   S.Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee.
   
 --------------------  
        PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC.
   
        Department of Wheat Breeding
   
        Ian B. Edwards
   
        Wheat research operations remain focussed on North
   America and Europe, but with additional support for the
   Middle East and North Africa. Significant improvements were
   made during 1992 in product performance advantages in both
   North America and Europe. Use of High Molecular Weight (HMW)
   glutenin subunit analyses conducted at the Pioneer
   Laboratory in Aussonne, France, is greatly facilitating the
   identification of soft wheat with favorable breadmaking
   characteristics.
   
   Varietal Releases:
   
   l. U.S.A. - Soft Red Winter Wheat:  2571 - an early maturing for the U.S.
                                       corn belt;
            2566 - a high-yielding line with Hessian Fly resistance for the
                   south and southeast U.S.;
            2580 - a top-yielding line with good overall disease
                   resistance for the south and southeast U.S.;
              
   2. Spain :  Estero - a hard white dwarf wheat of very high baking quality.
               Mulero - a HRS wheat with broad adaptability.
  
  3. Greece:  Estero
   
   Staff
   
   Dr. Hyoung Suh of Pioneer's International Operations is
   assisting with varietal testing and product line development
   in the Middle East, Africa, and West Asia.
   
   Dr. Paul Wilson joined the staff of Pioneer Hi-Bred (U.K.)
   Ltd. during fall 1992, and he will be assisting with the
   variety trial and selection nurseries in England. 
   
        Windfall, IN:  Gregory C. Marshall, William J. Laskar,
   and Ryle J. Lively
   
        The 1991-92 Season.   With the early corn and soybean
   harvest during the fall of 1991, farmers had plenty of time
   for fall tillage and wheat planting. Though seedbeds tended
   to be dryer than optimum, rains and warm temperatures in
   late October resulted in excellent seedling emergence and
   good fall plant growth. However, the warm temperatures
   provided little cold hardening of the rapidly growing wheat
   crop. On November 9, a sudden drop in temperatures to a low
   of 8øF severely burned back the non-dormant wheat fields
   across much of our testing region. Mild temperatures in
   November stimulated recovery of all but the most tender
   lines, but a sudden return to cold temperatures, as low as
   4øF in early December, repeated the severe plant damage.
   Though mild overall, as the winter progressed, the erratic
   temperatures continued; and more fields, including our plots
   here in Windfall, showed more plant death. Conditions also
   favored Rhizoctonia root rot, which confounded and magnified
   the cold damage. In March an early green-up and another
   period of severe cold finished off a lot of wheat. We
   abandoned three off-station locations and all plots at
   Windfall but the surviving F3 and F6 headrows.
   
   For the wheat that survived mild spring and summer
   temperatures, adequate moisture, and low disease pressure
   resulted in an extended growing season. Harvest began nearly
   two weeks later than average with excellent yields and test
   weights, even in fields with some winter damage. Our Ft.
   Branch nursery in southern Indiana was excellent, with just
   enough disease pressure for selection and high yield levels.
   The Ft. Branch location was especially valuable to us, in
   that, it provided us a back-up for selection of the material
   that was lost at Windfall, and the yield tests served as
   seed source for fall 1992 planting. As the harvest moved
   north, wet weather delayed harvest another two weeks or more
   in many areas. With the rain, test weight of the standing,
   mature wheat fields declined rapidly.
   
        New Releases. In August of 1992, we released a new soft
   red winter wheat variety, 2571. 2571 is an awned, early
   maturing variety with excellent leaf and stem rust
   resistance, as well as superior leaf blight tolerance for
   its early maturity. On the average, 2571 heads 3 days
   earlier than 2548, with a slight yield advantage. 2571 was
   tested as XW502 in the 1991-92 Uniform Eastern and Southern
   Cooperative nurseries.
   
   
        Equipment.  We purchased a belt style thresher to use
   on some of our hand harvested material. It is the "SPT-1"
   single plant threshing machine made by Agriculex. Probably
   the best features of the machine are its safety and quiet
   electric motor. There is adjustment to the belt clearance
   and air flow to get a good, clean sample when threshing a
   few heads at a time. We harvest our F3 headrows by cutting
   off all the heads, with about six inches of straw and put
   them in a large paper bag for threshing later. With the high
   number of heads, they must be fed through the belt thresher
   slowly so that clumps of heads don't get pulled through too
   quickly without threshing. Also, to get the large sample
   clean, some kernels may be blown out and/or some pieces of
   heads may need to be screened out. However, if only a small
   representative bulk sample is needed for replanting, then
   the belt thresher can do an adequate job on headrows.
   
        ST. MATTHEWS. SC: Benjamin E. Edge and Phil L. Shields
   
        The 1991-92 Season. The 1991-92 growing season was
   nearly ideal along much of the U.S. East Coast. In the
   Mississippi River Valley, wet conditions and hard freezes
   limited yields somewhat, but overall it was an average to
   above average year. There were few serious disease
   outbreaks, although leaf rust was severe at some locations.
   There was some serious Hessian fly damage in the Pee Dee
   area of Southern Carolina, but few reports otherwise. The
   cereal leaf beetle continued to be a concern in some areas,
   especially with the long, cool spring we experienced.
   
   That long, cool spring gave wheat an extended grain fill
   period, and yields and test weight were good, at least at
   the beginning of harvest. Rain in June and July hampered
   efforts to get the crop in, but test weight at the beginning
   of the season was high enough that dockage was not as bad as
   the previous year. Some early varieties did suffer from
   sprout damage, however.
   
        Selection Nursery. Again, the relative lack of disease
   pressure made selection difficult in our nursery, but there
   was probably enough leaf blight and leaf rust present to
   make some progress. F3 headrows for 1992-93 will be around
   45,000. Our yield plot numbers will be considerably higher
   in 1993, around 8100. We continue to shuttle material
   between the Windfall station and St. Matthews, and plan to
   do more of this with our European stations in France and
   Spain. We are conducting more specialized screening
   nurseries (similar to our Hessian fly nursery) for problems
   such as powdery mildew, leaf rust, leaf blight, and
   bacterial blight.
   
   
        Effect of Hessian Fly on Wheat Yield. Our Hessian fly
   nursery was a failure in 1992, as warm days followed by cold
   nights with temperatures just below freezing killed newly
   hatched fly larvae. There were large numbers of fly in our
   spreader strips going into the winter, but we never found
   enough fly in the screening nursery to rate the lines for
   resistance reaction. We did have a severe infestation of fly
   at our Manning, SC, yield test location, and the yield data
   appears below:
   
   
         Effect of Hessian Fly on Wheat Yield in Southeastern US
                                (1991-92)
 =========================================================================
                                      Mean of 11             Mean of 10
        Manning, S.C.                 Locations              Locations
                                                           (Excl. Manning)
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------  
 Variety     Yield     Rank     Yield    Rank    Yield     Rank     HFE
             (bu/ac)            (bu/ac)          (bu/ac)            Score
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Coker 9835   125.5      1       93.6     1       90.4      1        7
 2580         100.3      5       90.5     2       89.6      2        1
 2566         121.4      2       90.1     3       86.9      3        9
 Coker 9766   100.6      4       81.2     4       79.2      6        7
 Coker 983     57.0      6       80.5     6       82.8      5        5
 2555         101.8      3       75.3     7       72.6      7        2
 LSD (.05)     23.7               9.0              6.5
 ========================================================================    
 
   *HFE Score is a rating based on results of Purdue lab
   screening to Biotype E.   9 = resistant, 1 = susceptible
   
   
   This data offers a striking example of how Hessian fly can
   affect yield test results. It also shows that there are fly
   resistant varieties that have excellent yield potential for
   the Southeast.   Pioneer variety 2580 ranked second overall
   in the yield test, but it fell to fifth at the severely
   infested manning location.  The variety ranked fourth with
   the fly location excluded (Coker variety 983) fell to
   seventh at Manning.  Neither of these varieties has
   resistance to Hessianfly, as evidenced by their biotype E
   scores, yet 2580 yielded almost as well as two resistant
   varieties, 2555 and 9766.  coker variety 9835 and Pioneer
   variety 2566, both resistant, performed equally well with
   and without fly pressure.  Pioneer brand 2555, which has
   field  tolerance (does not show up in lab screens)to biotype
   E, was third ranked at Manning, but fell to seventh when the
   effect of fly was removed as a limiting factor of yield.
   
        New Releases. Pioneer brands 2566 and 2580 were
   released in August of 1992 in limited quantities. Larger
   amounts will be available for planting in the fall of 1993.
   2566 is an awned, medium-early maturity, soft red winter
   wheat variety adapted primarily to the East Coast and Gulf
   Coast states. 2566 has high yield potential, excellent test
   weight, and excellent overall disease tolerance. It is
   resistant to the predominant biotypes of Hessian fly in the
   Southeast. 2566 is 1-2 days earlier than Pioneer brand 2548.
   It has exhibited better resistance to powdery mildew, leaf
   rust, and soil borne mosaic virus than 2548, and is more
   tolerant of soil borne mosaic virus. 2580 is susceptible to
   Hessian fly. 2580 was tested as 'XW504' in the 1991-92
   Uniform Southern and Uniform Eastern nurseries.
   
   
        Frowille, France:     Guy Dorlencourt, Robert Marchand
   and Quitterie Vanderpol
        The 1991-92 Season. The nurseries and test locations
   were planted on time, December was dry and conditions very
   mild. Fortunately, some rainfall and cooler temperatures in
   late March slowed the regrowth, and good rain and cooler
   than normal temperatures during April improved tillering.
   Powdery mildew (Erysiphe araminis) and stripe rust (Puccinia
   striiformis) appeared during April. Very hot temperatures
   during May caused drought stress on the light, chalky soils
   of Reims, and late tillers suffered severely. Good rains
   came in late May around heading time and continued into
   June. Good stripe and leaf rust infections were recorded on
   susceptible lines. Overall, the season was patchy, with good
   yields at Beauvais and Peronne, average to below average
   yields at Oucques, and very poor yields at Reims.
   
        Varietal Development. Four Pioneer varieties entered
   first-year registration in September 1992 with a 3-8% yield
   advantage over the official check cultivars, based upon
   three years of multi-location testing. They are:  2254 - a
   bearded semidwarf, medium maturity, very high yield
   potential, good overall disease resistance and B2 quality. 
   2256 - a bearded semidwarf, medium-early, excellent overall
   disease resistance, strong straw, high yield potential, and
   B1 quality.  2259 - a bearded semidwarf, very early
   maturity, top yield potential, and C2 quality.  2282 - a
   bearded semidwarf with very early maturity, high yield
   potential, excellent overall disease resistance, and B1
   quality.
   
        Of the four official check cultivars, Soissons was the
   top yielder in 1992 (mean yield = 85.3 qu/ha) followed by
   Apollo, Recital, and Thesee. Sideral was the highest
   yielding of the released varieties (mean 88.7 qu/ha).
   
        Hybrid Wheat.   Seven hybrid trials of 30 entries each were grown
 at three locations. Overall, the top hybrids outyielded the check
 cultivars by 13-15%. Several showed superior mixograph scores to that
 of either parent; this is the result of complementation of favorable
 HMW glutenin subunits in the hybrid. The leading hybrids are now
 showing yield, quality and disease resistance advantages over the top
 cultivars. Additional efforts are being made to perfect the hybrid
 delivery system, and consistently produce high yields of pure hybrid
 seed.
 
 
      Sevilla, Spain: JoQe-Maria Urbano, Maximiliano Hidalgo, and
 Manuel Peinado
 
      The 1991-92 Season. A large contrast between northern and
 southern Spain was encountered during 1991-92. In the north heavy
 rains delayed planting, and the latter was finally completed on
 January 15, 1992. In contrast, the south was extremely dry and
 moisture stress was encountered by early February, particularly
 on the lighter textured soils. Despite some rain, moisture stress
 became more severe in April, and two of the three locations in
 Portugal were lost. At the irrigated locations, good powdery
 mildew and Septoria differentials were obtained. Good data was
 obtained in northern Spain from both the sprinq and winter wheat
 test locations.
 
      Spring Wheat Variety Development.   The elite spring wheat
 test was grown at 6 locations. The top-yielding variety, Moro,
 outyielded Cartaya by 15% and Yecora Rojo by 24% in Andalucia (4
 locations). It entered first-year registration in 1992-93, along
 with two other new lines, Caro and Torero. These varieties,
 respectively, fit into the early, medium, and late maturity
 categories among the spring wheat in Spain, and have a ten-day
 spread in flowering dates.  
 
      Mercero, a medium height, late-maturing wheat with high
 yield and medium baking quality was advanced to second-year
 registration in 1992-93. In addition, Estero and Mulero were
 registered in 1992. Estero offers both yield and disease
 resistance advantages over Yecora Rojo, and has similar maturity
 and the same high quality. It is targeted for Andalucia.
 
      Winter Wheat Variety Development.  Testing was conducted at
 Burgos, Navarra, Jaca, and Alava in northern Spain during
 1991-92. The top-yielding line was WBE0189A, with a 7-13% yield
 advantage over the check cultivars. Good differentials for
 powdery mildew and Septoria tritici were obtained, with Recital
 being the most susceptible check. Parent seed of Trento was sold
 to a producer/distributor in 1992, and certified seed will be
 marketed in 1993. A winter wheat trials network was established,
 combining operations in southern France and northern Spain.
 
      Durum Wheat Development. Trials were conducted at three
 locations in Andalucia, and 80 experimental lines were tested.
 Three new experimental durums are undergoing final seed
 purification in 1992-93, and they have a 4-12% yield advantage
 over the top check, Vitron. The durum program was increased
 during 1992, and both spring and facultative lines are being
 crossed. The durum wheat area increased in Spain from 383,000 ha.
 in 1991 to 558,000 ha. in 1992. Mean yields and quality premiums
 were higher than those of bread wheat.
 
     Sissa (nr. Parma, Italy: Mauro Tanzi
 
      The elite durum wheat test (consisting of 52 entries) was
 grown at five locations in the Po River Valley. The top-yielding
 location was Ferrara, where Pioneer Variety TDM0062 yielded 98.4
 quintals/hectare, and five other experimentals exceeded 90
 quintals. Eight new lines were identified with yields,
 significantly above the check cultivars and the leading new
 commercial variety. Final quality evaluations will be completed
 during 1992-93, and seed purification and increase is being
 handled in France.
 
      PARNDORF, AUSTRIA: Gunther Reichenberger
 
      Austrian program currently comprises screening nurseries,
 preliminary variety trials and preregistration tests. Compared with
 the official check cultivars, our experimental lines are
 shorter-strawed, earlier-maturing (up to 10 days) and have improved
 lodging resistance. A good powdery mildew differential was obtained,
 with Claudius being the most susceptible check. Currently, two
 varieties are in second-year registration, and five new lines entered
 first-year registration in 1992-93. Austria currently has quality,
 milling, and feed wheat categories, and these are defined on the basis
 of wet gluten and gluten-swelling tests. With the impending entry of
 Austria into the EEC, some changes may be anticipated in quality
 standards and varietal classification.
 
 
      Winsford, Cheshire, England: Ian Edwards and Simon Jones
 
      In 1992 a selection nursery and segregating bulk populations were
 grown at Eyeworth, Bedfordshire, and preliminary preregistration
 trails were conducted at three locations. This was the second-year of
 testing under U.K. conditions. Haven was used as the feed wheat check,
 and Mercia was used as the quality check cultivar. Good differentials
 were obtained for powdery mildew, stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis)
 and Septoria tritici. Heavy lodging pressure was obtained at the Kent
 location. In the preliminary test, four new experimental lines yielded
 equal to or greater than Haven, with higher lodging resistance. A
 quality wheat, WBE0431, outyielded Mercia by 23.4 percent. Three lines
 were identified as candidates for National List trials in 1993-94.
 
      Buxtehude, Germany:  Heidemarie Schoenwaelder and Ian Edwards
 
      Selection nurseries were grown at Rodinghausen in northern
 Germany, and at Neuenstein-Kirchensall in southern Germany. The
 northern nursery provided a stronger test for winterhardiness and
 differentiated varieties better adapted to southern Germany, and the
 U.K. Preregistration trials were grown at four locations with two
 replicates given high management treatments (fungicides, etc.), and
 two replicates given reduced management. Compared to the official
 check cultivars (Contra, Ares, Orestis, and Henzog), the top four
 Pioneer lines showed an average yield response to the high management
 of 12.0 percent, versus 20.2 percent for the checks, and showed a 4
 percent yield advantage under reduced management. It is a commonly
 shared view that varieties requiring less fungicide and management
 inputs will assume a greater importance in the future as attention is
 focussed on maximum economic yield. Five wheat varieties are
 undergoing seed purification in 1992-93, prior to entering
 reqistration trials.
 
 --------------------
 TRIO RESEARCH, INC.
 
      James A. Wilson, Wichita, KS
 
    During 1992, one HRW wheat and two SRW wheats were released as
 contract varieties.  Farmers under contract with Trio distributors may
 save seed for use on their own farms but are restricted from selling
 the varieties for planting purposes.  The hard wheat, T13, a T 107/T
 105 derivative, was tested in the 1992 SRPN, and has been entered for
 testing again in 1993.  This variety is very similar to Tam 107 except
 it is 3-4 days later in heading.  It is presumed to be best adapted to
 eastern Colorado, western Kansas and southwest Nebraska where leaf
 rust resistance is of minor importance.  The soft wheats, T441, and
 T63, have been evaluated in the ESRWWPN.  T441, a Tyler/Auburn
 derivative, is earlier than either parent and is around Caldwell in
 maturity.  It has better leaf rust and Hessian fly resistance than its
 Tyler parent and carries resistance to fly races GP, B and E derived
 from its Auburn parent.  It is intermediate in regards to leaf rust
 resistance but carries high resistance to mildew that appears equal to
 Tyler.  It has been consistently higher yielding than Caldwell and is
 expected to be adapted to the regions where Caldwell has been grown. 
 T63, is a Coker 747/2550 derivative that is higher yielding, shorter
 and earlier than Caldwell.  It is presumed to be best adapted to the
 southern half of the areas where Caldwell is grown since it has
 superior resistance to leaf rust.  Certification has been applied for
 with all 3 varieties but no PVP filing has yet been made.
 
     A number of hybrid parent stocks are being evaluated by farmers
 under direct contract arrangement with Trio in the southern plains
 region.  These lines, if successful as cultivars, will allow the
 opportunity for increasing female seed stock under reasonable
 isolation standards.  We are totally committed to the Timopheevi cms
 system, and thereby, need isolation which a significant acreage may
 provide.  Likewise, the successful use of a male parent may allow much
 needed isolation and facilitate establishment of hybrid seed
 production contracts.
 
 --------------------
 SVALOF WEIBULL AB - Wheat Breeding Activities
 
      Landskrona, Sweden: Gunnar Svensson *
 
      During 1992 the two Swedish breeding organisations Svalof AB and
 W. Weibull AB have been merged. The new company Svalof Weibull AB,
 owned by the farmers coops, SLR, has a wheat breeding program in
 Landskrona, Sweden. Dr Gunnar Svensson is made responsible for the
 spring wheat breeding and the international coordination, Dr Nils
 Johansson is responsible for the winter wheat breeding and Jan J”nsson
 runs a successful resistance breeding program for Sweden and Europe.
 
      Actual varieties bred by this Swedish team are: Kosack the
 leading winter wheat, Tjelvar a dwarf bunt resistant winter wheat,
 Tryggve with good sprouting resistance, Dragon the leading spring
 wheat with wide disease resistance, Dacke with 1 % higher protein
 content and Sport with 2,5 % higher protein, Tjalve the leading spring
 wheat in Norway, early, short straw, strong gluten and Satu one of the
 most grown spring wheat varieties in Finland, Troll, recently listed
 in Germany, nematod resistant and Canon recommended in England.
 
      Svalof Weibull has wheat breeding programs in Great Britain, in
 the Cambridge area at Abbots Ripton headed by Richard Gregory and at
 Throws Farm headed by Douglas Joyce. In France Jean Pierre Josset and
 his team have run an efficient wheat breeding program since 1981, see
 below. In Lectour Maurice Schehr runs a program for southern France,
 northern Spain and Italy. He has the quality variety Lony in advanced
 trials. In southern Spain, Juan Pedro Hidalgo is breeding alternative
 wheat varieties for different parts of the world. Varieties such as
 Sofia, Alias, Bahia and Mouna are listed in Marocko and/or Alg‚r. In
 the Netherlands Loek Suijs is breeding wheat varieties at Emmeloord
 beside his main task: Triticale breeding. His spring wheat Jondolar is
 a high yielding variety listed in some countries.
 
      Through the daughter company, Semundo GmbH, Svalof Weibull has
 the famous winter wheat breeding organisation in Hadmersleben in the
 group with well known winter wheat varieties like Alidos, Faktor,
 Kontrast, Mikon, Ramiro and Zenos. Prof Porsche and Dr K. Richter and
 their team have made Saatzucht Agrar in Hadmersleben known for
 varieties with good quality and stable disease resistance.
 
 --------------------
 SVALOF-WEIBULL, France
 
    Jp. Josset, E. Menager, S. Martinon
 
    As mentioned above, our company name has changed from W. Weibull
 to Svalof-Weibull.
 
    In 1992 winter wheat was grown on an area of about 4,680,000 ha. 
 The total production was slightly below that of last year with 30.8
 million tons.  Average yield in the country was 6,590 kg/ha, a
 decrease compared to 6,800 kg/ha in 1991.  The quality of the crop was
 generally good.
 
    Leading cultivars were Soissons (34%), Thesee (13%), Apollo (6%),
 Recital (5%), Scipion (5%), Sleipner (2%), Festival (2%), Baroudeur
 (2%).
 
    For the fourth year in a row the growing season has been dry with
 much lower rainfall than normal and a moderate disease pressure. 
 Powdery mildew was the most serious problem at our three screening
 nursery sites.
 
    The shuttle breeding system initiated in 1991 between Sweden,
 France and Chile continues to work well for the facultative wheat
 program.
 
    One new cultivar was entered in first year of official trials in
 France.  It is a biscuit type wheat, medium early, combining high
 yield with good overall disease resistance.
 
 --------------------
                               ITEMS FROM ARGENTINA
 
         College of Agriculture, kCordoba National University, Cordoba
 
         F. Bidinost, B. Ferro, W. Londero, R. Roldan, and R. Maich,
 
      Intravarietal Differences and Seed Source in Wheat.  The
 objective of this work was to determine the effect of the
 environmental conditions where a seed is multiplied (ECM) on the
 agronomic response of the plant developed from it. A second objective
 was to determine the presence of intravarietal variability within a
 wheat variety recently released (PROINTA Oasis). During 1991 was
 evaluated the grain yield of G-derived lines visually selected in 1990
 in two locations (C¢rdoba and Marcos Ju rez). The statistics analysis
 was performed according a factorial model. Significant differences
 between ECM were observed and between G-derived lines selected at
 Marcos Ju rez. The ECM affected the agronomic performance of the
 derived plant. In the other hand, the variability within variety
 observed to point out the importance of a correct maintenance of
 genetic purity during the seed production process.
 
       C. Olmos, C. Ferraris, M.J. Miakra, and R. Maich
 
      Selection During Early Generations under Interspecific and
 Intergeneric Competition Conditions in Bread Wheat. II Testing
 Environment x Competing Ability Interactions.  To determine the effect
 of plant competition on genetic gain, two segregating populations of
 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were planted in alternated rows
 with others of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) and barley (Hordeum
 vulgare L.) in 1989 using three sowing dates. One plant from each
 experimental unit was selected. In 1990 (F2:3) and 1991 (F2:4) the
 grain yield per plot of the F2-derived lines was evaluated. A
 factorial model of Anova was performed. During 1990, a significative
 and negative effect of plant competition on response to visual plant
 selection was observed (AWN 38:52); however, in 1991, not significant
 differences were observed between lines selected under any type of
 plant competition. The results of this study could be discussed in the
 light of the agrometeorological characteristics of the two years of
 testing. 1991 was drier than 1990 showing evidence of a positive
 relationship between the agronomic performance of the F2-derived lines
 and intensity of competition used during the visual plant selection
 process, principally in the earlier-maturing cross.
 
 
 
      D. Bonelli, W. Londero, F. Salvagiotti, R. Roldan, M.J. Miarka,
 C. Ripoll, S. Beas, F. Gil, and R. Maich 
 
       Integrated Teaching Programme. When Science Takes Up the Place
 of Art in Plant Breeding.Art is important in plant breeding,
 particularly when visual selection is being done; however, for
 teaching plant genetics purposes is necessary to undestand some
 concepts in genetics and to learn about methodology in plant breeding.
 The objective of this study was to compare, through the response to
 visual plant selection for grain yield, eight samples selected by
 undergraduate students of our College. During 1990 a bulk of F3 seeds
 of wheat was grown on an area of 900 m2, subdivided in 80 grids. Ten
 grids were used by each Selector, from each one five plants were
 selected according their own criteria. The sample of fifty plants from
 each Selector was threshed in bulk. During 1991, the eight F4 bulks
 were evaluated for grain yield (GY), biological yield (BY) and harvest
 index (HI) in three sowing dates without replications per date. Not
 significant differences were obtained among the eignt sample means for
 GY and BY, except HI. Harvest index was positively correlated with
 grain yield. Thus, those Selectors who chose higher and lesser
 tillering plants produced populations with much higher HI than did
 those Selectors who chose semi-dwarf plants with high tillering
 ability. It is likely that the latter group of Selectors has the
 opportunity to modificate their selection criteria looking for in the
 future to improve the efficiency of visual plant selection.
 
      R. Maich, W. Londero, M.J. Miarka, C. Ripoll, R. Roldan, F.
 Salvagiotti, D. Bonelli, N. Guzman, and G. Manera
 
      Agroecophysiological Aspects of Earweight in Wheat.  The
 environmental conditions (sites, sowing dates, years, densities,
 spatial arrangaments, etc.) where a wheat crop is grown affect their
 economic production. Moreover, the relationships of seed size and/or
 seed source and yield have been investigated in various experiments. A
 study was conducted to evaluate the influence of seed of different
 weights and origins on wheat earweight. In 1990, the S1 seeds from one
 segregating population of wheat was grown at three locations
 (Ferreyra, Marcos Ju rez, and Casilda). A field experiment, using
 sized or unsized S2 seeds obtained from the three sources, was
 conducted in 1991 at Ferreyra in three sowing dates (may, june and
 july), three densities (25, 50 and 100 seeds/m2) and two spatial
 arrangaments (equidistance: 10x10, 15x15 and 20x20 cm, and rows: 5x20,
 10x20 and 10x40 cm within and between rows respectively). Net plot
 consisted of 50 seeds nearly without replications. A random sample of
 five plants was taken from each experimental unit for determination of
 earweight. Analysis of variance of the experiment was conducted
 according to the factorial model. Significant differences were
 obtained among densities (1 %), spatial arrangaments (10 %) and sowing
 dates (1 %), but not by seed size and source. We concluded that the
 impact of seeds of different sizes and origins was of relatively
 little importance on earweight, however the data suggest there may be
 merit in maintaining the seed source identity and to use the heavier
 seeds.
 
      W.H. Londero, C.A. Ripoll, J.C. Funes, and R.H. Maich
 
      Effects of Seed Size on Response to Selection in Wheat.  The
 field performance in wheat with seeds of differing size is known; but
 its impact on the efficiency of visual selection has not been well
 documented. A S1 bulk of seeds was classified using a 2.5 mm diameter
 sieve in five classes (C). During 1990 the material was cultivated in
 three sowing dates (SD) and three locations. From each experimental
 unit two plants were selected, wich progenies (S1:2) were tested
 (1991) for grain yield (GY), biological yield and harvest index in
 three dates of seeding. For GY there were not significant differences
 between C; however, the significant C x SD interaction for all
 characters indicate that in unfavourable environmental conditions the
 mechanical classification of seeds would increase the efficiency of
 visual selection.
 
      R.M. Roldan, F. Salvagiotti, N.C. Guzman, C. Bainotti, and R.H.
 Maich
 
      Comparison of Alternative types of Recurrent Selection Schemes in
 Wheat.  The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of
 three recurrent selection strategies in the first selection cycle. The
 initial population (P0) was evaluated under three different levels of
 imbreeding (S0. S1 and S1:2). Fifteen selected progenies from each one
 were intercrossed to form P1, P2 and P3 filial populations. During
 1989, 1990 and 1991 the genetic progress was evaluated using a random
 sample of 40 progenies from each population. The results show that
 significant progress can be obtained for grain yield when S0 progenies
 are used as selection unit. However, if we assess the genetic gain
 outside the environmental context where the plant breeding program is
 being conducted, it is possible to find not significant differences
 between cycles.
 
 
      G.A. Manera, D.R. Bonelli, J.C. Miranda, and R.H. Maich
 
      Visual and Indirect Selection for Yield in Wheat.  Our objective
 was to study the response to visual and indirect selection for grain
 yield (GY) using the biological yield (BY), harvest index (HI) and
 earweight (PSP) as selection criteria. During 1990 a random sample of
 800 S1 plants was characterized through BY, HI and PSP. From each
 selection criteria two groups (superior and inferior) of fifteen S1
 plants each one were constituted. Simultaneously, the best fifteen
 were selected according to the phenotypic value. In 1991, 105 S1:2
 lines were tested for GY, BY and HI in three sowing dates. For GY,
 significant differences among groups were found for PSP selection
 criteria. Among superior groups, significant differences between
 selection criteria were found for HI, where the material selected for
 PSP and HI performed better.
 
       S.E. Beas, M.J. Miarka, J.Casati, and R.H. Maich
 
      Looking for Optimal Genotype x Environment Interactions in Plant
 Breeding.  The objective of this study was to determine the effect of
 selection environment on the genetic progress under marginal
 conditions of evaluation (the target area). During 1990 six
 segregating populations of wheat with different biological cycles (BC)
 were cultivated in three locations (L) and three sowing dates (SD) per
 site. From each experimental unit two plants were selected, wich
 progenies (S1:2) were tested (1991) in three dates of seeding in the
 target area. For grain yield not significant differences were found
 between L or SD; but, significant BC x L interaction existed. For
 long-season materials the highest genetic progress was achieved
 selecting under optimal environmental conditions, while for short- and
 intermediate- tended to be greater at the marginal ones.
 
      R.H. Maich, R.M. Roldan, W.H. Londero, and G.A. Manera
 
      Early Generation Testing in Wheat.  The purpose was to relate the
 performances of F1/S0 progenies and F2-/S1- derived lines from them.
 The F1 seed of 153 crosses (Trial 1) and S0 seed of 560 crosses (Trail
 2) were evaluated for grain yield (GY). Within each trial two groups
 (superior and inferior) of ten crosses each one were constituted. The
 F2 and S1 generations were cultivated in three and two locations,
 respectively. One or two plants were selected from each experimental
 unit. The F2:5 and S1:2 lines were tested for GY, biological yield
 (BY) and harvest index (HI). Significant differences among groups were
 found for GY in Trial 1, and for BY and HI in Trial 2. For GY and BY,
 the derived lines classified as superiors yielded more than those
 inferior ones. The tendency was inverse for HI.
 
      M.J. Miarka, F. Salvagiotti, C.A. Ripoll, N.C. Guzman, and R.H.
 Maich
 
      The Effect of Density and Spatial Arrangament on the Efficiency
 of Visual Plant Selection in Wheat.  The objective of this study was
 to determine the effect of plant density-D (25, 50 and 100 seeds/m2)
 and planting arrangament-S (equidistant: 10x10, 15x15 and 20x20 cm,
 and rows: 5x20, 10x20 and 10x40 cm within and between rows
 respectively) on response to selection in segregating populations of
 wheat with different biological cycles and cultivated in three
 locations. Two S1 plants from each experimental unit were selected,
 wich S1 -derived lines were tested for grain yield, biological yield
 and harvest index (HI) in three sowing dates. Significant differences
 were found between D for HI. The highest values of HI were achieved by
 selecting at 25-50 seeds/m2 densities.
 
      D.R. Bonelli, S.E. Beas, J.C. Miranda, and R.H. Maich
 
      Grid Selection in Wheat.  To determine the relationship between
 grain yield (GY) of a derived line and the agronomic characteristic of
 the grid from wich the plant was selected, a bulk of F3 seeds
 constituted by 40 crosses was cultivated on a area of 900 m2 divided
 into 80 grids. A plant was selected from each grid. During two years,
 in two contrasting environmental conditions per year, two groups of 13
 F3 -derived lines each one were tested. GY, biological yield (BY) and
 harvest index (HI) were recorded for each plot. Significant
 differences among groups were found for BY. For all characters
 examined the materials selected from agronomically inferior grids gave
 the highest yield performance. Group mean differences tended to be
 greater at the low yielding environmental conditions of testing.
 
           N. Contin, D. Bonelli, F. Salvagiotti, C. Ripoll, and R.
 Maich
 
      Crossover Effects depend on the Biological Characteristic of the
 Selected Material.  The objective of this study was to determine the
 effect of selection environment on the genetic progress under marginal
 conditions of evaluation in wheat. Four different trials using
 populations of wheat with different maturities (C) were cultivated in
 two sites (E), high (HYE) and low (LYE) yielding environments. The
 derived lines were tested in the target area (LYE). Grain yield,
 biological yield and harvest index were recorded. For grain yield not
 significant differences were found among E, but significant C x E
 interactions existed. For long season materials the highest genetic
 progress was achieved selecting under HYE, while for the short ones
 tended to be greater at the LYE.
 
      R. Maich, N. Guzman, M.J. Miarka, W. Londero and G. Manera
 
      Density Effects on Response to Visual Plant Selection.  Three
 segregating populations of wheat with different maturities (M) were
 cultivated under three densities - D (25, 50 and 100 seeds/m2) in
 three sites - S (low, intermediate and high yielding environments).
 From each experimental unit four S1 plants were selected and the S1:2
 lines were evaluated for grain yield during 1991 in two locations
 without replications per site. Not significant differences were
 observed betweeen densities, however D x M and D x S significant
 interactions existed. For the long season materials the highest
 genetic gain was achieved selecting under the lowest density, the
 inverse was observed for the early materials. In the other hand, a
 negative relationship between site and density was observed. For the
 high yielding environment increased genetic progress ocurred at the
 lowest density, but under the low yielding environment the highest
 density improved the efficiency of visual plant selection.
 
 --------------------
      Institute of Biological Resources, Castelar
 
      G. Tranquilli, G. Covas, I. Cetour, B. Formica, L. Faraldo, L.
 Bullrich, N. Zelener, M. Lorences, G. Perez                               
 Camargo, L. Appendino, M. Arteaga, A. Suarez, L. Gonzalez and E. Y.
 Suarez
 
      Norin 10 Alleles Effects in the Argentinian Wheat Area.  A wide
 range of experiments using isogenic Rht lines, kindly supplied by M.
 Gale of the Cambridge Laboratory JII, was carried out during 1991. 
 The lines were developed in two spring varieties:  Maringa, from
 Brazil, and Nainari 60, from Mexico.  Rht alleles in Maringa
 background showed the following general effects:
 
      1.  Plant height reduction
      2.  Slight increase on ear-emergence time
      3.  Tiller number increase
      4.  None or reduced effects on spike length
      5.  No effect on numb er of spikelets per spike
      6.  Increase in grain number per spikelet
      7.  Grain weight reduction
      8.  Yield increase from early sowing or at localities of high
          soil fertility
 
      Nainari 60 isogenic lines, on the other hand, showed similar
 general effects, except that no differences were observed for tiller
 number, spikelets per spike and yield.  Particularly remarkable is the
 last result, because even in the major wheat area rht genotypes showed
 better or similar yields than the semidwarf ones.
 
 
      G. Tranquilli and E. Y. Suarez
 
      Gene Location for Leaf Rust Resistance in a Brazilian Line.  The
 Brazilian line of bread wheat PF 869107 is known to be resistant to a
 large number of pathogen agents.  It has a seedling resistance to two
 Argentina biotypes, 66 and 77, of Puccinia recondita sp. tritici.  To
 determine the chromosomic location of the genes involved, 17 F2
 monosomic families were evaluated against each biotype.  Analyses
 indicated a dominant allele was present in PF 869107 in each case, and
 16 families displayed a good fit to the 3:1 ratio.  The critical
 chromosomes were 5A and 2B for biotypes 66 and 77, respectively. 
 Since chromosome 2B has been reported to carry genes for leaf rust
 resistance (Lr23 and Lr16), the PF 869107 reaction could be due to one
 of these.  No information was found to suggest that chromosome 5A
 carries genes for rust resistance.  However, chromosomes 5B and 5D
 have been reported as carrying Lr genes, so a homeoallelic form in 5A
 could be expected.
 
 --------------------
                               ITEMS FROM AUSTRALIA
 
 NEW SOUTH WALES
 
       CSIRO Grain Quality Research Laboratory (formerly Wheat Research
 Unit), North Ryde, (Sydney) NSW, Australia
 
       Progress towards more effective testing of wheat-grain quality
 at the molecular level has been extended  by further defining the
 aspects of protein composition that relate to appropriate dough
 properties (suited to specific products), or to either hard- or soft-
 grained quality type.  We also know more about what aspects of lipid
 composition relate to baking quality and about starch structural
 characteristics needed for noodle-processing quality.  Improved test
 methods arising from the basic research involve antibody-based test
 kits, HPLC, gel electrophoresis, automated interpretation of
 electrophoretic patterns, and the use of the micro Mixograph and of
 the Rapid Visco Analyser.  A major avenue for applying these tests has
 been in breeding programs, with the aim of the early elimination of
 unsuitable lines together with the retention of good-quality lines.
 
      Gluten composition and dough quality.  The established importance
 of the glutenin fraction of dough protein has been ascribed to its
 subunit structure involving combinations of high- and low-molecular
 weight (HMW, LMW) polypeptides.  The difficulties of screening for LMW
 subunit composition have been alleviated with the development of a
 one-step electrophoretic procedure.  A further tool to assist in the
 interpretation of glutenin-subunit composition is the software program
 Allele , which can identify the specific alleles represented in an
 electrophoretic pattern of LMW and HMW subunits allocating them to the
 six relevant genetic loci.  Using such means, we have assigned
 notional contributions to dough strength by the various glutenin sub-
 units (both bread wheat and durum wheat ), permitting their use to
 predict genetic potential for dough properties.
 
      The functional importance of subunit composition appears to lie
 particularly in the ways in which the polypeptides associate,
 particularly in the formation of very large aggregates, the
 quantitation of which (SDS extra cation and SE-HPLC) provides improved
 prediction of dough strength (phenotype, as distinct from genotype). 
 These associations have been studied directly by added purified
 glutenin subunits to a dough in the MicroMixograph (2g flour), using a
 cycle of rupture and re-formation of SS bonds to ensure incorporation
 of the added subunit.  In this way, we are establishing the
 contributions of individual subunits to dough properties, thereby
 checking contributions previously hypothesised by correlation studies.
 
      Starch structure and wheat quality.  In addition to dough
 properties, starch structure plays an important part in the value of
 wheat for processing into noodles.  The Rapid Visco-Analyser has been
 used as an efficient means of characterising starch properties to
 select flours best suited for Japanese-style white salted noodles, in
 collaboration with the Bread Research Institute.  This approach is
 being implemented in breeding programs in Australia and Japan, and is
 being trialled in Western Australia by the Australian Wheat Board for
 the improved segregation for such wheat types at receival.  Study of
 the structure of starch from genotypes well suited to noodle
 manufacture has indicated the type of branching structure that is
 apparently required in the amylopectin fraction, thus providing a more
 basic approach to the selection of wheats suited to noodle
 manufacture.
 
      More efficient screening for quality.  Near infrared spectroscopy
 is being developed to exploit its great potential to analyse for basic
 composition and to evaluate qualitative aspects such as baking quality
 in wheat and malting value for barley.  New developments with whole-
 grain analysis offer great potential to breeders, since the analysis
 is non-destructive. Our studies are also designed to assist the
 breeder in coping with conflicting pressures e.g., to improve disease
 resistance (using alien sources of genes) whilst maintaining grain
 quality (sometimes impaired by the alien sources).  The basic studies
 have assisted in understanding the causes and thus developing
 remedies.  Antibodies are being developed to screen more efficiently
 for specific proteins indicating the introgression of such alien
 genes.  In particular, we have made available to several breeding
 programs, a prototype test kit that identifies 1B/1R progeny from a
 cross involving this type of rye translocation line.  We have also
 provided all Australian breeding programs with an antibody-based test
 kit to predict dough strength, thus allowing the breeder to eliminate
 lines likely to later show excessive dough strength or weakness.  This
 type of testing is well suited to a breeding program, since large
 numbers of small-sized samples may be processed efficiently with
 automatic plate-reading equipment and low labour input.  In addition,
 antibodies have been used in the localisation of specific protein
 fractions within the cells of developing wheat grains and to identify
 the amino-acid sequences likely to be most responsible for differences
 in dough properties. Antibody-based testing has also proved
 particularly suitable for increasing the efficiency of screening for
 the various "grain protectants" used to ensure that the range of food
 grains are free from insect infestation during storage and transport. 
 Kits under development include assays for organophosphates, for
 carbaryl (especially relevant to barley), for methoprene (an insect
 growth regulator), and for synthetic pyrethroids.  Manufacture and
 distribution of the kits is being undertaken in collaboration with the
 Millipore Corporation.  The first set of prototypes kits has been
 trialled with potential Australian users including grain-handling and
 marketing authorities, food processors and maltsters.  These studies
 are now being extended into the analysis of environmental chemicals in
 irrigation water and into new approaches to rapid detection.
 
 --------------------
      The University of Sydney, Plant Breeding Institute
 
      Plant Pathology, Sydney and PBI, Cobbitty, NSW 
 
      D. Backhouse, J. Bell, L.W. Burgess, G.N. Brown, R.A. McIntosh,
 D.R. Marshall, J.D. Oates, R.F. Park, J. Roake, F. Stoddard, D. The, C.R.
 Wellings
 
      A major change at Cobbitty was the establishment of a National
 Cereal Rust Control Program largely supported by the Grains Research
 and Development Corporation.  This program formally recognises our
 activities in rust surveys for all cereal crops and introduces a local
 research base for rust resistance in all winter cereal crops.  Our
 first objective is to increase the research effort on oat rust
 resistance and two graduate students have been appointed in this area.
 
      Pathogenicity Studies:  The 1992 cropping season in Western
 Australia and much of the southeast was wet.  Inoculum carryover and
 early infections resulted in high levels of leaf rust in W.A. and
 South Australia where few cultivars have resistance.  Approximately
 100,000 ha of wheat were sprayed for leaf rust control in W.A.  The
 only pathotype isolated from W.A. was 104-1,2,3,6,(7),11.  The
 predominant pathotypes in the east were 104-2,3,6,(7),11 and 104-
 1,2,3,6,(7),11 which differ in pathogenicity on wheats with Lr20. 
 Further studies showed that these pathotypes differ from the
 previously predominant Australian pathotype, 104-2,3,6,(7), by several
 pathogenic and isozymic characteristics indicating no evolutionary
 closeness despite the similar pathogenic formulae based on the current
 differential set.  Two isolates of pt. 53-1,6,(7),10,11 and one of
 10,1,2,3,4 were identified.
 
      In contrast to oats, stem rust on wheat was at extremely low
 levels throughout the country.  However, later in the season, with
 continuing wet conditions, samples of pt. 343-1,2,3,5,6 came from S.A.
 and W.A.  This may lead to carryover of inoculum into 1993.
 
      Despite early sightings, stripe rust developed to significant
 levels only in S.A. and a small area of southern N.S.W. where a non-
 recommended susceptible cultivar from W.A. was grown.  Pathotypes were
 predominantly 104 E137 A- and 104 E137 A+.  One pathotype was virulent
 on seedlings of Carstens V.  Stripe rust on barley grass was very
 widespread and disease levels very high, strengthening our belief that
 pathogenicity on barley grass has increased since stripe rust was
 introduced in 1979.  A graduate student will research this aspect.
 
      Genetics and Cytogenetics:  1.  A new gene for leaf rust
 resistance was found in the Australian cultivar Harrier.  The origin,
 distribution and significance of this gene are yet to be determined.
 
       2.  The close association of Lr34/Yr18 has been further
 confirmed by genetic studies.  All leaf ust gene combination stocks
 involving Lr34 and generated in Canada by Dr. Kolmer carry Yr18.  The
 near-isogenic line RL6070 with Lr34 carries two genes for adult plant
 stripe rust resistance relative to Thatcher - the first is Yr18 and
 the second can be separated by selecting for leaf rust susceptibility.
 
      3.  A set of monosomics in a highly (adult plant) susceptible
 selection of Avocet will be used to examine the effects of aneuploidy
 per se on stripe rust response, and as a parent for monosomic analyses
 of genes for adult plant stripe rust resistance that have been
 identified in crosses of the Avocet selection and Australian wheat
 cultivars.  We hypothesise that certain sources of durable resistance
 are composed of gene combinations (including Yr18) and our aim is to
 separate the genes, locate and characterise them and to reassemble the
 combinations.
 
      4.  One of two genes in a hexaploid derivative from a durum wheat
 produced by Dr. R.A. Hare is located in chromosome 6A - it is probably
 allelic with Sr13 and a gene in Golden Ball.  The second gene was not
 located.
 
      5.  The Polish triticale, Lasko, possesses two genes for stem
 rust resistance not present in Australian triticales.
 
      Tan spot:  Early generation material screened in the greenhouse
 for tan spot response during the summer was field sown at Cobbitty for
 rust assessments and at Narrabri for agronomic observation and field
 response to tan spot.  However, dry conditions prevented disease
 development at Narrabri.  The testing cycle will be repeated in 1993. 
 Studies on inheritance of tan spot resistance were commenced.
 
 
      N.L. Darvey, S. Venkatanagappa and A. Aranzi
 
      1.  Triticale:  A short selection of Madonna will be released in
 1993 as "Maiden".  Maiden has higher grain yield, but lower forage
 production than the dual-purpose parent.  A tall selection of Madonna
 with high grazing potential is being increased for release in 1994.
 
      2.  Rye:  Ryesun will be registered and re-released in 1993.  It
 was originally released in 1982.  An improved forage rye is likely to
 be released in 1994.
 
      3.  Anther Culture:  Major advances were achieved in 1992-93 with
 the use of hydroponically grown triticale plants.  Several auxins
 which produce high quality regenerants of wheat were identified.  The
 most effective were PAA (phenyl acetic acid) and PCPAA-ME (para chloro
 phenoxy acetic acid-methyl ester). 
 
 
      P.J. Sharp, A.M. Bennett, H-S. Hwang, M. Turner, J. Silk, S.
 Carlson, L. Ferrari, and C. Wiencke
 
      The Australian Triticeae Mapping Intitiative probe collection is
 well developed at Cobbitty.  Over 1100 probes from wheat, barley, and
 oats have been obtained from overseas and within Australia.  They have
 been transformed, checked, and stored, and are being distributed to
 requesting workers.  In addition, information about each RFLP probe is
 being collated in a database.
 
      Two projects are being undertaken in collaboration with  R.
 Appels, E. Lagudah and S. Rahman,  CSIRO Plant Industry, Canberra. 
 The first  involves transferring HMW subunits of glutenin from
 Triticum tauschii  (subunit combinations 5+12, 2+T1+T2, and 5+10) and
 hexaploid landraces (null+12, null+10, and 2.1+10) to cv Meering by
 backcrossing. BC3 isolines were selected and bulked and field trials
 will be grown this winter to provide material for dough and bread
 quality tests.  The second project involves development of further
 tests for genetic variation at the grain softness protein locus on
 chromosome 5D.
 
 --------------------
      Wheat Improvement Program, I.A. Watson Wheat Research Centre,
 Narrabri.
 
      L. O'Brien, F.W. Ellison, D.J. Mares, R.M. Trethowan, S.G. Moore,
 M.J. Barnes, K. Mrva, M.N. Uddin and Z. Zhen.
 
      Seasonal conditions at Narrabri in 1992 were characterised by a
 mild winter with radiation frosts down to -4.5 C,  a cool spring and
 early summer.  Rainfall was below average in late winter and early
 spring and breeding areas were irrigated on two occasions.  Rainfall
 in November and December resulted in sprouting damage.
 
      New cultivars:  Sunstate (SUN148L) - a quick season, prime hard
 quality wheat for the export market with improved stem, leaf and
 stripe rust resistance and better flour milling and dough properties
 compared with Hartog.  Best suited to mid-late May to July plantings. 
 To be released in 1993.
 
      Sunmist (SUN61A) - a midseason maturing, prime hard quality wheat
 for the export market with improved stem and stripe rust resistance
 compared with Miskle.  Best suited for late April to late May
 plantings. Released as a replacement for Miskle.
 
      M3345 - a high yielding, stem, leaf and stripe rust resistant
 feed grade wheat to be jointly released with NSW Agriculture in 1994.
 
      Sunland (SUN155C) - a quick season, high yielding prime hard
 quality wheat for the export market with different genes for stem and
 leaf rust resistance.   Best suited to late May to July plantings,
 this cultivar is to be released in 1995.
 
      Research:  Protein composition in relation to wheat breeding: 
 (D.J. Mares and Z. Zhen).  A new, simple extraction system and a one
 step SDS-PAGE procedure allowing the complete separation of all high
 molecular weight (HMW) and B group low molecular weight (LMW) glutenin
 subunits was developed.  These proteins account for a large part of
 the variation in quality between cultivars. Prior to the development
 of this new method the separation of these proteins required several
 steps or multi-dimensional electrophoresis.  As a consequence the new
 method opens the way for large numbers of breeding lines to be
 routinely and cheaply screened for quality-related grain storage
 proteins at a very early stage in the breeding program.  In addition
 to its application in cultivar development the method facilitates the
 characterisation of 1B/1R wheat/rye substitution and translocation
 lines and the identification of the most common chromosome
 substitution (2D(2R)) in substituted triticales.
 
      Approximately 100 advanced breeding lines from the Sydney 
 University program, together with all wheat cultivars currently
 recommended in Australia were characterised with respect to HMW and B
 group LMW glutenin subunit composition and with respect to another
 electrophoretic group of proteins consisting of C group glutenin
 subunits and gliadins.  The advanced lines were examined for a range
 of quality attributes and placed in groups according to high molecular
 weight subunit composition.  Analysis of the data indicated that the
 presence of HMW subunits 5+10 was associated with a significantly
 longer mixing time than lines with the common alternate subunits 2+12. 
 Both sets of subunits are common in Australian germplasm, although 
 there has been a recent  increase in the frequency of lines with 5+10
 subunits which have been associated with better quality and strength. 
 In some populations the presence of 5+10 was also associated with a
 significantly higher protein content.  These observations were
 confirmed in a study of sister lines from populations segregating for
 the 5+10 and 2+12 alleles.  Compared with cultivars in other wheat
 producing countries, Australian wheats had a higher frequency of
 reputedly good quality alleles at the Glu-B1 locus but this was
 counterbalanced by the high frequency of subunits 2+12 at  Glu-D1,
 particularly in comparison with high quality Canadian and US wheats in
 which subunits 5+10 predominate.
 
      A population was developed from the parents Cook and Suneca,
 which possess different Glu-1D  and Glu-1B alleles and were
 representative of the two main LMW glutenin patterns in Australian
 wheats.  The results confirmed the effects of subunits 5+10 on dough
 mixing time and, in addition, showed that the LMW glutenins from
 Suneca were associated with a significantly shorter dough mixing time
 than those of Cook.  These observations have important implications
 for the development of high protein wheats with shorter mixing time
 suitable for the Australian domestic market.
 
      Studies of heterosis in bread wheat.  (M.N. Nizam Uddin, F.W.
 Ellison, L. O'Brien and B.D.H. Latter):  A comprehensive study was
 undertaken in north western NSW to investigate those aspects upon
 which the decision to breed hybrids of pure lines is based.  Hybrids
 were evaluated along with their parents in replicated experiments sown
 at three different planting times in each of two years and levels of
 mid- and high-parent heterosis up to 31.5% and 26.8%, respectively,
 were observed.
 
      Hybrid versus parental performance and genotype x environment
 analysis indicated the hybrids were marginally more stable than their
 parents.  The performance of hybrids replicated in a range of plot
 types viz.,  spaced plants, hill plot and multi-row plots indicated
 consistent ranking of performance across plot types with a reduced
 level of heterosis in the multi-row plot compared with the other two
 plot types.  The yield of F6 and F7 pure lines developed by the single
 seed descent procedure compared favourably with the hybrids from which
 they were derived.  These results indicated that sufficient levels of
 heterosis are attainable to sustain a hybrid wheat breeding program. 
 However, the detection of pure lines comparable in yield to the hybrid
 would suggest that the decision to breed or not to breed hybrids
 depends more on commercial than scientific considerations.
 
      Application of biochemical chromosome markers to wheat
 improvement.  (D.J. Mares and M. Barnes):  The aim of this program is
 to examine existing biochemical chromosome marker systems such as
 isozymes, enzyme inhibitors, restriction fragment length polymorphisms
 (RFLP's) for linkage to genes which are of considerable agronomic
 importance but which are difficult to screen (e.g. recessive genes
 which control grain dormancy/sprouting tolerance, and late maturity a-
 amylase production) or which are masked by other genes (e.g. an
 effective stem rust gene in an already resistant background).  Systems
 which show potential will be assessed for ease of use and any
 limitations in applications.
 
      Factors controlling the production of a-amylase in wheat during
 the later stages of grain ripening.  (D.J. Mares and K. Mrva):  A
 number of wheats developing unacceptably high levels of a-amylase
 during the later stages of ripening in the absence of rain or pre-
 harvest sprouting were identified.  This phenomenon recently prevented
 the release of some high yielding lines, with otherwise excellent
 quality, from breeding programs in N.S.W., Victoria and Western
 Australia.  At least one W.A. line was released into commercial
 cultivation before this problem was identified.  There are also
 confirmed reports of non-weathered grain samples from South Australia
 in 1987 with very low falling numbers (high amylase).  For some lines
 the phenomenon occurs in all environments, albeit worse in some
 seasons than others, whilst for other cultivars (e.g. the Victorian
 line BD159 and the U.K. variety Huntsman and its derivatives) the
 phenomenon occurs only occasionally.  Such cultivars pose a
 considerable threat to receival authorities (since there is no
 physical evidence of the high amylase levels) and to markets which
 utilise wheat for end products which are sensitive to higher than
 normal levels to alpha-amylase.
 
 --------------------
      Agricultural Research Centre, Tamworth
 
      R.A. Hare
 
      Durum Wheat. The 1992 Australian durum wheat harvest increased to
 80,000 tonnes.  Record rainfall in South Australia resulted in high
 grain yields however, continued rains before and during harvest caused
 significant black point infection and pre-harvest weather damage. 
 Consequently there is a shortage of a good millable durum in Australia
 this year.  Domestic pasta sales (51,000 tonne in 1992) continue to
 grow by 4% per annum, while imported pasta (14,000 tonnes) accounts
 for 22% of the total market.  A small export trade in pasta (4000
 tonnes) is growing steadily, despite strong competition from Europe.
 
      Australian pasta/semolina manufacturers have invested many
 millions of dollars in new modern plant to capture the growing
 domestic and overseas markets.
 
      Durum Cultivar Improvement.  The Tamworth based program will now
 be recognised as the National Durum Wheat Improvement Program
 following a detailed review of Australian grain crop improvement. 
 Significant expansion in the breeding/research activities is planned.
 
      A new improved (quality) cultivar (Code No 880096) will be
 released in 1993 as commercial acceptance is assured following the
 completion of successful industrial processing trials in 1992.  The
 new cultivar is similar to Kamilaroi and Yallaroi in many respects
 (agronomic/disease resistance) but has improved quality over the
 previous cultivars (slightly higher grain protein content   0.5%,
 bright clear yellow semolina/pasta, strong dough strength).
 
                               Tetraploid Research 
 
      Stem Rust.  Our present understanding of the inheritance of stem
 rust resistance in the tetraploid wheats and corresponding pathogen
 virulence is rather limited especially outside North American
 germplasm.  As the majority of Australian durum germplasm is derived
 from non-American sources, an investigation of this topic has been
 commenced.
 
 
      Protein Content.  The pasta industry has called for a high
 priority project to improve grain protein levels by   1%.  Since the
 genetic variability for grain protein in current breeding populations
 is limited, additional diversity needs to be located.  Twelve
 accessions of Triticum dicoccoides selected for large grain size and
 high protein content ( 18%) have been crossed to advanced durum lines
 with the expectation that at least part of the high protein genetic
 potential will be introduced into a commercial durum background.  The
 development of a series of RFLP linkage markers (group 1 chromosomes)
 will facilitate the transfer of these protein genes.  Within one F3
 cross population, protein content in large seeded types has ranged
 from   19% to 11%.  Further experiments are being conducted to confirm
 this variation.
                                         
 --------------------
 QUEENSLAND
 
 
      QWRI Toowoomba, Australia
 
      Brennan, P.S., Banks, P.M., Sheppard, J.A., Mason, L.R.,
 Uebergang, R.W., Keys, P.J., Agius, P.J., Fiske, M.L.,           
 Ross, J.C., Hocroft, P.I., Haak, I.C. and Kammholz, S. 
 
       Dr Phillip Banks joined the QWRI wheat breeding group as a wheat
 breeder after spending seven years with CSIRO in Canberra on the transfer
 of barley yellow dwarf virus resistance from Thinopyron intermedium to
 wheat.  Dr Banks will run the midseason maturity wheat breeding program
 and will set up and conduct of a laboratory for the routine screening of
 breeding lines for molecular markers.
 
           Jamie Ross replaces Graham Smith and will take responsibility for
 early generation yield evaluation and will answer to Mr Sheppard.
 
           Steven Kammholz joined the program to work on the recently funded
 program to identify molecular and electrophoretic markers for the wheat
 quality attributes flour yield, whiteness index, short dough development
 time and long dough extensibility.
 
      Breeding.  Yield evaluation in Queensland was hampered by the
 continuation of the drought which restricted our activities in 1991. 
 While most trials were successfully conducted, there has to be a
 considerable concern about the predictive value of the data because of
 the atypical conditions that prevailed.
 
       There were widespread infections of crown rot.  This disease has
 increased in recent years which has been attributed to increased stubble
 retention.  This highlights the need to develop varieties with high
 levels of resistance to this disease.
 
           One variety, Houtman, was released in 1992.  It has very high
 yield
 in central Queensland but has less than optimal dough extensibility.  It
 is recommended for cultivation in areas where the grower, because of
 lower soil nitrogen, has a low probability of achieving higher protein
 and, therefore, a maximum quality classification.
 
      Four varieties will be considered for release in 1993:
 
 QT4546:  High yielding, short season, strong straw, prime hard
          quality.
 
 QT4639:  Tolerant to the root lesion nematode, moderate crown rot
          resistance, prime hard.
 
 QT4636:  Awnless Hartog with a functional level of yellow spot
          resistance.
 
 QT5648:  Very quick maturing, high yielding, prime hard and a moderate
          level of crown rot resistance.
 
      Re-evaluation of our yield testing procedures have indicated that
 the material coming through the QWRI program is more widely adapted than
 that produced 10 years ago.  This is seen as a strong endorsement of our
 yield evaluation procedures and the classification procedures used to
 devise this program.  Details of this re-evaluation will be presented at
 the 8th International Wheat Genetics Symposium in Beijing.
 
      Other Research activities:  A number of PCR markers unique to 2H
 (the barley chromosome where the à-amylase inhibitor is located) have
 been identified and these are being used to screen regenerants from
 callus cultures of F1's containing a univalent of 2H and 42 wheat
 chromosomes.
 
      Single seed descent lines from three crosses involving the most
 popular commercial variety Hartog and the weathering resistant lines
 Transvaal, AUS1490 and Chile 59, were evaluated for weathering
 resistance.  Molecular marker profiles for these lines are being
 generated.
 
      A large number of wheats from many countries have been evaluated for
 the target quality attributes (flour yield, whiteness index, short dough
 development time and dough extensibility).  Cultivars with high levels
 of these attributes were identified and some have been crossed to Hartog. 
 Work to produce double haploid populations from these crosses will
 commence in the near future using the maize pollen technique determined
 by David Laurie (Cambridge Lab, Norwich).
 
 --------------------
       G.B. Wildermuth and R.B. McNamara
 
      Severe crown rot in Queensland.  Crown rot caused by Fusarium
 graminearum Group 1 was widespread and severe throughout the wheat
 growing area of Queensland in 1992.  High levels of inoculum from
 previously diseased crops and low rainfall during the growth of the crop
 contributed to the high disease levels, high incidence of deadheads and
 loss in yield.  Both wheat and barley crops were severely affected by the
 disease.  In both wheat and barley the disease was so severe in some
 crops that plants were killed before elongation was completed.  High
 levels of disease were found in all wheat and barley cultivars.  However,
 the high levels of disease in many crops of Batavia, a recently released
 cultivar, were of concern.
 
        Bread wheat, durum, triticale and rye cultivars and lines were tested
 for susceptibility to crown rot in a field test.  The bread wheat
 cultivars and lines varied from being highly susceptible to partially
 resistant, whereas all durum cultivars/lines were highly susceptible and
 triticale and rye cultivars/lines were moderately susceptible.  In some
 paddocks where unexpected high levels of disease occurred in some bread
 wheat cultivars, the previous crop had been a durum wheat.  The high
 inoculum levels in these paddocks is probably due to the high
 susceptibility of durum wheats and the build-up of the disease under
 those crops.
 
        Eleven bread wheat lines which are in the final phases of yield
 evaluation were tested for susceptibility to crown rot in a field test. 
 Three lines showed levels of partial resistance to the disease.  Each of
 the lines had Potam and Cook as parents.  It is hoped that one or more
 of these lines may be released as cultivars in the next  1 or 2 years.
 
      Common root rot.  Common root rot occurred in wheat and barley crops
 throughout Queensland.  Its presence was overshadowed by the severe
 effects of crown rot.  Incorporation of resistance to the disease is
 occurring in association with Dr P. Brennan.  Sources of resistance
 include lines from Dr R.D. Tinline's program at Saskatoon.  Three
 backcrosses are made and resistant lines are being selected in the BC1F2,
 BC1F3, BC3F2 and BC3F3 generations.
 
 
 
 --------------------
       R.G. Rees, P.S. Brennan and G.J. Platz
 
       Resistance to Pyrenophora tritici-repentis.  The 1991 drought
 resulted in a relatively low carryover of wheat residues and inoculum of
 P. tritici-repentis.  Continuing dry conditions during 1992 further
 contributed to generally low levels of tan (yellow) spot in Queensland
 wheat crops.
 
      Progress continues to be made with developing adapted wheats
 resistant to P. tritici-repentis.  An advanced Vicam/3*Hartog line,
 QT5360, was included in evaluation trials for a third year in 1992 as
 quality measurements in 1991 trials were not as good as in previous
 years.  A decision on this resistant line will be made in 1993. 
 Resistance sources used in 1992 included BR23, BR37 and PF8721.  In
 addition, adapted lines developed in the program are now being used as
 donor sources of resistance.  Recurrent parents are generally advanced
 elite lines from the Queensland wheat breeding program.
 
      Greg Platz has been examining the effects of intermittent wetting
 and drying on infection with P. tritici-repentis.  Drying for as little
 as 1 hour after germination commences has been found to almost prevent
 infection.  This is being examined further.
 --------------------                                        
                                ITEMS FROM BRAZIL
 
      Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS
 
      C.N.A. de Sousa*, E.P. Gomes, J.C.S. Moreira, J.F. Philipovski, L. de
 J.A. Del Duca, P.L. Scheeren, and S.D. dos A. e Silva
 
       New Brazilian wheat cultivars.  Three new wheat cultivars from lines
 produced by EMBRAPA (CNPT in Passo Fundo or UEPAE-Dourados in Dourados) were
 released for cultivation in 1992.  EMBRAPA cultivars are now coded as
 EMBRAPA.  Previously, EMBRAPA releases are coded as Trigo BR or CNT. 
 Between 1975 and 1991 10 CNT cultivars and 43 Trigo BR cultivars were
 released.
 
 EMBRAPA cultivars released in 1992.
 
                                                                             
 ===========================================================================
 Cultivar               Line               Cross                     State*
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 EMBRAPA 10-Guaj      MS 21169-85        CNT 8*3/SONORA 64              MS
 EMBRAPA 15           PF 85137           CNT 10/BR 5//PF 75172/         RS,SC
                                         SEL TIFTON 72-59
 EMBRAPA 16           PF 86238           HULHA NEGRA/CNT 7//AMIGO/      RS
                                         CNT 7
 =========================================================================== 
 
 *MS = Mato Grosso do Sul; RS = Rio Grande do Sul; SC = Santa Catarina.
 
      All these cultivars are spring type, awned, and mid-tall.  EMBRAPA 15
 and EMBRAPA 16 are tolerant while EMBRAPA 10 is susceptible to soil acidity
 (aluminum toxicity).  EMBRAPA 15 and EMBRAPA 16 are resistant to powdery
 mildew (Erysiphe graminis tritici), to soilborne wheat mosaic virus, and to
 all races of Puccinia graminis tritici found in Brazil.  EMBRAPA 15 is also
 resistant to all races of Puccinia recondita foundin Brazil.  EMBRAPA 10 and
 EMBRAPA 16 have a strong gluten.
 
 --------------------
 J.C.S. Moreira and C.N.A. de Sousa
 
      1992 Wheat Cultivar Yield Trials in Passo Fundo.  About 520 wheat
 genotypes were tested in 20 yield trials in the National Research Center for
 Wheat of EMBRAPA in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  The process for
 releasing a new cultivar in Rio Grande do Sul, the Southern State in Brazil,
 was described in the 1986 Annual Wheat Newsletter 32:38-39.
 
      Climatic conditions during the wheat cycle (June to November) were good
 for the wheat development.  Leaf rust and soilborne wheat mosaic virus
 affected some genotypes.  Yields were high and several lines yielded more
 than 5000 kg/ha.
 
      Trials were carried out in a rotation area (2 years without wheat) and
 the fertilizer application was 12,5 kg/ha N, 63 kg/ha P2O5, 50 kg/ha K2O and
 45 kg/ha N as top-dressing.  No fungicide was applied.  Checks used were BR
 23, BR 35 and RS 8-Westphalen.  BR 23 continues to be the main cultivar in
 Rio Grande do Sul, occupying about 270,000 ha (56%) of the wheat growing
 area in this state in 1992.
 
      Cultivars have outstanding yield in some trials carried out in Passo,
 as shown below:
 ===========================================================================
 Cultivar                   Cross                               Yield(kg/ha)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
                            Cultivar State Trial
 
 EMBRAPA 16                 16HLN/CNT7//AMIGO/CNT7                     4247
 EMBRAPA 15                 CNT 10/BR 5//PF 75172/SEL TIFTON 72-59     3891 
 BR 35 (best check)         IAC 5*2/3/CNT 7*3/LD//IAC 5/HADDEN         3810
 RS 8 (check)               CNT 10/BURGAS 2//JACUI                     3687
 BR 43                      PF 833007/JACUI                            3617
 Trial Mean                                                            3201
 
                           South Brazilian Trial
 
 PF 88566                  AMIGO/JACUI//PF 7673/CANDIOTA               4238
 PF 87103                  SL 5200/PAT 7219//TIFTON                    4052
 PF 87107                  ENC/PF 79768//PF 80284                      3970
 PF 869120                 PF 83743//PF 83182/F 25716                  3922
 PF 88603                  TIFTON SEL/PF 79763/3/N BOZU/3*LD//B 7908   3909
 BR 35 (best check)        IAC 5*2/3/CNT*3/LD//IAC 5/HADDEN            3859
 Trial Mean                                                            3710
 
                           Regional Yield Trial
                               Regional A
 
 PF 891                    CEP 14/PF 79782//CEP 14                     4300
 PF 84316                  PF 7650/NS 18-78//CNT 8/PF 7577             4204
 CEP 8966                  CEP 14/CEP 82113//BR 14                     4153
 PF 89122                  PF 839278/MNO 82//PF 839278/PF 79547        4106
 PF 88600                  ENC/PF 79768//PF 80284                      4094
 RS 8 (check)              CNT 10/BURGAS 2//JACUI                      3864
 Trial Mean                                                            3741
 
                                 Regional B
 
 PF 89230                  COKER 762/2*PF 79547                        4213
 PF 89232                  CI 14119/2*PF 8237                          4182
 PF 89292                  PF 8515/PF 85271//PF 82252/BR 35            4157
 PF 89166                  ENC/PF 79768/PF 80284                       4048
 RS 8 (check)              CNT 10/BURGAS 2//JACUI                      4051
 Trial Mean                                                            3652
 
           Multilocated Preliminar Trials (5 locals with lines in 2nd
                                year of test)
               Lines that outyielded the check - 1st M.P.T.
 
 PF 86242                   HLN/CNT 7//AMIGO/CNT 7                     4423
 PF 889119                  CEP 14 P/F 79782//CEP 14                   4195
 PF 86233                   HLN/CNT 7//AMIGO/CNT 7                     4168
 BR 35 (check)              IAC 5*2/3/CNT 7*3/LD//IAC 5/HADDEN         4057
 
                                  2nd M.P.T.
 
 PF 904                     BR 35/PF 84386//AMIGO/BR 14                4240
 BR 35 (check)              IAC 5*2/3/CNT 7*3/LD//IAC 5/HADDEN         3897
 
                           Preliminary Trials (lst year trial)
                   Wheat Genotypes out of 308 lines yielding more than
                        5000 kg/ha and were superior to the checks
 
 PF 9132                    PF 83743/PF 85362                          5993
 PF 9157                    BR 35/PF 85946/3/PF 772003*2/PF 813//      5915
                            PF 83899
 PF 91116                   PF 91191/PF 839278//BR 8/SULINO            5721
 PF 9194                    PF 853048/PF 843025                        5404
 PF 91141                   PF 839020/PF 83743/3/BR14*3//LD*6/FB6628   5366
 PF 9190                    F 31645/4/ENC/PF79768//PF80284/3/PF85489   5171
 PF 91215                   PF 853048//BR 14*2/CI 17959                5112
 PF 91594                   BR 35*5//BR 14*2/LARGO                     5112
 PF 9189                    F 31645/4/ENC/PF79768//PF80284/3/PF85489   5083
 PF 91198                   PF 82899/PF 813//F 27141                   5010
 
                    17th ERCOS (South Cone Wheat Cultivar Yield Trial)
               Cooperative trial organized in Argentina with wheat cultivars
             from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, and Paraguay.
                                 Best 6 cultivars in the trial.
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
 Cultivar                        Cross                 Origin         kg/ha
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 MY 74 "S"/MON "S"                                     Bolivia         4791
 BR 23 (best check)         CC/ALONDRA SIB/3/IAS
                             54-20/COP//CNT 8          Brazil          4529
 ALD "S"/PVN "S"                                       Bolivia         4381
 BR 20-Guat                 BH 1146*3/ALONDRA SIB      Brazil          4329
 BR 37                      MAZOE/F 13279//PELADO
                            MARAU                      Brazil          4281
 BR 35 (check)              IAC 5*2/3/CNT 7*3/LD//
                            IAC 5/HADDEN               Brazil          4017
 =========================================================================== 
 
  
 
 --------------------
      Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo - CNPT/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS
 
      A. L. Barcellos
 
      Effect of seed treatment with triadimenol on leaf rust in wheat flag
 leaf.  The objective of this research was to quantify the effect of seed
 treatment with triadimenol (160 g/100 kg seeds) on leaf rust severity
 (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici) in wheat flag leaf.  Traditionally this
 fungicide is used on seeds to control powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f.
 sp. tritici).  In research on the genetics of the adult plant resistance to
 leaf rust, under greenhouse conditions, powdery mildew is undesirable. 
 Wheat plants grown from seeds with and without the fungicide were compared
 concerning rust severity, during the spring of 1991 in the National Center
 for Wheat Research at Passo Fundo.  Flag leaves of 8 cultivars wee uniformly
 inoculated with one isolate of Puccinia recondita to compare the fungicide
 effect.  From 43 to 79 days after seeding, while the flag leaf was fully
 extended and no later than anthesis, approximately 14 days after the
 inoculation, the severity was assessed.  Reduction on the rust severity was
 detected for 67% of the flag leaves of the plants which seeds had been
 treated with triadimenol.  This reduction ranged from 3.5 to 100% and was
 observed on early and susceptible plants (cv. IAC 13) as well as on late
 plants with adult plant resistance (cv. Toropi).  It can be concluded that
 triadimenol applied to the seeds reduce the leaf rust on the flag leaf and
 is not an appropriate chemical to control powdery mildew in adult plant
 research.
 
      Ph.D. thesis supplemental investigation, Universidade Federal do Rio
 Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
 
 --------------------
      EMBRAPA/Dourados, MS
 
      A. C. P. Goulart and F. de A. Paiva
 
      Control of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) by
 fungicide spraying, 1991.  The objective of this experiment was to select
 fungicides for the control of wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f.
 sp. tritici.  The experiment was conducted under field conditions, at the
 Experimental Station of EMBRAPA, Dourados, during 1991.  Wheat, cv. BR 18-
 Terena, was sown on July 3, 91 in 11-row plots (2.2 x 7.0 m) arranged in a
 randomized complete block with 11 treatments with four replications. 
 Fertilization consisted of 240 kg/ha of 4-30-10 (N-P-K) applied at planting.
 
 Fungicides were applied with a CO2 pressurized sprayer (rate of flow - 240
 1/ha).  Two sprayings were made, the first of Zadoks' growth stage 54 and
 the second at stage 68.  Plots were harvested on Sept. 27.  Treatments were
 (g.a.i./ha):mancozed (2,000); diniconazole (75); flusilazole (125);
 prochloraz (450); flutriafol (94 and 125); propiconazole (125); tebuconazole
 (187.5); cyproconazole (20 and 30) and untreated control.
 
      Stem rust was better controlled with tebuconazole and propiconazole, 98
 and 96% of effective control respectively, followed by cyproconazole 30
 (92%), flutriafol 125 (88%) and diniconazole (88%).  Prochloraz and mancozeb
 were the least efficient treatments, with less than 70% effective control. 
 All treatments increased yield, with distinction to tebuconazole (increase
 of 106.5%) and propiconazole (103.5%).  All treatments improved test and
 kernel weights.  A highly significant negative correlation (r=-0.65) was
 obtained between infection and yield.
 
      Evaluation of fungicides for control of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.
 blast (Pyricularia grisea), 1991.  The aim of this work was to select
 fungicides for control of wheat blast (Pyricularia grisea).  The experiment
 was carried out under field conditions, during 1991, at Itapora county,
 State of Mato Grosso do Sul, using the Anahuac cultivar.  The plots were
 planted April 17 and harvested August 9, using a randomized complete block
 design of eight treatments and four replications.  The field was fertilized
 at the time of planting with N4+P30-K10, at the rate of 240 kb/ha.  Three
 sprayings of fungicides were applied with CO2 pressurized sprayer (flow rate
 = 240 1/ha).  The first at Zadoks growth stage 54 and the others at 12 day
 intervals.  The evaluation was done by calculating the percentage of blasted
 heads.   The treatments were (g.a.i./ha): mancozeb (2,000); methyl
 thiophanate + mancozeb (350 + 1,600); triphenyl tin acetate + mancozeb (88 +
 1,248); tricyclazole (255); tebuconazole (250); prochloraz (450);
 flusilazole (125) and unsprayed control.
 
      The fungicides tricyclazole (39% effective control), tebuconazole
 (32%), mancozeb (28%) and methyl thiophanate + mancozeb (27%) for the
 control of wheat blast.  These results show low efficiency of the tested
 fungicides for blast control however, fungicide treatments increased yield
 above the unsprayed control, with distinction to tricyclazole (35.5%
 increase) and tebuconazole (29.8%).  Improved and kernel test weights were
 obtained with all fungicide treatments.  A highly significant negative
 correlation coefficient (r=-0.51) was obtained between spikes infected by P.
 grisea and yield.
 
      Evaluation of fungicides for the control of brown spot
 (Helminthosporium sativum) in wheat, 1991.  The aim of this work was to
 evaluate the efficiency of several fungicides in the control of wheat brown
 spot, their effect on yield, kernel weight, test weight and on incidence of
 Helminthosporium sativum in harvested seeds.  The experiment was carried out
 under field conditions, during 1991, at EMBRAPA, Dourados, Mato Grosso do
 Sul State.  The cultivar IAPAR 6-Tapejara was planted in 11-row plots (2.2 x
 7.0 m) April 17, using a randomized complete block design with 11 treatments
 and four replications.  The field was fertilized with 240 kg/ha of 4-30-10
 (N-P-K) applied at planting.  The plots were harvested on August 7, 1991.
 Fungicides were twice applied with CO2 pressurized sprayer and the flow rate
 was adjusted to 240 1/ha.  The first application was at growth stage 54 and
 the second at stage 68 (Zadock's scale).  The treatments were (g.a.i./ha):
 mancozeb (2,000); diniconazole (75); flusilazole (125); prochloraz (450);
 flutriafol (94 and 125); propiconazole (125); tebuconazole (187.5);
 cyproconazole (20 and 30) and untreated control.
 
      Propiconazole and tebuconazole gave best control of brown spot, both
 with control efficiency of 92%   Next best were flutriafol 125 (88% of
 control efficiency), flusilazole (85%) and prochloraz (81%).  The least
 effective fungicides were cyproconazole 20 and 30, with less than 54% of
 control.  The best yield results were obtained with tebuconazole and
 propiconazole, with increases of 35.2 and 38.3%, respectively.  Test kernel
 weights were increased by all chemicals.  The incidence of H. sativum on
 harvested seeds was reduced with fungicide sprayings with the best results
 from tebuconazole, propiconazole and flutriafol.  A negative and relatively
 low (r=-0.46) correlation coefficient was found for brown spot incidence and
 yield.
 
      Associated fungi with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds produced in
 mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, 1991.  Samples of wheat seeds of several
 cultivars, from seven counties (Dourados, Itapora, Rio Brilhante, Amambai,
 Maracaju, Ponta Pora and Aral Moreira) were analyzed in the Plant Pathology
 Lab at EMBRAPA, Dourados, to determine the fungi incidence in wheat seeds
 produced in Mato Grosso do Sul State, during 1991.  A total of 498 samples
 from 23 cultivars were analyzed.  The sanity of wheat seeds was determined
 using the blotter test, without pretreatment.  Samples of 200 seeds were
 placed into germboxes containing three layers of filter paper previously
 sterilized and soaked in 0.02% 2,4-D solution and incubated for 7 days at
 22-24  in cycles of 12 hours darkness and 12 hours light (day and NUV
 lights).  Each seed was examined under a stereoscopic microscope and the
 incidence of each fungus was recorded.
 
      Twenty-four genera of fungi were detected.  The most prevalent,
 detected in 100% of the analyzed samples, was Helminthosporium sativum,
 followed by Aspergillus sp. (92.2%), Penicillium sp. (68.1%), Alternaria
 tenuis (60.1%), Rhizopus stolonifer (51.0%), Phoma sp. (47.9%), Culvularia
 lunata (42.3%), Fusarium spp. (42.1%) and Cladosporium sp. (41.5%). 
 Pyricularia grisea was registered in 15.9% of the samples, at relatively low
 levels.  The storage fungi (Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp.) were
 detected at relatively high levels.  The results showed that H. sativum was
 the most important fungus associated with wheat seeds produced in Mato Mato
 Grosso do Sul State, with an average incidence of 38%.
 
      Efficiency of chemical treatment of wheat seeds on the control of
 Pyricularia grisea and Helminthosporium sativum, 1991.  The objective of
 this research was to evaluate the efficiency of several fungicides applied
 as seed dressing for the control of Pyricularia grisea and Helminthosporium
 sativum.  Lab (blotter) and field tests were performed, using seeds of the
 wheat cultivar Anahuac with 16% and 65.5% of natural contamination with P.
 grisea and H. sativum, respectively.  Seed treatments were applied just
 prior to planting by shaking seeds and chemicals in erlenmeyers. In
 laboratory experiments, 10 replications of 20 seeds/treatment were placed
 into germboxes (20 seeds/germbox) and maintained for 7 days at 22-24 C in
 cycles of 12 hours darkness and 12 hours light (day and NUV lights).  Each
 seed was evaluated and the incidence of both pathogens was recorded.  In the
 field, plots were seeded April 22 using a randomized complete block design
 consisting of 17 treatments and 4 replications.  Plots were composed of six
 rows x 1.5 m with a row spacing of 0.2 m and fertilized with 240 kg/ha of 4-
 30-10 (NPK) at planting.  Percentage field emergency and disease were
 recorded 2 and 3 weeks after planting.  The treatments were (g.a.i./100 kg
 of seeds): carboxin + thiram (94 + 95); iprodione + thiram (50 + 150);
 iprodione + car bendazim (52.5 + 26.2_; triflumizole + methyl thiophanate
 (30 + 90); guazatine + imazalil (60 + 4); thiram (210); prochloraz (50);
 flutriafol (7.5); diniconazole (8); pyroquilon (125); difenoconazole (30);
 triflumizole (45); iminoctadeine (62.5); triadimenol (40); tebuconazole +
 thiram j(4.5 + 150); tebuconazole (5) and control.
 
      All chemical treatments reduced the incidence of both pathogens in lab
 (blotter) test.  P. grisea was eradicated when the seeds were treated with
 iprodione + thiram, iprodione + carbendazin, triflumizole + methyl
 thiophanate, guazatine + imazalil and iminoctadine.  Carboxin + thiram,
 triflumizole and prochloraz were less efficient.  Seed transmission of P.
 grisea was detected in the field in seedlings coming from the following
 treatments: control, prochloraz, flutriafol, tebuconazole, tebuconazole +
 thiram, pyroquilon and thiram, which showed, respectively, 4.5, 1.9, 1.8,
 1.8, 1.8, 1.6 and 1.3% of seedlings with P. oryzae.  The best control of
 Helminthosporium sativum in the seeds was obtained with guazatine +
 imazalil, followed by iminoctadein and triflumizole.  Iprodione + thiram and
 triflumizole + methyl thiophanate gave a good control of this pathogen.  No
 treatment completely eradicated the fungus from the seeds.  In the field,
 difenoconazole, guazatine + imazalil, iminoctadine, triflumizole, iprodione
 + thiram, flutriafol, triadimenol and triflumizole + methyl thiophanate were
 the best in controlling the transmission of H. sativum.  Significant
 differences in emergence and yield due to fungicide treatments were observed
 in the test.
 
      Losses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by Pyricularia grisea. 
 Yield losses due to Pyricularia grisea infection regardless of the effects
 of other diseases, under natural conditions and without fungicide sprayings,
 were determined during the 1988, 1989 and 1990 growing seasons for the cv.
 Anahuac. Commercial fields and experimental plots at Rio Brilhante, Dourados
 and Itapora counties were used.  The losses were determined using the
 following formulas:
             GWHS
      PY =    NHS x NTS   PY   =    Potential yield
                          GWHS =    Grain weight of healthy spikes/m2
                          NHS  =    Number of healthy spikes/m2
                          NTS  =    Total number of spikes/m2
 
      AY =  GWHS + GWIS   AY   =    Actual yield
                          GWHS =    Grain weight of healthy spikes/m2
                          GWIS =    Grain weight of infected spikes/m2
      L = PY - AY         L    =    Losses
 
      In 1988 and 1989, at Rio Brilhante, yield losses were 10.5% of the
 estimated yield.  An average of 48% white spikes was observed.  In 1990, at
 /Dourados, losses were greater than those recorded in 1988 and 1989,
 reaching 40% of the estimated yield, with the 93% average incidence of white
 spikes.  In the same year at Itapora losses were 32% with 86% white heads. 
 In the three years, the spike weight loss caused by early infection was
 greater (48%) than with late (24%), regardless of locality.  It was observed
 that grains below the infection point in the rachis were larger than the
 normal ones, thus compensating to some extent for presence of empty
 spikelets.  Because white spikes were more visible, disease incidence may be
 over estimated.
 
 Table 1.  Percentage of infected spikes and losses caused by
 Pyricularia grisea in wheat, cv. Anahuac, at Rio Brilhante, Dourados and
 Itapora counties, MS, in 1988, 1989 and 1990.
 ==========================================================================
                                    %                          Loss
      County              Year    infected spikes       Kg/ha     %
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Rio Brilhante1      1988      51                  274       11
      Bio Brilhante2      1989      45                  270       10
      Dourados3           1990      93                  892       40
      Itapora4            1990      86                1,034       32
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
           1Average of 2 replications            2Average of 3 replications
           3Average of 6 replications            4Average of 5 replications
 
 
 Table 2.  Grain weight/spike and losses in relation to healthy spikes, in
 wheat, cv. Anahuac, at Rio Brilhante, Dourados and Itapora counties, MS, in
 1988, 1989 and 1990
 ============================================================================
                         Grain weight/spike (g)                    % loss    
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                                        Early      Late      Early    Late
 Country           Year      Healthy    infection   infect.  infect.  infect.
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Rio Brilhante1    1988      0.77        0.56        0.66      27       14
 Rio Brilhante2    1989      0.96        0.50        0.78      47       18
 Dourados3         1990      0.77        0.31        0.31      59       27  
 Itapora4          1990      1.30        0.53        0.55      60       38
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 1Average of 2 replications                      2Average of 3 replications
 3Average of 6 replications                      4Average of 5 replications
 
                                         
      Response of wheat cultivars and breeding lines to blast (Pyricularia
 grisea) under field conditions, 1991.  The objective was to evaluate the
 response of several wheat cultivars and breeding lines to blast (Pyricularia
 grisea) under field conditions.  This experiment was carried out at Itapora
 County, Mato Grosso do Sul State.  The experiment was seeded April 23, in
 five-row plots (1.0 x 5.0 m) and the fertilized with 240 kg/ha of 4-30-10
 (NPK) at planting.  In laboratory evaluations only spikes that showed
 characteristic blast symptoms (infection black point in the rachis) were
 considered infected.  Cultivars and breeding lines were classified using the
 following scale based on percentage of spikes with blast symptoms:
 
 R (resistant) = 1 to 5%                 MR (moderately resistant) = 6 to 25%
 MS (moderately susceptible) = 26 to 50%     S  (susceptible) = 51 to 75%
 HS (highly susceptible) = more than 75% 
 
      The results obtained showed different behavior among cultivars and
 breeding lines tested (Tables 1 and 2).
 
      Only cv. BH 1146 was considered resistant (R), with 4.5% blanched
 spikes.  Cultivars BR 18-Terena, BR 21-Nhandeva and BR 40-Tuiuca were
 moderately resistant, with 8.2; 17.2 and 24.6T, respectively, of blasted
 spikes.  Cultivars BR 29-Juvae, BR 20-Guato, BR 30-Cadiueu and IAC 18-
 Xavantes were moderately susceptible (MS) and cultivars that showed
 susceptible (S) behavior were BR 36-Ianomami, BR 41-Ofaie, IAC 5-Maringa, BR
 17-Caiua and BR 11-Guarani.  Highly susceptible (HS), cultivars exceeding
 76% blanched spikes were: IPAR 29-Cacatu, IAPAR 28-Igapo, IAPAR 6-Tapejara,
 IAPAR 17-Caete, Anahuac, IAC 13-Lorena, BR 31-Miriti and INIA 66.  
 
      The highest yields were produced by BR 40-Tuiuca, BR 18-Terena,
 followed by BR 36-Ianomami, IAPAR 29-Cacatu and BR-17 Caiua.  Although BH
 1146 was the most resistant (R), its yield was lower than cultivars rated
 MR, MS and S.  Lodging observed in BH 1146 plots may explain this
 difference.   The cultivars classified as HS showed lowest yields with P.
 grisea and yield.  A significant negative correlation (r = -0.53) was found
 for P. Grisea infection and yield.
 
      No breeding line was resistant (R).  Only breeding lines UEE-PJN, MS
 1132-87 and cultivars OCEPAR 16, BR 42, SERI 82, OCEPAR 14 and GEN were
 considered MR.  The higher yields were obtained with UEE-PJN and SERI 82,
 with 548.00 and 522.56 g/plot.  OCEPAR 16, BR 42, OCEPAR14, IAPAR 47, BR 37
 and Jupateco 73 were used as controls.
 
 Table 1.  Percentage of blanched spikes (Pyricularia grisea) resistance
 rating and yield of wheat.  EMBRAPA, Dourados, MS.  1991
 ========================================================================    
 
                    Blanched        Resistance        Yield(c)
 Cultivar          spikes(a) (%)      rating(b)        (kg/ha)
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 BH 1146             4.5g                R              2.179 bcd
 BR 18-Terena        8.2 fg              MR             2.425 b
 BR 21-Nhandeva      17.2 ef             MR             2.71 bcd
 BR 40-Tuiuca        24.6 e              MR             2.856 a
 BR 29-Havae         42.2                MS             2.090 cdef
 BR 20-Guato         46.8 cd             MS             1.799 fgh
 BR 30-Cadiueu       47.0                MS             2.180 bcd
 IAC 18-Xavantes     49.0 cd             MS             1.751 gh
 BR 36-Ianomami      53.1 cd             S              2.300 bc
 BR 41-Ofaie         60.4 bcd            S              2.127 bcde
 IAC 5-Maringa       60.6 bcd            S              1.853 defgh
 BR 17-Caiua         63.5 bc             S              2.188 bc
 BR 11-Guarani       64.4 bc             S              2.120 bcdef
 IAPAR 29-Cacatu     76.8 b              HS             2.220 bc
 IAPAR 28-Igapo      85.2                HS             1.845 efgh
 IAPAR 6-Tapejara    90.0                HS             1.578 h
 IAPAR 17-CAETE      90.9 a              HS             1.758 gh
 Anahuac             90.9 a              HS             1.831 efgh
 IAC 13-Lorena       92.3 a              HS             1.567 h
 BR 31-Miriti        93.2 a              HS             2.004 cdefg
 INIA 66             96.1 a              HS             1.593 h
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------     
 
 MEAN                59.85               -              2.020.45
 C.V.(%)             13.72               -              9.91
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 (a) Transformation used: arc sine x/100
 (b) R = resistant; MR = moderately resistant; MS = moderately susceptible; 
      S = susceptible; HS = highly susceptible.
 (c) Means followed by the same letter are not signficantly different
      (Duncan, 5%).
 
 Table 2.  Percentage of blanched spikes (Pyricularia grisea), resistance
 rating and yield of wheat.  EMBRAPA, Dourados, MS. 1991.
 ========================================================================    
 UEE-PJN                  10.7 j    MR   548.00
 MS 1132-87               11.0 j    MR   417.89
 OCEPAR 16 (cv)           13.7 j    MR   433.94
 BR 42-Nambiquara (cv)    14.0 j    MR   371.61
 SERI 82                  18.6 i    MR   522.56
 OCEPAR 14 (cv)           21.3 hi   MR   317.44
 GEN                      23.0 gh   MR   467.12
 BT 501                   27.0 g    MS   313.34
 MS 1012-87               42.7 f    MS   401.01
 PF 86525                 49.3 e    MS   308.43
 MS 3187                  53.3 e    S    363.66
 IAPAR 47 (cv)            67.7      S    332.31
 MS 5587                  73.7      S    351.69
 MS 2-87                  76.0      HS   308.90
 BR 37 (cv)               80.0 b    HS   223.12
 Jupateco 73 (cv)         95.0      HS   288.47
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 MEAN                     42.31     -    373.72
 C.V. (%)                 5.42      -    -
 ========================================================================
 (a)  Transformation used: arc sen x/100.
 (b)  R = resistant; MR = moderately resistant; MS = moderately susceptible;
      S = susceptible; HS = highly susceptible.
 (c)  Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different
      (Duncan, 5%).
 
 --------------------
      L.J.A. Del Duca*
 
      Small Grain Yield Trials in Anticipated (Early) Sowing  In order to
 identify wheat genotypes adapted to early sowing, 4 trials comprising 93
 wheat cultivars and lines and one cultivar each of triticale, rye, and
 barley were tested at the National Research Center for Wheat of EMBRAPA, in
 Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, during 1992.   Knowledge of early maturing
 wheats could provide a valuable alternative for the Brazilian southern
 region (states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and southern - Center
 of Paran ) to reduce soil losses caused by erosion as well as to minimize
 nutrient losses as a result of better soil covering after soybean harvest
 (March-April) and before planting winter crops (from June onwards in most
 areas).  Furthermore, theoretically it could increase grain yield potential
 due to better crop development (increased root development and best
 agronomic type).  Additionally, such technology could reduce grain yield
 losses through greater stability in crop production, due to the
 diversification of cultivars and sowing periods.
 
      Outstanding cultivars and lines in the four different trials (TP 1 to
 4) yielding higher than the best check (RS 8) are detailed in Table 1. 
 Additional data regarding rye, barley and triticale varieties and BR 23
 (another wheat check) are also listed.
                                                                             
 
                                                                             
 
 =========================================================================== 
 
        Line/                             Yield    % RS 8   Height
 Trial   Cultivar     Cross               (kg/ha)   (check)   (cm) Flowering
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 TP-1    COKER 80.33          -             4256       109     95    Sep, 14
 TP-1    FL 301               -             4204       107    110    Sep, 11 
 TP-1    FL 303               -             4056       104     90    Sep, 4th
 TP-1    EMB 16       HULHA NEGRA/CNT 7//   3992       102    110    Sep, 4th
                      AMIGO/CNT 7
 TP-1    IPF 55204    FL 301/COKER 762      3981       102     80    Sep, 14
 TP-2    PF 87128     TIFTON SEL/PF 79763/  4411       126    105    Sep, 4th
                      3/N BOZU/3*LD//B 7908
 TP-2    PF 86247     HULHA NEGRA/CNT 7//   4318       124    115    Sep, 9th
                      AMIGO/CNT 7
 TP-2    PF 87451     COKER 762/BR 14       4030       115     80    Sep, 14
 TP-2    PF 86245     HULHA NEGRA/CNT 7//   3989       109    110    Sep, 8th
                      AMIGO/CNT 7
 TP-2    PF 87158     TIFTON SEL/PF 7668//  3744       107    115    Sep, 14
                      JACUI/PF 79583
 TP-2    PF 87338     COKER 762/CEP 14      3726       106     90    Sep, 4th
 TP-2    PF 8945      PF 839197/F 22449     3681       105    100    Aug, 28
 TP-2    PF 87163     CNT 9/TIFTON SEL//PF  3607       103    100    Sep, 4th
                      7658/IAS 20
 TP-3    PF 89131     PF 7815/LAP 689//PF   4663       112    115    Sep, 14
                      7815/PF 80278/3/PF
                      813019
 TP-3    PF 87452     COKER 762/BR 14       4556       109     90    Sep, 9th
 TP-3    PF 88708     COKER 762/BR 14       4544       109     80    Sep, 4th
 TP-3    PF 89111     CEP 14//ALD SIB/3*  
                      JACUI/3/UM 75 R
                      27-1//JACUI
 TP-3    PF 88512     LAP 689/2*CNT 10//PF  4278       103     90    Sep, 4th
                      79777
 ============================================================================
 
          Line/                            Yield    % RS 8   Height
 Trial   Cultivar      Cross              (kg/ha)   (check)   (cm) Flowering
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 TP-4    TCL BR 4      (TRITICALE)          4904      125       80   Aug,28
 TP-4    PF 89224      IAC 5*6/AGENT//CEP   4181      106      110   Sep,14
                       7780/3/PF 839278
 TP-4    PF 89191      PF 79547/MNO 82      4063      103      105   Sep, 9th
 TP-1    CENTEIO BR 1  (RYE)                2674       68      140   Sep, 4th
 TP-1    MN 599        (BARLEY)             2315       59       85   Sep, 8th
 TP-1    BR 23         CC/ALD SIB/3/IAS 54- 3630       93       95   Sep, 4th
                       20/COP//CNT 8
 ============================================================================
 
                                                                          
 
 --------------------
      L.J.A. Del Duca*, J.F. Philipovsky*, E.M. Guarienti*, C.N.A. de Sousa,
 P.L. Scheeren
 
      Breeding Activities Aiming at Alternative Wheat Ecoideotype for
 Southern Brazil - Considerations regarding potential use of an alternative
 wheat ecoideotype were described previously in the 1992 Annual Wheat
 Newsletter, 38:72.  This ideotype particularly adapted to early sowing, with
 a long vegetative phase and a short reproductive phase could: a) reduce soil
 erosion and nutrient leaching; b) increase grain yield potential due to
 better crop establishment, and enhancement of nitrogen absorption, resulting
 from extending the vegetative phase; c) escape from  frost damage at
 flowering; d) fit the wheat-soybean crop system; e) provide greater crop
 stability due to the diversification of cultivars and periods of sowing.
      
      To reach the goals of disease resistance and good breadmaking quality,
 crosses were made in 1992.  For this purpose, 282 populations (F1 to F6
 generations) were planted at a low seed rate and selected for resistance to
 prevalent diseases, agronomic type and the conceived ecoideotype. In order
 to simplify the selection procedure for the conceived cycle, 92 populations
 (F2 to F7 generations) were seeded under a normal seed rate with clipping of
 the plants that flowered up to September 15.  We admit that frost risks
 after September 15-20 are greatly reduced under Passo Fundo conditions.  As
 a higher breadmaking quality standard wheat is required by the industry,
 selections based on the sedimentation test were performed.
 
      Plots derived form 429 single plants selected in 1991 were seeded under
 low seed rate and selected for the above-mentioned characteristics.  Certain
 crosses involving germplasm from the southeast areas of the USA (lines from
 University of Georgia, Florida 301, Coker 762, Coker 80.12 and Coker 80.33),
 EMBRAPA lines and cultivars (PF 79547, PF 84410, PF 8569, PF 869107, PF
 869120, PF 87107, PF 87451, PF 89261, PF 89263, CNT 8, EMBRAPA 16, BR 14, BR
 23, BR 27, BR 35) and others like Hulha Negra, CEP 14, Century, Oasis,
 Sullivan, Vezhen, and Klein Chamaco were outstanding.
 
 --------------------
      Pedro Luiz Scheeren, Leo de J.A. Del Duca, Cantidio N.A. de Sousa,
 Sergio D. dos A. e Silva and Edar Peixoto Gomes
 
      Frost Tolerance in Wheats - The objective of the present project,
 initiated in 1980 at the National Research Center for Wheat, Passo Fundo,
 RS, was to assess damage caused by frost.  Initially, differences in frost
 tolerance were observed in some cultivars, evidencing the possibility of
 selecting for that trait.  Hundreds of lines and cultivars were then
 evaluated.
 
      Tests were carried out in growth chambers and in the field, and notes
 on plant reaction to leaf damage, spike damage spike fertility, stem damage
 (strangling), and relative yield reduction were taken.
 
      In tests previously conducted in growth chambers, the following
 cultivars showed higher tolerance: Kite (Australian); Erithrosperum 74,
 Buriatskaja 79, Karagandinskaja 2, Karasnodarskaja 57, and Taieznaja
 (Russian); CNT 1, CNT 8, CEP 19, and CEP 21 (Brazilian).  In addition to
 these cultivars, lines PF 87451, PF 87452, and PF 84455, selected in Passo
 Fundo in anticipated sowings for tolerance to frost, also deserve to be
 mentioned.  On the other hand, cultivars IAC 5-Maring  and BR 35 showed
 higher susceptibility to frost.
 
      In field tests using anticipated sowing, in an attempt to match wheat
 flowering date with the occurrence of heavier frosts, it was observed that
 among assessed genotypes none showed tolerance to frost, resulting in
 shriveled, or simply undeveloped, grains.
 
      It was possible to distinguish a number of genotypes for leaf and stem
 damage.  Lines PF 87451 and PF 87452, as well as cultivar Coker 8033, showed
 more tolerance to leaf damage, whereas BR 35 and IAC 5-Maring  showed high
 percentages of leaf and stem damage, thus confirming test results under
 controlled conditions.  Additionally, some genotypes have higher tillering
 capacity also showed a better grain yield recovery capacity.
 
      Therefore, considering the many years of research activity, it seems
 extremely difficult to succeed in obtaining either tolerance or resistance
 to frost, when frost occurs at flowering or the beginning of grain
 formation.
 
 --------------------
      O. S. Rosa*, O. s. Rosa Filho and A. C. Rosa
 
      OR Melhoramento de Sementes Ltda (OR Seed Breeding Co), Passo Fundo, RS
 
      We began the first crosses of our Wheat Breeding Program in 1987
 winter.  After 6 years of crosses, selections and introductions were
 possible last year to make our first yield evaluation in the wheat region of
 Rio Grande do Sul and Southern Parana States.
 
      Looking for lines with good lodging resistance, high yield potential,
 tolerance to diseases and improved industrial quality it was possible to
 select lines which yield 6,500 kg/ha.  At Passo Fundo, the most important
 diseases of 1992 were soilborne mosaic virus, glume blotch, mildew and scab.
 
      We are also developing a wheat program for warmer areas, located north
 of parallel 24.  Our greater yields were around 4,000 kg/ha, at Londrina,
 Parana.  In this region, the main diseases in 1992 were mildew, bacteria,
 Helminthosporium sativum, a new race of leaf rust effective for Anahuac 75
 (the main cultivar) and Piricularia oryzae.  Continuous rains at harvest
 resulted in spouting damage.
 
 --------------------
      O. S. Rosa
 
      Theory about the origin of the durable leaf rust resistance of the
 Brazilian wheat varieties.  In many countries the adult plant resistance of
 the Brazilian variety Frontana (Lr344+Lr13+LrT3) is being used with very
 good results.  In Brazil the cross of Frontana (Fronteira/Mentana) was made
 in 1930 and the variety was released in 1942.  At the present time, all
 Brazilian cultivars with durable leaf rust resistance probably have this
 type of resistance.
 
      How this kind of resistance was selected?  The mentioned resistance is
 linked with resistance to stripe rust and the first selections were made for
 stripe rust.  Our former breeders looking for plants with resistance to
 yellow rust selected together with leaf rust adult plant resistance.  Our
 theory is based on the following points:
 
      1.  During the beginning of this century, wheat production in South of
 Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina was relatively good.
      2.  The first improved varieties used in South of Brazil named Artigas
 and Larranaga came from Uruguay and Argentina.  After good results, by the
 year of 1927, a new problem - the yellow rust - destroyed all the fields of
 these varieties and the wheat production in the South Cone of South America.
      3.  During this period it was possible to identify lines with good
 resistance to stripe rust.  The lines were called `Alfredo  Chaves 1-20',
 selected at the Veranopolis Experimental Station from land races used by
 farmers in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.
      4.  Using this kind of resistance made it possible to release yellow
 rust resistance varieties in Argentina (Klein Acero, Klein 32), in uruguay
 (Renascimiento, Porvenir and Centenario) and in Brazil (Nordeste, Farrapo,
 Fronteira).
      5.  Since then, stripe rust is not a problem in this big region.  It is
 practically impossible to select for this disease because it is, nowadays,
 only a curiosity on a few introduced varieties in cold years.
      6.  We have ecological conditions for occurrence of stripe rust in our
 region.  One year after the release of the variety Tifton (introduced from
 USA-1970/80) the farmers had to apply fungicides to control stripe rust on
 the fields of this variety.  Brazilian varieties, at the same fields, had no
 symptoms of the disease.
      7.  If we think about what happened 50 years earlier, it is possible to
 conclude that it was easier to select drastic differences caused by Puccinia
 striformis than quantitative differences at adult plant stage, due to
 Puccinia recondita infection.
      8.  The information from Australia (Wheat Newsletter 38, p. 56) about
 the `close genetic association of Lr34 and Yr18' gave us the first
 scientific confirmation of our theory.  Similarly, other Yr genes are
 probably linked to other Lr genes, as Lr13, LrT3 etc.  These genes in
 combination are responsible for the durable and effective leaf rust control.
 
      Fifty years of effective resistance, in this region, conditioned by Yr
 genes is a very good indication for the breeders and phytopathologists from
 other regions where yellow rust remains as a very important disease. 
 Possibly in areas with colder temperatures, this kind of resistance may be
 less effective than in our ecological conditions, where it's important to
 select for yellow rust as it's a mere curiosity today.
 
                                   Publications
 
 M. de Cunto, E. R. Cramer and D. V. Salgado.  1956.  Estudos sobre o Trigo. 
 Servico de Alimentacao da Previdencia Social.  p. 105-149.
 
 --------------------
      O. S. Rosa, C. E. de O. Camargo, S. Rajaram and A. C. A. Zanatta
 
      Productivity of aluminum tolerant wheat.  Aluminum tolerance linked to
 limited wheat productivity has been affirmed by many breeders.  Such
 statement was based on results of some breeding programs relating progress
 on Al tolerance with limitation on yield potential.  In order to provide
 further enlightenment on this question during the period that the first
 author was working in EMBRAPA, Al tolerance was incorporated into cultivars
 with known yield potential.  Higher level of tolerance to Al in the soil was
 incorporated, through back crossing method, into Jupateco 73 and Trigo BR-12
 Aruana, wheat cultivars bred in Mexico, at CIMMYT.  Seven and six lines
 derived respectively from BR-12 and Jupateco 73 as recurrent parents were
 evaluated for Al tolerance, in nutrient solution (IAC-Campinas/SP) as well
 as under field and screen house conditions (EMBRAPA - Passo Fundo/RS).  The
 productivity of these lines was evaluated in irrigated trials, with
 fungicide treatment, in soil without Al toxicity (Tatui, SP/Brazil and
 Ciudad Obregon, Son./Mexico).  In general, the lines yielded at least as
 much as the respective recurrent parent cultivars.  At Ciudad Obregon, all
 lines yielded more than 6 t/ha, yielding equally or exceeding the recurrent
 cultivars.  The most productive lines reached 7.6 t/ha.  The results
 indicated that Al tolerance is not linked with low grain yield in wheat
 germplasm.  An article about this research was sent for publication in
 Pesquisaq Agropecuaria Brasileira, August 1992.
 
 --------------------
                               ITEMS FROM BULGARIA
 
      K. Malkov, Institute of Introduction and Plant Genetic Resources, 4122
 Sadova-Plovdiv
 
      V. Vassilev 
  
      Estimation of quantitative  wheat  resistance  to  facultative
 pathogenic microorganisms in the ear, using infectivity titration. 
 Pseudomonas  syringae  pv.atrofaciens  (PSA) and Fusarium culmorum (FC)
 cause bacterial glume rot and fusarial head blight  of  wheat ear, 
 respectively.  In some years, they develop epiphitotically, reduce 
 significantly  the  yield,   and  deteriorate  the grain  production quality
 in Bulgaria. 
  
      The  PSA and FC inoculation was made by the methods of Vassilev et al.
 (1990). Plants with PSA lesions out of the spot of inoculation were
 considered as susceptible, and those with local necrosis only on the site of
 injection or without any symptoms -  as  resistant.  The  median  effective 
 dose  (MED) at which 50% of the inoculated plants had a susceptible
 response, was calculated by the method of moving averages.  The median
 effective dose at which 50% of the spikelets were blighted by FC,  was
 calculated by  the  regression analysis.  The  quantitative evaluation of
 wheat resistance to the corresponding facultative pathogens was made  by 
 comparing  their MED. 
  
      The  methods applied in wheat-PSA  and wheat-FC systems allowed us to
 estimate the resistance of the lines and  cultivars  precisely. Their 
 rating  coincides with the responses to the PSA and FC at a slight, moderate
 and severe natural attack by each of the pathogen in the field. These
 methods allow the check of a sufficient number of accessions in all links of
 the breeding process. 
  
      Sadovo 1,  Sadovo super,  Momchil,  Pobeda and  Katya  are  widely
 extended  in  wheat  production in Bulgaria (about 40% of the sown area) and
 possess resistance to  PSA.  Some  of  them  (Sadovo  1, Sadovo super and
 Pobeda) were partially resistant to FC, but their resistance were quite
 different than the top  resistant  cultivars (Sumai 3, Shanghai 3, Nanging
 7840 and Nobeoka Bozu). Nobeoka Bozu and Shanghai 3 had complex resistance
 to both pathogens. 
  
                                   PUBLICATIONS
  
 Boyadjiev P.  & Vassilev V.  1991.  Influence of  syringomycin  on
 differentiation of androgenic cultures in rice. International rice research
 newsletter 16(1): 5. 
  
 Boyadjiev P.,  Vassilev  V.,  Kabadjova  D.  &  Ivanova  E.  1991. 
 Influence of syringomycin on the differentiation and  regeneration of wheat
 callus culture.  In Proceedings of the 4th  International working group on
 Pseudomonas syringae pathovars.  Florence, Italy, 10-13 June 1991, 131-135. 
  
 Vassilev V., von Kietzell J., Toben H.,  Mavridis A.  & Rudolph K. 1991. 
 Studies  on  wheat-Pseudomonas  syringae  interactions.  In Proceedings of
 the 4th International working group on  Pseudomonas syringae pathovars.
 Florence, Italy, 10-13 June 1991, 109-116. 
  
 Vassilev  V.  &  Rudolph  K.  1991  Pseudomonas  pathogenicity  of cereals. 
 In 3rd International Symposium on  Pseudomonads  Biology and Biotechnology. 
 Miramare-Grignano,  Trieste, Italy, 16-20 June 1991, 127. 
 
 --------------------
      S. Stoyanova
 
      Variation of Gliadins Induced by Seed Aging and Regeneration of Wheat
 Seeds - Genetic changes may occur in stored seeds, during their
 regeneration, treatment and evaluation.  Genetic drift happens in the
 cultivars, within which differences may not be significant individually and
 may depend on environmental factors.
 
      Shifts of gliadin electroforetic spectra (GES) have been used in
 analyses of wheat cultivars subjected to aging and regeneration for four
 successive years.  Gliadine spectrum biotypes (GSB) and their variation were
 determined by analyzing individual seeds using acid (pH = 3.1) PAG-
 electrophoresis.  Genetic shifts of GES were estimated as a result of aging
 treatment, differences between GSB in the genotype and the effect of
 multiplication.  The common effect of seed aging and regeneration on the
 genetic integrity of seed accessions was described as a function of seed
 productivity and seed survival per GSB, the biotype fractional composition,
 the number of reproductions and seed sample size.  Examination of 30
 Bulgarian wheat cultivars and local populations showed that 12 of them
 consist of more than 2 GSB.
 
      Except for genetic shifts induced by seed aging, a dominant mutation
 presented by new band configuration of GES of wheat cv. Sadovo 1 was
 determined.  The frequency of segregation in the next four generations
 confirmed suggestion for homozygous dominant mutation (Table 1).
 
 
 Table 1.  The segregation ratio for a dominant mutation in Sadovo 1.
 ======================================================================      
 
             No. of      No. of        No. of     Assumed      x2-test
            examined     normal        mutant    segregation  for ratio
 Progenies    lines     genotypes     genotypes     ratio     indicated
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------      
 
    A1          25         24             1           -           -
    A2           6          -             6           -           -
    A3          20          5            15          3:1   
    A4          85         24            61          3:1         0.47*
 ====================================================================== 
 *  degree of freedom, DF=1, probability P=0.05.
 
 
 List of recent publications
 
 Stoyanova, S.D.  1991.  Genetic shifts and variation of gliadins induced by
 seed aging.  Seed Science and Technology 19(2).
 
 Stoyanova, S.D.  1992.  Effect of seed aging and regeneration on the genetic
 composition of wheat.  Seed Science and Technology, 20(13).
 
 --------------------
      K. Kolev, A. Dimov, V. Vassilev
 
      The soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) collection consists of 6,312
 accessions.  Mostly they originate from the former Soviet Union, Europe,
 Canada, Mexico, etc.  The preserved samples are evaluated by their
 morphological properties, biological features and economic virtues.
 
      Their resistance to Puccinia graminis tritici, P. recondita tritici,
 Erysiphe graminis, Fusarium culmorum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv.
 atrofaciens is evaluated in the field with natural and artificial
 inoculation, respectively.  Some of the phytopathological tests are carried
 out in terms of glasshouse or by the method of detached leaves.
 
      Certain genotypes possessed resistance to one or two of the
 investigated plant pathogens.  Only a few accessions have a complex
 resistance.
 
 --------------------
                                ITEMS FROM CANADA 
 
                   PRAIRIE WHEAT VARIETY SURVEY AND PRODUCTION
 
 
      The 1992 Prairie Wheat Variety Survey was conducted jointly by Alberta
 Wheat Pool, Manitoba Pool Elevators and Saskatchewan Wheat Pool.  Percentage
 of seeded area is indicated, with the 1991 figures in brackets.
 
      Common - Katepwa 37.1(37.3), Laura 15.5(15.6), Columbus 15.3(14.5),
 Neepawa 9.1(11.4), Roblin 7.7(5.7), Conway 4.2(4.6), Biggar 2.6(3.3),
 Genesis 1.6(1.6), Leader 1.2(1.0), Park 1.1(1.5), Lancer 1.1(1.2), Makwa
 1.0, Glenlea 0.7(0.7), Pasqua 0.3, Oslo 0.2(0.2), unlicensed 0.7(0.5) and
 others 0.6(0.9) of 12.4(12.3) million hectares.
 
      Durum - Kyle 56.5(52.2), Wakooma 10.7(11.3), Sceptre 9.8(11.3), Medora
 9.4(9.1) Wascana 8.5(9.4), Plenty 2.4, Arcola 0.6(2.1) and others 2.0(4.6)
 of 1.51(2.05) million hectares.
 
      Winter - Norstar 94.5(95.9), Norwin 4.0(2.9), others 1.5(1.2) of
 0.05(0.07) million hectares.
 
      Statistics Canada's November estimate of 1992 wheat production on the
 prairies:  
 
 
 ========================================================================
                          Hectares Seeded     Metric Tonnes Produced
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------    
 
 Manitoba       - common       2,104,300             5,655,300
                - durum           64,700               144,200
                - winter           4,000                 8,200
 
 Saskatchewan   - common       7,324,800            13,607,700
                - durum        1,214,100             2,558,300
                - winter          16,200                26,100
 
 Alberta        - common       2,994,700             5,832,300
                - durum          232,700               435,400
                - winter          28,328                59,900
    
 --------------------
 ALBERTA
 
      Winter Cereal Development in Central Alberta
 
      D.F. Salmon1, V.S. Baron2, P.A. Burnett2 J.H. Helm1, and P.E Jedel
 
     In the early 1970's a winter cereal screening program was intiated by
 Alberta Agriculture at Lacombe. The intention of this early work was to
 determine the feasibility of producing winter cereals such as winter wheat
 and winter triticale outside what is cconsidered to be the traditional
 winter wheat area of southern Alberta. It was concluded that the available
 varieties were not suitable due to poor straw strength and that agronomic
 practises were not easily transfered outside of the tradition area of
 production. However, with the exception of occasional losses due to
 snowmould, winter wheat and triticale planted in late August and early
 September demonstrated exceptionally high yield potential and were at least
 3 weeks earlier in maturity than the hard red spring types.
 
      In 1978 Alberta Agriculture initiated a small scale breeding program in
 winter wheat and triticale at the Field Crops Branch (now Field Crop
 Development Centre) Lacombe. The target area for the Lacombe program is the
 black soil zone of central Alberta ranging from 52o to 54o north latitude
 and 111o to 115o west longitude. This area produces primarily barley, canola
 and oat. Consequently, crop divesification with winter cereals is a definite
 benefit. This area produces approximately 300,000 acres of spring wheat
 grading on average CWRS #2/#3. Approximately, 100,000 acres of early
 maturing high quality winter wheat is well within reason.
 
      The breeding program is currently concentrating on the development of
 short statured cold tolerant winter wheat cultivars with good milling
 quality. In the winter triticales, forage is an additional priority. Because
 of the higher snowfall in the target area compared to the more traditional
 winter wheat area of southern Alberta, snow mould resistance has become a
 breeding objective. A second disease, powdery mildew has over-wintered
 during the past two seasons and is currently under consideration.
 
      At present, the long term impact of snow mould and powdery mildew is
 not well defined. Cooperative evaluation trials at the field level are
 currently been carried out by Alberta Agriculture and Agriculture Canada at
 Lacombe. Lines identified as showing acceptable levels of snow mould
 resistance have been sent to D. Gaudet at Agriculture Canada Lethbridge for
 confirmation. Lines demonstrating resistance to powdery mildew are currently
 under test along with common susceptible winter wheat cultivars to determine
 the impact of the disease on yield potential.
 
      Although the high snow cover in the target area provides good soil
 insulation, early seeding of the crop in late August and early September is
 required to insure good levels of winter survival. This is in direct
 contrast to the traditional winter wheat area where delaying seeding until
 mid-September is a way of escaping common winter wheat diseases and may have
 a major impact on controlling losses due to the Russian Wheat Aphid. At the
 present time the Russian Wheat Aphid has not been detected in the target
 area.
    
      Currently, the Alberta beef herd stands at 1.6 million head. Therefore
 alternative end uses for winter cereals are also being considered by the
 programs at FCDC Lacombe. Winter cereals have shown excellent potential as
 forage crops. Winter cereals can be conventionally planted in the fall and
 used for a grazing crop in the fall and spring prior to seed production.
 However the growing season is extremely short (1300 growing degree days)
 using conventional systems. Thus novel grazing systems have had to be
 developed. Winter cereals can be planted in the spring alone or in
 combination with spring cereals for silage production and fall grazing or
 for season-long grazing  (June-November). As a spring seeded grazing crop
 winter wheat produces high quality forage during the early and mid-season
 period. However spring seeded winter triticale cultivars such as Pika and
 Wintri as well as fall rye provide superior late summer and fall grazing.
 Due to the important forage potential of winter cereals in many areas of
 Alberta, all advanced lines in the breeding program are evaluated for forage
 potential as well as conventional seed production. This work is being
 carried out in part as a cooperative project with Agriculture Canada
 Lacombe.
 
      The winter triticale cultivar Pika (PI547164) was registered in Canada
 in 1990. Winter wheat lines with short stature and potentially acceptable
 milling quality are in the preliminary stages of cooperative testing. 
 
 1   Field Crop Development Centre, Alberta Agriculture, Bag #47, Lacombe,
 Alberta, Canada T0C 1S0.
      
 2   Agriculture Canada, Research Station, Bag #5000 Lacombe, Alberta, Canada
 T0C 1S0.  
 
 
 MANITOBA
 
      Agriculture Canada Research Station, Winnipeg
 
      Over-production of 1B HMW glutenin subunits. - O.M. Lukow
 
      Seed of TAA 36, a landrace from Israel, was examined by SDS-PAGE and
 was confirmed to produce twice as much of the high molecular weight (HMW)
 subunit 7 as most allelic 1Bx subunits in commercial cultivars.  Analysis by
 RFLP using a HMW glutenin subunit probe strongly suggested a gene copy of
 two for this subunit instead of a single copy reported for the other HMW
 subunit genes.  The Canadian cultivar Glenlea was also confirmed to over-
 produce subunit 7 but only by 30%.  This was shown to be not a result of
 gene duplication.  The over-production of subunit 7 may be related to
 increased dough mixing strength.
 
      Wheat leaf rust in Canada in 1992. - J.A. Kolmer
 
      Wheat leaf rust was first detected in 1992 during the second week of
 June, in winter wheat plots at Portage, MB.  However, the lack of southerly
 winds in June and July reduced the initial amount of inoculum and slowed the
 general rate of leaf rust increase. By the first week of July, leaf rust was
 present only in trace amounts at scattered locations throughout southern
 Manitoba.  By the second week of August, leaf rust had increased to moderate
 severity levels in fields of Katepwa, Neepawa, and Biggar in southern
 Manitoba. Yield loss due to leaf rust was possible in late planted fields of
 these cultivars. Leaf rust levels were very low in fields of the resistant
 cultivars Roblin, Columbus, Pasqua, and Grandin.  The severity of leaf rust
 infection on susceptible cultivars was significantly lower in eastern
 Saskatchewan. Only trace levels of rust could be found north of Regina. 
 Losses were not expected in this area.
 
      Physiologic specialization of Puccinia recondita on wheat in Canada in
 1992.
 
 Table 1. Frequency (%) of the most common virulence phenotypes as identified
 on the Prt1 differentials.
 ======================================================================
 Virulence      Eastern Canada(2)   Praires(3)     British Columbia
 phenotype 
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------      
 KBG-14a,10          0.00           32.00            0.00
 MBB-14a,10          0.00            0.00           40.90
 MBG-14a             7.29            0.00            0.00   
 MBG-14a,10         26.04            2.00            0.00
 MCB-14a,10          0.00            0.50           22.70
 MFB-14a,10          2.08           13.50            0.00
 PBD-10              0.00            0.00           27.30
 PBL-B,10           34.30            0.00            0.00
 TBG-14a,10          2.08           15.50            0.00
 TDG-14a,10          0.00            8.50            0.00
 TFB-14a,10          0.00            8.00            0.00
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 Total Number       96               200             22
 of isolates
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 1 Phytopathology 79: 525-529
 2 Ontario and Quebec
 3 Manitoba and Saskatchewan
 
 
 Table 2. Frequency (%) of wheat leaf rust isolates virulent to isogenic
 Thatcher lines with different leaf rust resistance genes
 =======================================================================    
 Resistance gene     Eastern(1) Canada   Prairies(2)    British Columbia
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Lr1                 94.70                61.50               100.00   
 Lr2a                 7.29                78.50                 0.00
 Lr2c                56.25                78.50                36.40
 Lr3                 89.58               100.00               100.00
 Lr9                  1.04                 0.00                 0.00
 Lr16                 0.00                 0.00                 0.00
 Lr24                 8.33                41.50                 0.00
 Lr26                 5.20                29.00                 0.00
 Lr3ka               44.79                 1.00                 0.00
 Lr11                38.50                66.00                 0.00
 Lr17                 0.00                 0.00                36.40
 Lr30                 1.04                 1.00                 0.00
 LrB                 48.90                 0.00                 0.00
 Lr14a               57.29               100.00                72.70
 Lr18                 6.25                 0.50                 0.00
 Lr10                90.60               100.00               100.00
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Total Number of     96.00               200.00              22.00
 Isolates
                                                                            
 1 Ontario and Quebec
 2 Manitoba and Saskatchewan
 
 
      Downgrading of wheat due to smut from a weed. - P.L. Thomas, L.A.
      Cooke, R.M. Clear.
 
      Two reports of smut associated with "wild millet" were received in 1991
 from farmers who noticed black clouds of spores while swathing or combining
 their fields in southern Manitoba.  Kernels in a sample of wheat from the
 affected field near Treherne were all blackened by smut spores, especially
 at the brush end. The sample lacked the smell that is characteristic of the
 wheat bunts, but was downgraded because the Canadian grading standards state
 that when more than 5% of kernels are "naturally stained", wheat will be
 downgraded to feed. An examination of the sample, and the field yielding it,
 revealed the presence of both yellow foxtail (Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv.)
 and green foxtail (S. viridis (L.) Beauv.), but only the yellow foxtail
 plants were affected by the smut. As many as 70% of the plants in dense
 patches of the weed were smutted. Only two normal seeds were found on
 examining 167 affected plants - the remaining seeds were all replaced by
 smut spores. When examined by light and electron microscopy, the smut
 teliospores from both the weed and the wheat sample fit the description of
 Ustilago neglecta (Niessl.), a species that is world-wide in appearance on
 Setaria species. This smut was listed as infecting S. glauca in Manitoba in
 1938, but has not been noticed by plant pathologists since that time. Yellow
 foxtail has only become common in farm fields in southern Manitoba in the
 last decade.
 
      Over 200 fields were searched during a routine cereal smut survey in
 Manitoba in 1992. Yellow foxtail was only observed in 10 of these fields and
 none of the plants that were observed were affected by smut.  Due to its
 potential to cause downgrading of seed of cereals, we plan to continue to
 monitor the development of this disease in southern Manitoba.  If the weed
 continues to be widespread, and if a significant proportion of the
 population becomes infected by smut, resultant reductions in grades of crops
 could necessitate more stringent weed control measures.
 
      Note: Address for LAC and RMC: Canadian Grain Commission, Grain
 Research Lab. 1404-303 Main St., Winnipeg, Manitoba R3C 3G8.
 
 
      PCR-based DNA marker for a leaf rust resistance gene. - S. Fox, W. Kim,
      F. Townley-Smith, E. Czarnecki, M. Wolf, N. Howes and J. Procunier.
 
      By combining the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique with
 the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) gel system, a high level
 of DNA polymorphism between wheat cultivars and/or alien species has been
 observed.  Amplified DNA fragments that differ by a single base pair can be
 distinguished on polyacrylamide gels.  These polymorphisms have been shown
 to be repeatable by using different DNA extractions and PCR samples. 
 Utilizing a 20-60% denaturant gradient and random primers (Biotechnology
 Laboratory, UBC), a single polymorphic band was observed between a pair of
 near-isogenic lines (NIL) RL6043 and RL6044.  Nearly 200 different random
 primers were screened.  Line RL6043 has the wheat leaf rust resistance gene
 (Lr21) introgressed into the recurrent parent `Thatcher'.  Line RL6044 lacks
 this alien introgressed DNA segment and the resistance gene.  Eleven other
 `Thatcher' NIL lines which have different introgressed Lr genes did not show
 this polymorphic band.  Segregating F2 populations of crosses involving Lr21
 are currently being tested to verify the linkage between the Lr21 gene and
 the DNA marker.
 
 
      Infestations of Hessian fly on cultivars/lines of wheat at Glenlea,
      Manitoba, in 1992.  W.J. Turnock and R.I.H. McKenzie
 
      The numbers of reports of infestations of Hessian fly, Phytophaga
 destructor (Say), have been increasing in Manitoba in recent years,
 particularly in fields of HY320 or Biggar.  At the same time, some heavy
 infestations were noted among breeders lines at the Agriculture Canada
 Glenlea Research Station.  Although the Hessian Fly has been present in
 Manitoba for about 100 years, it has not caused noticeable economic loss to
 the Hard Red Spring Wheats.  However, some reports indicate that Hessian fly
 has become more abundant in these cultivars as well as in HY320 and Biggar,
 which are known to be highly susceptible.
 
      Current trends toward the growing of shorter-strawed wheats (Canadian
 Prairie Spring type) coupled with an emphasis on the harvesting crops at a
 more mature stage (no swathing) could lead to serious losses from Hessian
 fly.  Incorporation of resistance genes in new cultivars therefore seems
 highly desirable.  To efficiently incorporate genetic resistance into
 cultivars for Manitoba it is necessary to identify the Hessian fly biotypes
 that are present and to evaluate the performance of cultivars/lines that may
 be used.
 
       In 1992, the susceptibility/resistance of cultivars/lines from the
 USDA-ARS Uniform Hessian Fly Nursery plus other lines in which the type of
 genetic resistance to Hessian Fly was known were grown in a block at
 Glenlea, MB.
 
      After maturity, all the plants within, each row were pulled up and
 stored in a labelled bundle at ~5øC.  Subsequently, three plants were taken
 from the bundle and each stem was examined for the presence Hessian Fly. 
 The number of infested stems and the number of Hessian Fly per infested stem
 was recorded.  Additional plants were examined for cultivars/lines in which
 the numbers of stems per plant was small or if the percentage infestation
 varied widely among the first three plants.
 
      Response to resistance genes:  Hessian fly was quite abundant at
 Glenlea in 1992, when wheats with no resistance to Hessian fly had 30-33%
 infested stems and Biggar, a super-susceptible cultivar, had 66% infestation
 (Table 1).  The Glenlea population of Hessian flies did not show virulence
 to resistance genes H3, H5, H6, (H7-H8), H11, H13, H18, and 2RL. 
 Infestation on two cultivars said to have H3 (Howell and Cardinal) can be
 attributed to variability in the presence of this gene.
 
       Low levels of infestation occurred on cultivars with resistance genes
 H9, H10, H12, (H14- H15), Marquillo, and T. tauschii.  These results
 probably indicate the presence, in the Hessian fly population, of some flies
 that are virulent on this resistance gene.  However, the possibility that
 the Glenlea population has some tolerance for this type of resistance cannot
 be excluded.
 
 
 
 TABLE 1.      Hessian fly differentials on wheat at Glenlea, 1992
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Resistance    Source              Numbers of        Stem      HF/stem
                                                  infected(%)
                                Plants     Stems 
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 None         Blueboy             3         83        30        1.9
 "            Augusta             5         105       32        2.0
 "            Fl 302              4         52        33        1.5
 "            Biggar              64        64        66        2.8
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 H3           Monon               3         82        0         -
 "            Howell              5         124       35        2.3
 "            Cardinal            5         183       11        2.2
 "            Norkan              47        47        0         -
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 H3 H5        Oasis               3         45        0         -
 "            SD8036              3         92        0         -
 H3 H6        Clara Fay           3         70        0         -
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 H5           Abe                 3         53        0         -
 H5 H6        Clark               3         57        0         -
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 H6           Compton             4         73        0         -
 "            Caldwell            4         112       0         -
 H6 H7 H8     Knox 62             3         62        0         -
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 H7 H8        Seneca              3         90        0         -
 "            Stacey              3         60        0         -
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 H9           Ella                3         55        2         1.0
 "            8521B1-4-5          5         122       11        2.0
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 H9 H10       Stella              5         149       8         1.1
 H10          76529A5-3           5         80        1         2.0
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 H11          Kay                 3         72        0         -
 H12          841453H15-1-1-2-5-2 6         96        2         1.0
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 H13          KSH 8700            3         35        0         -
 H13          86925RA1-16         3         87        0         -
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 H14 H15      82104 B1-3-2-5      5         100       3         1.0
 H18          8686 A1-8           3         68        0         -
 H18          Brule               3         70        0         -
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 2RL          KS86HF012-23-6      3         44        0         -
 Marquillo    SD 8073             5         106       1         1.0
 "            Guard               6         96        2         3.5
 T. tauschii  KS89WGRC06          5         102       10        2.1
 ============================================================================
 
                                                                           
 
 
 
    Durum wheat quality. - Howes, N.K., Leisle, D., Kovacs, M.I.P. and
    Zawistowski, J.
 
      We have been screening hybridomas secreting Monoclonal Antibodies
 (MAbs) specific to cereal endosporum proteins for clones that have potential
 applications in wheat breeding.  One MAb specific to low molecular weight
 glutenins subunits (LMWGS-2) binds to à 45 gliadin durums having LMWGS-2
 (eg. Vic, Edmore, Quilafen) but does not bind to à 45 gliadin durums having
 LMWGS-2- (eg. Medora, Sceptre, Kyle) or to durums having LMW1.
 
      Progeny from a cross segregating for LMWGS 2 or 2- were evaluated for
 protein (PRO), cooked gluten viscoelasticity (CGV) SDS sedimentation volume
 (SV) and cooked pasta disc viscoelasticity (PDV).  Lines homozygous for
 LMWGS-2 had similar PRO and CGV but higher SV and PDV.  These results show
 that this MAb would be useful in selecting breeders lines having higher
 cooking quality amongst à45 gliadin durums.  Furthermore, protein and LMWGS
 independently contributed to superior lines as measured by the cooked pasta
 viscoelasticity test.
 
    Screening for pasta quality with viscoelastograph. - M.I.P., Kovacs, G.
    Dahlke and J.S. Noll
 
      The usefulness of gluten viscoelasticity to predict pasta cooking
 quality in durum wheat breeding programswas evaluated.  Cooked gluten
 viscoelasticity was expressed as relative recovery calculated from the creep
 curve obtained by a viscoelastograph.  Varieties with different quality
 characteristics were tested for protein content, sodium dodecyl sulfate
 sedimentation volume (SV), mixograph mixing development time (MDT), pasta
 disc viscoelasticity (PDV), and cooked gluten viscoelasticity (CGV). 
 Pearson correlation coefficients and principal component analyses indicated
 that cooked gluten viscoelasticity was associated with SV, MDT and PDV, but
 not with protein content.  Cooked gluten viscoelasticity can be used to
 predict gluten strength and consequently durum wheat pasta quality. 
 Modifications to the method of measuring viscoelasticity have resulted in
 better reproducibility and high sample output, both important in breeding
 programs.
 
    Developing Tolerance to Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus in Spring Wheats for
    Western Canada. - S. Haber and F. Townley-Smith.
 
      Until 1989 wheat streak mosaic (WSM) had not attracted much attention
 in southwestern Manitoba and southeastern Saskatchewan.  Since 1989, locally
 severe losses have been observed in spring wheat fields in the vicinity of
 winter wheat.  We observed losses as high as 100% in some popular cultivars,
 such as Laura and AC Minto, while other cultivars, such as Katepwa and
 Columbus appeared to have been less seriously affected.  A devastating
 outbreak of WSM at Indian Head, Saskatchewan in 1989 not only showed that
 popular cultivars such as Laura were extremely vulnerable, but also
 provided, if unintentionally, a selection nursery for wheat lines with
 greater disease tolerance.  It was particularly striking that three head row
 selection lines of BW122, an advanced breeding line then in the third year
 of co-operative testing, were much less seriously affected by WSM than all
 the others and, indeed, the BW122 bulk population.
 
      Greenhouse experiments conducted in 1990 confirmed the initial
 observations made at Indian Head, and showed that the apparent differences
 in disease tolerance that had been observed in the field were due to
 differences in tolerance to the virus disease and not to differences in
 resistance to the mite vector (Table 1).
 
 
 Table 1.  Effect of Wheat Streak Mosaic (WSM) on Seed Yield 1990 Greenhouse
 Test.
 ============================================================================
                                       Yield per plant (8 reps)
                                   ---------------------------------------
                              Mock inoculated        WSMV inoculated
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Laura                    5.75g               1.31g
 Katepwa                  9.26                5.27
 BW122                    7.52                4.83
   "  /43                 8.83                6.88
   "  /50                 7.82                7.13
   "  /100                7.36                7.10
 ============================================================================
 
      The relative differences in sensitivity to WSM observed in greenhouse
 trials were confirmed in controlled, replicated field trials.  The absolute
 effects of WSM were greater in the field trials because the
 greenhouse-reared plants did not experience stresses related to extremes of
 temperature or water deficit, and the additional effects these stresses
 imposed on diseased plants.  The three headrow selection lines of BW122 that
 had appeared less severely affected by WSM at Indian Head than the BW122
 bulk population in controlled field experiments (Table 2) as well as in
 greenhouse tests.  Wheat germplasm, such as the American cultivars Butte and
 Oslo, that had been developed under the pressure of naturally-occurring WSM,
 were also relatively tolerant (Table 2).  After similar results were
 obtained again in 1991, and it had become clear that WSM in spring wheat was
 a serious problem that would accompany planting of winter wheat in
 southwestern Manitoba and southeastern Saskatchewan, we decided that
 tolerant germplasm already in the wheat breeding program should be
 identified and exploited on a systematic basis.
 
 Table 2.  Effect of Wheat Streak Mosaic (WSM) on Seed Yield 1990 Field Test.
 ============================================================================
                                      Yield per 50 cm row (8 reps)
                                 -------------------------------------------
                                Mock inoculated         WSMV inoculated
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Laura                         110.1g              59.7g
 Katepwa                       122.1               64.8
 BW122                         107.7               47.3
   "  /43                      110.8               80.4
   "  /50                      122.3               90.9
   "  /100                     122.9               97.7
 Butte                         128.1               92.0
 Oslo                          113.5               83.2
 ===========================================================================
 
 
      Before embarking on a full-scale selection program, we needed to know
 whether artificially inoculated disease nurseries would enable reliable
 screening of large numbers of entries, and the accurate identification of
 the best candidates for selection.  To be of greatest benefit in breeding
 superior wheat cultivars, any identified WSM tolerance to be exploited would
 need to protect seed quality as well as yield.  The 1992 field trials
 showed: a) that yield losses were fully accounted for by the combination of
 reduced tillering, reduced number of seeds per head, and reduced seed size
 (Table 3); b) that disease sensitivity or tolerance in one of these yield
 components was reflected in total yield and, for the most part, the other
 two yield components (Table 3); and c) that visual disease ratings taken at
 mid-season (after tillering was completed) were excellent predictors of
 yield loss (Table 4) and good predictors of loss of seed quality as
 reflected in 1000-seed weight (Table 5). 
 
 Table 3.  Effect of Wheat Streak Mosaic (WSM) on Yield Loss Factors: 1992
 Field Test (virus- vs mock-inoculated).
 =========================================================================
 Wheat line        Loss of      Loss of      Loss of      Total
                   tillering    seeds/head   seed size    yield loss
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Laura             8.862        2.621        1.016        52.481
 AC Minto          1.268        1.044        0.729         8.710
 Katepwa           0.914        0.655        0.494         3.236
 Columbus          0.653        0.489        0.536         2.570
 Butte             0.636        0.406        0.474         2.344
 Oslo              0.412        0.635        0.403         2.188
 BW 155            0.463        0.259        0.546         1.820
 BW 122/100        0.260        0.315        0.373         1.758
 =========================================================================
 
 Loss factors are expressed by the logit transformation: logit(x) = x/(1-x),
 where x is the proportion of loss compared to mock-inoculated controls.
 
 Table 4.  Relationship between Wheat Streak Mosaic visual rating (0..best,
 9..worst) at mid-dough and final yield loss (virus- vs mock-inoculated).
 =========================================================================
 Wheat line            Visual           Logarithm of        Correlation
                       rating           yield loss logit    coefficient
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Laura                 7.81             1.72
 AC Minto              5.81             0.94
 Katepwa               5.13             0.51
 Columbus              4.06             0.41                0.97
 Butte                 3.75             0.34
 Oslo                  4.44             0.37
 BW 155                3.56             0.26
 BW 122/100            3.38             0.25
 ========================================================================
 
 
 Table 5.  Relationship between Wheat Streak Mosaic visual rating (0..best,
 9..worst) at mid-dough and loss of seed size (virus- vs mock-inoculated).
 ========================================================================
 Wheat line            Visual           Seed weight        Correlation
                       rating           loss logit         coefficient
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Laura                 7.81             1.02
 AC Minto              5.81             0.73
 Katepwa               5.13             0.49
 Columbus              4.06             0.54               0.93
 Butte                 3.75             0.40
 Oslo                  4.44             0.47
 BW 155                3.56             0.55
 BW 122/100            3.38             0.37
 ========================================================================
 
 
      Our quantitative analysis of the differential effects of WSM on a
 selected group of wheat cultivars and advanced breeding lines shows that
 accurate, large-scale, screening of spring wheat germplasm for tolerance to
 WSMV is feasible.  Starting in 1993, the Western Canada Grains Foundation is
 supporting a three-year project to screen and select bread-, durum-, and
 Canada Prairie spring wheats.  By identifying and exploiting improved
 tolerance already available in germplasm adapted to western Canadian
 requirements, it will be possible to develop superior tolerant breeding
 lines and cultivars relatively quickly.
 
 PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
 
    Agriculture Canada Research Station, Charlottetown
    
    H. G. Nass and H.W. Johnston
 
      Winter survival.   Severe winter killing over most of the Atlantic
 region of Canada had a negative effect on the winter wheat crop.  In early
 April it appeared that most fields had survived the winter as new growth
 began to appear.  However, several weeks later, it became evident that
 fields of winter wheat were turning brown and the plants were dead.  What
 had happened during those 2-3 weeks in April ?  Apparently growth had begun
 in early April but around the middle of the month the night temperatures
 dropped to -10 oC or lower for 3 days in a row.  Most winter wheat crops,
 irrespective of variety, were unable to withstand these severe conditions
 and the plants winterkilled.
 
      Greater emphasis is being placed on developing varieties of winter
 wheat with a higer level of winter hardiness than in presently grown
 varieties in Atlantic Canada.  The LT50 test is conducted to supplement
 field
 data.  This test is conducted on field grown material in late November just
 before the onset of winter and before the frost settles into the ground. 
 Our best sources of winterhardiness come from Norway and the Soviet Union.
 
      Diseases.  The optimum time for data collection on resistance of wheat
 to fusarium head blight (scab) is limited to the window of time between
 symptom and onset of head senescence.  On Prince Edward Island this window
 of time allows for observations to be made over a period of about two to
 three weeks.  A method was devised using seed characteristics that can be
 measured during the winter as an alternate method to ensure all lines in a
 test are evaluated for disease resistance when time has not permitted
 disease severity ratings to be completed in the field.
 
      The best positive correlations between field symptom ratings and winter
 observations were between symptom severity and percentage of lightweight
 seed of each head, determined by using an air column separator and heads
 that had been hand threshed without cleaning.  Field disease severity and
 ratings were also significantly correlated (negative) with yield loss
 calculated on the basis of kernel weights.
 
      Greenhouse data collection, while not considered to be as appropriate
 as measurements of disease severity based on percentage of spikelets and
 heads diseased, would allow disease severity data to be collected during the
 winter to substitute for data not collected in the field during the summer. 
 
 
 
 --------------------
 SASKATCHEWAN
 
      Agriculture Canada Research Station, Swift Current
 
      R.M. De Pauw*
 
    New cultivar.  AC Taber, red-kernel spring wheat, resembles Biggar but
 has improved resistance to prevalent races of leaf rust and common bunt; and
 exhibits superior quality to Biggar with higher protein content, better
 milling quality, and increased gluten strength.  It is eligible for grades
 of the recently established wheat class, Canada Prairie Spring (red).
 
    The Canada Prairie Spring class was established in 1985 and has grown
 rapidly to become the third largest at about 1.6 million acres.  There are
 two sub-divisions based on kernel color, red and white.  The end-use
 suitability levels of this class are a medium protein content (11.0% to
 12.0% on 13.5% moisture basis); medium kernel hardness (starch damage of 19
 to 33 farand units); farinograph water absorption 56% to 60%; good milling
 quality comparable to Canada Western Red Spring.  The CPS-red would have a
 strong gluten of good baking quality similar to USA Hard Winter Ordinary
 while the CPS-white would have a medium gluten strength similar to the
 Australian Standard White. 
 
      M.R. Fernandez;  J.M. Clarke*; R.M. DePauw; B. Irvine; J.G. McLeod
 
    Leaf spotting fungi in irrigated durum wheat grown at Swift Current and
 Outlook, Sask., in 1991-1992.      Leaf spots may cause significant yield
 loss in wheat and have an adverse effect on grain quality.  High levels of
 resistance or tolerance to this disease complex are required to avoid the
 financially and environmentally costly alternative of using chemical
 control.  A strategy for breeding for resistance to these pathogens includes
 the assessment of the relative prevalence of each of the pathogens involved
 in the leaf spot complex.  Leaf samples from 14 durum varieties and advanced
 breeding lines, grown under sprinkler irrigation at two locations in
 Saskatchewan, Swift Current and Outlook, in 1991-1992, were plated on water
 agar for identification and quantification of fungal pathogens causing leaf
 spots.  In both years and locations, leaf spots were mostly attributed to
 Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (average of 76%). This was followed by Septoria
 nodorum (19%), with Cochliobolus sativus being the least common (6%).  For
 both locations, P. tritici-repentis and C. sativus were more frequent in
 1991 than in 1992 (84% and 11% in 1991, and 68% and 0.6% in 1992, for P.
 tritici-repentis and C. sativus, respectively), with S. nodorum being more
 prevalent in 1992 than in 1991 (5% and 32% for 1991 and 1992, respectively).
 In both years, P. tritici-repentis was more frequently isolated from leaf
 samples from Swift Current (81%) than from Outlook (71%).  This was
 accounted for by a greater presence of C. sativus in 1991, and of S. nodorum
 in 1992, at Outlook than Swift Current (average for C. sativus: 15% and 7%
 in 1991, and for S. nodorum: 39% and 25% in 1992, for Outlook and Swift
 Current, respectively).
 
 
    Black point and pink smudge on durum wheat kernels grown under
 irrigated conditions near Outlook, Sask., in 1990-1992.  Black point, pink
 smudge, and red smudge on kernels reduces semolina quality and is reflected
 in lower returns to the grower.  Durum wheat is more susceptible to these
 diseases than hexaploid wheat.  Incidence of black point and pink smudge was
 determined in 155-200 durum varieties and advanced breeding lines grown
 under sprinkler irrigation in 1990-1992, at Outlook, Saskatchewan.  Black
 point was present at an average frequency of 27%, 19% and 41.3% in 1990,
 1991 and 1992 respectively.  The most prevalent organisms isolated from
 black-pointed seeds of 14 genotypes from the 1991 and 1992 season were
 Alternaria spp. (average of 75% and 55.6% in 1991 and 1992, respectively). 
 In 1991, these were followed by Cochliobolus sativus (13%) and Pyrenophora
 tritici-repentis (5%).  Other fungi, mostly saprophytes, and bacteria, were
 isolated at a combined frequency of 9%.  In 1992, the latter group of
 organisms were the second most prevalent ones (31%), with C. sativus and P.
 tritici-repentis being isolated at low frequencies (<5%).  Pink-smudged
 seeds were observed at less than 0.5% in 1990 and 1991, and at an average of
 2.3% in 1992. P. tritici-repentis was isolated from all pink-smudged seeds.
 
 
                                   Publications
 
 Clarke, J.M., Romagosa, I., and DePauw, R.M.  1991.  Screening durum wheat
 germplasm for dry growing conditions:  morphological and physiological
 criteria.  Crop Sci. 31(3):  770-775. 
 
 McLeod, J.G., Townley-Smith, T.F., DePauw, R.M., Lendrum, C.W.B., McCrystal,
 G.E., and Payne, J.F.  1990.  'Frank' spring triticale.  Can. J. Plant Sci.
 70:  1155-1157.
 
 McLeod, J.G., Townley-Smith, T.F., DePauw, R.M., Clarke, J.M., Lendrum,
 C.W.B., and McCrystal, G.E.  1991.  Registration of 'Kyle' durum wheat. 
 Crop Sci. 31:  236-237.
 
 DePauw, R.M., and McCaig, T.N.  1991.  Components of variation,
 heritabilities and correlations for indices of sprouting tolerance and seed
 dormancy in Triticum spp.  Euphytica: 52: 221-229.
 
 DePauw, R.M., Preston, K.R., Townley-Smith, T.F., Hurd, E.A., McCrystal,
 G.E. and Lendrum, C.W.B.  1991.  Biggar red spring wheat.  Can. J. Plant
 Sci. 71:  519-522.
 
 McLeod, J.G., Townley-Smith, T.F., DePauw, R.M., Lendrum, C.W.B., McCrystal,
 G.E. and Payne, J.F.  1991.  Registration of 'Frank' spring triticale.  Crop
 Sci. 31(2):  490.
 
 McLeod, J.G., Townley-Smith, T.F., DePauw, R.M., Clarke, J.M., Lendrum,
 C.W.B. and McCrystal, G.E.  1991.  Registration of 'Kyle' durum wheat.  Crop
 Sci. 31:  236-237.
 
 McLeod, J.G., Townley-Smith, T.F., DePauw, R.M., Clarke, J.M., Lendrum,
 C.W.B. and McCrystal, G.E.  1991.  Registration of DT367 high yielding durum
 germplasm.  Crop Sci. 31: 1394.
 
 McLeod, J.G., Townley-Smith, T.F., DePauw, R.M., Clarke, J.M., Lendrum,
 C.W.B., and McCrystal, G.E.  1991.  Registration of DT369 high yielding,
 semidwarf durum germplasm.  Crop Sci. 31: 1717.
 
 McCaig, T.N. and  DePauw, R.M. 1992. Breeding for preharvest sprouting
 tolerance in white seed-coat spring wheat.  Crop Sci. 32: 19-23. 
 
 De Pauw, R.M., McCaig, T.N., Clarke, J.M., McLeod, J.G., Knox, R.E., and
 Fernandez, M.R. 1993.  Registration of sprouting tolerant white-kernelled
 wheat germplasm.  Crop Sci. 32:838.
 
 Clarke, J.M., DePauw, R.M. and Townley-Smith, T.F.  1992.  Evaluation of
 methods for quantification of drought tolerance in wheat.  Crop Science 32:
 723-728).
 
 Knox, R.E., De Pauw, R.M., Morrison, R.J., McCaig, T.N., Clarke, J.M., and
 McLeod, J.G.  1992  AC Taber red spring wheat.  Can. J. Plant Sci. (in
 press).
 
 McCaig, T.N., J.G. McLeod, J.M. Clarke, and R.M. DePauw. 1992. Measurement
 of durum pigment with an NIR instrument operating in the visible range.
 Cereal Chem. 69:671-672.
 
 McCaig, T.N., R.M. DePauw, J.G. McLeod, J.M. Clarke, and N.B. McCrie. 1992.
 Registration of near-isogenic wheat genetic stocks differing in
 glaucousness. Crop Sci. 32:(in press).
 
 --------------------
                                 ITEMS FROM CHINA
 
    Wheat Breeding Institute, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing
 210014
 
    Zhaosu Wu, Shirong Yu, Xizhong Wei, Youjia Shen, Guoliang Jiang, Jimin
 Wu, Yong Xu, Xhaoxia Chen, Qimei Xia, Shijia Liu
 
    Studies on the development of scab-resistance gene pool in wheat - A
 preliminary report on effects of population improvement in the scab-
 resistance resource gene pool.  Different cyclical populations RODC, RC1,
 RC2 and RC3 of the scab resistance resource gene pool (SRRGP) in wheat and
 the resistant cultivar Sumai 3 were investigated during two crop seasons
 1989-90 in Nanjing to evaluate the effects of the population improvement. 
 The experimental results showed that the resistance of the population to
 scab was significantly improved by phenotypic recurrent selection.  The
 number of percentage of diseased male-fertile plants was significantly
 reduced in the populations.  Of these plants, the average of diseased
 spikelets was decreased by about 20% per cycle and the frequency of plants
 with R-level resistance tended to increase distinctly. The effects of
 improvement were significant with spike length, total and seeded spikelets,
 number and weight of grains per spike, population means of which increased
 cycle by cycle.  However, kernel weight in RC3 was lower than that in RC1
 and RC2, and obvious change of plant height was not found during the
 recurrent selection for the resistance.  Genetic variability of the gene
 pool was maintained, and the probability of superior plants obtained with
 improved resistance as well as some desirable agronomic traits from it was
 obviously enhanced.  It was suggested that both selection for scab-
 resistance and some agronomic characters should be simultaneously conducted
 in further recurrent selection programs in order to improve the synthetic
 performance of the gene pool.
 
    A study on re-selection method for advanced strains of wheat.  Re-
 selection was made in two advanced generation strains.  Genetic variation
 and genetic gains of several principal characters of the two strains were
 estimated, then the re-selection methods and effects were discussed.  The
 number of plants (basic population size) needed in multiple character
 selection for different demands were estimated by using approximate
 calculation of muultiple normal distribution.  A new idea served for study
 on genetic gains of multiple characters and estimation of basic population
 size was represented in this study.  Through analysis and probability
 calculation on the two strains, we showed results that about 2.5%-5%
 relative genetic gains of grains per spike and 1/grain weight of Nannong 82-
 4 strain can be got while maintaining ears per plant at the original level
 from pure line selection of 700-1500 plants, and about 2.5%-5%, 2.5%-5% and
 7.5%-15% relative genetic gains of scab injury degree, anthesis and pre-
 harvested sprouting rate of Nannong 2101 strain can be obtained when its
 yield character remains at the original level from pure line selection of
 2000-3000 plants.
 
    Effects of phenotypic recurrent selection and mass selection on
 improvement of agronomic traits in wheat populations.  Two cycles of
 phenotypic recurrent selection for plant height and spikes per plant of
 sterile plants and two cycles of mass selection for plant height and yield
 per plant of fertile plants in a wheat base population were evaluated to
 measure the direct response for correlated traits.  Results showed a
 significant decrease of plant height for both sterile plants and fertile
 plants, but no increment of spikes per plant and yield per plant were found.
 
 Negative correlated responses were found in ear length and spikelets per
 spike.  The realized genetic gain achieved by mass selection for plant
 height was greater than that of recurrent selection.  Recurrent selection
 for sterile plants could maintain more genetic variation than the mass
 selection for fertile plants.  Realized genetic gains of all agronomic
 traits were lower than expected genetic gains.
 
    Testing seed germination and screening of white-kerneled germplasm
 resources for sprouting resistance.  141 wheat cultivars and breeding lines
 from various regions of China and abroad were evaluated for seed
 germinability in ears by plastic sack wrapping (PSW) and field testing
 methods, respectively, in Nanjing during 1990-1991 crop season.  There were
 positive and highly significant correlations between the results of
 germinability measured four times by three methods and the mean correlation
 coefficient was 0.8389.  A significant and negative correlation existed
 sprouting percentage of grains in spikes and seed-coat color level (total
 jr=-0.7344).  Although germination rate of seeds in spikes of white-seeded
 cultivars and lines was generally greater than that of the red-seeded ones,
 obvious varietal differences were found for both the former and the latter
 in sprouting resistance.  Estimate of broad-sense heritability was 83.38%
 for the resistance to viviparity with 51 breeding lines and one cultivar
 (Yangmai 5) grown in a two-replicate randomized block layout.  It was
 suggested that 12 white cultivars and lines having sprouting resistance
 could be used in wheat breeding programs and production.
 
    Studies on principles and ways concerning the coordinative enhancement
 of biomass and harvest index in wheat cultivars.  A study was made by a
 series of experiments involving genetics, physiology, anatomy and
 morphology, etc. carried out in 1989-1991, and the principles and ways
 concerning the coordinative enhancement of biomass and harvest index in
 wheat cultivars are discussed at the levels of individual, of population and
 of the relationship between individual and population.
 
    Statistical genetic analysis with 125 cultivars, representing the
 current genetic resources of the lower Yangtze region showed that the
 harvest index of main stem of the available genetic resources is higher, but
 the variances with high biomass are not plentiful and needed to be explored
 for enriching the breeding basic materials.  One cluster analysis based on
 biomass components divided by vertical direction indicates that enhancing
 the upper internode proportion of biomass is favorable for coordinate
 increment of biomass and harvest index.  Another cluster analysis based on
 biomass components divided by horizontal direction hints that the
 contradiction between biomass and harvest index is mainly a reflection of
 the contradiction between culm dry weight and grain yield, and reducing the
 lower internode proportions of biomass is profitable. Reforming the weight
 proportions of different internodes by improving the length proportions of
 internodes is expected to reduce the risk of lodging in practical breeding
 programs.  Anatomic morphological survey of main culm of 17 cultivars
 suggests that increasing macro- or micro-bundles could enhance spikelet
 fertility, and enhancing macro-bundles of the upper internodes is proposed
 due to the positive relationship between macro-bundles and biomass.  A
 simultaneous test for dry weight development of different organs with 6
 cultivars suggests that the dry weight of the upper internodes loses little
 with higher filling rate, and brings about successive biomass increment
 after flowering in stable high yield cultivars as Yangmai 5.
 
    By approaching the physiological factors related with differences of
 population biomass in 12 cultivars, it was discovered that nitrate reductase
 (NR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of three enzyme system, i.e., carbon
 assimilation, nitrogen nutrition and endogenous protection, is significant
 for biomass development, because NR activity affects biomass by affecting
 the tiller survival rate, and in different stages higher SOD activity is
 needed for luxuriant growth of wheat plants in that time.  The non-linear
 regression analyses separately and synthetically on development of grain
 yield, vegetable dry weight and biomass of population after flowering in 12
 cultivars suggests that grain filling stage, grain filling rate and
 vegetables dry weight could affect biomass.  The necessary factors for
 coordinately enhancing biomass and harvest index are proposed as higher
 biomass in flowering stage, higher filling rate following lower and later
 vegetable losses.
 
    A significant cultivar x culture pattern was noted by carrying out a
 contrast test between mixed cropping and pure cropping and using profitable
 competition for enhancing population biomass is proposed based on a
 discussion involving the results of heterosis utilization, the theory of
 ecological genetics and progress on researches of plant ideotype.
 
                                   PUBLICATIONS
 
 Jiang, Cuoliang, Zhaosu Wu, Zhaoxia Chen, Dechong Huang, Qingpu Xiao, Huiagu
 Chen, Han Zhu and Yimin Fang.  1992.  Studies on the Development of Scab-
 resistance gene pool in wheat.  A preliminary report on effects of
 population improvement in the scab-resistance resource gene pool (SCIENTIA
 AGRICULTURA SINICA) 25(6):30-37.
 
 Jiang, Guoliang, Zhaosu Wu and Zhaoxia Chen. 1992. Preliminary Report on
 Determining Seed Germinability in Spikes and Selecting White-kerneled
 Germplasm Resources with Sprouting Resistance in Triticum aestivum. Acta
 Agriculturae Shanghai, 9(3):9-14.
 
 Jiang, Guoliang.  1992.  Advances on Genetic Mechanism of Resistance to
 Headblight of Wheat and Improvement of Variety.  Chinese Agricultural
 Science Bulletin 8(5):  10-13.
 
 Yang, Zhuping and Zhaosu Wu.  1992.  Effects of Phenotypic Recurrent
 Selection and Mass Selection on Improvement of Agronomic Traits in Wheat
 Populations. (ACTA AGRONOMICA SINICA), 18(1):50-60.
 
 Xu, Yong, Shirong Yu and Zhaosu Wu.  1992.  A Study on Reselection Method
 for Advanced Strain of Wheat, Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 25(6):38-43.
 
 Yu, Shirong and Yong, Xu.  1992.  Regional Evaluation of the Cultivar in
 Cultivar Regional Test. J. of Nanjing Agricultural University, 15(4):12-18.
 
 --------------------
      Germplasm Enhancement Program in Henan Province
 
      Ying-Jie Wang
 
      Henan Province is the largest wheat producer in China, accounting for
 about 18% of the wheat production in the country.  There are several wheat
 breeding programs aiming at developing new varieties for commercial use, and
 our germplasm enhancement program focuses on collecting, identifying, and
 preserving germplasms for breeding purpose and for creating new germplasms,
 particularly for disease resistance, such as strip rust and powdery mildew. 
 A total of about 4,000 accessions have been collected and identified.  Those
 accesions represent germplasms from China and 40 other countries.  A series
 of V.P.M. from France has been used as resistant sources for diseases and a
 series of T.J.B. from Britain have also been collected and utilized in
 breeding programs.  As a result of efficient use of germplasms, a high
 yielding line  Zhengzhou 79212, was developed.  In addition, two other high
 yielding cultivars, Yumai 13 and 16, have also been developed by our
 breeders by using our local germplasm collections as donor materials.
 
      The general procedure of using the germplasm resources is that crossing
 the local high yielding cultivars as recurrent parents, such as Yumai 13 or
 Yumai 16 (average yield under irrigation is 88 bu/acre) to selected
 germplasms for disease resistance, followed by selection.  Several advanced
 lines with multiple disease resistance, short statue (70 cm), and good
 agronomic characteristics have been produced in this manner.  R84019,
 R85100, and Zhengzi 8204 are some of the examples.  
 
      We continue to collect germplasms from different parts of the world,
 identify and catalog their characteristics for  breeding programs.
 
 --------------------
    Wheat Institute, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences - Zhengzhou,
 Henan
 
    Zuoji Lin, Shenhui Jie, Xidan Zhou
 
    1991-1992 season:  A dry sowing season followed by dry winter caused
 less tillering and vegetative growth.  However, sufficient rainfall in
 spring and favorable climate in grain-filling period resulted in high kernel
 weight (about 3 g higher than under normal conditions).  The total yield was
 similar to that of last year, and a lot of larger area high yielding records
 even occurred in irrigation regions due to the shorter plant causing less
 lodging damage.   The leading public cultivar was Yumai 13, which occupied
 about 15% of the wheat area in Henan Province, and its high-yielding record
 was up to 8.5 tons/ha.
 
    Quality difference between Chines and western wheat varieties:  Grain
 protein content, sedimentation value, farinograph parameters, bread-making
 quality and steam-bread-making quality of 36 Chinese varieties or lines and
 21 western cultivars or lines were tested to study quality difference
 between Chinese and western cultivars.  Results indicated that the protein
 content, sedimentation value and dough strength (measured with farinograph)
 of Chinese cultivars or lines, except several cultivars with good baking
 quality, were commonly lower than those of western cultivars or lines.  Most
 exotic and some domestic good quality cultivars or lines possessed good
 bread-making performances.  However, most local cultivars and Chinese main
 cultivars had poor-bread-making quality.  The results of HMW glutenin
 subunits analysis showed that most Chinese good baking quality cultivars and
 western cultivars had 5+10 subunits, indicating they possessed the same good
 quality genes.  This might be due to the fact that most of the good baking
 quality Chinese cultivars had western resources in their pedigree.  As to
 steam-bread making quality, the performance of some Chinese main cultivars
 were the best.  Grain protein content and valorimeter value of these
 cultivars usually were below 14% and 50.  Most western and Chinese good
 baking quality cultivars had poor steam-bread making quality.  Steam bread
 made from these cultivars usually had a shrunk surface and a dark color,
 caused by high protein content (average about 15.5%) and high dough strength
 (average valorimeter value about 65).  The experiments suggested that the
 quality requirements in protein content and dough strength for bread and
 steam bread making are different.
 
 --------------------
      Dry Farming Institute, Hebei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 053000,
 Hengshui
 
      F.W. Zhao, H.M. Li, H.W. Li, Z.Z. Bai, C.S. Guo, L.Z. Sun, and Z.E.
 Zhou
 
      Preliminary research on a double-sexual line - Five year's research has
 shown that advanced line 91-1, a newly developed genotype in our breeding
 program, belongs to a double-sexual line (DSL) or a photo-thermo-sensitive
 (PTS) nuclear male sterile/fertile line.  Its fertility transition (FT) is
 clear which is convenience for hybrid wheat production .  The index of
 realizing FT for temperature/daylight and young spike differentiation (YSD)
 in Hengshui (37o44'N, 115o42'E) from 1991-1992 results were: planting before
 October 6 in which total temperature (TT)/total sunshine time (TST) were
 508.9o/397.5 hr and the YSD and spike stalk initiation (SSI) stage were
 reached before winter, causing sterility.  On the contrary, planting after
 October 10 under the YSD was under elongation stage (ES) or under initiation
 stage (IS) through winter produced good fertility and the seeds were viable.
 
 Its characteristics were very satisfied both in the yield performance and in
 heteroses utilization.  Two studies were conducted.
 
    1.   3-line study phase.  DSL 91-1 was developed from the progenies of
 FO (Jimai 21/Jinfeng 1) treated with Co60 irradiation.  In 1987, it was
 planted October 3, in our breeding nursery and produced sterile progeny. 
 Field managements were normal which ruled out the possibility of the
 environmental factors causing the sterility.  Eight steriles were pollinated
 in order to save the sterile seeds and try to set up a new 3 cms system. 
 Unfortunately, progenies either from self-pollinations or from backcrosses
 failed to set seed.  Segregation for other characteristics occurred.
 
    2.   DSL/PTS nuclear male sterility study phase.   After the failure
 of setting up the 3 line system, fertility identification has been carried
 out in 4 different wheat habit ecologic areas covering 3 states.  In 1988-
 89, plantings made at Jejiang Agricultural University, Hangzhou, Jejiang
 province, performed fertile.  In 1989-90, planting at Sichuan Crops
 Institute, Chongqing, Sichuan province, segregating occurred between plants
 and between main stems and tillers of individual plants; some fertile and
 others sterile.  In 1990-91 and 1991-92, plantings at Chong Agricultural
 Research Institute, Chongqing, showed high sterility in the 2 years.  In
 1991-92, plantings on October 6 and on 12 in Hengshui, different results
 were obtained in which the first planting performed sterile, the second
 fertile.
 
    Our results were:
 
    1.   Morphological index of FT of DSL 91-1.  If planted before October
 6 under which the YSD got to the SSI stage before winter, the end of
 November in Hengshui, sterility resulted.  But planted after October 10
 under which the YSD is under IS or ES, fertile plants were produced.  It
 seems that the SSI stage is the morphological index for FT.
 
    2.   Factors influencing the index of FT.  Two year results of 1991
 and 1992 have shown that DSL 91-1 could reach the SSI stage where there was
 more than 5 leaves and less than 6 leaves for the young plants.  During this
 period the TT was 435.5 - 508.9oC and the TST was 360 - 397.5 hr.  For
 practical purposes the TT/TST of 500oC/390 hr were more acceptable.  In
 Hengshui, this is the very time for wheat planting which could be analyzed
 from meteorological data of 30 years (shown as CK below) 1960-1990 and from
 the current year (CY) of 1991-92 wheat growing season.
 
 
 Table 1.     Average meteorological data of wheat growing season.
 ============================================================================
 
 Month/Year       10      11      12      1       2       3       4       5
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
            CY    14.1    5.1    -1.7    -1.7     1.4     5.8     15.5   20.3
  Temp.     CK    13.8    5.4    -1.5    -4.0    -1.3     5.9     14.0   20.9
   oC     Vari.    0.3   -0.3    -0.2     2.3     2.7    -0.1     1.5    -0.6
   Sun-   CY     238.1   189    172.8   163.4    23.2   164.3   273.5   275.4
   shine  CK     222.4   178.4  176.7   181.5   177.8   220.0   235.5   284.2
   hr.   Vari.    15.7    10.6   -3.9   -16.1    58.4   -55.7    33.0    -8.8
 ============================================================================
                                                                            
 So we can see that if planted between October 1 and 10, the TT and TST could
 be sufficient for FT.
 
    3.   The phenomenon of over-stage development of DSL 91-1 - Among the
 cultivars grown DSL 91-1 performed an over-growth stage from early planting
 but none from late planting.  The results were as follows:
 
    From Table 2 we can see:  1.  Planted on October 6, the jointing,
 flagging and flowering date of DSL 91-1 were 8-10 days earlier than checks. 
 Fertility data gave 2 different results in which 91-1 was sterile and the 2
 checks, fertile.  Planted on October 12, there were not many differences
 among cultivars not only in growth stage but also in fertility.  Comparing
 planting dates, the differences with same check was only 1-2 days but with
 DSL 91-1, 9-11 days.  For DSL the heading date from first planting and
 flagging date of second planting occurred the same day of April 22 which
 gave a clearer picture in field.
 
 
 Table 2.   Growth differences between planting times and cultivars, 1991-92.
 ============================================================================
 Planting  Cultivar  Winter  Erecting  Flagging  Heading  Flowering  Maturity
   Date      Name   Tolerance  Date      Date      Date     Date       Date
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
           91-1        2+      15/3      11/4      22/4      28/4      5/8
 6/10    Jimai 30      2-      23/3      21/4       1/5       5/5      9/6
         Jimai 24      1       25/3      21/4       3/5       8/5     11/6
           91-1        2       25/3      22/4       2/5       7/5     10/6
 12/10   Jimai 30      2       25/3      22/4       2/5       7/5     10/6
         Jimai 24      1       26/3      23/4       5/5       9/5     12/6
 ============================================================================
 
 Note:   91-1 and Jimai 30= half-winter habit; Jimai 24 = winter habit.
 
    4.   Over-phase differentiation of young spike of DSL 91-1.  In autumn
 of 1992, 7 planting date (PD) experiments were made from September 10 to
 October 20 in Hengshui.  On December 2 the YSD of main stems was examined
 under light microcrope in which big differences were observed.  See results
 in Table 3.
 
 
 Table 3.   Microscope results of YSD in different planting date, 1992.
 ============================================================================
 Cultivar          91-1              Jimai 30               Jimai 24
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 PD        Leaf No.      YSD    Leaf No.      YSD       Leaf No.     YSD
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 10/9        8        meiosis    7.47         SIS         7.37       SSI
 19/9        7.33       SIS      6.75         SSI         6.73       SSI
 1/10        6.1        SSI      5.74         ES          5.18       ES
 6/10        5.69       SSI      5.43         ES          5.46       IS
 10/10       4.22       ES       4.59         IS          4.43       IS
 15/10       3.53       ES       3.66         IS          3.68       IS
 20/10       2.66       IS       2.29         IS          2.39       IS
 ============================================================================
 
 SIS, spikelet initiation stage
 
      Table 3 shows that DSL 91-1 is a thermophase non-sensitive line which
 is very flexible to low temperatures during this period and enters easily
 into photophase.  It could reach this stage with 3 completely emerged leaves
 but the checks, 5.  Also, the over-phase differentiation of young spikes
 happened at all planting dates.  During this period the average d-
 temperature/d-sunshine time were 20.8oC/6.92 hr, 12.3oC/6.92 hr and
 4.3oC/6.26 hr for September, October and November, respectively.  If planted
 October 1-10, actual planting time in Hengshui, during which the plant
 passes through winter in the SSI phase, there is no cold damage effect in
 field, similar with previous research showing that cold tolerance decreases
 after jointing.
 
    5.   DSL 91-1 has good agricultural characteristics - It is a half-
 winter habit genotype:  height, 78 cm; head length, 8.1 cm; spikelet, 30;
 grain-weight, 42 g and with white-seed coat.  As a normal cultivar, 5,250
 kg/ha yield could be got and as a male sterile line, with 80% or more seed
 set.  Its combining ability is higher under which the crosses of 91-1/888-1
 and 91-1/90117 performed 10% more advantage of heteroses than check, Jimai
 24.
 
    DSL 91-1, although found in 1987, its value has not been identified
 until recently.  Based on the point that it was easily passing on the
 thermophase and easily to enter into photophase, and under SSI phase in
 winter, maybe belongs to a photo-thermo sensitive nuclear sterile line.  It
 seems that the illumination is a main factor causing the fertility
 transition in which the temperature has had a supplementary function.  As
 the mechanism of FT and the relationships between temperature and sunshine
 time, morphology and cytology as well as its fertility inheritant behavior
 should be further studied.
                                         
 --------------------
    Beijing Agricultural University, Department of Agronomy
 
    Tiecheng Huang, Qixin Sun, Aimin Zhang
 
    Semidwarf hybrid wheat breeding  Several female lines with dominant
 dwarf genes have been developed, two of them, BAU2410 (with
 Rht3,45cm),BAU3338(with Rht gene from Agropyron, 55cm, good baking
 quality),were used to produce hybrid seed in pilot plot using CHA
 technology. Over 50 hybrids were tested for yield potential this year, two
 of them yielded 20% more than best check cultivar,they will be retested next
 year in 4 sites for yield stability,while the seed production plot was
 planted for these two hybrids. The yield advantage over cultivars is mainly
 contributed to heterosis in both kernel weight and grain number per spike.
 
 
    Qi-xin Sun , Yinmin Song, Jihua Wang
 
    A-line and R-line development. 1) CMS system of T.timopheevi
 cytoplasm.Emphasis is placed upon the development of dwarf A-lines of easy-
 to-restore and upon improvment of yield potential. We found that BAU2410A is
 easy to restore and has good combining ability. For ten years,we are
 developing R-lines by  Cultivar/R1//R2 hybridation, using our local R-lines
 as one parent, crossed by R-lines from Yugoslavia, including Zg41, Tc51887. 
 We developed R-lines with quite good restoring ability, even for those A-
 lines, such as Honglian5A, Jingshuang3A, they can give nearly complete
 fertility restoration under different environments.
 2) CMS system of Ae.kotschyi and Ae.ventricosa cytoplasm. Although it is
 reported that most common wheat cultivars without  1B/1R translocation can
 restore fertility, we only found 3 out of 100 cultivars have fertility
 restoration over 90%. It is interesting to note one of the three R-
 lines,Yuan67/Youmanghong7 is also a restorer for T. timopheevi cytoplasm A-
 line. Haploid production is still major limitation for using the kind of CMS
 system with haploid production ranging from 0-50% for F1 hybrids.
 
    Qixin Sun, Jihua Wang
 
    Comparative study on pollen abortion in CMS lines with different
 cytoplasms:CMS lines with T. temopheevi, Ae. kotschyi and Ae. ventricosa
 cytoplasm are compared. Sectioning of anther and scanning electron
 microscope of pollen in both A- and B-lines indicated that the abnormality
 of anther development begin at differet developmental stages for T-type and
 K-type CMS lines, uninucleate pollen stage for T-type, binucleate pollen
 stage for K-type, resulting in differences in morphology of anther and
 pollen with K-type showing partially stained pollen.
 
    Ruqiang Xu, Tiecheng Huang, Aimin Zhang, Qixin Sun
 
    Studies on BAU-2 induced male sterility in winter wheat (Triticum
 aestivum L.): CHA(Chemical Hybridizing Agent) induced male sterility has
 been used in production of hybrid wheat.BAU-2 is a newly synthesized
 chemical hybridizing agent,the cytological mechanism and the performance of
 BAU-2 induced male sterility and its application in production of hybrid
 winter wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) were studied using four cultivars in the
 year of 1990-1991.All field experiments were conducted at Dongbeiwang
 scientific experimental station in Beijing,in which treatments included 3
 stages, 4 concentrations and 3 liquid volumes of spraying  in two completely
 randomized split-block designs with 2x1.8m sizes of plot with three
 replications. Observation on micro- and macroscopic events that take place
 in anthers from treated plants were accomplished by optical microscope and
 electron microscope.The results were as follows:  (1)BAU-2 could induce
 nearly complete male sterility, with 99.5%, 99.9%,97.2%and 100% male
 sterility for the four cultivars, respectively.Among treatments of 95-100%
 male sterility,the seed sets of natural cross pollination of the four
 treated cultivars were up to 66.9%,30.4%,30.8% and 38.8%,respectively;and
 that of supplementary cross pollination were up to 78.5%,66.5%,49.7% and
 76.5%, respectively. (2)The height of treated plants was lightly
 reduced,this was mainly due to the reduction of the first,second and third
 internode length counted from the top. (3) The 100 kernel weight of
 naturally cross pollinated seed from treated plants was significantly
 decreased when overdose rate was applied,which could reduce germinating
 rate. (4) It was found that primordial differentiation of pistil and stamen
 to the formation of pollen mother cell was appropriate developmental stage
 for spraying BAU-2,this was the stage of elongation of the second and third
 internode counted from the base. 1-2 kg/ha was appropriate spraying dose
 rate for BAU-2,but it was relatively narrow for a given cultivar. (5) The
 performance of BAU-2 induced male sterility depended on variety,dose rate
 and stage of spraying,and there was a significant interaction among the
 three factors. However, dose rate was more important than concentration and
 liquid volume of spraying. (6) The abortion of one nucleus microspore was
 responsible for the BAU-2 induced male sterility,which was related closely
 with the functional abnormality of tapetum in anther.
 
 
 
    Xiyun Song, Tiecheng Huang, Aimin Zhang, Qixin Sun
 
    Studies on heterotic parental group for hybrid wheat: In order to
 increase yield advantage of hybrid wheat over cultivars,  the selection of
 parents is important. So it is necessary to study the heterotic parental
 group for hybrid wheat with strong heterosis. In this paper,the performance
 of wheat hybrids was studied with parents having special characters in order
 to find the way for identifying crosses of strong heterosis.
 
    The experiment was carried out at Dongbeiwang scientific experimental
 station in  Beijing from 1990 to 1992 with 16 parents. The parents were
 classified into four groups:
 A:with early maturity (parent No.1-4).         B:with more spikes per
 plant(parent No.5-8).
 C:with large spikes (parent No.9-12).          D:with larger kernels (parent
 No.13-16).
 
    The 16X16 diallel cross (120F1s) and their coresponding parents were
 grown in autumn of 1991 with random plot design of 3 replications. The plot
 was 2 rows and 2m long,spaced seeding with plant distance 10cm and row
 spacing 30cm.Ten plants were taken for measurement of the following
 characters:plant height(cm),main spike length (cm), the spike number per
 plant, the kernel number of main spike, the kernel weight of main spike(g),
 1000 kernel weight (g), and the yield per plant (g).
 
    With a diallel cross of 4 special types of parents, 10 types of crosses
 can be obtained. The heterosis values of various characters of different
 types were calculaeted (see Tab.1).
 
  Tab.1  The heterosis over mid parents and the heterosis over CK of
 different cross types
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
 cross   Grain Yield       spikes      kernels     1000 kernel
                         per plant    per spike       weight
        HM%    HK%       HM%  HK%     HM%    HK%     HM%   HK%
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
 BXB  41.23   43.59   -3.68  32.90    7.75  -8.98  13.27   2.82
 BXD  38.56   51.72    4.87  23.15    3.81 -10.98   9.76  14.29
 BXA  37.40   39.45    1.55  17.97    7.92  -4.66  12.72   2.56
 BXC  27.03   40.00   -2.29  16.26    4.45  -9.40  14.25  17.33
 AXD  23.80   36.15    1.81   4.61    4.03  -9.00   6.94  14.86
 AXA  23.14   26.93   16.20  10.95    6.78  -0.90   7.47  -0.48
 AXC  21.98   34.61    4.35   2.99    8.04  -2.90   8.80  13.96
 CXC  18.54   41.65    0.61   2.09    6.32  -5.55   7.95  24.20
 CXD  17.50   40.12    3.85   8.23    6.79  -6.55   6.60  25.43
 DXD  10.18   26.86    0.82   8.92    3.12  -9.92   0.06  18.06
  ---------------------------------------------------------------    
   * HM: heterosis over mid- parent.  HK: heterosis over check (Jing411).
 
    From Tab.1,it seemed that the cross between parents group B had the
 highest heterosis of 41.23%,followed by the cross between parents group B
 and group D ,with an average heterosis of 38.56%. While the cross between
 parents group D was the lowest (10.18%). Taking one of four group as one
 parent(femal or male), the  average heterosis over mid-parent is: for group
 B:35.10%, for group A:27.22%,for group D:24.79%,for group C:21.77%. It is
 found that group B give the most significant heterosis.From that, it could
 be concluded that in order to increase the heterosis it was necessry to
 select parents with more spikes under the experimental conditions. The
 application of a hybrid depended not only on the heterosis (over mean of
 parents),but also on the heterosis over the check.From Tab.1 ,the heterosis
 over the check for crosses between parents group B and parents group D  was
 the highest (51.72%),much higher than the cross between parents group B. It
 seemed that the crosses between parents group B and parents group D would be
 more valuable.
 
    Strong heterosis crosses with heterosis above 50% are listed in Tab. 2.
 
        Tab. 2    Strong Heterosis and their parent type
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 parents type   heterosis(%)        parents   type  heterosis(%)
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 1x6      AxB      84.17              5x10    BxC    57.78
 5x13     BxD      71.00              6x8     BxB    56.15
 4x6      AxB      62.44              7x13    BxD    55.01
 5x14     BxD      62.43              5x8     BxB    54.14
 6x13     BxD      62.16              4x5     AxB    52.93
 6x14     BxD      59.74              5x9     BxC    50.56
 1x5      AxB      58.67              1x15    AxD    50.28
 8x14     BxD      58.59              4x13    AxD    50.14
  --------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
    From Tab.2,it seemed that among the 16 crosses of strong heterosis, 14
 had parents from group B,eight had parents from group D, six had parents
 from group A and two had parents  from group C. It was concluded that in
 order to get a strong heterosis cross, it was very important to select
 parents with more spikes. Also among the sixteen crosses of strong
 heterosis, six are crosses between parents group B and D, four are crosses
 between parents group A and B, two are crosses between parents group B, two
 are crosses between A and D, and the first group had the largest proportion.
 So it could be concluded that it 
 was a very effective way to select one parent with more spikes and the other
 with greater genetic difference so as to increase heterosis. Parents with
 early maturity and large kernels were also useful for getting strong
 heterosis.
 
    Guangtian Liu,Jinbao Zhu and Shuzhen Zhang
 
    Strategies for breeding of winter wheat in north China. Through
 investigations and studies on grain protain content, gluten content,flour
 percentage, Farinogram, Extensogram, Mixogram and sedimentation value of
 wheat varieties released in Beijing areas in 40 years, we concluded that (1)
 The gluten quality of varieties in Beijing was poor with low gluten strength
 , weak gluten elasticity and too high gluten extensibility. These were the
 differences between chinese varieties and varieties from forein contries.
 The key point for the improvement of grain quality suitable for making bread
 and noodle in Beijing areas was not the increase of grain protein content
 but the increase of gluten quality. (2) The yield has increased greatly for
 40 years, but the  grain protein content did not appear to decrease and
 gluten  quality also did not deteriorate or improve apparently. High  yield
 and good quality cold be integrated in one genotype.  Breeding for high-
 yield and good-quality varieties was possible. Since yield has been the
 first priority since the beginning of wheat breeeding in China, quality has
 now become the limiting factor and would be more and more important in wheat
 production. Through importing new germplasm from foreign contries and other
 researchers in China, we have finished crosses with good agronomic varieties
 and selected better lines by sedimentation value in early generations and
 baking tests in high generations. Some newly-bred lines with better baking
 quality have been tested and might be released in the near future.  
 
    Jinbao Zhu, Guangtian Liu, Shuzhen Zhang and Jianshe Wang
 
    Genetic studies on quality and agronomic characters. The heterosis of
 yield and yield characters was greater and positive. The heterosis of
 quality characters such as grain protein content (GPC), gluten content and
 sedimentation value was lower than that of agronomic characters. The
 heterosis of GPC was usually negative, while that of sedimentation value was
 positive. 
  
    Grain protein content was negatively and significantly correlated with
 all yield components except 1000 kernel weight. Sedimentation value was
 negatively correlated with 1000 kernel weight, but had no relationship with
 other components such as the number of spike of per plant, the number of
 kernel of per spike, the weight of kernel of per plant. Bread-making quality
 and yield could be improved simultaneously.
 
    Studies on high molecular weight (HMW) and Low molecular weight (LMW)
 glutenin subunits. Most of chinese wheat varieties contained 2 7 8 12 or 2 7
 9 12 HMW glutenin subunits. Only a few varieties had 5+10 subunits. Although
 5+10 subunits were positively correlated with bread-making quality, there
 were exceptions. Other subunits such as 1 and 2* also had importent  role in
 bread-making quality. 
 
    An one-step one-dimensional SDS-PAGE procedure for the separation of
 HMW and LMW glutenin subunits has been developed. The HMW subunits were
 named as A group, while LMW subunits could be divided into B and C group. A
 and B group had positive, while C group had negative influence on bread-
 making quality.
 
    The HMW glutenin subunits in F1 were co-dominant with gene dose in the
 triploid endosperm. This could be used to detect the hybrid purity.  Under
 various enviroments, the SDS-PAGE band patterns of the same variety could
 not be changed, while the quality of the same variety might be changed. The
 changes were mainly caused by the differences of the contents and their
 proportions of different protein components such as HMW, LMW glutenin
 subunits and gliadin.
 
    Selection responce. Grain quality characters appeared to be continous
 distribution in F2 and F3 generations. Grain protein content, dry and wet
 gluten content mainly deviated to the inferior parent or the mid-parent,
 while sedimentation value mainly tended to be near or over the superior
 parent.
 
    As the generations increased, the contradictional relation between
 grain quality characters and the yield per plant also its components
 reduced. Sometimes there was significant or extremelly significant negative
 correlation, but there appeared to be weak correlation in most cases, even
 there was weak positive correlation. This indicated that it was possible to
 improve wheat grain quality characters in keeping yield undecreased or to 
 improve these two classes of characters simultenously.
 
    The selection of grain protein content in early generations was
 effective. If plants with low grain protein content were selected in F2
 generation, the decrease of the genetic advance of grain protein content of
 F3 lines would be expected. On the contrary, if plants with high grain
 protein content were selected, the increase of the genetic advance would be
 expected. The selection of grain protein content in F2 also had positive
 effect on other quality characters and yield, especially in some crosses,
 the selection of high grain protein content plants did not result in the
 yield decrease of F3 lines.        
 
 
 --------------------
    Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Chinese Academy of
 Agricultural Sciences, Beijing
 
    Luxiang Liu*, Jungyuan Cheng, Guoqin Sun and Linshu Zhao
 
                              Wheat Hybrid Breeding
    
    Hybrid Production.  Hybrid wheat seed was produced utilizing both
 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)
 production systems during the 1991-1992 season. Ten CMS hybrid were produced
 in 2 isolated plots that produced good amount of seed. Twenty-four CHA
 hybrids were produced using the chemical hybridizing agent Sc 2053.
 Combinations were done including advanced lines of different origins and
 breeding material as well. Four advanced CHA hybrids, i.e., H91031, H91037,
 H91040 and H91333 were produced in 3 hybrid production plots. These will be
 tested in large areas in different environments in 1993. 
 
    Hybrid Evaluation. Three hybrid yield tests were grown during 1991-92.
 Statistical analysis of data from 18 CMS hybrids with either T. timopheevi
 (T) or Ae. kotschyi (K) cytoplasm showed that the hybrids yielded from 3 to
 20 percent more than the check cultivar "Yuandong No. 3". The best T-
 cytoplasm hybrid "T7125A x R344" and K-cytoplasm hybrid "K78-1A x Yuanhui-6"
 outyielded the check by 20 and 19 percent respectively. These two hybrids
 will be extensively produced during the 1993 season. Sixty-eight CHA hybrids
 were evaluated in two yield trials and we have selected 10 combinations that
 outyielded the check by 15 percent more, and one hybrid with excellent
 bread-making characteristics and good yield pocential. We expected 2 more
 hybrids will be released in 1994. Furthermore, from these trials, it was
 found that 1000 kernel weight showed the highest vigour among the yield
 components, being the main factor contributing to yield heterosis. We have
 also evaluated and  classified the parent germplasm accordingto their
 combining ability.
 
    Parent development. We have not only utilized the best current
 conventional cultivars and advanced lines to directly produce CHA hybrids or
 develop A-lines but also created or improved the special parental germplasm.
 During the 1991-92 season, nearly 100 excellent individual plants were
 selected in the F2 generations from the crosses between several special
 germplasm, and most of them have large spike, high grain weight, semidarf
 plant height, medium to early maturity, main diseases resistance, and good
 anther extrusion. These will be again grown and selected in 1993. Six
 outstanding A-lines with T. timopheevi cytoplasm and 3 good restorer lines
 were made though backcrossing and accumulation method respectively. Twelve
 A-lines with Ae. kotschyi cytoplasm have been developed, in which the
 frequency of haploid production was zero or only 3 percent. Three restorer
 lines with good yield potential and anther extrusion were also identified.
 
    In addition, we were surprised to find some complete male sterility in
 the F1 or F2 generations of 2 crosses between common wheat cultivars. The
 sterile plants had complete seed set in all testcrosses, but the
 headingdates were distinctly delayed than their sisters' lines. It was
 expected that if these sterility can be used to produce hybrid wheat, then
 these systems will be superior to current used CMS systems. Further
 evaluation are needed. 
 
 --------------------
                                ITEMS FROM CROATIA
 
    Plant Protection, Ltd., Zagreb
 
    Bogdan Koric
 
          Investigations of the Most Important Wheat Diseases in Croatia
 
    Scientific work on diseases, namely on the problem of stem rust
 Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici were begun before the second World War.  At
 that time, stem rust was the most serious disease in Croatia and was the
 main reason to initiate investigations to determine pathotypes and to screen
 for different sources of resistance effective against pathotypes encountered
 in Croatia.  The selected sources of resistance were utilized in a breeding
 program to provide the highly promising line Zg 414/58 for that time. 
 Breeders incorporated the resistance of Zg 414/58 into several varieties,
 the best known of which is Zlatna dolina.  Almost all varieties available
 today in Croatia possess stem rust resistance which originates from Zg
 414/58.  Upon development of high-yielding wheat varieties another disease
 known as powdery mildew become increasingly evident.  As soon as this was
 observed, phytopathological investigations on this causal organism, i.e.,
 the fungus Erysiphe graminis f. sp.tritici, was initiated.  Investigations
 focused on pathotypes and Pm genes for resistance.  Many of our wheat
 varieties possess in their pedigree some of these genes for powdery mildew
 resistance namely resistant Pm2, Pm4, Pm6 and Pm8.
 
    The problems of wheat disease in Croatia did not stop there.  In the
 meantime new diseases, such as Septoria nodorum blotch and scab (fusarium
 head blight) appeared as a result of specific cultural practices. 
 Scientific workers again chose the most effective method of control, i.e,
 phytopathological investigation and breeding for resistance.  Investigations
 of the fungi Leptosphaeria nodorum and Fusarium graminearum and today is
 prevalent Fusarium moniliforme var subglutinans produced effective sources
 of resistance which breeders incorporated by crossing and through the
 breeding processes into new varieties Davorka and Iva (scab resistance from
 cv Roason and two lines of Chinese wheat).  The variety Marina has septoria
 nodorum blotch, resistance incorporated from Nadodores 63.
 
 --------------------
      Slobodan Tomasovic
 
      Institute for Breeding and Production of Field Crops, Department of
 Small Grain Cereal Crops - Zagreb
 
      Winter Wheat Breeding Based on Increased Grain Production of Spike -
 With permanent reduction of acreages under wheat, necessity arises to
 increase yield per area.  One of the ways of doing it is by increasing grain
 production per spike as one of the basic yield components.
 
 Breeding winter wheat based on high spike production involves continuous
 work many years, the beginnings of which date from long past, 1921 (Mirko
 Koric).  Genetic material we are working with is very rich.  It was obtained
 by mutually crossing the best genotypes, the carriers of traits for
 programmed wheat ideotype.  By accumulating various polymeric genes, among
 which fertility genes, recombination of favorable genes took place, which
 resulted in obtaining the most fertile genotypes.  Multiple crossing
 produced spike forms with elongated rachis and increased number of spikelets
 and more kernels.  Those crossings produced spike forms with 33 well-
 developed spikelets.  Spikes were found with more than 100 kernels.  From
 this material, and especially from the combination S9xT25, the first spike
 forms were selected in 1946 that preceded the first branching (Ramifera,
 1951), furrowing (Tetrastichon) and normal spike forms (normal) with
 branching gene complex which elongates spikes and increases spikelet number.
 
 A considerable contribution to the investigations dealing with increased
 yield per spike was made since the discovery of genes that control
 branching, furrowing and normal spike forms in Triticum aestivum ssp.
 vulgare (Rm, Ts, and Nr genes) (Svetka Koric).  Branching hexaploid wheat T.
 aestivum ramifera S.K. was developed in the Institute for Breeding and
 Production of Field Crops in Zagreb, and numerous genetic investigations
 were carried out with it.  The work was especially intensified after 1965
 (Svetka Koric).  Manifestation of genes that control branching or furrowing
 may be inhibited by an inhibitor-normalizer factor (NR) which then permits
 the development of normal spikes with branching gene complex.  In this case,
 the branching gene complex positively enhances higher production per spike
 in three ways: increased number of spikelets per spike, increased number of
 grain per spikelet (7-8 grains per spikelet have been reported, even 2-3
 grains in a floret), and increased kernel weight.  How this gene complex
 will be manifested depends on the interaction with other genes of hexaploid
 wheat, especially "major genes QQ, CC, and SS.
 
    In our breeding work, we frequently use genes that control branching
 for developing highly productive normal genotypes.  Normal spikes with
 branching gene complex may weigh 6.70 g with 103 kernels and kernel weight
 of 50.3 mg.  Branching genes account for a consideration contribution in
 breeding winter wheat for development of high-productive genotypes with
 normal spike form.  In the near future, they will probably be used in a form
 of productive furrowing or branching spike.  This germplasm has attracted
 world-wide interest because of the new spike architecture (sink capacity)
 that is receiving growing importance, although this concept was abandoned
 until the 1980's.
 
    Regarding the guidelines for the future work on the above program aimed
 at increasing grain production per spike, it is necessary to lengthen spikes
 of normal forms even more and increase the number of their highly fertile
 spikelets.  The objective is to develop what cultivars with even higher
 yielding capacity that is based on elongated spikes and increased kernel
 number per spikelet, which is potentially made possible by branching or
 furrowing genes called yielding genes.
 
      Importance of Winter Wheat Breeding for Resistance to Fusarium Heat
 Blight - In wheat production, genetic yielding potential is not being fully
 realized, because of some negative factors adversely affecting yield, grain
 and flour quality, as well as their sanitary condition.  One of the negative
 factors is Fusarium head blight, most frequently caused by Fusarium
 graminearum Schw. and, more recently, by Fusarium moniliforme var.
 subglutinans in our wheat growing areas.
 
      Disease development is particularly favored by high temperatures at
 anthesis, above 26oC, with high relative air humidity.  Higher severities
 usually occur as a result of narrow crop rotation (maize-wheat and vice-
 versa and wheat following wheat), and intensive fertilizer rates, especially
 nitrogen.  Semidwarf genotypes and dense stands have lately favored more
 severe spike infection.  The parasite is permanently present in the soil and
 has simple nutritional requirements.  it is both parasite and saprophyte by
 nature, which means that it can survive on living or dead organic matter. 
 Fusarium head blight may cause considerable yield reduction of as high as 50
 or even 80% depending on the above environmental factors and the genotype.
 
      By applying adequate crop rotation and planting healthy and quality
 seeds, reliable results in protecting wheat against this disease can be
 achieved.  However, the most economical and most effective control is
 achieved by growing resistant genotypes, because chemical control of this
 problem has not been completely solved.  Therefore, what wheat growers are
 expecting most for the future are the solutions offered from breeding, i.e.,
 growing resistant cultivars.  A program of incorporating resistance to spike
 Fusarium diseases into wheat is very complex, so is breeding mechanism and
 mode of inheritance because we are dealing with a facultative parasite.
 
    As early as in the beginning of the 1970's, while monitoring spike
 disease development we came to realize that Fusarium diseases on spike would
 pose a big problem in wheat production.  Increased severities on spikes in
 Republica Croatia were reported from 1975 on.  Because of the growing
 damages resulting from Fusarium, the Zegreb Institute for Breeding and
 Production of Field Crops initiated work on solving this problem in terms of
 developing resistant cultivars.  Breeding program was started in 1978 and
 was aimed at developing wheats resistant to Fusarium head blight.  Prior to
 that, in 1976 and 1977, work on collecting sources of resistance was
 started. By 1980, 870 genotypes were collected and tested in Botinec under
 artificial and natural infection and 25 genotypes stood out, of which 7
 sources of resistance were chosen for further work based on their level of
 resistance and valuable agronomic traits.
 
    By using suitable methods of crossing, resistance genes from various
 sources can be accumulated in progenies. Thus, new sources of improved
 resistance level are obtained and then used in breeding programs for
 developing of high yielding lines (cultivars) resistant to this disease.   
 During breeding process, the most resistant progeny was screened under
 artificial infection from certain combinations among which the most
 resistant plants with good agronomic traits were selected, and from which
 new lines with improved resistance level relative to their parents (initial
 sources) were selected in preliminary and comparative small-scale trials. 
 Five Zg-lines were screened which exhibited good agronomic traits and
 improved resistance to Fusarium head blight was compared to the existing
 resistance level in the world.
 
    In the future work and further investigations for an improved
 resistance level, we intend to introduce new techniques and methods,
 especially those more effective screening methods.  Improvements achieved by
 using these new methods could provide higher effectiveness of breeding for
 resistance to Fusarium head blight, which, in economic terms, is becoming an
 increasingly important disease in some wheat growing areas.  What we intend
 to do in the next breeding cycle is to further improve grain and flour
 quality of the new wheat lines.
 
 Publications
 
 Koric, Bogdan, and Slobodan Tomasovic.  1991.  Wheat Disease Research. 
 Improvement of sources of resistance of new wheat lines (Triticum aestivum
 ssp. vulgare) to Fusarium head blight (Fusarium graminearum Schw.).  Ann.
 Wheat Newsletter, Vol. 37, 1985-186.
 
 Tomasovic, Slobodan and Bogdan Koric. 1991.  Effect of Fusarium  graminearum
 Schw. on reductions in yield of wheat.  Wheat Information Service, Number
 73, 11-14, Yokohama, Japan.
 
 Tomasovic, Slobodan.  1992.  The present level of knowledge on how to
 improve wheat yield through increased production per spike and increased
 resistance to Fusarium spp. on spikes.  Ann. Wheat Newsletter, Vol. 38, 93-
 95.
 
 Tomasovic, Slobodan.  1992.  Improvement of wheat yield through increased
 production per spike.  Ann. Wheat Newsletter, Vol. 38, 95-96.
 
 --------------------
 ITEMS FROM THE CZECH REPUBLIC
 
      Research Inskitute Or Crop Production, Prague 6 - Ruzyne
 
      Z. Stehno, L. Dotlacil and M. Vlasak
 
      Wheat genetic resources evaluation, newly released cultivars and
 catalogue of wheat cultivars.
 Genetic resources evaluation. ln 1992 collections of spring and winter wheat
 have increased (133 and 130 accessions respectively). Into the main
 evaluation (each cu]tivar on plot 4 m2 in one replication) 264 winter and
 226 spring wheats have been included. Twenty seven most promising winter
 cultivars and 30 spring ones were evaluated in experiments with 4
 replications.
 
      Among winter cultivars check variety 'Regina' (CSK) was outyielded by
 'Albrecht'(DEU), 'Tombola'(NLD), 'Adular'(DEU), 'Hubertus'(AUT),
 'Caste]l'(REL), 'Apollo'(DEU), 'Hana'(CSK) and 'Typhon'(NLD).
 
      Only one cultivar of spring wheat 'Hanno' (fy. Nickerson) outyielded
 check variety 'Sandra'(CSK). Next two cultivars 'Ventura' (FRA) and
 'Dragon'(SWE) approached check in grain yield.
 
      New cultivars released. Three winter and one spring cultivars were
 released in l992.
 
      'Blava' (Viginta/Fundulea 29) was bred at "Selekt" Bucany.  It is
 mid-early, mid-high winter cultivar with good tillering ability. Spike is
 awned. The cu]tivar reaches middle level of grain baking qua]ity. Resistance
 to powdery mildew and leaf rust is good, but resistance to stem rust and
 Septoria is middle.
 
      'Torysa' (Maris Marksman/Vala) is winter cultivar bred at Breeding
 Station Maly Saris. The cultivar is mid-early ripening, mid-high, having
 mid-high tillering ability. Spike is awned and 1,000 kernels weight reaches
 48 - 51 g. Baking quality is low, and cultivar is suitable for feeding
 purposes. Resistance to powdery mildew is very good, to leaf rust and
 septoria good and to stripe rust middle.
 
      'Vega' (Hana/Selekta) was bred at Breeding Station Hrubcice. This
 winter cultivar is mid-late, higher (99 cm) wheat having awned spike. Baking
 quality is good (7th degree within 9 degree scale). It has good resistance
 to Septoria and mid-resistance to powdery mildew, stem rust and temporary
 races of stripe rust. Resistance to logging is quite good.
 
      'Linda' is a spring wheat bred at Breeding Station Stupice as a result
 of crissing (Rena/ST-802-74) when ST-802-74 = (Mironovska 808/ Siete
 Cerros). The cultivar is mid-early, with short straw (82 cm). Spike is
 awned, mid-condensed. 'Linda' is fodder wheat with good resistance to stem
 rust, powdery mildew and Septoria and mid-level of resistance to temporary
 races Of stripe rust.
 
       Catalogue "Genealogy and Gene Alleles Identified in 31 000 Cultivars
 and Lines of Wheat" has been prepared and published by a group of authors
 from Russian Academy of Agriculture, Information and Computation Center,
 Tver and Research Institute Or Crop Production, Gene Bank, Prague-Ruzyne. 
 The catalogue contains data on genealogy and identification of major genes
 completed by another 8 characters.
 
      All available information from summary catalogues, national wheat data
 bases, professional publications, lists of registered cultivars, recommended
 lists of cultivars, breeding companies catalogues and personal communication
 was taken as a source of data for this catalogue.  Catalogue can be ordered
 on the enclosed form. Publication:  Martynov,S.P. Dobrotvorskaya,T.V.
 Stehno, Z. Dotlacil, L. Faberova, I. Holubec V. 1992 Genealogy and Gene
 Alleles Identified in 31 000 Cultivars and Lines of Wheat.
 
 --------------------
      P. Bartos, R. Hanusova and E. Stuchlikova
 
      Genes for resistance to rusts and powdery mildew in Czech and Slovak
 wheat cultivars.  In 1992 the list of registered cultivars in the Former
 Czechoslovakia contained 21 bread winter wheats, 2 durum wheats and 5 spring
 bread wheats. Genes for rust 3nd powdery mildew resistances were estimated
 according to the reaction to a set of rust and powdery mildew races and in
 many cases results were conrirmed by analysis of F2 hybrids. Results are
 listed in the table. Undetermined genes for seedling resistance are
 designated with + or have preIimjnary designation derived rrom the name of
 the cultivar. Blank = no seedling resistance to any of the races used in the
 tests. Inh. = a specific gene inhibitor of expression of Pm8.
 
 =========================================================================== 
 
 Cultivar    Reg.  Pedigree                        Sr   Lr     Yr    Pm
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Winter Wheats:
 Agra        1985  Purdue 66278 x (Aurora x S985)  31  +3,26    9    2,6,8
 Blava       1992  Viginta x Fundulea 29           +   +        +
 Branka      1988  (Weihenstephan 378/57x
                   x Mironovskaya 808)             31   3,26,  +9  4b, 8 (BR 
 
                                                                   III 55 x  
 
                                                                   San       
 
                                                                   Pastore) x
                                                                   Bezostaya 
 
                                                                   1x x No.  
 
                                                                   444
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Danubia     1984  (Aurora x SO g85) x 
                   Purdue 5571                     31   26+     9     5,8
 Hana        1985  (NS 984-1 x Mironovskaya 808)
                   Moisson                         29    3      2
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Ilona       1983  Amika x (Siete Cerros x 
                   Kaykaz)                         11+          5
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Iris        1983  Siete Cerros x Kavkaz           31,  26      9     5,8
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Kosutka     1981  (Nebojska x Kosutska x 
                   Fleuron/ x Yaktana
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Livia       1991  K 3756-1-76 x Kosutka           31   26      9      8
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Mironovska 1966 = Mironovskaya 80 Bmp 3 from former USSR
 
 Regional 1982 (Yubileynaya 50 x Zo-1,Z, S ra) x TadornaHe IV'
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Selekta     1985  Slavia x Weihenstephan 378/57   31   26     g,+   4b,8
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Senta       1991  (Benno x Sava) x
                   9Mironovskaya 808
                   Artois Desprez)                 31  3,26     9      8
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Simona      1991  (WeihensteDhan 378/57
                   Zdar x Maris Huntsman)
                   x Zdar                                             2,4
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Sofia       1990  (Mironovskaya 808x x
                   Artois Desprez)x x
                   (Weihenstephan 378/57 x
                   Maris Huntsman)                 31  3,26     9    2,4b,8
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Sparta      1988  same as Sofia                   31  3,26     g     ,4b,
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Torysa      1992  Maris Marksman x Vala           +     +            2,6
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Vega        1992  Hana x Selekta                        3
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 Viginta     1984  (Norin 75 x Alba)x x
                   Ilyitchovka                   5,+,+   3   2,3a,4 
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Vlada       1990  Mironorskaya 808 x
                   /(Kasticka osinata x
                   T.timopheevi x
                   Harrachsweizen) x
                   (Harrachsweizen x San
                   pastore x Kavkaz)/
 =========================================================================   
 
                                                                       
 After Bartos, P. -Johnson, R. -Stubbs, R.W., 1987: Postulated genes for
 resistance to yellow rust in Czechoslovakia in wheat cultivars. Cereal Rusts
 Bull., 15:79-84.
 
 ** After Lutz, J. -Limpert, E. -Bartos, P.-Zeller, F. J., l992:
 Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in common wheat (Triticum
 aestivum L.)  I.  Czechoslovakian cultivars.  Plant Breding 108:33-39.
 
 Publications:
 
 Bartos, P., Stuchlikova, E., Hanusova, R. 1992. [Physiologic specialization
 of wheat leaf rust (Puccinia persistens Plow. var tricicina/Eriks./Urban et
 Markova) in Czechoslovakia in the years 1987-1990] Orig. Czech. a Slecht.,
 28, (1):103-119.
 
 Bartos,P., Stuchlikova, E., Hanusova, R. 1992.  Wheat leaf and stem rust
 virulences in Czechoslovakia (1970-199O). ln: Cereal Rust and mildews, Proc.
 8th European and Mediterranean Cereal Rusts and Mildews Conference, Sept.
 8-11, Weihenstephan, :91-93.
 
 Hanusova, R. ]992.  Powdery mildew resistance of wheat cultivars with lB/lR
 translocation/substitution. In: Cereal Rusts and Mildews, Proc. 8th European
 and Mediterranean Cereal Rusts and Mildews Conference, Sept. 8-11,
 Weihenstephan:237-238.
 
 Stuchlikova, E.  1992. Transfer of Lr9, Lrl9 and Lr24 into productive winter
 wheat cultivars.In: Cereal Rusts and Nildews Proc. 8th European and
 Mediterranean Cereal Rusts and Mildews Conference, Sept. 8-11,
 Weihenstephan,:214-215
 
 ==========================================================================  
 Results of Experiments:
    Year Cultivar     Number of days till heading        Elongation
                       Long Day       Short Day                              
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------  
 Sonora 64 s          58.42+-2.32     69.10+-2.17          10.68
 Kosutka w            61.45+-1.37     73.70+-1.69          11.75
 Vala w               63.20+-0.92     81.15+-3.77          17.95
 1991 Jara w          61.75+-1.49    102.31+-4.48          40.56
 Sandra s             64.05+-2.6     103.79+-6.97          39.74
 Zlatka x             62.11+-1.16    115.00+-9.32          59.89
 Zdar w               70.80+-1.45    123.40+-7.17          52.60
 Sonora 64 s          53.30+-1.22     74.09+-4.61          20.79
 Torysa w             67.17+-5.20     90.89+-3.83          23.72
 Viginta w            66.15+-2.48     93.00+-2.89          26.85
 Maja s               65.00+-2.35     97.10+-1.52          32.10
 Livia w              63.90+-2.99     98.08+-5.44          34.18
 ST 50 r              70.00+-5.20     99.00+-2.93          29.00
 UH 682 w             69.08+-2.73    100.60+-2.66          31.52
 1992 Vlada w         64.89+-3.04    102.13+-3.17          37.24
 Senta w              69.23+-3.15    103.43+-5.60          34.20
 Hana w               66.00+-2.34    103.50+-16.96         37.50
 Linda s              61.10+-1.92    104.00+-4.83          42.90
 Saxana s             62.69+-2.37    105.14+-2.80          42.43
 Regina w             69.00 +-2.45   107.00+-4.31          38.00
 Zdar w               71.47          107.00+-4.60          35.53
 Simona w             67.78+-1.91    107.63+-3.84          39.85
 ==========================================================================  
 
                                                                       
 
 
      J. Kosner and P. Bromova 
 
      Photoperiodic sensitivity of cultivars of the Czechoslovak wheat
 assortment. In the years l991 and l992 photoperiodic sensitivity of
 cultivars of the Czechoslovak wheat assortment and relation between the
 photoperiodic sensitivity and the total basic earliness were studied. Tested
 cu]tivars were of winter as well as spring character. The total basic
 earliness was derived from the number of days from emergence to heading
 under natural daylength (more than 14 hrs light period). Photoperiodic
 sensitivity was derived from the number of days from emergence to heading
 under the short - 10 hrs day. Dependence of the total basic earliness on the
 sensitivity to the photoperiod was evaluated by means of correlation
 coefficient and regression analysis.
 
      In both experiments in 1991 and 1992 all used materials of spring and
 winter character were vernalized for 8 weeks at +l to +3 C, planted on 20,
 April (at the geographic latitude of the experiment day longer than 14 hrs
 starts by that date) on a plot undarkened and darkened by an automatic
 device, light period being between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m.  Period from planting
 vernalized plants till heading was evaluated. 
 
      Check cultitvars in both experiments were 'Sonora 64', insensitive to
 photoperiod, with dominant alleles Ppdl and Ppd2 and 'Zdar', sensitive to
 photoperiod.  The evaluation showed that cultivars of the Czechoslovak wheat
 assortment are sensitive or medium sensitive to the photoperiod. Iosensitive
 or only little sensitive is of the Czechoslovak cultivars only the wheat
 cultivar `Kosutka'.  The evaluation also showed that dependence of earliness
 on sensitivity to the photoperiod is considerable. Correlation coefficient
 was r = 0.745 in l991 and r = 0.675 in 1992. In the both years the effect of
 Vrn genes (vernalization reaction) on the basic earliness showed up, spring
 cultivars (dominant alleles Or Vrn genes) being in most cases earlier
 inspite of sensitivity to the photoperiod.
 
 Publications:
 
 Kosner, J. 1992. Vliv jarovizace a fotoperiody na dobu metani dvou typu
 psenice ozime (The effect of vernalization and photoperiod on the earing
 period of two winter wheat types). Genet. a Slecht., 28 (2): 85 - 93.
 
 Kosner, J. l992.  Fotoperiodicka citlivost nekterfch odrud psenice a
 substitucni linie Zlatka(Ceska Pfesivka 3B) (Photoperiod sensitivity of some
 wheat varieties and the substitution line Zlatka(Ceska Presivka 3B). Genet.
 a Slecht., 28 (3): l95-203.
 
 Kosner, J. - Beletkova, P. 1992. Testovani psenice obecne na citlivost k
 fotoperiode (Common wheat testing for photoperiodic sensitivy). Genet. a
 Slecht., 28 (4): (in press).
 
 --------------------
      L. Kucera, V. Sip and M. Skorpik
 
      Winter wheat doubled haploids (DH) produced by anther culture. Anther
 culture ability was studied in more than 60 Czech breeding materials and
 varieties of wheat and triticale. None of the tested genotypes overcame the
 winter wheat variety Florida. Recently we analysed the effects of
 saccharides, Ficoll, proline, 5-AZA and Ag-ions in the introduction medium
 C17. Ag-ions increased proportion of regenerated green plants.  Best results
 have been obtained using filtered liquid C17 medium with Ficoll.
 
      Randomly chosen DH lines (A2 generation) derived from F1 hybrids
 between the Czech variety Zdar and the varieties Resceler (FRA), Bernine
 (CHE) and Branka (CR, lBL/lRS translocation) were tested in Field
 experiments together with random populations of F4 lines. F4 lines of all
 three crosses were taller (by 14 cm on an average) than respective DH lines
 but differences in grain fields between these two groups were not
 significant. Preferential gametophyti selection for lBL/lRS translocation in
 Zdar/Branka DH lines (ratio :2) resulted in a lower average SDS
 sedimentation volume (DH' s:47.8ml/ F4' s: 64.6 ml) and a higher resistance
 to the stem rust and to the yellow rust. Our preliminary results suggest
 that not only lBL/lRS translocation is preferentially transmitted into
 doubled hap]oid lines but that there is also nonrandom transmission of some
 gliadin gene clusters.
 
 Publications:
 Kuvera, L., and V. Sip.1991. Die Ausnutzung androgenetischer Doppelhaploider
 in der Weizenzuchtung. Ber. 42. Zuchtertgung, Gumpenstein: 35-42.
 
 --------------------
 V. Sip and M. Skorpik
 
      Performance trials with near-isogenic lines for Rht genes.
 Near-isogenic lines carrying Rht genes in the genetic baclgrounds of the
 spring wheat varieties Nainari 60 (Mexico) and Maringa (Brazil) were
 obtained from CIMMYT Mexico (by courtesy of Dr. S. Rajaram) and tested in
 Prague-Ruzyne (altitude 350 m) for two years. As to grain yield, no Rht line
 showed a significant positive difference from the respective tall, rht,
 line, but the Maringa single and double dwarfs with Rhtl and Rht2 were
 higher yielding than the Rht8 line (significantly in 1991 trials). Lower
 yields were obtained in the very short Rht3 and Rhtl2 lines. When compared
 with the talls (rht),the Rht lines had more ears but a similar number of
 grains per ear. The reduction of thousand grain weight was consistent only
 for the Rhtl+2 and the Rht3 lines. The effect of Rht genes on SDS
 sedimentation volume was not evident. The Rhtl, the Rht2 and the Rhtl+2
 lines mostly showed reduction of about 1 % protein but the protein content
 was not lower in lines with Rht3 and Rhtl2.
 
 Publications:
 
 Sip, V., and S. Skorpik. 1993. Performance trials with spring wheat lines
 isogenic for the dwarfing genes. Genet. a Slecht. (Prague) 29 (1): (in
 press).
 
 
                                ITEMS FROM ESTONIA
 
         Institute of Experimental Biology of the Estonian Academy of
 Sciences, Department of Plant Genetics,    Tallinn/Harku
 
        O. Priilinn*, M. Tohver, T. Enno, H. Peusha
 
         Utilization of induced mutants.  Breeding work on wheat mutants
 in the Institute of Experimental Biology represents a part of the program of
 wheat production in this country.  Efforts have been made to develop
 cultivars that combine genes for high yields, good quality, disease
 resistance and different climatic stresses.
 
         In 1991 we started with utilization of chemically induced mutant
 lines, which have the complex of agronomically important characters as
 increased productivity and improved quality.  Estonia belongs to northern
 countries, where it is still possible to deal with wheat cultivation.  But
 in our climate (cool, moist, not much sunlight) wheat has unstable yields
 with low quality.  Our purpose is to obtain wheat cultivars with 13% protein
 and 25% gluten quantity in flour with Falling Number 240-250 and yield
 potential 5-7 t/ha.
 
         Five selected wheat mutant breeding lines (2 winter and 3 spring)
 were entered into trials in 1991 and 1992.  In 1992 they were field grown at
 two locations in Estonia under regular agronomical conditions along with the
 high-yielding cultivar Arkas (spring) and Mironovskaya 808 (winter).  
 
         The 1992 growing season was characterized by abnormal climate:
 very dry, especially at grain-filling which resulted in decrease of grain
 weight.  Yields were variable, decreased significantly from last year,
 ranging from 3 to 6 tons per hectare depending on soil type and local
 rainfall.  Harvest began in August as usual and was completed under very
 favorable dry conditions.
 
         In terms of botany two winter wheat mutants St 6-11-32 and St 5-
 15 (from cultivar Starke) belong to Triticum aestivum var. lutescens. 
 Spikes are pale yellow, contain 18-20 spikelets with 3-5 kernels each. 
 Kernel weight is 43-46 mg.  Stem is strong with good resistance to lodging. 
 These mutants are high-yielding with potential above 6 t/ha.  Quality of
 grain and flour is good.  By their gluten quantity they belong to quality
 class II (I).
 
         Spring wheat mutants A-57 (developed from cultivar Arkas), S 7-4-
 12 (developed from mutants S 7-4), and 146-155-58 (developed from mutant
 146-155) belong to Triticum aestivum var. lutescens.  Spikes are yellow and
 have 17-19 spikelets of 3-4 kernels each.  Kernel weight is 39-40 mg, stem
 height is about 70-80 cm for A-57, 80-90 cm for S 7-4-12 and 146-155-58. 
 Data (average of 1990, 1991, 1992) for these mutants are given in Table 1.
 
         Wheat mutant material under study is genetically very rich.  We are
 now
 crossing the bet winter mutant genotypes, carriers of agronomically
 important traits for the programmed wheat ideotype.  In September 1992 we
 planted about a hundred hybrids, obtained by conventional crossing methods. 
 Analysis will be made of the following traits: ear length, number of
 spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, total production per spike,
 kernel weight plant height, etc. to select the better hybridizations.  The
 parent material was represented by earliness, short-stature, increased
 productivity and improved quality mutant forms.
 
 Table 1.     Characterization of wheat mutant lines and their parental
 cultivars, which were entered into state trials.
 ============================================================================
 
               Plant     Kernel    Falling   Gluten     
 Mutant        height,    weight    Number   quantity  Gluten  Quality  Yield
 parent          cm         mg       sec.   % in flour  index   group    t/ha
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 A-57          81.3       39.7       335      28.5      42.5     II      3,4
 Arkas         68.3       40         304      21.3      25       II'     3,5
 S 7-4-12      89         37         307      25        41.7     II(I)   3,5
 S 7-4         89         43         311      24        36       II      3,3
 146-155-58    88         41         356      24        12       II      3,4
 146-155      103         44         443      26        20       II      3,4
 St 6-11-32   108         45         272      21        61       I       6,1
 St 5-15      110         42         254      23        27       II      6,1
 Starke       110         40         243      24        25       II      5,8
 Mironovskaya
 808 as 
 Standard     115         39         257      19        89       II      5,2
 ============================================================================
 
                                                                           
 
         Genetic analysis of resistance to leaf rust in introgression
 lines of common wheat.  The production of wide crosses among the members of
 the Triticea promotes an increase of alien genes available to wheat
 breeders.  In wide crosses with common wheat cultivars we have used
 tetraploid wheat species Triticum timopheevii and Triticum militinae, which
 are distinguished by exceptionally high immunity to diseases.
 
         Plants of the mutant 146-155, induced in the spring wheat cv.
 Norrona after NMU treatment, were used as female parent for crosses with T.
 timopheevii.  Backcrossed and advanced generations of the derivatives have
 been screened in natural and artificial epiphytotic conditions. Out of
 timopheevii derivatives the line 146-155-T, resistant for leaf rust, was
 isolated.
 
         A number of lines (CMT 5, CMT 11, CMT 14, CMT 16, etc.) with
 different levels of resistance to rust were selected in hybrid progeny of
 crosses between common wheat cv. Saratosvkaya 29 and hybrid F1 (T. militinae
 x T. timopheevii).   Genetic analysis of F2 population from crosses between
 rust resistant lines and susceptible cv. Saratovskaya 29 has revealed
 segregation fitting a 3 resistant:1 susceptible ratio indicated that plants
 of resistant lines have a single dominant gene which governed resistance to
 local population of pathogen (Table 2). In our earlier studies it was found
 that introgression lines of wheat possessed new resistance genes, different
 from effective genes Lr 9, Lr 19 and Lr 24 (Peusha, Enno, 1992). 
 Benzimidazole tests were made to determine the host plant genotype, using
 strains of pathogen with known virulence to isogenic line Lr 23 of cv.
 Thatcher. Phytopathological testing of lines with strains of rust, virulent
 to gene Lr 23, has shown resistance to lines CMT 26, CMT 67 and 146-155-T to
 the pathogen.
 
 Table 2.  Segregation of F2 hybrids from crosses of resistant lines with
 susceptible cv. Saratovskaya 29
 ===========================================================================
                 Proportion of resistant and susceptible plants              
 Cross                     No. of 
 combination               plants         observed      expected        chi2
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 CMT 14x  Saratov. 29         99           71:28           3:1           0.05
 CMT 37x  Saratov. 29         97           74:23           3:1           0.09
 CMT 27x  Saratov. 29        100           71:29           3:1           1.01
 CMT 16x  Saratov. 29         91           67:24           3:1           0.19
 CMT 26x  Saratov. 29        100           73:27           3:1           0.21
 CMT 11x  Saratov. 29         60           48:12           3:1           0.80
 CMT 67x   Saratov.29         94           75:19           3:1           1.59
 ============================================================================
            chi2 = 3.84                                P = 0.05
 
      It was ascertained that gene(s) conferring resistance to leaf rust
 in these lines are not identical to known effective genes, conditioning
 virulence to gene Lr 23.  It is assumed that the other introgression lines,
 susceptible to the pathogen, possess gene(s) equal to or closely linked to
 gene Lr 23.
 
         Cytological analysis revealed significant variability of meiosis
 behavior in resistant lines with the range of multivalent formation at MI
 from 1.5 to 30.8% (Table 3) with the high frequency of ring tetravalent
 associations in line 146-155-T, indicating chromosome translocation
 occurrence (Enno, Peusha, 1992).
 
 
 Table 3.  Meiotic pairing at MI in introgressive lines of common wheat
 resistant to leaf rust                                        
 ============================================================================
                No.                                                 % of
           of cells            Average number per cell             PMC with
 Line       observed      bivalents   univalents  multivalents   multivalents
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 CMT 16         265           20,6         0,4          0,06         5,7
 CMT 24          60           20,6         0,6          0,05         5,0
 CMT 27          67           20,6         0,6          0,03         2,9
 CMT 28          73           20,6         0,6          0,02         2,7
 CMT 30         101           20,3         1,2          0,04         2,9
 CMT 34          76           20,9         0,2             0          0
 CMT 36         113           19,7         1,8          0,23         23,9
 CMT 37          68           20,8         0,3          0,01         1,5
 CMT 41          78           20,8         0,3          0,02         2,6
 CMT 42          48           19,6         2,8             0          0
 CMT 45          91           19,2         2,3          0,31         30,8
 146-155-T       47           20,9         0,02         0,06         6,4
 ============================================================================
 
 
                                   Publications
 
 Enno, R., Peusha, H.  1992.  Introgression of genes for rust resistance from
 Triticum timopheevii to common wheat.  Vortrage fur Pflanzenzuchtung.  HF.
 24:197-199.
 
 Reusha, H., Enno, T.  1992.  The genetic analysis of resistance to leaf rust
 in introgressive lines of common wheat.  Proceed. of the Estonian Academy of
 Sciences, Biology, 41:141-148.
 
 --------------------
 ITEMS FROM GERMANY     
 
      Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Georg-August University,
 G”ttingen
 
      E. Kazman*, R. Bothe, T. Lelley*1
 
      Present address: Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding University
 for Agriculture, Gregor-Mendel-Str. 33, A-1180 Vienna, Austria
 
      Incorporation of chromosome 1RS from different inbred lines of rye into
 established German wheat varieties. 
 Worldwide, numerous wheat varieties carry the 1BL/1RS translocation. Apart
 from carrying agronomically valuable genes, i.e. disease resistance,
 increased fertility and better adaptation 1RS is said to affect bread making
 quality of wheat adversely. Due to a limited number of sources of 1RS so far
 used, however, genetic variation available on this specific chromosome arm
 is insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it is of interest to study a larger
 number of sources of 1RS to estimate its genetic variation useful for wheat
 breeding. Moreover, the extent of interaction between wheat and rye
 chromatin, which may affect the phenotypic expression of rye genes in
 1BL/1RS lines has to be evaluated. For these purposes 12 specially selected
 wheat varieties were orthogonally crossed with 6 different rye inbred lines,
 chosen on the basis of differences in their secalin pattern in SDS-PAGE.
 Altogether, 95 F1 plants with 28 chromosomes were obtained and each was
 cloned into 2-5 individuals. The resulting 293 plants were treated with
 colchicine to produce primary octoploid triticales. Disregarding the success
 of colchicine treatment the same plants were backcrossed to their respective
 wheat parents resulting in 49 chromosome BC1F1-plants. After another
 backcross 42, 43 and 44 chromosome plants are being selected and screened by
 C-banding technique, SDS-PAGE and isozyme systems. The progeny of those
 BC2F1 plants having 1R will again be screened for 1BL/1RS translocations and
 then selfed to obtain plants homozygous for 1BL/1RS. The newly developed
 lines will be tested for disease resistance and characters of performance
 under field conditions as well as for bread making quality by SDS-PAGE and
 by baking tests.
 
      Exploitation of the D genome of hexaploid wheat for the improvement of
 hexaploid triticale. Hexaploid triticale lacks the D genome of wheat. This
 genome, however, controls valuable traits in wheat including bread making
 quality which, if present, may greatly improve the value of triticale.
 Substitution of chromosomes of the D genome for those of the rye genome were
 not successful. Consequently the incorporation of the chromosomes of the D
 genome into A and/or B genomes of triticale allows  the full use of a
 complete rye genome.
 
      Line establishment: F1 hybrids were produced by crosses between 18
 different tetraploid triticales, (AB)(AB)RR, developed at our institute and
 9 primary octoploid triticale lines. In addition to selfing, these F1s were
 backcrossed each to its octoploid triticale parent. Based on F2 and BC1F1
 generations, 250 lines were developed of which 112 were karyotyped using the
 C-banding technique. The number of chromosomes of the D genome substituted
 for chromosomes of the A and/or B genome ranged from 0 to 6 per line. From
 61 different karyotypes so far established 39 appeared to be stabilized,
 i.e. each chromosome pair is homologous, while 22 exhibited 1-3 heterologous
 chromosome pairs. The frequency of stabilized karyotypes was higher among
 lines originating from backcrosses than among those derived from successive
 selfing of F1s. While chromosomes 3D and 1D each were found to substitute
 with the highest frequency (50%) for their homoeologues, the least frequent
 was chromosome 4D which substituted for its homoeologues in less than 20% of
 the analyzed lines. No 6D(6B) and no 3D(3B) substitutions were obtained.
 
       Field trials: In 1991/92 in a preliminary field trial, yield
 components of 30 hexaploid triticale lines with D(A/B) substitutions were
 studied and compared with the triticale varieties "Lasko" and "Clercal" and
 with the spring wheat variety "Kolibri". For most of the studied characters,
 i.e. kernels per spike, 1000 kernel weight and floret fertility, the
 majority of the tested lines appeared to be superior to all the three
 control varieties. For kernel characteristics most of the tested lines were
 comparable or even better than the two triticale varieties, but, in this
 respect none of them reached the level of the wheat variety "Kolibri".
 
 In 1992/93 all the available lines (250) are being tested in double rows
 under field conditions for diseases, yield and morphology. Moreover, the
 best 30 lines are being compared with the control varieties in a twice
 replicated field trial with plots of 2m squared size.
 
      Quality evaluation: Allelic variation in the HMW subunits of glutenin
 has been shown to be associated with variation in bread making quality of
 wheat. These subunits are encoded by Glu-1 genes located on the long arm of
 chromosomes of the homoeologous group 1. Hexaploid triticale normally lacks
 Glu-D1 locus which has been shown to positively affect the bread making
 quality in wheat. Using SDS-PAGE, 50 lines derived from crosses between
 octoploid and tetraploid triticale have been analyzed so far for their
 allelic composition at Glu-1 loci. At Glu-R1 (Sec-3), identified in all
 lines, and Glu-B1, identified in all 1D(1A) substitution lines, a high
 allelic variation was observed. Subunits encoded by Glu-D1 were identified
 in 20 lines: 2+12 in 15 lines and 5+10 in 5 lines. The remaining 200 lines
 are being analyzed. Attempts are being made to establish a quality score for
 these new triticales.
                                                                             
 
               ******
                                   Publications
 
 Hartmann, H., S. Schiele and T. Lelley, 1993: Isoenzyme electrophoresis, a
 simple way to identify 1B/1R substitutions and translocations in wheat.
 Plant Breeding (in press).
 
 Kazman, E., 1992: Eine neue Methode zur Substitution von D-Chromosomen in
 das A- und B-Genom des hexaploiden Triticale. Ph.D. Thesis, University of
 G”ttingen.
 
 Lelley, T., 1992: Triticale still a promise? Plant Breeding 109, 1-18.
 
 Lelley, T. and E. Kazman 1990: Identifizierung von Genen und Analyse ihrer
 Wechselwirkungen in tetraploidem Triticale. Vortr„ge Pflanzenzchtung. 18,
 26-35.
 
 Ren, Z. L. and T. Lelley, 1989: Hybrid necrosis in triticale and the
 expression of necrosis genes in allopolyploids. Theor. Appl. Genet. 77,
 742-748.
 
 Ren, Z. L. and T. Lelley, 1990: Chromosomal localization of genes in the R
 genome causing hybrid necrosis in rye and triticale. Genome, 33, 40-43.
 
 Ren, Z. L., T. Lelley and G. R”bbelen 1990: The use of monosomic rye
 addition lines for transferring rye chromatin into bread wheat I. The
 Occurrence of translocations. Plant Breeding, 105, 257-264.
 
 Ren, Z. L., T. Lelley and G. R”bbelen, 1990: The use of monosomic rye
 addition lines for transferring rye chromatin into bread wheat II. Breeding
 value of homozygous wheat/rye translocations. Plant Breeding, 105, 265-270.
 
 --------------------
           Institut fur Pflanzenpathologie und Pflanzenschutz der
 Universitat, Grisebachstr. 6, 3400 Gottingen
 
       J. von Kietzell, A. Fessehaie and K. Rudolph
 
           Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens, the incitant of basal glume
 rot of cereals, was isolated for the first time in Germany in 1986. In the
 following years the disease has repeatedly been reported in several parts of
 Germany.
 
           During the summer of 1992 the occurrence of the disease was
 surveyed in the area of G”ttingen. In early June the weather was humid and
 cold at the heading stage of wheat (EC 41-59).
 As a consequence, a few plants with weak but characteristic, brownish or
 black discolorations at the base of the glumes occurred in almost every
 wheat and oat field. In barley fields, the ears of nearly all plants showed
 brownish discolorations covering the whole glumes. Nevertheless, the disease
 did not seem to cause marked losses in 1992. On the other hand, the wheat
 yield had been reduced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens up to 50% in
 preceding years when the climatic conditions in certain regions had been
 humid and cold at the heading stage.
 The pathogen was isolated on the semiselective medium KBC (S.K. Mohan and
 N.W. Schaad, Phytopathology 77, 1390-1395) and identified by colony
 morphology, fluorescence on King's medium B, hypersensitive reaction on
 tobacco leaves and a specific pathogenicity test on wheat seedlings (Toben
 et al., 1989). The incitant could be isolated from 21 out of 50 wheat
 samples, 15 out of 21 barley samples and 2 out of 10 oat samples (from
 glumes, leaves and stems). Although suspicious symptoms were observed on rye
 and triticale we were never successful in isolating the pathogen from these
 species.
 
           Additionally, the incitant could be identified in leaf and stem
 homogenates of grassy weeds (Elymus repens, Lolium perenne, Avena fatua and
 Arrhenatherum elatius). The weeds were collected near cereal fields. Since
 the pathogen was isolated in rather low concentrations, an epiphytic
 colonization of the weeds was assumed.
 The incidence of the disease was further studied by randomly collecting seed
 samples from wheat and barley fields in different regions in Germany. The
 seeds were washed for 30 sec under running tap water before analysis. In
 these experiments, the pathogen was identified in 35 out of 37 barley
 samples and in 13 out of 15 wheat samples. These results reveal that
 Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens is widespread on wheat, barley and oat
 in Germany. Obviously, the pathogen can also survive on several other
 Gramineae. 
      One reason for the widespread occurrence of the disease may be the
 prohibition of seed dressings containing mercury compounds in Germany since
 1982. Our experiments revealed that treatment with phenylmercuric acetate
 and phenylmercuric chloride resulted in bacteria free seeds, while the
 fungicides Baytan, Sibutol and Arbosan only reduced the contamination of
 seeds by Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens.  In the future, studies on
 resistance of wheat and barley cultivars, on epidemiology, and on
 characterization of the incitant are planned.
 
                                       Publications
 
 Toben, H.M., A. Mavridis and K. Rudolph, 1989: Basal glume rot (Pseudomonas
 syringae pv. atrofaciens) on wheat and barley in FRG and resistance
 screening of wheat. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 19, 119-125.
 
 Toben, H.M., A. Mavridis and K. Rudolph, 1991: Zum Vorkommen der basalen
 Spelzenf„ule an Weizen und Gerste, hervorgerufen durch Pseudomonas syringae
 pv. atrofaciens, in Deutschland. J. Plant Diseases and Protection, 98,
 225-235.
 
 Von Kietzell, J.M. and K. Rudolph, 1991: Variation in virulence of different
 isolates of Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens causing basal glume rot of
 cereals. Proc. of the 4th International Working Group on Pseudomonas
 syringae Pathovars, 117-123.
 
 Von Kietzell, J.M., B. Baharuddin, H.M. Toben and K. Rudolph, 1993:
 Identification and characterization of plant pathogenic pseudomonads with
 Biolog Microplates and Microlog: Proc. of the 8th International Conference
 on Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, in press.
     
 --------------------
           Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben
 
 
      A. Boerner*, R. Schlegel*, J. Plaschke, R. Kynast, I. M. Ben Amer, D.
 Mettin, A. Meinel
 
 
                    GENETIC AND CYTOGENETIC STUDIES IN WHEAT      
 
      Pleiotropic effects of Rht genes on grain yield. Under field conditions
 in Germany the pleiotropic effects on grain yield and its components of four
 sets of near isogenic lines carrying the GA insensitive dwarfing alleles
 Rht1, Rht2, Rht3, Rht1+2, Rht2+3 or rht (tall) were examined over four
 seasons (1989-1992). It was shown that the GA insensitive dwarfing genes of
 wheat induced major effects on plant height. Whereas the percentage of
 reduction seemed to be independent of the genetical background, the absolute
 plant height of the isogenic lines was correlated to the final plant height
 of the appropriate recipient genotype. By analysing the yield components it
 was shown that in all four years the semi-dwarfs realized a higher number of
 grains per ear compared to the tall controls which was accompanied by a
 lower grain weight. Depending on the conditions in a particular year, the
 increase in grain number was sufficient to compensate for the reduction in
 grain size and resulted in  higher yields. It was suggested that plant
 breeders in Central Europe could successfully use the GA insensitive
 dwarfing genes Rht1 or  Rht2, particularly when in combination with high
 grain weight donors, giving a better adaptability to climatic stress.
 Alternatively, the utilization of weaker alleles of the GA insensitive
 dwarfing genes, could be recommended, like that from 'Saitama 27' which show
 a lower susceptibility to higher temperatures. 
 
           The effects of the chlormequat (CCC) on plant height and yield in
 GA insensitive wheats. Seven GA insensitive wheats differing in their final
 plant height were grown, over three years, in randomized field plots and
 analyzed for their response to CCC. Whereas the shorter lines were virtually
 unaffected by the chemical, the 'tall dwarfs' responded with reduced straw
 height and higher yields as a consequence of higher number of grains per
 ear. The positive effect of CCC on yield of 'tall dwarfs' appears to result
 from shortening the stature of the plant. Even in the case of GA insensitive
 wheats, which already realize higher yields in comparison to sensitive ones,
 a reduction to a plant height optimum may be beneficial. Therefore,
 depending on the genetical background, spraying with growth retardants to
 achieve optimal plant height may be beneficial to grain yield.
 
           Tissue culture ability. The influence of the seed weight on
 tissue culture performance was studied using immature embryos. There was
 clear indication, that the weight of the maternal grain had a significant
 effect on culture response. The effect was more pronounced on regeneration
 ability, i. e. lines with low seed weight showed lower percentage of calli
 with green spots. Since all embryos were cultured at almost the same stage
 after anthesis, it is expected that embryos cultured from large grains will
 be larger in size and better developed than those cultured from smaller
 grains. If grains are allowed to develop to a larger size before culturing
 or if embryos were cultured from lines with higher grain weights the callus
 weight and callus differentiation were improved. It is concluded that direct
 and/or indirect genetical and environmental factors that facilitate larger
 grains are useful to improve culture response in wheat.   
 
           Homoeologous relationships of GA3-insensitive dwarfing genes in
 wheat and rye. It is known that there are gibberellic acid (GA3) insensitive
 dwarfing genes in wheat and in rye. The wheat Rht genes are widely used in
 breeding, mainly due to their ability to resist lodging under high
 fertilizer conditions and to their pleiotropic effects on increased grain
 number per spike. The Rht genes show a dominant/partial dominant mode of
 inheritance, whereas the rye compactum (ct) genes act as simple recessives.
 The wheat genes are located on the chromosome arms 4BS (Rht1/3) and 4DS
 (Rht2/10), and the rye genes on the chromosomes 5R (ct2) and 7R (ct1). For
 all these loci multiple alleles are known. Although there is a presumed
 chromosome 4/5 translocation in rye relative to wheat, the ct2 locus is well
 separated from this segment, as shown by RFLP mapping. Chromosome 7R appears
 also to be rearranged relative to wheat, involving a segment of homoeologous
 group 4L. But it is not certain yet whether ct1 lies on this segment. In
 biochemical terms, there is an increased endogenous gibberellin A1 content
 in leaf expansion zones of Rht wheat lines compared to tall controls,
 whereas the effects detected in rye were much lower.
 
           Nullisomic-tetrasomic analysis. A greenhouse pot experiment was
 used in order to determine the contribution of wheat chromosomes to
 different yield components. 42 nullisomic-tetrasomic lines with three
 replications and the hexaploid variety 'Chinese Spring'  as control were
 designed in a random block:
 
 CS  Chinese Spring
 01  N1A/T1B     07  N2A/T2B     13  N3A/T3B      19  N4A/T4B     25  N5A/T5B
 02  N1A/T1D     08  N2A/T2D     14  N3A/T3D      20  N4A/T4D     26  N5A/T5D
 03  N1B/T1A     09  N2B/T2A     15  N3B/T3A      21  N4B/T4A     27  N5B/T5A
 04  N1B/T1D     10  N2B/T2D     16  N3B/T3D      22  N4B/T4D     28  N5B/T5D
 05  N1D/T1A     11  N2D/T2A     17  N3D/T3A      23  N4D/T4A     29  N5D/T5A
 06  N1D/T1B     12  N2D/T2B     18  N3D/T3B      24  N4D/T4B     30  N5D/T5B
 
 31  N6A/T6B        37  N7A/T7B
 32  N6A/T6D        38  N7A/T7D
 33  N6B/T6A        39  N7B/T7A
 34  N6B/T6D        40  N7B/T7D
 35  N6D/T6A        41  N7D/T7A
 36  N6D/T6B        42  N7D/T7B
 
 
 
 EINBETTEN MSGraph\s  \* FormatVerbinden 
 Fig. 1  Mean spike length (cm) of different nullisomic-tetrasomic lines of
 the wheat variety  
             'Chinese Spring'.
 
 As can be seen from the Fig. 1-5 there are remarkable differences between
 the lines and to 'Chinese Spring' for the five characters which were
 considered: (1) Spike length (cm); (2) Spike density (number of spikelets
 per spike); (3) Fertility (number of seeds per spikelet); (4) Yield (number
 of seeds per spike); (5) TGW (g).
 
 (FIGURES NOT SHOWN)
 
 Fig. 2  Mean spike density (spikelets per spike) of different
 nullisomic-tetrasomic lines of the
            variety 'Chinese Spring'
 
 Fig. 3  Mean fertility (seeds per spikelet) of different
 nullisomic-tetrasomic lines of the variety
            'Chinese Spring'
 
 Fig. 4  Mean yield (number of seeds per spike) of different
 nulllisomic-tetrasomic lines of the
            variety 'Chinese Spring'
 
 Fig. 5  Mean thousand grain weight (g) of different nullisomic-tetrasomic
 lines of the variety
             'Chinese Spring'
 
           Intervarietal chromosome translocations. Hexaploid wheat
 varieties and wheat species are frequently differentiated by reciprocal
 translocations. The chromosomes involved are identified after common
 chromosome studies as well  as intercrossing and F1 analysis. In meiosis the
 hybrids of several combinations showed, besides non-translocated karyotypes
 (20%), multivalent configurations of 14  (52%), 24  (22%), 34 (3%), 16 (1%),
 18, 14+16, and 24+16 with different frequencies. A list was compiled
 summarizing data on the presence and number of translocations, on
 configurations observed and their frequencies of occurrence and on involved
 chromosomes from 406 wheat combinations.
 
           Ph1 effect of wheat chromosome 5B.  Experimental results
 demonstrated that the dominant Ph1 allele of chromosome 5B of wheat affects
 the homologous pairing of rye chromosomes. A rye-wheat monotelosomic 5BL
 addition line was produced and used for meiotic studies. Comapred with the
 14-chromosome control plants, the 5BL addition to rye causes an increase in
 univalents and rod bivlaent formation, i. e. a significant reduction of
 chiasma frequency (11.21 Xta/PMC). The 5BL telosome itself does not
 associate with any of the rye                                               
 
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Genotypes                                 Mean number of chiasmata per PMC
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 RR                                                      13.74
 RR+5BL                                                  11.21
 RRABD                                                    5.81
 ABRR                                                     7.01
 ABDRR   (N5A/D5B)                                        7.53
 AABBRR                                                  11.70
 ABBDDRR                                                 11.59
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 chromosomes.  Calculated data in the table above show that the decrease in
 the number of chiasmata between rye chromosomes is much lower in the 5BL
 addition line and  in the 6x and 8x triticales than in the ABRR, ABDRR and
 RRABD hybrids: Thus the double dosage of 5BL, present in hexaploid or
 octoploid triticale, could be one one of the main causes of pairing failure
 of the rye genome.
 
                                   Publications
 
 Ben Amer, I. M., A. Boerner  and R. Schlegel: The effect of the hybrid
 dwarfing gene D2 on tissue culture response of wheat  (Triticum aestivum
 L.). Cer. Res. Comm. 20 (1992) 87-93.
 
 Ben Amer, I. M., A. J. Worland and A. Boerner: In vitro culture variation of
 wheat and rye caused by genes affecting plant growth habit in vivo.
 Euphytica 61 (1992) 233-240.
 
 Boerner, A., G. Melz and J.R. Lenton: Genetical physiological studies of
 gibberellic acid insensitivity in semidwarf rye. Hereditas 116 (1992)
 199-201.
 
 Boerner, A., A.J. Worland and C.N. Law: Chromosomal location of genes for
 gibberellic acid insensitivity in 'Chinese Spring' wheat by tetrasomic
 analysis. Plant Breed. 108 (1992)  81-84.
 
 King, I.P., R.M.D. Koebner, R. Schlegel, S.M. Reader, T.E. Miller, C.N. Law:
 Exploitation of a preferentially transmitted chromosome from Aegilops
 sharonensis for the elimination of segregation for height in semidwarf bread
 wheat varieties. Genome 34 (1991) 944-949.
 
 Melz, G., R. Schlegel and V. Thiele: Genetic linkage map of rye (Secale
 cereale L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 85 (1992) 33-45.
 
 Mettin, D.: 1939-1989, 50 Jahre Aneuploidieforschung beim Saatweizen. Wiss.
 Z. Univ. Halle  39 (1992) 13-24.
 
 Schlegel, R., A. Boerner, V. Thiele and G. Melz: The effect of the Ph1 gene
 in diploid  rye, Secale cereale L.. Genome 34 (1991) 913-917.
 
 Schlegel, R., A. Boerner, D. Mettin, A. Houben, R. Kynast and J. Plaschke:
 Progress report on wheat aneuploid research. EWAC  Newslett. (1992) 43-47.
 
 Schlegel, R., A. Boerner, D. Mettin, A.J. Worland, T.E. Miller and C.N. Law:
 
 Maintenance and evaluation of precise cytogenetic stocks. EWAC Newslett.
 (1992) 106-116.
 
 Worland, A.J., A. Boerner and S. Petrovic: Genetics of final plant height in
 European wheat varieties. EWAC Newslett. (1992) 94-105.
 --------------------
 ITEMS FROM HUNGARY
 
      Cereal Research Institute, 6701 Szeged, P.O.B. 391
 
      Kertesz, Z*., J. Matuz*, J. Pauk, B. Beke, M. Csosz,  L. Bona* and A.
 Mesterhazy
 
      New bread and durum wheat cultivars released. In 1990-1992 seven winter
 bread wheat cultivars and three winter durum wheat varieties were released
 for Hungary.
 
 T. aestivum:
      GK CSUROS     Arthur 71/Tiszataj
      GK KATA       Zg884/GT6272
      GK ORSEG      GKF2-Hays59
      GK GOBE       Mini Mano/Kincso
      GK OLT        Lilla/Mv8
      GK DELIBAB    Mini M.//Jubilejnaja 50/Sadovo S/3/Mini M./Mv12
      THEESE        Horace/M.Hunstman  (Verneuil Sem., France)
 T. durum:
      GK TISZADUR   Leukomeljan/Minaret
      GK LAJTADUR   NR 36 (Austria)
      GK MULTIDUR   Rugby /Capdur//Edmore (GAE, France) 
 
 GK CSUROS is an awnless, middle tall, middle ripening and highly productive
 winter wheat with satisfactory level of baking quality. It is acceptable for
 stock feed, too.
 GK KATA is an awnless, early ripening, highly productive cultivar with
 medium  level of milling and baking quality.
 GK ORSEG is a middle tall w. wheat cultivar with good general field
 resistance to fungi except Fusarium. 
 GK GOBE is a semi-dwarf, tip-awned, early cultivar, resistant to mildew,
 stem and leaf rust. It has a stabile good  milling and baking quality under
 wide range of environment.
 GK OLT  was released as and awnless, semi-dwarf wheat in the intermediate
 ripening group. It has very strong straw, high lodging resistance and good
 adaptability to a range of soils and environments.
 GK DELIBAB was released as the "promise of androgenesis". This is the second
 cultivar  produced by the technique of anther culture in Europe. It is a
 very early-ripening wheat with excellent baking quality (A1-A2 farinograph
 category). 
 THEESE This release is a result of the cooperation betweenVerneuil Semences,
 France and CRI. Theese is a late maturity cultivar .
 GK TISZADUR  was released as an awned winter durum wheat with good  pasta
 and gluten quality and good winter hardiness. 
 GK LAJTADUR is a spring durum wheat  ith excellent lodging resistance and 
 cooking quality.
 GK  MULTIDUR is an early ripening spring wheat with excellent pasta and
 cooking quality.
 
      Kertesz ,  Z., J. Pauk and J. Matuz
 
      Comparison of the traditional selection with haploid breeding in winter
 wheat.. Confusing results have appeared about the breeding value of the
 doubled haploid lines. The present work deals with the comparison of doubled
 haploid R1 lines with the respective F3 lines selected by pedigree system in
 winter wheat. 
 
      In the study starting from 21 F1 population 424 R1 doubled haploid
 lines were produced by in vitro androgenesis. Parallel with this work, 252
 F3 strains were selected from the same crosses by pedigree system. Five
 agronomic characteristics were compared in the two systems.  
 
      From the five traits examined four cases statistically significant
 differences were found between the doubled haploids and the lines selected
 by pedigree system. The DH lines were shorter and later in heading. For
 grain yield and 1000 kernel weight the lines from the pedigree system were
 slightly better than the DH lines. No significant differences were found in
 mildew resistance between the two groups.
 
      The basic statement is that statistically significant differences were
 found between the agronomic performance of the R1 DH lines and the
 respective F3 lines. But these differences where not so high, that we can
 consider them basic. The causes of differences are due to the selection
 carried out in F2 in the conventional breeding.
 
      It can be concluded, that there is no reason to make preference for one
 or other method. It can also be stated that the DH lines are comparable to
 those selected in F2 by conventional way. The in vitro androgenesis can be
 an effective way of the wheat breeding beside the conventional selection.
 
           
      Kertesz, Cs.,  J. Matuz, J. Proksza and Z. Kertesz
 
      Comparison of variety maintenance methods in wheat.  Three maintenance
 systems were evaluated in a study on two different cultivars: pedigree 1.
 when single plant progenies ware grown in a spaced planting system (50x10 cm
 spacing) and their progenies were tested in yield trials under normal
 density. Pedigree 2. means that single heads were selected, head rows were
 evaluated and the progenies of the head rows were tested in yield trials. In
 the third (Jensen's bulk method) a thousand of heads were selected and the
 blends of the head rows were harvested as breeder's seed.
 
      In both cultivars only slight differences were found in grain yield
 when we compared the three methods. Although the bulk, established by
 Jensen`s method yielded more than the others, according to the statistical
 test. It was found that all the methods are suitable to achieve adequate
 homogeneity during the maintenance process, but the pedigree 1. is the most
 expensive, space and time consuming.
 
      The first two methods were compared based on 9 quality characteristics
 as well. In the case of Jubilejnaja 50 cultivar the used method did not
 effect the quality of the progenies during the maintenance. The other
 variety GK Sagvari was more sensitive to the used method.
 
      Both methods were suitable to maintain, or even improve the quality of
 the cultivars during the maintenance process.
                
      L. Cseuz
 
      Abiotic stress resistance studies.  Drought resistance of 110 winter
 wheat genotypes was studied by chemical desiccation test in the field. The
 trial was four replicated, completely randomized. The single -row plots were
 divided to two parts, and one of each was desiccated by spraying with sodium
 chlorate solution 14 days after anthesis. 
 
      Significant differences were found among the genotypes in kernel mass
 depression due to the stress treatment. The mean of the depression in
 thousand kernel mass was 31 %. (LSD 5%= 12.69)
 
      Water retention ability of 82 winter wheat varieties and breeding lines
 were tested by the desiccation test of excised leaves. Young and fully
 expanded, turgid leaves were collected from the field. Their turgid weight
 were immediately measured by a precision balance, then they were placed in a
 controlled environment cabinet (20 oC, 60 % r.h.). After 24 hours the
 measurements were repeated, and the leaves were dried at 70 oC for 24 hours.
 In the loss of water content large differences were found among the
 genotypes evaluated. (mean loss 51.1 %, LSD 5%=11.23).
                
      L. Bona
 
      A survey for seedling tolerance to aluminum toxicity in winter wheat. 
 Aluminium (Al) toxicity, associated with critically high soil acidity (pH
 4.5-5.5), is a major limiting factor to high-level crop production in many
 parts of the world. Recently, the problem has expanded in the high
 production-level areas including Hungary. This condition has prompted us to
 screen a range of winter wheat genotypes for Al tolerance. The purpose of
 this research was to identify the seedling tolerance to Al toxicity among
 winter wheat genotypes used in crop production/breeding in Hungary, and to
 determine  gene sources carrying Al tolerance. A total of 84 pureline
 cultivars, ancestors, and breeding materials were tested in our survey.
 Wheat seedlings were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.18, 0.36 and
 0.72 mM Al, 6-day-old plant roots were stained in a 2 % hematoxylin
 solution. The tolerance level can be quickly and accurately determined based
 on visual staining patterns of root tips. 
 
      Most of the Hungarian-origin cultivars tested (66 %) showed a very
 sensitive or moderately sensitive response; 25 % showed an intermediate 
 response to Al toxicity. Cultivars Jubilejnaja 50, GK Szoke and Martonvasari
 9 were moderately tolerant but non of the cultivars was tolerant to Al
 toxicity. According to the study, many gene sources from Brazil, Mexico,
 Argentina or the US. can be useful to improve the Al tolerance of wheat.
 
      A. Mesterhazy
 
      Breeding for resistance in wheat to fusarial head blight. This disease
 of wheat causes about in every third year reasonably yield losses in
 Hungary, but because of the toxin production (zearalenone, deoxynivalenol)
 also the remaining yield can be poisonous. As fungicide treatment  is costly
 and its efficiency is only moderate, the best way is the use of resistant or
 more resistant genotypes. In the past 20 years an intensive methodical,
 pathological and breeding work has been done to develop a higher resistance
 being useful also in commercial production. 
 
      The winter wheats, which were earlier not consequently screened for a
 higher degree of resistance, proved a high degree of variability, where the
 best genotypes are practically field resistant under epidemic conditions.
 Such genetic differences were found in materials from many breeding
 programs.  A genetic program is under way to create from crosses of the best
 winter type materials even higher degree of resistance to achieve the
 resistance of the best spring type wheats. The best sources for resistance
 are of Asiatic origin, the Japanese Nobeoka Bozu, the Chinese Sumey-3 (or
 Soo-moo 3) and several strains from the Wuhan series, and all are of spring
 time. From crosses with these materials we have now winter type lines with
 very high degree of Fusarium head blight resistance and resistance to rusts
 and powdery mildew with much better agronomic characteristics than that of
 the outgoing spring types. A widely based crossing program is under way with
 these materials. The toxin contamination is one of the worst and hazardous
 consequence of Fusarium head blight attack. The resistance level largely
 determines the possible toxin contamination. So more toxin will be produced
 on the susceptible genotypes. There are, however,  cultivars with low
 infection severity and higher DON content and vica versa. So a direct
 forecasting of DON contamination from head infection, kernel infection or
 yield loss data cannot be made with an exactness outlined in some
 publications. In most cases the higher pathogenicity leads to a higher level
 of DON content, e.g. a correlation exists between pathogenicity and DON
 contamination. However,  an isolate was found practically without toxin
 production and with high pathogenicity. This shows that pathogenicity should
 not be related automatically with high DON production. As a conclusion, the
 DON content in the invaded grains does not automatically follow the level of
 resistance and pathogenicity and  Fusarium species patterns, each variety or
 isolate needs a special consideration. In the past twenty years a number of
 lines were tested by artificial inoculation to check Fusarium scab
 resistance. The developed methods are more reliable than the methods
 conventionally used. Therefore the data are suitable to draw conclusions for
 the durability of resistance. The resistance is complex, it has a number of
 factors which should be considered in a breeding program. Analysis of two
 natural epidemics helped to compare natural and artificial head blight data
 and allowed  to identify the higher plant height and absence of awns as
 morphological resistance factors.
 
      Also significant tolerance differences exist. This means that genotypes
 having ear infection severity not differing from each other, differ
 significantly in yield reaction. In the field tests also seed infection
 severities were compared with ear infection data. They suggest that there
 are genotypes with similar ear infection values, but highly differing seed
 infection rates. As these data originate also from tests over several (4-6)
 years, we are sure that here another factor of resistance is present, namely
 which inhibits the spreading of infection from the glumes to the seeds. Such
 genotypes are for example Bu-20 and Kincso. Many lines kept their
 susceptibility or resistance over years, but several increased or decreased
 their relative disease response. Many cultivars have reasonably variability
 for this trait, in Kincso and Zombor  maintaining sister lines provided 2-3
 times' differences.  Maintaining selection therefore is desirable under
 pathological selection pressure.
 
      As the pathogenic population did not show significant differences in
 pathogenicity from susceptible and resistant cultivars, the possibility of
 durable resistance from the side of the pathogen seems to be secured. A
 further fact is that isolates of F. graminearum and F. culmorum from
 different countries of Europe react the same way, we are sure that the
 stability of resistance is not in jeopardy from the pathogen's side, as we
 know it now. As the pathogenicity of the isolates differs from year to year,
 this may cause a variation in disease reaction, but we can neutralise this
 by using more (we use 4) isolates  separately of different pathogenicity.
 From the genetic side we can ensure the stability of resistance, and many
 years' data support the stability of many cultivars like Sumey-3, Nobeoka
 Bozu, Ringo Star, 85-50 or Bence. 
 
      The chemical treatment seemed nearly hopeless to control head blight
 effectively. A great advantage of recent years the Folicur EC 250, which has
 a much better effect against scab than the fungicides until now based on
 carbendazime active agent. But the highly susceptible materials under heavy
 natural infection pressure cannot be protected economically even by this
 way.
 
      M. Papp
 
      Resistance of wheat to cereal leaf beetle.  Resistance of 50 winter
 wheat genotypes to cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus L.) was estimated in
 1992. Plots consisted of one row, 165 cm long with 20-cm row spacing, with
 four replications in a randomised complete block design. In each
 replication, each of the 50 entries was sown twice. Experiment was made in
 two isolated cages covered by insect nets in the beginning of April. In the
 first cage chemical control was used to provide a reliable check. In the
 other about 3000 adult cereal leaf beetles were introduced on 13 April. The
 feeding damage by cereal leaf beetle was determined on the flag leaf as a
 percentage of the whole surface. To harvest 20 heads were chosen from all
 plots by random sampling and their grain yield as well as thousand kernel
 mass were measured, in addition, these values were expressed as a percentage
 related to the not infested control. Average leaf-feeding damage by cereal
 leaf beetle in 50 genotypes studied was 29.5%. Highly significant
 differences were found between genotypes. The most resistant genotypes
 (Downy, GK Reka,  Mini M/GK Reka, Mv 15, Plk/VPM-MoixAqlj, P 106.89) had
 5.0-18.8% feeding damages. The most susceptible ones (GK Kincso, GK Asztag,
 Bucsanyi 20, GK Lili, GK Kalaka, Zo-Pu 6638A) had 42.5-48.8%. Both the grain
 yield and  thousand kernel mass decreased by 14% on average. The grain yield
 of the most tolerant genotypes (GK Reka, GK Orzse, Mini M/GK Kincso,
 Jubilejnaja 50) decreased by 0-2%, and  thousand kernel mass of those was
 reduced by 4-9%. The grain yield of the most sensitive cultivars (GK
 Ambitus, GK Csuros, GK Lili, GK Kincso, GK Kalaka, GK Szoke) decreased by
 24-29%, and  thousand kernel mass of those was reduced by 19-26%. A medium
 correlation was found between leaf-feeding damage by cereal leaf beetle and
 yield as well as thousand kernel mass reduction (r = 0.4525, P < 0.001;
 r = 0.5492, P < 0.001 respectively).
 
      Trichome length of the flag leaf provided reliable information about
 the level of resistance to cereal leaf beetle (r = -0.8026, P < 0.001), but
 the trichome density of that leaf did not correlate significantly with
 feeding damage.
 
      M. Papp and  A. Mesterhazy
 
      Resistance of wheat to virus diseases.  Resistance of 120 wheat
 genotypes to viruses was analysed in three replications in 1992 at early
 sowing and wide spaced surrounded by grassland. Fall was long and warm and a
 heavy bird cherry oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) population developed on
 the plants. As outlined, due to natural conditions a mixed virus infection
 could develop in 1992 with BYDV dominance.
 
      Due to the fall infection 52% of the total 19618 plants evaluated were
 killed on average to 11 March. Genotypes showed highly significant
 differences in degree of resistance. At the most resistant cultivars (GK
 Csornoc, GK Repce, GK Pinka) 12-32% of plants were killed to 11 March, and
 at the most susceptible ones (GK Korany, GK Delibab, GK Bence, Mv 21) 68-
 79%. At 3 May the healthy plants as a percentage related to the fall number
 of plants changed between 15% and 74% at different genotypes. At 1 June the
 most susceptible cultivars were the GK Basa, GK Minaret, GK Orseg, GK Barna
 and GK Korany, which had more than 80% virus infection, and the most
 resistant ones were the GK Csornoc, GK Novodur, Mv 17, Mv 20 and GK Repce,
 which were infected only to 13-30%. Relationship between general estimations
 at 1 June and percentage of killed plants to 11 March was medium (r = 0.64,
 P < 0.001). The correlation between the healthy plants as a percentage
 related to the fall number of plants at 3 May and general estimations at 1
 June was close (r = -0.72, P < 0.001). Durum wheats were the most
 susceptible cultivars, except for GK Novodur, which was resistant. The data
 show that we have an important amount of variability in wheat population to
 be used for breeding purposes.
 
      M. Csosz
 
      "Twin plot" field experiments for investigation of resistance to stem
 rust.  In Hungary and in Middle-Eastern Europe the most important diseases
 of the winter wheat are the powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f.sp.
 tritici), leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici) and stem rust
 (Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici). These diseases can cause a yield
 reduction of 5.0 to 40.0 percent depending on the resistance of the
 cultivars and the effectiveness of the fungicide control. We studied 30
 winter wheat  entries in "Twin plot" experiment in 1992. The varieties were
 sown in 4 replicates under stem rust infected and disease free environment.
 The artificial infection was made by a mixture of stem rust races (1, 11,
 34, 218), when the first node was visible.The value of stem rust infection
 was low because of the dry spring weather. From the 13 resistant varieties
 only GK Pinka decreased significantly its yield and the 1000 grain mass due
 to serious powdery mildew epidemic. From the moderately susceptible and
 susceptible varieties the Mini Mano/Mv 12 lines showed tolerance against the
 stem rust infection. In spite of the higher infection severity caused by E.
 graminis, the stem rust caused more severe damages. The following
 correlations were found in the study; stem rust x yield r=-0.2452 NS, stem
 r. x 1000 grain mass r = -0.4292 P=2%, podw. m x yield r = 0.0335 NS, and
 powd.m x 1000 g.mass r = -0.2138, NS
 
 Effect of artificial stem rust and natural powdery mildew infection on yield
 and 1000 kernel weight, Szeged, 1992.
 
 Infection severities are given in ACI indexes(x) D = difference, P =
 protected, I = infected            
 
 Tables 1 and 2 (NOT SHOWN)
 
                            2 Tables here(NOT SHOWN) 
 
 
      Barabas, Z., K. Felfoldi and T.Monostori
 
      Hybrid seed production - an unconventional way.  A new hybrid seed
 producing method based on the complementation of recessive nutritional
 mutants (auxotrophs) was successfully employed in the production of hybrid
 tomato. Recently auxotroph mutant induction work has been started in cereals
 like barley, rice and wild wheat species (T.monococcum, T.tauschii),
 spreading the system over monocotyledons as well. Interspecific crosses
 between diploid wild wheat species and hexaploid bread wheat are also under
 way, together with mutant induction work meaning the first steps towards the
 introduction of the described scheme into hybrid wheat production. The work
 is complemented with RFLP gene mapping to trace auxotrophic mutations after
 crossing.
                 
      J. Pauk, Z. Kertesz, B. Jenes, L. Purnhauser, L. Hommo, S. Pulli and Z.
 Barabas
 
      Development of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) protoplast-plant
 system based on suspension cultures.  We obtained regeneration of fertile
 green plants from wheat  protoplasts isolated from regenerate suspension
 culture initiated from somatic embriogenic callus.  It took 2-3 years to
 find a reproducible culture method to produce totipotent fine suspension
 culture for protoplast isolation. It has been found that 'Aura' a Finnish
 winter wheat variety, could produce embriogenic callus type and we succeeded
 to regenerate fertile protoplast derived wheat plants. Green plantlets were
 regenerated from protoplast-derived calli through somatic embriogenesis.
 Regenerants were transferred to soil and fertil plants were recovered under
 greenhouse condition. Their self pollinated and outcrossed progenies were
 viable. The progenies are grown for further tests and cell culture
 improvement.
 
      J. Pauk
 
      Breeding with half the genes: 'GK. Delibab' released, patented and 'GK.
 Ambitus' patented new winter wheat varieties. Breeders try to combine old
 and new methods to develop improved crop varieties in the shortest possible
 time. In vitro haploids have been used extensively in breeding to achieve
 genetic homozygosity. To avoid long selection period, in which each cycle
 requires one growing season, we are developing methods to establish stable,
 homogeneous breeding lines in  one generation by working with plants having
 only half of their somatic chromosomes. 
 
       Nearly two thousand haploids are induced from different wheat crosses.
 To restore fertility for seed collection, the chromosomes of these haploid
 plants are doubled. The doubled haploid is equivalent to a stable homozygous
 line produced through consequent selection, inbreeding. This projejt started
 for breeding purposes eight years ago. During this time two cultivars were
 developed.
 
       GK Delib b released and patented winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
 variety was developed by J. Pauk, Z. Barabas, Z. Kertesz, J. Matuz, B. Beke,
 M. Csosz, L. Bona, M. Schulcz. GK Delibab originated from the cross Mini
 Mano x Jubilejnaja 50 - Sadovo Super / Mini Mano-Mv.12. The performance of
 GK Delibab was tested prior to release  in the national wheat perfomance
 tests during 1990-1992 and released in December, 1992. GK Delibab is an
 awnless, early winter wheat cultivar with high yield, excellent winter
 hardiness and baking quality. It is moderately resistant to powdery mildew,
 leaf rust and moderately susceptible to stem rust. Breeder seed of GK
 Delibab will be maintained by the C.R.I.
 
      GK Ambitus patented wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety was developed
 by J. Pauk, Z. Barabas, Z. Kertesz, J. Matuz, L. Bona, J. Falusi, M. Schulcz
 and I. Pusztai. GK Ambitus originated from  F2 bulk selected for powdery
 mildew in 1985. The 'DH An 6' line - later called GK Ambitus - was developed
 from anther culture in 1986. GK Ambitus was  patented in  January,1993.
 
      GK Ambitus is an awnless, medium ripening, winter wheat cultivar with
 high yield, excellent baking quality. It is moderately resistant to powdery
 mildew, leaf rust and stem rust. Breeder and foundation seed of GK Ambitus
 will be maintained by the CRI.
                
      L. Purnhauser
 
      Improving plant regeneration in callus cultures of wheat. Randomly
 selected 44 wheat cultivars formed calli on MS medium supplemented with 1.0
 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and the frequency of callus induction
 generally did not vary significantly among genotypes. The frequency of
 regeneration ranged from 1% to 93% (40% an average). Small proportion of
 regenerating calli of wheat cultivars ranged from 0% (30 cultivars) to 39%
 (5% an average) contained embryoid-like structures. Precocious germination
 of immature embryos showed a negative, while callus growth showed a positive
 relationship with the regeneration. ( K. Felfoldi)
 
      Copper ion used as cupric sulfate and applied at 5 to 1000 times higher
 concentration than that of the original  medium effectively promoted shoot
 regeneration in wheat callus cultures derived from immature embryos. The
 highest number of shoots (at 10 uM CuSO4) was eight times higher than on the
 medium containing the original amount of MS CuSO4 (0.1 uM), and 23 times
 higher than those on CuSO4-free medium. Similarly to the shoot production,
 cupric sulfate also had a strong stimulating effect on root formation.
 Cupric sulfate used at high concentrations also resulted in a significantly
 higher increase in shoot regeneration than kinetin or benzyladenine (0.5 to
 4 mg/l) treatments.
 
      When equal concentrations of CuSO4 were applied in different media (MS,
 N6, B5 and SH) it was found that the components of the basal media had only
 modifying effects. CuSO4 pretreatment also promoted plant survival when
 regenerated wheat plants were transferred directly to potting soil. In
 contrast with CuSO4, AgNO3, which also stimulated shoot regeneration,
 inhibited rooting in wheat.
 
      This time we are investigating the effects of ethylene inhibitors and
 heavy metals on the morphogenesis of wheat cultures. Tissue culture methods
 are also used in our wide hybridization programs.
                
      Personnel: Dr. J. Matuz has been appointed to Director of Wheat Res.
 Unit at CRI. This Unit has a wheat breeding programme headed by Z. Kertesz.
 A research group handles a programme on disease resistance and plant
 pathology headed by A. Mesterhazy. A special programme is being carried out
 on the use of in vitro techniques leaded by J. Pauk. A small group is
 working on analytical methods headed by T. Bartok, and another one on
 milling and baking quality headed by Mrs. E. Acs. Separate group works on
 agronomy and crop physiology headed by I. Petroczi, and on seed
 multiplication headed by L. Bona, as well as one for marketing headed by B.
 Beke.  A. Mesterhazy has been named as Honorary Professor of Plant Pathology
 
 teaching graduate students at  Agric.Univ., Godollo, Hungary. L. Bona ,
 Wheat breeder has returned to Hungary after spending two year sabbatical in
 the US at Iowa State, Oklahoma State and USDA-ARS, Beckley, WV. His Advisors
 were Profs. K.J. Frey (ISU), B.F. Carver & E.L. Smith (OSU) , V.C. Baligar,
 R.J. Wright & D. Belesky (USDA-ARS).  F. Sagi has retired as Plant
 physiologist  and this time he serves as a part time Advisor at CRI. Dr.
 Sagi advices Mr Kasem Z. Ahmed a grad. student from Egypt who works for his
 doctoral degree in wheat biology. 
 
                               Publications:
 
 Barabas, Z. 1991a. Hybrid seed production by nutritional mutants. FAO/IAEA
 Working Material, Pullman, USA, p.19
 
 Barabas, Z. 1991b. Hybrid seed production using nutritional mutants.
 Euphytica 53: 67-72
 
 Bona, L., Wright, R.J. and Baligar, V.C. 1992. Acid soil tolerance of
 Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum Desf. genotypes. Cereal Res. Commun.
 20:95-101.
 
 Bona, L. and Carver, B.F. 1992. Seedling tolerance to aluminum toxicity
 among winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. (in Hungarian with
 English summaray) Novenytermeles. 41: 381-391. 
 
 Carver, B.F. and Bona, L. 1992. Genetic improvement of acid soil tolerance
 in hard red winter wheat. p. 91. In: Agronomy Abstracts, ASA, Madison, WI.
 
 Csosz, L. 1991. Expression of inheritance of 1000 kernel weight with and
 without stem rust infection. (Abstr.) In: M. V nova, J. Benada, L. Tvaruzek
 and R. Frecer [eds.], Conference on genetics of disease resistance in
 cereals. November 12-14, 1991. Kromeriz, Czechoslovakia, p.41-43.
 
 Csosz, M.,-  Matuz, J.,  Pusztai, I., Barabas Z., 1992.  Effect of reduced
 doses of Bayleton 25 WP on the infection and yield of winter wheat varieties
 susceptible and resistant to powdery mildew. (in Hungarian with English
 summary) Novenytermeles, 41:485-495.
 
 Csosz, M., - Matuz, J., - Mesterhazy, A., - Barabas, Z. 1992. Field testing
 methods of the durable resistance of wheat to stem rust (Puccinia graminis
 f.sp. tritici). (Abstr.) Symposium on durability of disease resistance,
 February 24-28. 1992. IAC, Wageningen, p.42.
 
 Csosz, M., - Mesterhazy, A. 1992. Comparison of the inheritance expression
 of wheat with and without stem rust infection measured by yield and 1000
 grain mass. Vortr. Pflanzenzchtg. 24, 292-294.
 
 Felfoldi, K. and  Purnhauser, L. 1992. Induction of regenerating callus
 cultures from immature embryos of 44 wheat and 3 triticale cultivars. Cereal
 Res. Commun. 20: 273-277
 
 Kasem, Z. Ahmed, Mesterhazy, A. and Sagi F. 1991. In vitro technics for
 selecting wheat (Triticum aestivum  L.) for Fusarium-resistance. I. Double -
 layer culture technique. Euphytica. 57:251-257.
 
 Kertesz, Z. , Pauk J. 1991. Evaluation of anther culture responses of wheat
 breeding material. Cereal Breeding Proc. Eucarpia Cereal Section Meeting,
 Schwerin 139-140.
 
 Kertesz, Z., Flintham, J. E. and Gale, M. D. 1991. Effect of Rht dwarfing
 genes on wheat grain yield and its components under Eastern European
 conditions. Cereal Res. Commun.8: 297-304.
 
 Kertesz, Z., Pauk, J. and Matuz, J. 1992. Practical results of the in vitro
 androgenesis in wheat. Book of Poster Abstracts, XII EUCARPIA Congress,
 Angers, France. 173-174.
 
 Kertesz, Z.,  Pauk, J., and Barabas, Z. 1991. Production and utilisation of
 doubled haploid wheat mutants in hybrid and conventional breeding.
 Proceeding of the second FAO/IAEA meeting, Katowice 1988 Cereal Res.
 Commun.19: 109-117.
 
 Manninger, K., - Csosz, M. and Tyihak, E. 1992. Biochemical immunization of
 wheat plants to biotrophic fungi by endogenons fully N-Methylated compounds.
 Proc. of 3rd International Conference on Role of Formaldehyde in Biological
 systems 18-22. May 1992. Sopron, Hungary, p. 157-162.
 
 Matuz, J., Shamkie, J.A. and Mesterhazy, A. 1992. The effect of selection on
 yield in F2, F3 generations of wheat. Cereal Res. Commun. 20:25-32.
 
 Matuz, J. 1992. Development of methods and tools for spaced seeding in wheat
 breeding in Szeged. Proc. Eight Int. Conf. Mech. of Field Exp. (IAMFE, 1992)
 Soest, Germany, July, 19-23. p. 48-50.
 
 Mesterhazy, A., - Csosz, L., - Manninger, K., - Barabas, Z. 1991. Vertical
 resistance or tolerance, a methodical challange? Acta Phytopathologica et
 Entomologica Hungarica. 26 (3-4), pp.271-279.
 
 Mesterhazy, A. 1991. Biologische und methodische Voraussetzungen, um
 genetisch gltige Inokulationsergebnisse bei Weizenfusariose zu erreichen.
 Mitt. Dt. Phytomed, Ges., 21:55. (Abstr.)
 
 Mesterhazy, A. 1991. Resistance components of wheat to scab. 2nd Eur.
 Seminar Fusarium mycotoxins, taxonomy, pathogenicity, Poznan, Mycotoxin
 Research. 7:68-70.
 
 Mesterhazy, A. 1992. Durability of scab (Fusarium graminearum and F.
 culmorum) resistance in wheat. Durable Resistance, Wageningen, Abstr.
 
 Mesterhazy, A., Csosz, L., Manninger, K., Barabas, Z. 1992. Vertical
 resistance or tolerance, a methodical challenge? Acta Phytopath. and
 Entomol. Hung.  26:271-279.
 
 Papp, M. 1992. Resistance mechanism of wheat to cereal leaf beetles (Oulema
 spp.). An Overwiev. (in  Hungarian with English summary)  Novenytermeles 41:
 455-461.
 
 Papp, M., Kolarov, J., Mesterhazy, A. 1992. Relation between pubescence of
 seedling and flag leaves of winter wheat and its significance in the
 resistance breeding to cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).
 Environmental Entomology 21: 700-705.
 
 Papp, M., Nyitrai, A., Mesterhazy, A. 1991. Variability in wheat for virus
 resistance and the cereal leaf beetle reactions. In M. Vanova, J. Benada, L.
 Tvaruzek and R. Frecer [eds.], Proc. of the Conference on Genetics of
 Disease Resistance in Cereals, November 12-14, 1991. Kromeriz,
 Czechoslovakia. pp. 47-49.
 
 Pauk, J., Fekete, S., Vilki, J., Pulli, S. 1991. Protoplast culture and
 plant regeneration of different agronomically important Brassica species and
 varieties. Journ. of Agric. Sci. in Finland, 63: 371-378.
 
 Pauk, J., Manninen, O., Mattila, I., Salo, Y. and Pulli, S. 1991.
 Androgenesis in hexaploid spring wheat F2 populations and their parents
 using a multiple-step regeneration system. Plant Breeding 107: 18-27. 
 
 Pauk J., Mesterhazy, A., Kertesz, Z. 1992: Beurteilung der androgenetischen
 Haploidenherstellung in der Weizenzuchtung. 42. Arbeitstagung der
 Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Saatzuchtleiter 1991. Gumpenstein: 77-81.
 
 Pauk, J. and Szarka, B. 1991: Protoplast isolation and culture investigation
 in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Abs. 8th Int. Protoplast Symp.
 Physiol. Plantarum 82(1): A4/27.
 
 Proksza, J., Kertesz, Cs., Matuz, J. 1991. Comparative test of winter wheat
 variety maintenance procedures. (in Hungarian with English summary) 
 Novenytermeles. 40: 303-312.
 
 Proksza, J., Kertesz, Cs., Matuz, J. 1992. Effect of the maintenance process
 on the quality in two winter wheat cultivars. (in Hungarian with English
 summary) Novenytermeles. 41: 289-303.
 
 Proksza, J., Kertesz, Cs., Kertesz, Z. 1991.  Effect of stabilizing
 selection in two winter wheats. (in Hungarian with English summary)
 Novenytermeles  40: 385-394.
 
 Purnhauser, L.  1991.  Stimulation of shoot and root regeneration in wheat
 Triticum aestivum callus cultures by copper. Cereal Res. Commun. 19:419-423.
 
 Purnhauser, L. 1991. The effect of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and
 ethylene inhibitors on the shoot regeneration of wheat callus cultures.
 International conference on plant growth substances..  Amsterdam, July 21-
 26. MO-C12-P40. Abstr .
 
 Sagi, F., Ahmed, K. Z., Sagi, H., , Bartok, T., Mozsik, I. and Mesterhazy,
 A. 1991. Anwendung einiger klassisch-biotechnologischer Methoden in der
 Weizenzchtung: Produktion von Somaklonen und in vitro Selektion auf
 Fusarium Toleranz. 42 Bericht ber die Arbeitstagung 1991 der Ost.
 Pflzchter, Gumpenstein, 83-85.
 --------------------
      Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
 Martonvasar
                                         
      Z. Bedo T, L. Balla* T, L. Szunics* T, L. Lang* T, Lu. Szunics, I.
 Karsai, Gy. Vida
                                       
                                       Wheat production
 
      The 1991-1992 economic year was unfavourable for wheat production in
 many respects. In October, rain prevented sowing at the proper time,  so
 only  840,000  hectares were sown instead of  the usual 1.1-1.2  million. 
 The  winter was  mild and dry,  followed by an extremely  dry  spring 
 lasting  until  mid-June,  when the rain finally arrived, but with a very
 uneven distribution: in some places there was  far too much,  and in other
 places  too little. This had a damaging influence on wheat quality. The
 yield finally harvested amounted  to  4.06  t/ha,  some 1.0-1.4 t less than
 the average over previous years.
 
      Breeding.  Two new Martonv s r wheat varieties were registered in 1992.
 Martonv s ri  24  (line Mv  218-88)  was selected from the hybrid population
 
 GT  13A 305//K1/ZG  1477-69/3//K1/ZG 1477//Kavkaz and gave the highest
 yields in  the three-year  state variety trials. It  has excellent  stem 
 rust  resistance,  winter  hardiness and lodging resistance.  Farinograph 
 tests show  it  to  have medium quality (B2-C1), so it is chiefly of value
 for animal feeding. 
 
      The other new variety,  Fatima  2,  is the result of  breeding in
 cooperation with  I.C.C.P.T.  (Research Institute for Cereals and Industrial
 
 Crops),  Fundulea,  Romania. It was selected from the hybrid population
 Fundulea 29/Lovrin 32,  being selected up to F4 in Fundulea and from  then 
 on in Martonv s r.  In the three-year state variety  trials  it  yielded 
 significantly  more  than the standards.  It  excels  with  respect to  its
 good  quality, high gluten content,  good winter hardiness and lodging
 resistance. It has medium or better disease resistance (powdery mildew, stem
 and leaf rust).
 
      Pedigree analysis.  A computerised pedigree analysis was carried out 
 on the breeding stock used  over  the last 8  years,  during which time more
 than 1300  parental lines took part  in the  combinations tested. Each year
 the breeding  stock consists  of  crosses  involving 600-700 parents and
 around 80 % of the genetic background of the breeding stock has changed over
 the last 8  years.  The variability of the programme is  demonstrated  by
 the fact that,  due to the  use of initial stocks  of  various  origins, 
 the  dominance  of certain parental types is not perceptible.  Bezostaya 1,
 which previously occurred  with  great  frequency,  is  now  only  present 
 in the pedigree of Martonv s r lines through its progeny. In the present
 breeding  stock the most  frequent  crossing  partner,  though it occurs in
 only  some 6-8  %  of the combinations, is Martonv s ri 15.
 
      Effect of freezing on yield components.  The survival percentages of
 winter wheat varieties with  good and poor frost resistance,  and the extent
 to which individual plants were damaged,  were determined after freezing at
 -14oC and -16oC. The survival  %  of varieties with good frost resistance 
 did not differ  significantly  from  each  other  at  the   two  freezing
 temperatures,  but for varieties  with  poor  frost  resistance a
 substantial degree of plant destruction was recorded. The scoring value gave
 a good reflection of  the variety order  determined on the  basis of 
 survival  %.  Plants which survived after freezing despite frost damage
 (scores of 2-3) and those which suffered no frost  damage  (scores of  4-5)
 were raised  to  maturity. Less reduction was observed in the yield
 components of  plants damaged by freezing at  -14oC than  at  -16oC.  Of 
 the eight characters examined,  the extent of damage suffered by individual
 plants was exhibited  primarily as  a reduction in  the number  of  ears per
 plant, and consequently in the number of grains and grain mass of side-ears
 and in the total grain yield.  There was  no  change in plant height,  while
 the number of grains  and the grain  mass in the main ear only decreased in
 a few varieties after freezing at -16oC.
 
      Resistance studies.  Due  to  the  dry,  warm,  droughty  weather, 
 very  few diseases occurred  in  Hungary.   A  moderate  extent  of  powdery
 
 mildew infection was recorded, while a very weak infection with leaf and
 stem rust was observed in places. On a few susceptible varieties, symptoms
 of  Helminthosporium  leaf  spots and ear  Fusarium were visible.
 
      In 1992, 23  races  of  wheat powdery mildew  were isolated. The
 prevalent  races and their frequencies  were:  51  (22.38  %), 72 (1.9%), 
 90 (20.96%), 75 (6.6%), 67 (4.75%). Very few races were virulent to
 genotypes containing the resistance genes  Pm 4a and Pm 4b. Satisfactory
 protection  against leaf  rust  is  provided  by the resistance genes Lr 9, 
 Lr 19, Lr 24 and Lr 25, against stem rust by Sr 9b,  Sr 11, Sr 21, Sr 24, Sr
 31 and Sr 36, and against bunt by Bt 5, Bt 8, Bt 9 and Bt 10. A host-plant 
 (wheat) - parasite (Puccinia recondita)  - hyperparasite (Sphaerellopsis
 filum) chain was discovered.
 
 Personal news
 
      Ildiko  Karsai  is  currently spending  six months  in  the US at
 Oregon  State University,  Corvallis.  Yan  Zifu,  from the Henan
 Agricultural University,  Zhengzhou, China, is spending a year in
 Martonv s r. Otto Veisz, who was previously responsible for plant raising in
 the phytotron,  moved to the Wheat Breeding Department as a breeder in
 September 1992.
 
 --------------------
                 Cell biology and pollen biotechnological studies
 
      B.  Barnabas* T, G. Kovacs, E. Szakacs, E. Korbuly, G. He, I.
 Takacs, I. T¡mar
 
      The research activity of our laboratory is focused on the in vivo and
 in  vitro manipulation  of  the  reproductive  processes. The projects
 carried out in the last year are the following:
 
      In vitro androgenesis: A highly efficient anther culture technique to 
 produce dihaploid wheat  plants  has been  elaborated.  Chromosome doubling 
 of the uninucleate  microspores  produced  by  colchicine  added  to the
 induction medium  is  significantly more  efficient  and economic than  the
 conventionally  used routine.  Phenotypic characters of the next  DH
 progenies can  be  better  stabilized  by  this new method.
 
      Regenerable,  embriogenic haploid cell suspensions were initiated and
 established from  pollen calli of two  cultivated genotypes.  Repeated
 callus and  cell selection during the  culture procedure led  to  stable 
 haploid suspensions consisting  of fine clusters each containing  20-50 
 cells.  These suspensions were able to to maintain their morphogenic ability
 during 8 months of subculture.  Fertile,  seed-producing plants  were
 successfully grown  from an 8-month-old  suspensions.  The experimental
 system holds promise for use in haploid protoplast isolation and genetic
 manipulation.
 
      The  haploid callus  and cell  cultures  are extensively  used in
 mutant selection experiments for  aluminium  tolerance  and frost
 resistance.  The preliminary results suggest that the regenerants from low
 pH  and aluminium containing  culture media  have better tolerance to
 aluminium than that of the  original genetic source. The inheritance of the
 increased resistance is under study.
 
      In vitro pollen maturation.  A method to produce functionable  pollen
 and to get  mature seeds in in vitro cultured wheat   florets has been
 elaborated. Several wheat  genotypes  were  compared    for  their  in 
 vitro  pollen maturation  capacity in detached  spikelet cultures on  a
 defined solid medium.  Under  these  in  vitro  conditions  the genotypes
 studied produced normal trinucleate pollen  grains at a  range of 37-68%,
 depending on the genotypes. The pollen maturation process from the middle
 uninucleate microspore stage took approximately 3 days longer in vitro than
 in vivo.  The viability, germination capacity, and fertilizing ability of
 the in vitro ripened pollen also differ between the genotypes. The seed set
 achived in vitro (averagely 13%)  offers promise for the practical 
 application of this method to produce  controlled or selected  offspring. On
 the other hand, development of male and female gametophytes in vitro provide
 an opportunity to study the  regulation and morphogenetical basis of their
 development.
 
      Cryopreservation.   A deep freeze storage method was worked out  for
 triticale pollen which  allows  the viability and  fertilising  ability  of
 partly dehydrated  pollen to be prolonged for up to 10 years.
 
 --------------------
                      Physiological and biochemical studies
 
      E.Paldi, T.Janda, J.Kissimon, M.Kovacs, L.Stehli
 
      Specific polyamine synthesis during vernalisation in wheat.  The 
 quantitative  and qualitative  characteristics  of polyamine synthesis in
 the developmental  physiological  processes taking place at low temprature
 (0.5oC, 7 weeks, darkness) were studied in winter (Mv 15, Mironovskaya 808, 
 Rana 2) and spring (Super x) wheat varieties.  It was found  that the
 alternative arginine-agmatine-putrescine metabolic pathway occuring only in
 plants  during  the course of  the  process the quantity of agmatine
 constantly rises, but only  in  winter wheat varieties with a  cold
 requirement. In spring varieties the significance of this  synthesis is
 negligible.  Agmatine can be reliably identified using modified forms of the
 HPLC techniques previously applied.
 
      Changes  in  Polyamine  Levels  during  Cold  Treatment  of Wheat. 
 Examinations were  made  on  the  polyamine  accumulation  in the leaves, 
 crowns,  and roots of winter wheat plants (cultivars: Mv 4,  Mv 14, Bucs nyi
 20, Vitka) subjected to short low-temperature stress  (6hs,-2oC).  A  marked
 
 accumulation  of  Putrescine, was obserwed:  Spermidine  showed a much
 slower, but  general and sustanined  increase  in  concentration  and 
 Spermine levels appeared to  be  the least responsive  to  cold  stress.
 Agmatine accumulation was also examined and found comparable to that of
 Putrescine.  We establish that Agmatine which  is an intermediate product of
 a specific pathway only in higher plants,  can play an important  role 
 during  short-term   cold  treatment.  Polyamine concentrations were highest
 in the crowns of the  stressed plants while roots generally exhibited the
 lowest accumulation.
 
      Effect of  DL-S-Methyl Methionine  on  polyamine biosynthesis, in wheat
 cultivars..  Low concentration of  S-methyl  methionine occurs in  all
 plants. The  treatment  of  wheat  seedlings  (cultivars:  Mv  4,  Mv 14,
 Bucs nyi  20,  Vitka)  with S-methyl  methionine led  to a 20-30% increase
 in the polyamine content. This increase was particularly great in  the case 
 of  putrescine.  The examinations showed that S-methyl methionine not only
 stimulated polyamine biosythesis, in wheat cultivars,  but also took an
 active part in it.  The carbon chain and amino group  of  S-methyl 
 methionine  are incorporated into  the carbon  chain of  spermidine by means
 of  the following pathway:   S-methyl  methionine    homoserine  aspartic  
 acid semialdehyde + putrescine  carboxyspermidine  spermidine.
 
      Effect  of  light on  the activity  of  the  protein synthesising
 system in wheat seedlings.
 The experimental  results indicate that the  protein synthesising ability of
 
 etiolated plants  depends to  a great  extent  on the degree of modification
 of their tRNAs under-modified tTNAs, which only   display   around  70%  
 activity  even  in  aminoacylation reactions,  have  the great influence on 
 the functioning  of the cell-free protein synthesising system, reducing the
 incorporation of the labelled amino acid  to two-thirds.  Considering  the
 fact that  tRNAs normally  have the highest  minor nucleotide content, this
 result is  not surprising.  Light-dependent changes in other components  of 
 the protein  synthesising  system,  including the under-modification of the
 rRNAs,  play a lesser role  in reducing the intensitysince  the RNAs 
 contain fewer minor bases  than the tRNAs even in green plants, so the
 reduction in minor basecontent during etiolation has less effect.  If all
 the RNAs participating in the system are under-modified  tRNA and  S23
 fraction obtained from etiolated plants),  the intensity of protein
 synthesis drops to little more than half that in green plants.
 
 --------------------
      Genetic Studies
 
      J. Sutka,  M. Molnar-Lang, G. Galiba, B. Koszegi
 
      Production  of  fertile wheat-barley  amphiploids 190 regenerants were 
 grown  from  five  wheat  (Triticum  aestivum  cv.  Chinese Spring)   x  
 barley (Hordeum vulgare cv.  Betzes) hybrid  plants produced  at  
 Martonvasar in 1990. 79 hybrids were treated with colchicine  by  different 
 methods.  Altogether  40  seeds  were developed   by   means of 
 self-pollination  on  isolated ears on twelve   plants.  When   the next
 generation (R2)  was raised 399 seeds developed  through  self-pollination. 
 Up  till  now twelve plants have been grown  from  the  R3  generation and
 all of them set seeds by self   pollination.   The  chromosome numbers of
 all the  selfpollinated    plants   were   analysed  in  mitosis  and
 meiosis.  By  the R3  generation  all the  self-pollinated plants contained 
 
 56    chromosomes.  On   studying the meiotic configurations, mostly
 bivalents were found.
 
      Possible    chromosomal   location   of   genes   determining the
 osmoregulation   of  wheat.   Stress  induced   free  amino-acid
 accumulation  in  the  presence  of   0.7M   mannitol  has   been compared 
 in  tissue  cultures of   moderately   stress-tolerant 'Chinese Spring' and
 stress-sensitive 'Capelle   Desprez' cultivars and in  disomic chromosome 
 substitution  lines  of 'Capelle  Desprez'  into 'Chinese  Spring'. The
 profile of amino acid accumulation  was different in  the two  parents.  The
 amino acid concentration of the substitution  lines belonging to the A,  B
 and D genomes, respectively, altered  characteristically under stress 
 condition.   The  'Capelle  Desprez' chromosomes associated with non-ionic
 osmotic stress-induced free  amino acid accumulation were 5A and 5D.
 
 
                                   Publications
 
 El  Maksoud M.M. - Bedo Z.  1992. Half diallel analysis of different
 characters  in   wheat   anther   culture. Acta Agronomica, 41. 3-4.
 235-242.
 
 Bakonyi J., Fischl G.  Szunics L.  1992. Comparison of the pathogeneity  of 
 Helminthosporium  (Drechslera,  Bipolaris, Xxserohilum)  species and
 isolates in artificial inoculation experiments  on  winter  wheat varieties.
 
 Novenyvedelem, XXVIII, 9. 361-365.
 
 Barnabas B.  1992.  Application of in vitro techniques in cereal pollen 
 biotechnology.   Atelier  pollen.  Connaissances  et implications en
 amelioration des plantes. Les 6 et 7 fevrier 1992. Toulouse, pp. 49-52.
 
 Barnabas  B., Kovacs  M., Kovacs  G.:  1992.  Long  term cryopreservation of
 
 gramineaceous  pollen.  XIIIth EUCARPIA Congress, Book of Abstracts, Angers,
 France, pp. 409-410.
 
 Barnabas,  B.   Kovacs,  G. 1992. In vitro pollen maturation and siccessful
 seed production in detached  spikelet cultures in wheat  [Triticum  aestivum
 
 L.].   Sex.  Plant  Reprod., 5:286-291.
 
 Barnabas B., Kovacs G. 1992. Application of in vitro technoques in cereal 
 pollen  biology.  In: Ottaviano,E., Mulcahy,D.L., Sari-Gorla,M., 
 Mulcahy,G.B.  [eds.]:Angiosperm pollen and Ovules. Springer-Verlag, New
 York, pp. 291-297. 
 
 Bedo Z., Karsai I., Vida G., Lang L.  1992. Breadmaking quality of doubled
 haploid lines derived  from  wheat anther culture. J. Genet. and Breed.,
 46:263-268.
 
 Bedo Z., Karsai I. , Vida G. 1992. Bezostaya 1 es Mironovszkaja 808 
 szarmazekok  cs¡ranovenykori  aluminium- toleranciaja. (Aluminium  tolerance
 in  seedlings  of Bezostaya   1  and  Mironovskaya 808 derivatives.)
 Novenytermeles, 41. 393-400.
 
 Galiba G. , Kovacs  G., Sutka J. 1991.  Genetic analysis of water deficit  
 and  frost  resistance  in  wheat tissue culture. In  Proceedings  of 
 International Symposium. Wheat Breeding. Eds.: Panayotov,I. and Pavlova ,S.
 Albena, Bulgaria pp. 12-17.
 
 Galiba  G., Simon-Sarkadi G., Kocsy G., Salgo A., Sutka J. 1992.   Possible
 chromosomal location  of genes determining the osmoregulation  of wheat.
 Theor.  Appl.  Genet. 85:415-418.
 
 Galiba   G., Tuberosa  R., Kocsy G., Sutka J. 1992.  Involvement   of 
 chromosomes  5A  and  5D in  cold-induced asicic acid   accumulation   and
 frost  tolerance  of wheat calli. Plant Breeding (inpress).
 
 Guang Yuan He, Korbuly E., Barnabas  B. 1993. High frequency callus
 formation and  regeneration  of fertile  plants from haploid  cell 
 suspensions derived  from  anther  culture in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
 Plant Science, in press.
 
 Karsai I., Bedo Z., Balla  L.  1992. Effect of donor plant growth 
 environment  on  in  vitro  androgenesis  in  wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
 Acta Agronomica.
 
 Karsai  I., Bedo  Z., Balla  L.  1992.  A  fajtan  beluli variabilitas 
 tanulmanyozasa  buza  (Triticum  aestivum  L.) antera  kulturaban.  (Studies
 on the  variability within the variety  in  wheat [Triticum aestivum  L.]
 anther cultures.) Novenytermeles, 41. 2. 105-112.
 
 Kovacs G., Takacs I., Barnabas B. 1992. Gamete maturation and in  vitro
 fertilization in  cereals;  a new  tool for plant breeding. Novenytermeles,
 41: 177-184. [In Hungarian].
 
 Kovacs G., Takacs I., Barnabas B.  1992.  In  vitro pollen maturation and
 fertilisation in  detached  spikelet cultures of wheat. Novenytermeles, 42:
 in press.
 
 Kovacs G., Takacs I., Barnabas B. 1992. Pollen selection in self pollinated
 cereals.  XIIIth EUCARPIA Congress,  Book of Abstracts, Angers, France, pp.
 287-288.
 
 Kovacs G., Takacs I., Barnabas B. 1992. Genetic stability of wheat
 dihaploids produced by different  colchicine treatments.  XIIIth EUCARPIA 
 Congress,  Book  of Abstracts, Angers, France, pp. 285-286.
 
 Kovacs  M., Paldi  E., Racz  I., Lasztity D. Changes in Polyamine  Levels 
 during  Cold  Treatment  of  Wheat. Plant Science (in press).
 
 Lasztity D., Racz I., Kiraly I., Jakucs E., Paldi E.: 1992. Effect of light
 on the activity of  the protein synthesising system in wheat seedlings.
 Plant Science, 77: 173-176.
 
 Lasztity D., Racz I., Paldi  E. 1992. Effect of DL-S-methyl methionine on
 polyamine biosynthesis.  Abstracts of the 8th Congress of  the Federation 
 of European Scienties  of Plant Physiology, Antwerpen. Physiol. Plantarum
 85(3): A68.
 
 Molnar-Lang M., Galiba  G., Stankovics  L., Nagy A.H., Sutka  J.  1992.  
 Genetic manipulation  of wheat-barley hybrids in vitro. Book  of  poster
 abstracts.  XIII the Eucarpia Congress. Angers, France. 259-260.
 
 Novoselskaya A.  Yu., Metakovsky E.V., Sutka J., Galiba G.: 1991. 
 Spontaneous   and  induced  genetic variability  in gluten proteins  in 
 bread wheat.  In: Gluten Proteins 1990. Ed: Bushuk,W., Tkachuk, R. Published
 by the American Association of Cereal  Chemists.   St.  Paul, Minnesota USA,
 pp. 558-568.
 
 Paldi E.,  Kremmer T., L sztity D. 1992. Specific polyamine synthesis 
 during  vernalisation in wheat.  Abstracts of the 8th Congress  of  the
 Federation  of  European  Societies of Plant Physiology, Antwerpen. Physiol.
 Plantarum 85(3): A70. 
 
 Szunics  L.  1992.  Significance of wheat powdery mildew and the
 physiological specialisation of the pathogen. Novenyvedelem, XXVIII, 5-6.
 217-218.
 
 Szunics L., Szunics Lu. 1992. Virulence of wheat powdery mildew (Erysiphe 
 graminis)  to  certain  resistance genes. Vortr. Pflanzenzuchtg.,
 Weihenstephan, 24-. 183-184.
 
 Szunics L., Szunics Lu. 1992. Race composition and virulence of wheat
 powdery mildew (Erysiphe   graminis). Vortr. Pflanzenzuchtg., Weihenstephan,
 24. 181-182.
 
 Szunics L., Vajna L., Szunics Lu. 1992. The combined effect of leaf rust and
 the fungus Sphaerellopsis filum (Biv. et Bern. ex  Fr.)  Sutton  on  young
 wheat plants  in the glasshouse.
 Novenyvedelem, 28. 7-8. 269-273.
 
 Szunics Lu., Szunics L. 1992. Methods for infecting wheat with ear Fusarium 
 and  the  susceptibility  of  the varieties. venytermeles, 41-. 3. 201-210.
 
 Upelniek V.P., Novoselskaya A.Yu., Sutka J., Galiba G., Metakovsky  E.V.
 1991. Variability  of  electrophoretic spectra of seed storage proteins  in 
 wheat regenerants. Genetika 27: 1597.
 
 Veisz O., Sutka J. 1991. Frost resistance studies with wheat in natural and
 artificial conditions. In Proceedings of International Symposium. Wheat
 Breeding. Eds. Panayotov,I. and Pavlova,S. Albena, Bulgaria pp 12-17.
 
 --------------------
                                 ITEMS FROM INDIA
 
      Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
 
      R. W. Sawhney*, J. B. Sharma, D. N. Sharma, H. B. Chowdhary and Harsh
 Mehta
 
            Strategic Approaches in Wheat Breeding for Increased Yield
          Potential with Diverse and Durable Resistance to Rust Diseases
 
      Use of rust resistance alien variation in the Development of wheat
 cultivars.  A number of alien genes were identified as effective against
 Indian flora of three rusts.  Because most of the alien genes being
 available in ill-adapted and agronomically poor backgrounds, it was
 extremely difficult to recover high yielding wheats with desired resistance
 from crosses involving these stocks.  These genes, were, therefore,
 transferred through backcross breeding to 2 popular and well-adapted wheats,
 Kalyansona and Sonalika.
 
      One Kalyansona backcross derivative, designated as DL 896-2 deriving
 Agropyron elongatum (Lr24/Sr24) resistances from a white seeded stock TR
 380.27*r/3Ag3, kindly supplied by Dr. R. A. McIntosh, University of Sydney,
 was identified in 1990 as a superior genotype for on-farm tests in farmer
 fields for timely sown irrigated conditions in Peninsular zone in 1990-91
 crop season.   The results have established that it is possible to achieve
 high yield potential, at least comparable with the recurrent parent, in
 contrast to the reports that alien derived resistances produce depression in
 yield (The et al. 1988. In: Proc. 7th Intl. Wheat Genet. Symp. Cambridge
 901-06).  A number of other backcross derivatives deriving different alien
 resistances with higher or comparable yield with the recurrent wheats having
 resistance to one, two or three rust diseases have been identified.
 
      New Release.  Kalyansona backcross derivative with Lr24/Sr24
 resistances when crossed with HD 2281 has given rise to a still improved
 cultivar named `Vaishali' (DL 784-3) that has been identified for
 cultivation in timely sown irrigated conditions in Eastern Plains Zone
 comprising Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Far Eastern States
 in 1992.  This wheat combines high yield potential, shorter growing period
 and superior grain quality.  This cultivar has shown resistance to all the
 leaf and stem rust races in seedlings and possesses high level adult plant
 resistance to both rusts under field conditions.  No leaf rust race
 pathogenic on Lr24 is so far known from India.  Stem rust pathotype 40-1 and
 34-1 that infect Sr24 are non-pathogenic on DL 784-3 which suggests that
 this cultivar carries at least additional stem rust resistance gene(s),
 effective against 40-1 and 34-1.  Vaishali will not only increase wheat
 production but also provide diversity for rust resistance, so far
 unexploited, in the country.  Genetic diversity is known to improve the
 durability for resistance, because it serves as a means of reducing
 vulnerability against diseases.
 
      Adult plant interactive genes for increased yield potential and durable
 resistance to all the three rusts.  Resistance determined by certain
 interactive specific genes in the host is known to be more durable as
 compared with that controlled by interaction between a specific gene for
 resistance in the host and a corresponding gene for avirulence in the
 pathogen (GFG interaction).  An adult plant leaf rust partially effective
 gene Lr34 interacts with seedling complementary genes Lr27 and Lr31 for
 enhanced and durable resistance to leaf rust (Sawhney 1992, Euphytica 61:9-
 12).  In another study, the complementary interaction of adult plant
 resistance genes in Fed*4/Kavkaz involving 1B/1R translocation (Lr26) and
 `Federation' (Lr10 have produced adult plant resistance to pathotype 77-1
 that is highly pathogenic to Lr26 and Lr10, present in `Kavkaz' and
 `Federation', respectively (Sawhney 1993.  In: Proc. 8th Intern. Wheat
 Genet. Symp. July 20-25, Beijing - in press).   The possibility that the
 observed resistance in the stock Fed*4/Kazkaz is due to interaction between
 Lr26 (Kavkaz) and Lr10 (Federation) (1992 Ann. Wheat Newsl. 38:124) is ruled
 out because seedlings of Fed*4/Kavkaz and F1 from a new cross between
 `Federation' and `Kavkaz' were susceptible to 77-1.
      
      The wheat-rye 1B/1R translocation carrying three rust resistance genes
 (Lr26, Sr31, Yr9) is a highly exploited source for development of high
 yielding cultivars in different parts of the world.  Increased yield
 potential, stability and wide adaptation in a number of cultivars derived
 from a cross involving 1H/1R translocation was achieved (Rajaram et al.
 1983. Proc. 6th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp. Kyoto, Japan).  Leaf rust resistance
 attributed to Lr26 in 1B/1R translocation has become ineffective in many
 parts of the world, including India.  The complementary adult plant
 resistance identified in Fed*4/Kavkaz provides a new source with 1B/1R
 translocation effective to leaf rust.  Stem rust resistance attributed to
 Sr31 in 1B/1R translocation is still highly effective throughout the world
 and is expected to be durable.  Associated stripe rust resistance gene Yr9
 is also highly effective in India, although virulences attacking Yr9 have
 been isolated in Europe.
 
      A number of Indian cultivars under cultivation have been found to
 possess leaf rust resistance effective for a long period of time.  This was
 suggested to be due to Lr34, either alone or in combination with other adult
 plant resistance genes (Sawhney et al. 1992.  Plant Breeding 109:248-254). 
 Various  studies have shown Lr34 to interact in a complementary manner to
 enhance the level of resistance when present in combination with other
 resistance genes.  Lr34 has therefore, been advocated for use in breeding
 programs because of its durability and interactive characteristic. 
 Furthermore, this gene has been reported to be linked with Yr18 (Singh 1992.
 
 Phytopathology 82.835-838), which confers adult plant resistance likely to
 be durable for resistance to stripe rust.
 
      It may, therefore, be concluded that the use of this newly identified
 source (Fed*4/Kavkaz) with complementary adult plant resistance in
 combination with Lr34 in wheat breeding is likely to produce cultivars which
 are endowed with increased yield potential and durable resistance to all
 three rusts.
 
                                   Publications
 
 Sawhney, R. N.  1992.  The role of Lr34 in imparting durable resistance to
 wheat leaf rust through gene interaction.  Euphytica. 61:9-12.
 
 Sawhney, R. N.  1993.  Management of genetic control of rust diseases in
 wheat, current status and future strategies.  In: Proc. National Symposium
 on Plant Breeding.  "Crop Breeding in India - current status and future
 strategy".  G. B. Pant Univ. of Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar Hill Campus,
 Ranichauri, Dist. Tehri Garhwal, U. P. Nov. 2-4, 1992.  (In press)
 
 Sawhney, R. N., J. B. Sharma and D. N. Sharma.  1992.  Genetic diversity for
 adult plant resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita) in near-isogenic
 lines and in Indian wheats.  Plant Breeding, 109:248-259.
 
 Sawhney, R. J., J. B. Sharma and D. N. Sharma.  1993.  Identification of
 adult plant resistance and its role for durable resistance to leaf rust in
 Indian wheats.  In: Proc. Golden Jubilee Symposium on Genetic Research and
 Education: Current Trends and the next fifty years.  Ind. Soc. Genet. &
 Plant Breeding, IARI, New Delhi, Feb. 12-15, 1991.  (In press)
 
 Sawhney, R. N., J. B. Sharma and D. N. Sharma.  1993.  Adult plant
 interactive genes for durable resistance to leaf rust with increased yield
 potential in wheat.  In: Proc. 8th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp. Beijing, China,
 July 20-25, 1993.  (In press).
 
 Sawhney, R. N., J. B. Sharma,  D. N. Sharma and S. Nagarajan.  1993.  Adult
 plant resistance sources for breeding durably leaf rust resistant wheats. 
 In: Proc. Gregor Johann Mendel Birthday Lecture Series and Symposium
 International, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Calicut, Kerala,
 July 22-23, 1992.  (In press)
 
 --------------------
      S. M. S. Tomar*, M. Kochumadhavan and Alice K. Vari
 
      Screening of wild wheats against stem and leaf rusts at adult plant
 stage:  A number of accessions of diploid and tetraploid wild wheat species
 were screened in adult plant stage against 40-1 and 117-1 races of Puccinia
 graminis tritici and 77-2 and 104B races of P. recondita over two seasons. 
 Rust reactions are given in Table 1.  It is observed that wild diploid and
 some of the tetraploid wheat species offer resistance excellent sources for
 stem and leaf rust races mentioned above.
 
      Screening of wild wheat species against aphid infestation under natural
 conditions:  Wheat in India is attacked by Sitobion avenae (Macrosiphum
 miscanthi) and Rhopalosiphum maidis, the former being more common and the
 latter is occasionally observed (usually attack barley).  In recent years
 aphid infestation has become a serious problem in bread wheat (Triticum
 aestivum) in the areas where weather remains cloudy and humid during the
 crop season.  This problem may turn into a serious threat to future wheat
 production in northern parts of the country.  Wheat species listed in Table
 1 were also screened against aphid infestation under natural conditions. 
 The aphid species infesting the wheats was identified as S. avenae.  Since
 the wheat species were not artificially inoculated, no scale for recording
 the infestation was followed.  However, the heavy aphid infestation observed
 on the leaves, stem, peduncle and spike was considered to be of high level
 incidence (highly susceptible).  T. aestivum cv Chinese Spring and an
 accession of T. zhukovskyi fell under the above category.  Accessions with
 asterisk mark in Table 1 were found susceptible to aphid.
 
 ============================================================================
 
                                                  Type and Percent
                                                    infection to   
 
 
 Name of the species                               stem rust     leaf rust
 
 Triticum aegilopoides EC182961, T. boeoticum
 accs. G2171, G2398, G2508, PI427446                    0         0   
 PI427447, PI427481; T. urartu; T. monococcum accs.
 G863, G1372, G1471, G1481, Var. nigraflavescence;  T. thoudar; T. tauschii;
 Aegilops speltoides accs. TS08, M, PI369602, var. ligustica; Ae. sharonensis
 EC162416*; Ae. longissima accs. A*PI276977, SWAN655*; Ae. comosa accs. 15-1,
 EC162406; Ae. caudata; Ae. mutica*; T. dicoccoides  accs. G1456, G1458,
 G1460, T. araraticum accs. PI427312, PI427314; Ae. variabilis TKE02; T.
 peregrina EC162408; T. timopheevii accs. SWAN 281*, 284*, 286*, 493*, PBI*,
 K47798*, K28541
 
 T. timopheevii K38553; T. militinae                    0    10-20R
 
 Ae. columnaris, Ae. biuncialis A, Ae. triaristata      0        TR     
 T. zhukovskyi accs. PBI**, G986**, G987**              0         0          
 
           
 Ae. umbellulata K590, T. araraticum PI427345          5S         0          
 
           
 T. dicoccoides accs. SWAN432, PI272582*,
 Ae. kotschyi; Ae. cylindrica A, Ae.                  20S      0-TR
 triuncialis X, Ae. uniaristata PI276995
 
 Ae. triuncialis H, Ae. ovata A                       20S      10XR    
 Ae. bicornis accs. PI162412, var. mutica;            0-TS   20-30S
 T. urartu SWAN718; T. dicoccoides accs. TTDO8*,
 TTD13*, TTD15*, PI429119, var. 
 immaturatium*, var. fulvovillosum*, Ae. triaristata
 
 Ae. bicornis accs. TB01, SWAN657, var. typica;
 T. dicoccoides accs. G2067,                         30S &    30S &
 SWAN238*, VIR 26118**; Ae. ovata; Ae. turcomanica
 PI173615; T. araraticum                             above     above accs.
 PI427415, PI427430; Ae. crassa A and Ae. crassa G
  ---------------------------------------------------------------- 
 accs. =accessions; * = susceptible to aphid; ** = highly susceptible to
 aphid 
 
 --------------------
      Division of Genetics, Regional Station Wellington and Shimla of Indian
 Agricultural Research Institute
 
      S. M. S. Tomar, M. Kochumadhavan, M. Prashar and P. Bahadur
 
      Introgression of useful genes for leaf rust resistance from Aegilops
 speltoides into wheat:  A number of accessions of diploid wild wheats
 belonging to Sitopsis group (S) carry a good level of seedling and adult
 plant resistance to Indian leaf rust (Puccinia recondita) races.  Selections
 derived form Triticum aestivum cv. Sonalika4 X Ae. speltoides with six
 subsequent selfings have exhibited adult plant resistance under natural and
 artificially created leaf rust infection at Wellington, New Delhi and Lahual
 Spiti.  Seedling reactions of these selections against nine leaf rust races
 are given in Table 1.  Material was tested in seedling stage at Shimla and
 New Delhi.  The pattern of seedling reaction indicated that the resistance
 showed by the selections is presumably different than that of Lr28.  The
 leaf sheath of some of the derivatives have hairs like that of Ae.
 speltoides which may serve as an useful marker in genetic studies.
 
      Table 1.  Seedling response of Triticum aestivum cv. Sonalika
 derivatives of Aegilops speltoides against nine races of Puccinia  
 recondita
 =================================================================
 Derivatives   12-1  77  77A-1  77-1  77-2  77-5  104-2  104B  162A
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
 Sel. 1826      ;1    ;1    ;      ;    ;1    ;1     ;     ;12  ;1
 Sel. 1827      ;1    ;     ;      ;1   ;1    ;      ;1     2    x
 Sonalika       ;     3    3+      3    3+    3+     ;1     2+   2
 Ae. speltoides  -    ;    ;1-     ;    ;N    -      -      ;    ;N
 CS 2A/2M 4/2   0;    ;-    ;-     ;    ;-    ;-     0;     ;    ;
     (Lr28)                                                       
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
       - = not tested
 
 --------------------
      IARI Regional Station, Wellington, The Nilgiris
 
      M. Kochumadhavan* and S. M. S. Tomar
 
      Improvement of wheat cultivars through backcrossing:  Aegilops
 speltoides derived gene Lr28 is highly effective against Indian leaf rust
 virulences in seedling as well as in adult plant stage.  This effective
 resistance of Lr28 has been incorporated in a popular Indian wheat cultivar
 Sonalika.  The line CS 2A/2M 4/2 was used as a donor parent for resistance. 
 Selections constituted after seven backcrosses from  Sonalika(7) X CS 2A/2M
 were tested in seedling stage against the race 77 and its biotypes.  The
 improved cultivar showed resistance to all the biotypes of race 77 to which
 Sonalika is susceptible.  A trial in RBD with six replications was conducted
 during the current season to compare the yield potential of improved line
 with that of the recurrent parent.
 
      Under our ongoing program of introgression of Agropyron elongatum-
 derived resistance gene Lr24 and other alien genes, we have further improved
 the leaf rust susceptible Indian cultivars, HD 2009, UP 262, VL 421 and WL
 711.  An amber grained Australian line TR 380-14 # 7/3 AG 14 has been used
 as the resistance donor. The yield potential of the improved cultivars is
 being tested in a trial in RBD with six replications.
 
 --------------------
      G. Guha and J. G. Bhowal*
 
      Transfer of genes for resistance against stem, leaf and stripe rusts
 from Triticum timopheevi to bread wheat.  Genes for resistance against brown
 (Puccinia recondita), black (P. graminis tritici) and stripe rusts (P.
 striiformis) from T. timopheevi have been transferred to bread wheat
 cultivars Kalyansona and CM108-31 and CM108-33 (induced reduced height
 mutants of C 306).
      
      A number of timopheevi derivatives showing immune, resistant or
 tolerant reactions against all three rusts in adult plant stage have been
 identified (Table 1).  These lines have been stabilized for morphological
 characters, fertility and disease reaction.
 
      A set of 21 of these stable lines was subjected to multilocation tests
 in disease nursery (IRSN, Initial Rust Screening Nursery) conducted by Wheat
 Project Directorate, New Delhi.  A number of them have shown resistance or
 tolerance against stem, leaf and stripe rusts both in south as well as in
 north of India as a few either in the north or in the south (Table 2).
 
      Seedling reaction tests against a few important virulent races of stem,
 leaf and stripe rusts was first conducted with F5 plant progenies.  Test was
 again repeated with stabilized timopheevi derivatives.  These lines have not
 only shown a high degree of resistance against these virulent races but also
 some have shown different reactions than those observed for earlier reported
 genes from timopheevi (Sr36, Sr37 and Lr18), thereby indicating that these
 derived lines may possess different genes (Table 3).  These new sources of
 resistance against all the three rust diseases of wheat should prove useful
 to the wheat breeders as donor stocks for broadening the genetic base of
 resistance against rusts.
 
      Six lines were also subjected to screening in the field nursery against
 specific leaf rust races, 77-1, 77-2, 104B and 12-2.  Four lines have shown
 a high degree of resistance whereas the parents were susceptible (Table 4). 
 It is apparent that genes, or combination of genes which impart both adult
 plant resistance and seedling resistance are present in these new lines. 
 These lines were designated for genetic analysis to identify genes imparting
 resistance against Lr, Sr and Yr races.
 
      The RA4 line gave `;' and `;,;1' reaction against the Lr race `77-1'
 and 104B and the parent (CM108-33) gave `4' type of reaction.  F1 seedlings
 of the cross RA4 x CM 108-33, when tested against races `77-1' and `104B'
 exhibited reactions similar to RA4 indicating complete dominance of genes
 conferring resistance.  The F2 data of this cross showed a segregation of 3
 resistant:1 susceptible when tested with race `77-1' and 104B, respectively.
 
 It can be inferred that one dominant gene govern resistance against Lr races
 and 77-1 and 104B in RA4.  F2 segregation from a cross of RA4 with a stock
 having a known resistance gene, Lr24, showed segregation in a ratio of 15:1
 and 63:1 indicating that the gene in RA4 is different from Lr24 (Table 5).
 
 --------------------
      J. G. Bhowal, G. Guha and R. Singh
 
      Ne1locus mutation of the Var. C 306.  To study the type of change in
 the Ne1 locus of non-necrotic mutants of C 306, an F2 population from a
 cross of a Ne1 mutant x Kalyansona (Ne2Ne2) was studied.  Though F1 plants
 were completely normal, F2 plants showed segregation of necrosis of
 different intensity.
           Nt = necrotic areas restricted to leaf tip only, seed normal
           Ne = leaves necrotic, seed fertility not affected, seeds somewhat 
                   shrivelled
           Nr = Normal (Table 6)
 
      Results showed that the Ne1 locus in C 306 has mutated to a very weak
 allele instead of being mutated to a recessive allele ne1.  
 
      A comparative study was made of agronomic behavior of 6 tall necrotic,
 5 tall non-necrotic and 4 short non-necrotic mutant lines derived from C 306
 (Table 7).  The tall necrotic and tall non-necrotic mutant lines were all
 derived as progenies of a single tall mutant (CM 42) of C 306.  The other
 four non-necrotic mutants of C 306 were independent from each other and all
 (except one) had shorter height than C 306.
 
      Though the necrotic and non-necrotic derivatives of CM 42 are all as
 tall as C 306 in rainfed condition, a few from both the groups showed
 reduced height than C 306 in irrigated condition.  Of the other four non-
 necrotic mutants, one was as tall as C 306 while three others had reduced
 height in irrigated condition (and also in rainfed condition).  Tiller
 number/plant was higher in 2 necrotic and two non-necrotic lines, same in
 other non-necrotic lines.  Yield per plant was higher than C 306 in two
 necrotic and two non-necrotic lines, same in other non-necrotic lines. 
 Grain weight per ear was higher only in one non-necrotic line (NN50).  Grain
 weight was higher than C 306 in only one non-necrotic mutant, and a littler
 lower than C 306 in one necrotic and two non-necrotic mutants, others had
 grain weights similar to C 306.  That some of the non-necrotic mutants of C
 306 showed significantly higher yield than C 306 and higher values than C
 306 in important yield contributing factors (tiller number/plant, grain
 weight/ear and grain weight) is of particular interest from a breeding point
 of view.
 
 Table 1.  Adult plant reactions of a few T. timopheevi derivatives  against
 stem, leaf and stripe rusts
 ==================================================================
 Derivatives               Wellington 1990   Lahaul 1990  Pusa 1990    
 Checks       Crosses     Leaf   Stem       Stripe       Leaf  
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
 8      M5B x time x CM108-31  0      0          0           0
 12     CM108-31               0      0         5R          TR
 28     (CM108-31 x time) x    0    5MR        50S        10MR
        CM108-31(2)
 40     CM108-31(2)            0      0         5R         5MR
 44     (CM108-31 x time)      0      0         5R           0
        Kalyansona
 53     Kalyansona             0      0          0         5MR
 65     (CM108-31x time) x    5R      0          0         TMR
        CM108-31(3)
 81     (CM108-31 x time) x    0      0          0          TR
        CM108-33(3)
 CM108-31       check        40S    40S        30S         80S
 CM108-33       check        40S    40S        30S         80S
 Kalyansona     check        60S    40S        60S        100S
 T.timopheevi   check          0      0          0           0
 Lr18                       70XR    50S        30S        100S
 SrTt1 (Sr36)               10MR    40S        60S          MS
 SrTt2 (Sr37)                60S     MS       100S          MS
 ================================================================
 
 
 Table 2.  Adult plant reactions of T. timopheevi derivatives against stem,
 leaf and stripe rusts in multilocation tests
 =================================================================           
 
                Adult plant reactions against
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
 Derivatives/           Leaf rust       Stem rust     Stripe Checks          
 
                                       rust
 Checks    Crosses          South  North  South  North  South North
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
 8        (CM5B x time) x    30S     0      40MS    0      TS    0
          CM108-31          (8.5)* (0.0)    (6.0)
 12       CM108-31           40S    10S     50MS    0      TS    0
                           (13.0)  (3.4)   (12.1)
 28       (CM108-31 x time)  20S    5S      60S    TS      5S    5S
          x CM108-31(2)     (6.4)  (3.0)   (28.5)
 40          "               20S    5S      30S     0      5S     0
                            (5.4)  (2.3)   (11.0)   
 44       (CM108-31 x time)  30S    5S      40MS    0       0     0
          x Kalyansona(3)  (12.2)  (1.7)    (8.6)
 53           "             10MR   20MS      5S    10MS    TS     0
                            (1.2)  (6.0)    (1.3)
 65       (CM108-31 x time)  20S    5S      16S    5S      TS     0
          x CM108-31(3)     (5.2)  (3.8)    (7.3)
 81       (CM108-31 x time)  20S   10S      20S    TS      0      0
          x CM108-33(3)     (7.7)  (5.0)    (7.3)
 CM108-31      Check         60S   80S      60S    40S     0      0
                           (32.5) (46.6)   (30.5)
 CM108-33      Check         60S   80S      60S    40S     0      0
                           (37.7) (15.2)   (32.5)
 Kalyansona    Check         60S   100S     80S    40S     0      0
                           (41.2) (76.6)   (60.0)
 Triticum
  timopheevi   Check          0      0       0      0      0      0
 ==================================================================
     * Coefficient of infection in parenthesis
 
 Table 3. Seedling reactions of T. timopheevi derivatives against a few
 important virulent races of stem leaf and stripe rust.
 ==================================================================  
 (NOT SHOWN)
 
 
 Table 4.  Adult plant reactions of six T. timopheevi derivatives 
                           against specific Lr races
                   ----------------------------------------------   
 Derivatives
   Checks        Crosses            77-1     77-2     104B     12-2
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
 91RA  1   (time x Ks) x Ks(3)              TR     TR     TR     TR
  "    2   (Chph x time) x Ks(2)             0     TR     TR     TR
  "    3   (CM108-31 x time) x Ks(3)  TS     S     MR     MR
  "    4   (CM5B x time) x CM108-31 TR     10MR    TR     TR
  "    5   (CM108-31 x time) x CM108-31(2)  MR     MS   10MR   40MR
       6   (CM108-31 x time) x CM108-31(3)  TR     MS     MR     MS
  "    7   CM108-31 check                   60S   100S   100S   80S
  "    8   Kalyansona check                100S   100S   100S  100S
  =================================================================
 
 
 
 Table 5.  Results of seedling reactions test in F(2) population from the
 cross RA 4 x CM 108-33
 ==================================================================
                                           Reaction type   Parents/          
 
          Lr 77-1                      Lr 104B
               -----------------------------  --------------------- 
  Cross               Resistant  Susceptible   Resistant Susceptible
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
 RA4                   ;N            -          ;,;N,;1       -
                                                 and ;1N
 CM108-33              -             4              -         4
 Triticum timopheevi   ;0            -             ;1         -
 F(1) (RA4 x CM108-31) ; and ;N      -             ;1         -
 F(2) (RA4 x CM108-31) ;,;N          4          ;,;N,;1,      4
                      (117 plants)  (39 plants)   ;1N   (23 plants)
                                                   (73 plants)
 F(2) (RA4 x LR 24)    ;,;N          4            ;N,;,       4
                      (119 plants) (6 plants)   ;1, ;1N  (3 plants)
                                              (169 plants)
 ==================================================================
 
 
 Table 6.  Segregation of necrosis in F2 of a cross between non-necrotic
 mutant CM 42 x Kalyansona
 ==================================================================          
 
                            Types of F2 plants
  ----------------------------------------------------------------- 
  Progeny No.           Nr     Ne     Nt        Total
  ----------------------------------------------------------------- 
 27                54      9     24        87
 28               103     29     43       175
 29                51     28     69       148
 30                96     34     74       204
 Total            304    100    220       614
 P.C.             50%    50%
 =================================================================
 
 Table 7.  Comparative study of different necrotic and non-necrotic mutants
 C.306 under irrigated conditions
 ==================================================================          
 
     Culm    Ear    Tiller  Grain   Grain    1000-
              Culture length  length   No./   weight  Weight grain
 Mutant types  No.    (cm)     (cm)   plant  plant(g) ear(g) wt.(g)
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
 Necrotic      N34    93.13*   8.83   14.13  19.61   1.38   32.00*
 (derivative   N38    91.60*  10.47*  18.87* 30.60*  1.61   37.24
   CM 42)      N43    101.47   9.93   16.73  24.08   1.43   41.37
               N44    100.41  10.65*  20.83* 32.45*  1.58   38.21
               N45     95.87* 11.86*  14.93  21.87   1.59   38.23
               N46    101.20  10.60   16.27  23.40   1.44   39.60
 Non-necrotic NN37    101.80   9.77   16.33  26.59*  1.60   36.67
 (Derivative  NN39     98.80*  9.70   14.10  19.62   1.34   39.10
   CM 42)     NN40     99.17* 10.09   16.33  24.06   1.59   38.18
              NN41     95.93*  9.40   18.73* 23.79   1.29   32.72*
              NN42     90.10*  9.70   20.40* 27.22*  1.31   34.40*
 Other        NN47     94.33*  9.10   14.80  23.36   1.61   39.80
 Non-necrotic NN48     85.16*  8.68    9.06  14.04   1.53   36.22
              NN49     89.33*  8.68   15.60  21.87   1.31   35.23
              NN50    104.60   8.30   13.80  25.05   1.79   44.85*
 Parent       C306    110.50   9.20   10.10  14.90   1.48   38.90
 SEm                  3.2537   0.3962  2.4391 3.6769 0.0793  1.3135
 CD                   9.39     1.1430  7.04  10.61   0.23    3.79
 CV                   5.78     7.0742 26.89  27.57   9.19    6.04
 ================================================================
 
 --------------------
      Dalmir Singh
 
      Transfer of Desirable Traits From Rye to Wheat Through Recombination
 and Mutation
 
      Induced translocations between Kalyansona and rye chromosomes -
 Kalyansona, a high yielding wheat cultivar was developed using Mexican
 material in the 1960's.  Despite the fact that the cultivar has become
 highly susceptible to rust pathogens, it is still being cultivated because
 of its high yielding ability.  Keeping in view the above problem it was
 thought proper to incorporate rust resistance from Secale cereale through
 translocation.  Kalyansona was crossed with a smooth peduncle mutant of rye
 and a total of 144 seeds were obtained (1989-90).  Crossed seeds were
 irradiated with 35 Kr of gamma rays.  In M1 generation, the surviving 14
 plant plants produced 452 spikes but only 137 seeds were harvested (1990-
 91).  In M2 generation, there were 64 plants, some of which were analyzed
 cytologically at first meiotic metaphase.    Chromosome numbers ranged from
 39 to 50.  Increased and sufficient spike fertility were observed in some
 plants.  In the 1991-92 season, about 100 seeds from 5 different M2 plants
 were planted at Wellington (hot spot wheat diseases).  All M3 populations
 segregated for rust resistance while the parent Kalyansona rusted heavily. 
 Seeds were harvested from a large number of plants resistant to rust and
 powder mildew for further evaluation.
 
      Genes for rust and powdery mildew resistance in wheat-rye recombinant -
 At the Wellington hot spot wheat disease site, wheat-rye combinant
 (Selection-212) was found to carry genes for resistance to all the three
 rusts and powdery mildew.  To identify and locate genes on specific
 chromosomes for rust and powdery mildew resistance, Selection-212 was
 crossed with Chinese Spring, the 21 monosomic lines.  A cross was also made
 with disomic Chinese Spring.  The F1 monsomic hybrid plants were identified
 at first meiotic metaphase.  Normal chromosome pairing was observed in all
 hybrid plants.  Monosomic and disomic F1 hybrids were selfed and seeds were
 taken from individual plants to be further studied as F2 populations in the
 coming season (1992-93).
 
                                   Publication
 Singh, D. 1991.  Gene transfer from rye to wheat and their location.   Ind.
 J. Genet., 51:235-239.
 
 --------------------
 Genetic Studies in Wheat and Rye
 
 1.       Hairy vs. smooth peduncle - A large number of spikes from 130 M2
 plants were selfed, harvested separately and data recorded for hairy/smooth
 nature of peduncle.  Of the 130 plants, 93 had hairy peduncles and 37 were
 smooth or a ratio of 2.5:1, very close to a 3:1 monogenic ratio.
 
 2.       Non-pigmented and albino seedlings in M5 and M6 generations of
 amber seeded self-compatible mutants of rye - Basis spike fertility (ranging
 from 50 to 92%) a large number were selected form 20 different amber seeded
 self-compatible plants in M4 generation (originally treated with 30 Kr of
 gamma rays) and seeds were planted for M5 generation.  At the seedling
 stage, segregation was observed for albino and non-pigmented traits and were
 recorded for each.
 
      In the M5 generation of progeny form 20 M4 plants arising from non-
 pigmented seedlings, 7 plants produced 272 pigmented (control types) and 73
 non-pigmented (mutant type) seedlings.  This segregation ratio of 3.7:1
 closely 1 3:1 monogenic ratio (Table 1) indicating the involvement of only
 one gene for the development of pigments in rye.  Segregation was also
 observed for albino trait.  Out of a total of 49 selfed M4 spikes, 6 spike
 progenies of 289 seedlings, exhibited segregation for albino seedlings.  Out
 of these, 209 were green and 80 were albino (Table 2) fitting closely a 3:1
 monogenic ratio.  A similar phenomenon was again observed in M6 generation
 of 6 selfed M5 spike progenies.  The seedling segregation pattern was close
 to a monogenic ratio of 3:1 (Table 2).  These results indicate that the
 chlorophyll synthesis in Secale cereale is controlled by a major gene or
 gene complex.
 
      Since traits like non-pigmented and albino seedlings were still
 segregating into the 6th generation (from selfed spikes), one could surmise
 that similar amounts of heterozygosity might still remain for induced
 mutants of amber seed.
                                         
 3.        Comparison of root, shoot and coleoptile in wheat-rye
 recombinants with well adapted varieties - Optimum yield is uniform seed
 germination and one feature of proper stand in the field.  In wheat,
 coleoptile length is known to be an important trait relating to seedlings
 emergence.  Similarly, root number and root length contributes to uniform
 stand of the plant.  It therefore, becomes necessary to search for new
 variability for these traits.  In this context, two wheat-rye combinants,
 sel. 111-25 and sel. 7-1 were compared with four well adapted cultivars viz.
 C 306, HD 2329, Kundan and Kalyansona for coleoptile length, seedling
 height, root number and root length.  In each of 3 replications, seeds of 25
 each of the 6 cultures were germinated in the petri dishes and data
 pertaining to coleoptile length, seedling, height, root number and root
 length were recorded on 8th day of imbibition.  Mean values were calculated
 for each trait (Table 3).  The data clearly indicate that Sel. 111-25
 possesses the highest mean values for coleoptile length, root number and
 root length compared to the rest of the cultures.
 
 Table 1.   Segregation for seedling pigment in M5 generation of selfed
 spikes of rye.
 =================================================================
              Total            Seedlings          
  ---------------------------------------------------------------- 
 Spikes          seedlings          Pigmented        Non-Pigmented
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
    1                52                40               12
    2                41                31               10
    3                36                31                5
    4                51                44                7
    5                59                46               13
    6                53                42               12
    7                53                38               14
 =================================================================
 Total              345                272              73
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
 Overall ratio                  3.7       :      1
 
 
 Table 2. Segregation of albino seedlings in the population of selfed spikes
 of rye in M5 and M6 generations.
 ===========================================================================
                 Total              Seedlings
               Seedlings        Green       Albino          Ratio
 M5
 Spike-1           52              39          13             3:1
      -2           34              25           9           2.8:1
      -3           50              42           8           5.3:1
      -4           59              36          23           1.6:1
      -5           53              39          14           2.8:1
      -6           41              28          13           2.2:1
 TOTAL            289             209          80           2.6:1
 M6
 Line-1            69              50          19           2.6:1
     -2            76              58          23           2.5:1
     -3            75              54          21           2.6:1
     -4            62              47          15           3.1:1
     -5            82              61          22           2.8:1
     -6            60              46          15           3.1:1
 TOTAL            424             316         115           2.7:1
 ==================================================================
 
 
 Table 3.Mean values of coleoptile length, seedling height, root number and
 root length in 4 wheat cultivars and 2 wheat-rye recombinants.
 =================================================================
             Coleoptile      Seedling                 Root
                    length        height       Root          length
 Culture             (cm)          (cm)       number          (cm)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
 C 306                3.02         16.15       4.56           31.58
 HD 2329              2.80         11.95       4.84           33.72
 Kundan               3.15         13.65       4.96           45.89
 Kalyansona           2.77         13.06       5.28           50.69
 Sel. 111-25          3.74         15.18       5.84           55.57
 Sel. 7-1             3.30         16.66       4.32           45.86
 ==================================================================
 
 --------------------
      D. Singh, C. Rajlakshmy, and C. S. Kalia
 
      Identification of chlorophyll synthetic genes in Oligo (an hexaploid
 wheat) - A few seeds of Oligoculm were obtained from Dr. Atsmon (Israel)
 which was developed from the introduction of a local cultivar of North
 Africa.  The Oligoculm material was then subjected to physical mutagens and
 mutants possessing a higher number of grains per spike were isolated and
 stabilized in IARI and was named `Oligo'.  This Oligo strain was used in our
 study to identify chlorophyll synthetic genes.  Oligo was crossed with a
 monosomic line for chromosome 3A of variety Pb C591 and F1 hybrids were
 analyzed cytologically at first meiotic metaphase.  Monosomic and disomic
 plants were harvested separately and seeds germinated in petri dishes.  Data
 pertaining to presence or absence of chlorophyll in seedlings was recorded. 
 Disomic plants produced only green seedlings while the seeds from monosomic
 3A (Pb C591) and monosomic F1 hybrids segregated for green and albino
 seedlings.  The number of albino seedlings produced by mono 3A were 147 out
 of a total of 1200 seedlings (12.25%) while in monosomic hybrids, the albino
 seedlings were only 45 of 1082 seedlings (4.2%).
 
      The albino frequency observed in the F2s of monosomic hybrids was
 nearly 1/4 of that in selfed monosomic Oligo 3A (Pb C591).  It suggests that
 besides the chlorophyll synthetic gene located on chromosome 3A, the strain
 Oligo also carries one more gene, the location of which is not yet known. 
 Thus two genes are involved for chlorophyll synthesis in Oligo.
 
 
 Table 1.Segregation of albino seedlings in selfed mono 3A (Pb C591) and its
 hybrids with Oligo.
 =================================================================
             Meiotic
             chromosome       Seeds             F2 seedlings       
 Culture       number     germinated     Green    Albino   % Albino
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
 Monosomic
 
   3A (Pb C591)
 
 - Disomic       21"         1200         1194        0           0
 - Monosomic     20"+1'      1200         1053      147       12.25
 
 
 F1 hybrids
 
 - Disomic       21"         1185         1158        0           0
 - Monosomic     20"+1'      1120         1037       45         4.1
 ==================================================================
 
 --------------------
      Division of Mycology and Plant Pathology Indian Agricultural Research
 Institute, New Delhi
 
      P. Bahadur, K. D. Srivastava, D. V. Singh and R. Agarwal
 
      Wheat Rusts.  The health of the wheat crop was monitored during 1992. 
 In northwest India, incidence of leaf rust (Puccinia recondita tritici) was
 delayed for about 6 weeks.  Traces of this rust was recorded in mid-March on
 HD 2009, HD 2329 and HD 2285 at late dough and ripening stage.  Cultivar
 Sonalika showed traces of stripe rust (P. striiformis) in Himachal Pradesh. 
 From central India, a trace of stem rust (P. graminis tritici) was reported
 from Indore and Gandhi-nagar.  In general, crop health was very good.
 
      Postulation of genes for stem rust resistance:  Evaluation of 81
 entries of wheat with 12 stem rust virulences, postulated the following Sr
 genes for resistance.
           Sr2            -    HD2380, HW 971
           Sr2+Sr31       -    K 8806, GW 190, GW 196, HUW 318, Macs 2496
           Sr2+Sr11       -    Sonalika, HP 1633
           Sr5            -    PBN 51
           Sr5+Sr8a       -    HS 223
           Sr7a+Sr11      -    VL 616, HD 2501
           Sr7b+Sr11      -    UP 262
           Sr9e           -    HI 8381, HD 4502
           SR11           -    Kharchia 65, Raj 1555, HD 2307
           Sr24           -    DL 896-2
           SR31           -    DWR 162, HDR 134, HUW 315, K 8804
 
      Powdery mildew.  Powdery mildew was reported in low severity (1-2%) in
 hilly regions and adjoining areas of western Uttar Pradesh.  HD 2285 showed
 heavy infection at some locations.
 
      Analysis of powdery mildew samples on wheat lines carrying single genes
 for resistance - Pm2, Pm3a, Pm3b, Pm3c, Pm4, Pm5, Pm6, Pm7, Pm8 and Pm Ma
 revealed 26 pathotypes.  Out of 9 avirulence/virulence combinations from
 Nilgiris (south India), 4 were identified from northwest India also.
 
      Loose smut.  Cultivars HD 2329, WH 147, HD 2009 and HD 2285 showed 1-2%
 infection of loose smut in northwest India.  Treatment of infected loose
 smut seed of Sharbati Sonora with isolate TV-5 of Trichoderma viridi using
 Aloe's glue as sticker reduced smut.
 
 --------------------
      Genetics of Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana
      R. G. Saini, Jaswinder Kaur, Saru Mehta, Rosy and A. K. Gupta
 
      Additional resistance from the isogenic lines for the gene Lr3 and its
 alleles.  Identification of leaf rust resistance genes from wheat in Indian
 subcontinent is based on the use of isogenic lines in Thatcher (Tc) and
 Prelude (Pr) backgrounds.  Since some of the tests for Lr3 on Indian wheats
 using these lines were not correct, these lines may have additional
 resistance which interferes in precise detection of Lr3.  This communication
 presents evidence for presence of additional gene(s) in three isogenic lines
 for Lr3.
 
      The near isogenic lines Tc+Lr3Do, Tc+Lr3Bg, Tc+Lr3Ka, Pr+Lr3Ka and
 Pr+Lr3Sin were evaluated for seedling reaction to races 10, 77-1, 77-2 and
 108.  Field trials were also conducted to test their reaction to an
 artificial epiphytotic of a mixture of variants 77-1 and 77-2 or race 77. 
 Both variants of race 77 are virulent on seedlings as well as adult plants
 of wheats carrying all the known genes for leaf rust resistance from
 Triticum aestivum except for the adult plants resistance gene Lr34.  
 
      Seedling infection types and disease severity observed on adult plants
 of the five isogenic lines are given in Table 1.  All the isogenic lines
 were resistant to races 10 and 108 and susceptible to variants 77-1 and 77-2
 of race 77.  In field tests, disease severity on Tc+Lr3Do and Rc+Lr3Bg was
 80S.  Severity on  Tc+Lr3Ka, Pr+Lr3Ka and Pr+Lr3Sin was 10S, 40MR and 40MR,
 respectively while severity on background cultivars Thatcher and Prelude was
 60S and 40MR, respectively.  These observations clearly indicate presence of
 additional resistance in the isogenic lines Tc+Lr3Ka, Pr+Lr3Ka and
 Pr+Lr3Sin.  It appears that the isogenic lines in Prelude background may
 have field resistance similar to that present in cultivar Prelude.  Detailed
 studies on these lines and cultivar Prelude are needed to confirm the nature
 of additional resistance in the isogenic lines for the gene Lr3.
 
                                   Publication
 Stakman, E. C., D. M. Stewart and W. Q. Loegering. 1962.  Identification of
 physiologic races of Puccinia graminis var. tritici.  Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta.
 Sci. Jour. Series Paper 4691.
 
 Table 1.  Seedling and field reaction of isogenic lines for the gene Lr3 and
 background cultivars to some Indian races of leaf rust.
 ==================================================================
 Sel. No.            Race and Seedling reactions*    Field score**
 line/cultivar       10     108    77-1    77-2  (77-1+77-2)
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
 Isogenic Lines
  1.  Tc + Lr3 Do    ;1     ;1     33+      33+      80S
  2.  Tc + Lr3 Bg    ;      ;1-    33+      33+      80S
  3.  Tc + Lr3 Ka    ;1      2+    33+      33+      10S
  4.  Pr + Lr3 Ka    ;1      X=    33+      33+      40MR
  5.  PR + Lr3 Sin   ;1     ;1+    33+      33+      40MR
 
 Background cultivars
  1.  Thatcher        3      3     33+      33+      60S
  2.  Prelude         3      3     33+      33+      40MR
 ==================================================================
 *  According to Stakman et al. 1962
 **  According to modified Cobb's scale
 
 --------------------
      R. G. Saini, Shiwani and A. K. Gupta
 
      Genes conferring field resistance in some selected wheats from diverse
 sources against Indian races of leaf rust.  The majority of the resistant
 wheats being gown in India and many other parts of the world possess as yet
 undescribed adult plant resistance (Gupta and Saini, 1987; Rajaram et al.,
 1988; Gordon-Werner et al. 1989).  Not much is so far known about the
 genetic diversity of this resistance.  Reported here observations on
 resistance to leaf rust in twenty two wheats from eleven different countries
 in relation to twelve lines with named APR genes, LrT2, LrT3, Lr33 and Lr34.
 
      Twenty two wheats introductions obtained from Dr. P. L. Dyck of the
 Agricultural Research Station, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada and twelve lines
 including three derivatives each of a Chinese line P158548 namely, RL 6057
 (Lr33), RL6058 (Lr34) and RL6059 (Lr33 + Lr34); of cultivar Terenzio namely,
 lines 896 (LrT3), 897 (LrT2) and RL6050 (LrT2) + LrT3); and of cultivar
 Lageadinho namely, lines 920 (LrT2), 922 (LrT3) and RL6069 (Lr33 + Lr34;
 RL6070 (Lr34 + LrT3) from PI321999; RL 6077 (Lr34) from P1250413 and RL6061
 with an unknown gene from P1268316 were used for the present work. 
 Cultivars Thatcher and Agra Local were used as susceptible checks.  All
 entries were sown in an open experimental field.  An epiphytotic of a
 mixture of variants 77A and 77-1 of race 77 was created and the terminal
 disease severity was recorded as percentage of leaf area covered by rust. 
 Variants 77A and 77-1 are virulent on all the known Lr genes form T.
 aestivum at seedling stage.  Wheats with disease severity up to 40S were
 considered resistant.  Lines V503, V298, V72 and RL6069 with 50S scores were
 classified as moderately susceptible.  Remaining wheats with disease
 severity varying form 60S to 90VS were classified as susceptible.  At the
 adult plant stage lines V628, V407, V336, V237, V187, RL6070, RL6059 and
 RL6058 gave resistant reactions against races 77, 7A and 108 with ITs'=0; to
 X.  Lines 922, 897 and 896 showed resistant ITS' against races 77A and 108
 but were susceptible to race 77.  RL6077 and line 920 were resistant only to
 race 108.  Lines V637, RL6061 and RL6057 were resistant to races 77 and 108
 but susceptible to race 77A.  Resistant ITs'-0; to X were recorded lines
 V291, V279, V152, V113 and V9 against races 77 and 77A.  V503, V321, V298,
 V112, V72 and V10 gave resistant ITs' only against race 77 but were
 susceptible to the other two races.  On line V63 IT=X was observed against
 race 77 and IT=3 was observed against races 77 and 108.  The flag leaves of
 remaining wheats were susceptible to the three races at adult plant stage. 
 Tests for ITs' on RL6069 could not be carried out.
 
      Claude et al. (1986) reported that all the wheats listed at Sr Nos. 1
 to 22 (Table 1) are resistant to a mixture of leaf rust races in Canada. 
 However, 16 of these were susceptible under field conditions in our tests
 suggesting that these are not useful in India.  Only 6 wheats, 2 from
 Turkey, 1 from India and 3 from France showed moderate resistance.  The ITs'
 on flag leaves of adult plants of the 6 moderately resistant wheats namely
 V618, V321, V187, V152, V113 and V112 suggest the presence of 4 different
 genes.  V618 and V321 appear to have one gene each operative against races
 77A and 77, respectively.  The resistance in V152, V113 and V112 against
 races 77 and 77A on adult plant may be due to a gene different than those
 present in V618, V321, V187.  However, the possibility of a different
 resistance gene in V152 than that present in V113 and V112 cannot be ruled
 out as the former shows lo reactions against the 2 races both on flag leaves
 and under field conditions.
 
      It has also been suggested by Claude et al. (1986) that RL6070 from
 P1321999 and RL6069 from Legeadinho carry Lr34 + LrT3 and Lr33 + Lr34,
 respectively.  RL6059 from P168548 has been reported to carry the genes Lr33
 + Lr34 (Dyck and Samborski, 1982).  Since Rl6059 is highly resistant (5S) in
 field tests against races 77A and 77-1 the gene/s in linesl RL60780 (70S)
 and RL6069 (50S) appear to be different than the gene/s in RL6059.  Lines
 897 (LrT2) and RL 6058 (Lr34) carry two dominant independently inherited
 genes each (Shiwani et al., 1990).  The disease score of 30S recorded on
 RL6077 which is also reported to carry Lr34 may be due to one of the two
 genes from RL6058 and line 897.  Line 920 reported to carry LrT2 (Lr34) and
 RL6077 (Lr34) though correspond with each other for ITs' against the three
 races but the differences in their field scores indicate that these lines
 may not carry the same gene.  The gene LrT3 was reported to be present in
 lines 896 and 922 as well as RL6057 (Dyck and Samborski, 1982; Dyck et al.,
 1987).  The APR gene in RL6057 was later named as Lr33.  Although lines 896
 and 922 may have the same gene, the ITs' observed on RL6057 and the field
 score show that the former two lines do not carry the gene which is present
 in RL6057.
 
      Identification, study of inheritance and designation of APR genes is
 difficult because the expression of such genes is higly influenced by
 environmental variations (Dyck and Samborski, 1982; Pretorius et al., 1988).
 
 However, recent studies under controlled conditions suggest that APR genes
 show interactive as well as additive gene effects (Ezzahiri and Roelfs,
 1989; Singh, 1990; Shiwani et al., 1991).  Pyramiding of such genes can be
 used to obtain high level of field resistance.
 
      Acknowledgements:  Thanks are due to Drs. P. L. Dyck, R. A. McIntosh
 and R. Johnson for making available the seeds of lines used for this work. 
 Mrs. Shiwani is thankful to the Council of Scientific and Industrial
 Research for financial assistance.
 
                                   Publications
 
 Claude, P. P., P. L. Dyck and L. E. Evans.  1986.  An evaluation of 391
 spring wheat introductions for resistance to stem rust and leaf rust.  Can.
 J. Pl. Pathol. 8:132-139.
 
 Dyck, P. L.  1987.  Association of a gene for leaf rust resistance with the
 chromosome 7D suppressor of stem rust resistance in common wheat.   Genome.
 29:467-469.
 
 Dyck, P. L. and D. J. Samborski.  1982.  The inheritance of resistance to
 Puccinia recondita in a group of common wheat cultivars.  Can. J. Genet.
 Cytol., 24:273-283.
 
 Dyck, P. L., E. R. Kerber and D. M. Lukow.  1987.  Chromosome location and
 linkage of a new gene (Lr33) for reaction to Puccinia recondita in common
 wheat.  Genome. 29:463-466.
 
 Ezzahiri, B. and A. P. Roelfs.  1989.  Inheritance and expression of adult
 plant resistance to leaf rust in Era wheat.  Plant Dis. 73:549-551.
 
 Gordon-Werner, E., A. A. Hakro, S. J. Hamid, S. K. Nayar and R. G. Saini. 
 1989.  Adult plant resistance to leaf rust in wheats with Lr13. Proceedings
 6th International Congress of SABRAO, Trunkuba, Japan.
 
 Gupta, A. K. and R. G. Saini.  1987.  Frequency and effectiveness of Lr13 in
 conferring wheat leaf rust in India.  Curr. Sci., 56:417-419.
 
 Pretorius, Z. A., F. H. J. Rijkenberg and R. D. Wilcoxon.  1988.  Effect of
 growth stage, leaf position and temperature on adult plant resistance of
 wheat inoculated by Puccinia recondita tritici. Pl. Pathol. 37:36-45.
 
 Rajaram, S., R. P. Singh and E. Torres.  1988.  Current CIMMYT approaches in
 breeding wheats for rust resistance.  In: Breeding strategies for resistance
 to the Rusts of Wheats. N. W. Simmonds and S. Rajaram (Eds.) pp. 101-118.
 
 Shiwani, R. G. Saini and A. K. Gupta.  1990.  Additional resistance in some
 derivatives with known adult plant resistance genes.  Cereal rusts and
 powdery mildew Bulletin.  18:45-51.
 
 Shiwani, R. G. Saini and A. K. Gupta.  1991.  Characterization and nature of
 gene effects for adult plant leaf rust resistance in four bread wheats. 
 Proc. Golden Jubilee Symposium of the Indian Society of Genetics and Plant
 Breeding, New Delhi, India, February 12-15, 1991.  (In press).
 
 Singh, R. P.  1990.  Diversification of the genetic base for leaf rust
 resistance in CIMMYT wheats.  29th Ann. Wheat Workers' Workshop, August 27-
 29, N. D. Univ. of Agric. and Technology, Faizabad (U.P.)
 
 
 
 Table 1.  The origin and adult plant reactions against three leaf rust races
 and field scores of some wheats tested in India
 =================================================================           
 
                         ITs* in adult plant
 Sr    Line/               plants with race         Field       
 No.  Cultivar    Origin     77       77A       108        Scores
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
 1.   V618 Turkey         3         X+        X,X+3          40S
 2.   V321 Turkey         X=        3         3c3            40S
 3.   V187 India          X=        ;1+       X              40S
 4.   V152 France         ;1        ;         33+            30S
 5.   V112 France         X         1+2-      3c3            40S
 6.   V112 France         X-        2+3-      3c3            40S
 7.   V503 Afghan. X      X         33+       X+             50S
 8.   V298 Spain          ;1        33+       3c3            50S
 9.   V72  Spain          X         2+3c3     3c3            50S
 10.  V642 Portugal       3=        3         2+3c           80S
 11.  V637 China          X         3c3       2-             60S
 12.  V628 Iran           ;1-       ;         ;1-            60S
 13.  V407 Iran           ;1        ;1=       1+2-           70S
 14.  V336 Iran           ;         0;        0;             60S
 15.  V291 Canary Is.     X         X         3c33+          60S
 16.  V279 Morocco        X+        ;1        3c3-           70S
 17.  V238 Not known      3         3c3       3c33+          60S
 18.  V237 Tunis          ;         ;c        X=             60S
 19.  V111 France         3-3       2+3c L    333+           60S
 20.  V63  Spain          2+3-      X         3              80S
 21.  V10  India          ;1        3         X+             70S
 22.  V9        Portugal  ;1        ;1=       3+3,3c3        70S
  1.  RL6057    (Lr33)    2+        2+3c      1+2-           40S
  2.  RL6058    (Lr34)    0;        ;1+       1+             5S
  3.  RL6059    (Lr33+Lr34)  ;1=    ;         ;1             5S
  4.  Line 896(LrT3)      33+       ;1+       12-            70S
  5.  Line 897(LrT2)      3         ;1+       12-            5S
  6.  RL6050    (LrT2+LrT3)  33+    ;         X+             10S
  7.  Line 920  (LrT2)    33+       3c        12-            70S
  8.  Line 922  (LrT3)    3         ;1+       2              60S
  9.  RL6069    (Lr33+Lr34)  -      -         -              50S
 10.  RL6061    (?)       ;1        X+        ;              70S
 11.  RL6070    (Lr34+LrT3)  X      0:        ;1             70S
 12.  RL6077    (Lr34)    3         33+       X              30S
  1.  Thatcher            3+        3         3              60S
  2.  Agra Local          3+        3+        3+             90VS
 =================================================================
      *    ITs = Infection types
 
 --------------------
      Cytogenetics Laboratory Department of Botany, Bharathiar University,
 Coimbatore
 
      R. Asir and V. R. K. Reddy
 
                  Transfer of Yellow Rust Resistant Genes Into 
                              Indian Wheat Cultivars
 
      The wheat cultivar Sonalika even though susceptible for all three
 rusts, still plays a vital role in the wheat revolution in India.  To bring
 the resistance for black and brown rusts, Agropyron elongatum derived gene
 complex Sr 24+ Lr 24 has been successfully transferred into it (cv. Improved
 Sonalika).  Since there is not much competition among rust pathogens, yellow
 rust is developing at an alarm rate in the Nilgiris of South India where,
 all the three rusts are prevalent throughout the year.  Therefore, an
 attempt was made to transfer yellow rusts genes Yr  8, Yr 9, YR 11, Yr 12,
 Yr 13, and Yr 14 into  Sonalika.  Donor alien materials for these were
 received from PBI, Cambridge.  Field observation at Directorate of Wheat
 Research, Regional Station, Wellington, showed that these winter lines have
 excellent resistance to yellow rust.  Studies under glasshouse conditions at
 DWR, Regional Station, Flowerdale, Shimla also indicated that these genes
 are completely resistant to all the known Indian Yr races.
 
      At Wellington, yellow rust resistant genes Yr 8 (Compair), Yr 9
 (Veery'S), Yr 11 (Joss Cambier, Yr 12 (Pride), Yr 13 (Guardian), Yr 14
 (Score) were transferred to the improved Sonalika by the backcross method. 
 The F1 hybrids exhibited complete yellow rust resistance.  In BC2
 generation, plants resembling the Sonalika phenotype were selected under
 field conditions; their rust reactions are given in the following table:
 
 Parents/                           Rust reactions*        
 hybrids                     Black       Brown       Yellow
 ========================================================================  
 Sonalika                      60S       80S            60S
 Improved Sonalika              5S         F            90S
 IS/Yr8                        TMS         F              F
 IS/Yr9                        TMS         F              F
 IS/Yr11                        5S         F              F
 IS/Yr12                        5S         F              F
 IS/YR13                        5S         F              F
 IS/Yr14                        5S         F              F
 ========================================================================
    * S = susceptible, F = is undefined (R?).
 
      In the F(3) generation, black rust (40S) was noticed, which could be
 due to association winter type character, however, in BC1S1, BC1S2, BC2S2,
 the degree of black rust was low (5S).
 
      The work is also under progress to transfer yellow rust resistance
 genes into additional important wheat cultivars namely Kalyanosona, HW 741
 and HD 2285.  Three more yellow rust resistant genes Yr 17 (lined wtih
 useful genes Sr 38 and Lr 37) from Ae. ventricosa, Yr 16 from 4x cv Capelle,
 Yr 18 from cv Condor are being utilized.  Yr 9 gene is also being
 incorporated into Indian wheat cultivars from a rye addition line 1R and
 from Veery S.  The gene from 1R is being transferred by manipulating 5B
 system using ph mutant.
 
                                   Publications
 
 Reddy, V. R. K., Brahma, R. N. and Asir, R.  1992.  Transfer of Secale
 cereale derived linked rust resistant gene complex Sr 31 + Lr 26 + Yr 9 into
 Indian wheat cultivar.  J. Indian Bot. Soc. (in press).
 
 Reddy, V. R. K., Asir, R. and Brahma, R. N.  1993.  Development of rust
 resistant into two Indian wheat cultivars.  Crop Res.6(2).  (In press).
 
 --------------------
      Aloka Saikia and V. R. K. Reddy
 
                Transfer of Stem, Leaf, and Yellow Rust Resistance
                           Genes to Four Indian Wheats
 
      Efforts were made to transfer genes imparting resistance against stem,
 leaf and yellow rusts to four commercially important Indian wheats namely HD
 2329, WH 147, NI 5439 and WL 711 highly susceptible to rusts.  The objective
 of the program was to develop new cultivars or superior genetic stocks.
 
      Genes and gene combinations found effective against races of Nilgiri
 Hills of south India include: for combined stem and leaf rust resistance,
 genes Sr 26 + Lr 24 and Sr 24 + Lr 24; for stem rust resistance, genes Sr
 26, Sr 27 and Sr 28; for leaf rust resistance, genes Lr 9, Lr 19, Lr 24, Lr
 25 and Lr 28; and for yellow rust resistance, genes Yr 8 and Yr 9. 
 Resistance from three rye addition lines namely Yr 9, Lr 25 and Sr 27
 (Chinese spring + 1R, Chinese Spring + 2R and Chinese spring + 3R
 respectively) were also transferred by use of the manipulation 5B system,
 i.e., by crossing the F1 hybrids (wheat x rye addition lines) with
 homozygous recessive mutant (ph ph).  From these crosses F1 plants were
 selfed and resistant F2 plants were back-crossed to respective parents. 
 Selection for disease resistance along with agronomically desirable
 characters were made at BC2S4.  The experiments were conducted at
 Wellington, south India, a "hot spot" location for wheat rusts.
 
      Newly constituted lines at BC2S4 were found highly resistant to
 respective rusts and gave higher grain yield compared to the respective
 recurrent parents.  The new lines had little phenotypic similarity to their
 respective parents except in a few cases.  The F1 hybrids obtained from Wl
 711 x Sr 26 (Eagle) crosses produced `grass dwarfs', probably due to the
 expression of dwarfing gene present in cultivar WL 711.
 
                                   Publications
 
 Aloka Saikia and Reddy, V. R. K.  1992.  Transfer of alien rust resistant
 genes into Indian Wheat Cultivars.  Proc. Natl. Symp. Maximizing and
 sustaining crop and animal productivity by modern techniques.  Oct. 1992 BHV
 Varanasi. p. 218.
 
 Aloka Saikia and Reddy, V. R. K.  1992.  Transfer of alien rust resistant
 genes into Indian Wheats.  Proc. 4th All India Conf. on Cytology and
 Genetics, November 1992.  Bangalore. p. 31.
 
 Aloka Saikia and Reddy, V. R. K.  1992.  Induction of rust resistant mutants
 in wheat.  Proc. 4th All India Conf. on Cytology and Genetics. November
 1992.
 
 Reddy, V. R. K. and Aloka Saiki.  1992.  Wide hybridization in wheat
 improvement.  Proc. International Symp. Tropical Crop Research and
 Biotechnology, Trivandrum.
 
 Reddy, V. R. K. and Aloka Saikia.  1992.  Induced mutagenesis in wheat I. 
 Biological effects.  Bulletin of Pure and Appl.  Sci. 11B (1&2) 11-18.
 
 Reddy, V. R. K. and Aloka Saikia.  1992.  Induced mutagenesis in wheat II. 
 Cytological effects.  Bulletin of Pure and Appl. Sci. 11B (1-2) 31-38.
 
 Reddy, V. R. K. and Aloka Saikia.  1992.  Distant hybridization in wheat
 improvement - A review.  Academy of Plant Sciences, India (APSI)
 Muzaffarnater (Monograph) 39 pp.
 
 Reddy, V. R. K. and Aloka Saikia.  1992.  Mutation breeding in some cereals.
 V. Quantitative Variability.  Bio. Science Res. Bull. 8(1-2): 73-79.
 
 --------------------
      SKUAST, Regional Agriculture Research Station, R. S. Pura - 181 102
 
      J. S. Bijral*, K. S. Kanwal* and T. R. Sharma
 
      Triticum - Poa Hybridization:  Apomixis could be an important tool for
 use in fixing heterosis in wheat.  Many species of Poa are apomicts and
 transfer of apomixis from Poa to Triticum aestivum could make a significant
 contribution to the improvement of the world's most important cereal crop. 
 Whereas the wide hybrids of Triticum species with those of Aegilops,
 Agropyron, Elymus, Haynaldia, Hordeum, Pennisetum, Secale and Zea have been
 obtained and extensively studied/reviewed (Sharma & Gill, 1983; Mujeebkazi &
 Kimber, 1985; Laurie & Bennett, 1986; Ahmad & Comeau, 1990) hybridization of
 Triticum aestivum with Poa species has not been reported so far. In our
 endeavor to explore the possibility of transferring apomixis from Poa to
 cultivated wheat, we succeeded in obtaining Triticum-Poa sexual hybrids. 
 The juvenile stems and leaves of the presumptive Triticum-Poa amphihaploids
 were distinctly those of Poa.  However, as the hybrids progressed in growth
 and development, the morphological features of the ovule parent (Chinese
 Spring) became more apparent, but sufficiently remote to be mistaken for
 wheat (Fig. 1).  Since the presumptive hybrids are still in a vegetative
 stage, cytological confirmation of their hybrid status is awaited.
 
 
 
 
                                   PHOTO - HERE
 
 
 
 
 
                                   Publications
 
 Ahmad, F. & A. Comeau.  1990.  Euphytica. 50:181-190.
 
 Laurie, D. A. & M. D. Bennett.  1986.  Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 28:313-316.
 
 Mujeeb Kazi, A. & G. Kimber.  1985.  Cereal Res. Commun. 13:11-124.
 
 Sharma, H. C. and B. S. Gill.  1983.  Euphytica. 32:17-31.
 
 --------------------
      Biotechnology Centre, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana
 
      H. S. Dhaliwal, Harjit Singh and Khen Singh Gill
 
      Tolerance to three abiotic stresses in Ae. speltoides.  Evaluation of
 Aegilops speltoides and wild Triticum species indicated that Ae. speltoides
 was a good source of resistance to drought, cold and heat stresses.
 
      Field screening for drought tolerance by withholding irrigation at
 flowering and grain filling periods showed that all the accessions of Ae.
 speltoides (S) were tolerant, whereas all T. dicoccoides (AB) were highly
 susceptible with no accession possessing tolerance to drought.  Ae.
 squarrosa (D) was also a poor source of tolerance to the stress as it had
 only 23% of total accessions tolerant to drought.
 
      During vernalization of 107 accessions of various species of Aegilops
 and wild Triticum species, trays in the vernalization chamber froze due to
 some fault in the thermostat.  This provided an opportunity to identify
 lines wtih cold tolerance at the seedling stage.  Out of 107 accessions, 36
 accessions recovered from freezing stress.  Ae. speltoides (S), T. urartu
 (A(u)) and Aegilops species with C and U genomes had higher proportions of
 surviving accessions.  None of the 17 accessions of Ae. squarrosa (D)
 recovered, and only 2 out of 18 accessions of polyploid Aegilops species
 possessing D genome recovered.
 
      The grain yield of wheat is directl6y related to the length of the
 growing season and grain filling peroid.  High temperature during the second
 fortnight of April in the Indogangetic plains leads to premature dwarfing of
 late sown crop, grain shrivelling and significant reduction in grain yield. 
 Our observations on wild wheat and Aegilops species over years shave shown
 that Ae. speltoides (S) and Ae. triuncialis (UC) were highly tolerant to
 high temperature during grain filling period.  Due to high requirement of
 vernalization and longer photoperiod they flower during second fortnight of
 May when directly planted in field in October without artificial
 vernalization.  During these years the maximum temperatures were above 40oC
 on certain days in May.  In spite of high temperature, they flowered and set
 seeds in the fourth week of May.  The harvested seed of both species was
 normal and plump.
 
      The observations presented here showed that Ae. speltoides (S)
 possesses tolerance to all three stresses while the D genome species is a
 poor source of tolerance to abiotic stresses.
 
 --------------------
      Harjit Singh, H. S. Dhaliwal and Khem Singh Gill
 
      A new leaf rust resistance gene other than Lr 9 in Kharchia mutant KLM
 4-3B.  A leaf rust resistant mutant line KLM 4-3B of tall Indian spring
 wheat cultivar Kharchia local (Sawhney et al., 1979), resistant to all the
 prevalent races of leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici) in India,
 has been implicated to possess the leaf rust resistance gene Lr 9 (Sawhney,
 pers. commun.).  However, tests for seedling reactions of the isogenic line
 Lr 9 (in Thatcher background), KLM 4-3B and various generations of the
 crosses of these two leaf rust resistant lines with an Indian spring wheat
 cultivar WL 711, showed that the leaf rust resistance gene Lr 9 behaved as a
 dominant gene in the background of WL 711 and segregated as a recessive gene
 in KLM 4-3B.  
 
      Parents, F1 and F2 generations of the cross WL 711 x Lr 9 were tested
 for seedling reactions to leaf rust pathotype 108 avirulent on Lr 9 as well
 as on KLM 4-38.  The F1 of this cross was resistant to pathotype 108 and F2
 generation segregated resistant (57): susceptible (25) plants in 3:1 ratio
 (chi(2) = 1.31; P = 0.25-0.50).  This indicated the dominance of the gene Lr
 9.  F3 progrenies of resistant F2 plants were tested with another leaf rust
 pathotype 77A-1 avirulent on both Lr 9 (0;) and KLM 4-38 (0;) and virulent
 on WL 711 (4-4 reaction on 0 to 4 scale).  
 
 --------------------
      Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh
 Krishi Vishvavidyalaya
 
      G. S. Sethi*, S. C. Sharma, K. S. Thakur, D. L. Sharma, A. K. Basandrai
 H. K. Chaudhar and A. Sirohi
 
      Advances in wheat improvement in Northwestern Himalayas
 
      Wheat is the most important food grain crop among the cereals grown in
 Himachal Pradesh, with the largest area of about 370,000 ha and a grain
 production of 544,000 T.  However, the productivity of wheat in the State is
 only 14.7 g/ha against the National average of 22.4 g/ha.  The main reasons
 for the low productivity are attributable to the rainfed cultivation in
 about 83% of the area, prevalence of stripe and leaf rusts, loose smut,
 powdery mildew and bunts (hill bunt in higher and karnal bunt in lower
 hills).  The wheat breeding efforts have been focused to develop new high-
 yielding, disease resistant and widely adaptable wheat varieties for diverse
 agro-climatic conditions prevailing in the hills.
 
      Identification of elite wheat strains.  Under early-sown rainfed
 conditions 20 wheat strains were evaluated and, on the basis of grain yield
 potential and resistance to stripe and leaf rusts, only 3 wheat strains
 HPW90, HPW91 and HPW92 with grain yields of 37.97, 37.87 and 34.56 g/ha,
 respectively, were selected and included in the All-India Coordinated Trials
 for the Northern Hills' Zone.  Under timely-sown rainfed conditions, wheat
 strains HPW97, HPW98, HPW99, HPW100, and HPW101 were selected on the basis
 of multilocational superiority in respect of grain yield and resistance to
 the rusts.  Sixteen wheat strains were evaluated under late-sown rainfed
 conditions over locations.  The highest average grain yield of 36.83 g/ha
 was recorded in the strain HPW93 followed by HPW102, HPW94, and HPW95 with
 average grain yields of 35.04 g/ha, 33.26 g/ha and 29.33 g/ha, respectively.
 
 These strains also showed resistance to stripe and leaf rust.
 
      Promising Wheat Cultivars.  Three wheat cultivars, HPW74 (for timely-
 sown conditions), and HPW42 (Aradhna) and HPW56 (for late-sown conditions)
 have been promoted to the final year of testing under the All-India
 Coordinated testing for the Northern Hills' Zone.  The performance of these
 cultivars (Table 1) on the basis of grain yield and reaction to stripe and
 leaf rusts has shown superiority over the check cultivars.
 
      Shuttling of wheat breeding material.  The wheat breeding materials
 generated over previous years were shuttled and evaluated at different
 locations during winter 1991-92 at Dhaulakuan (456m), Bajaura (1098m) and
 Palampur/Malan (1300m), which are the hot spots of leaf rust, stripe rust
 and powdery mildew, respectively, and in summer 1992 at Kukumseri (2300m)
 which is the hot spot of stripe rust and powdery mildew (Table 2).  A total
 of 131 single and multiple crosses were also made at Palampur involving
 proven sources of resistance to rusts (CPAN3056, VI614, HUW258, K8504,
 CPAN2099 and CPAN3004) with desirable agronomic basis.
 
      Winter X spring wheat hybridization program.  Seventy-two winter X
 spring wheat crosses developed and advanced during summer 1990 and winter
 1991-92 at Kukumseri and Palampur were screened for early-maturing spring
 types, profuse tillering and resistance to stripe and leaf rusts and powdery
 mildew.  The selected F3 spring types were screened and selection of
 desirable plants made.  In addition, 25 winter x spring crosses were made at
 Palampur along with some crosses of winter wheats with local spring
 landraces.  The F1's of the previous year were backcrossed to spring wheat
 cultivar HD2380.  The resulting generations will be screened for further
 selections during 1992-93.
 
      Evaluation of winter wheats for dry temperate areas.  Fifteen exotic
 winter wheats and six winter wheat landraces were evaluated for grain yield
 and reaction to rusts and powdery mildew during summer, 1992 at Kukumseri. 
 Two winter wheat cultivars Stepova and Blueboy significantly outyielded the
 semi-winter check VL616 and local winter checks and showed up to 58 reaction
 to stripe rust.  `Armada' and `Prifjoumance' were found free from stripe and
 leaf rusts and moderately resistant to powdery mildew.  In addition, 150
 winter wheat stocks obtained from the NBPGR were evaluated and 27 most
 promising ones selected on the basis of desirable plant traits and grain
 characters.
 
 
 
 
 ==================================================================
 Cultivar/                Grain Yield g/ha              Reaction to
 Production                 Zonal Average     Overall  Stripe  Leaf
 condition                   1990-91  1991-92  Average  rust   rust
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
 A.HPWW74                      
 (i)Timely 66 sown,Rainfed   32.6      28.8     30.7     F      F
     HS240 (check)           27.0      27.7     27.3     F      F
     C.D.                     3.5       2.2             
 (ii) Timely sown,Irrigated  33.3      46.2     39.7     F      F
      Sonalika (check)       27.3      45.9     36.6    70S    80S
      C.D.                    6.0       3.6             
 B.  Late sown, Rainfed                       
     HPW42 (Aradhna)         33.2      28.3     30.7     F      F
     HPW56                   28.0      28.6     28.3     F     tR
     Sonalika (check)        26.9      27.4     27.1    20S    60S
     C.D.                     2.6       2.3
 ==================================================================          
 
   
           F = free, S = susceptible
 
 
 Table 2.  Shuttling evaluation and selection of wheat breeding materials.
 ==================================================================
                                   Cultures              Cultures
 Generation/Location               Evaluated             Selected 
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
 F2                         194 populations      178 single plants
 F3 Dhaulakuan/Malan/
 Kukumseri                  339 progenies        337 single plants
 F4 Dkaulakuan/             210 progenies        406 single plants
 F5-F7 Palampur/
 Malan/Kukumseri            262 progenies/bulks  174 progenies
                                      70 bulks
 F8 Palampur                 25 bulks             12 bulks          
 ==================================================================
 
 
      Screening of wheat genetic stocks for resistance to diseases. About
 1200 genetic stocks of Triticum aestivum, T. durum and triticales were
 evaluated against stripe rust, leaf rust and powdery mildew at Palampur and
 Malan.  Evaluation against stripe and leaf rusts were undertaken at Malan
 under artificial epiphytotic conditions, created by periodic spraying a
 mixture of leaf rust races, viz., 11, 12, 77, 77A, 77A-1, 77-2, 104, 108 and
 162 and stripe rusts races K, N, 31 and20.  The evaluation against powdery
 mildew was done at Palampur under artificial epiphytotic conditions using
 the locally available isolates.  For loose smut, 550 wheat genetic stocks
 inoculated during the previous year were evaluated to identify the resistant
 sources.
 
      The number of the genetic stocks selected as sources with multiple
 resistance against individual diseases is given below.
      A.  Triticum aestivum - Free from stripe rust, leaf rust and powdery
 mildew: 77 resistant (Tr-10S) to leaf rust and free from yellow rust and
 powdery mildew: 53 Free from leaf rust and stripe rust: 101 resistant to
 leaf rust, free from stripe rust: 36
      B.  T. durum - Resistant to leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew:
 12
      C.  Triticale - Free from leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew:
 26; Genetic stocks showing resistance to loose smut (0-10% disease
 incidence):  T. aestivum: 169; T. durum: 13; Triticale: 131.  Physiological
 specialization of Erysiphe graminis tritici: 54 isolates of the pathogen (63
 conidial and 21 ascosporic) were collected from 16 locations representing
 different agro-climatic regions of HP.  The conidial and ascosporic isolates
 were inoculated on near-isogenic lines (in the background of Chancellor) and
 also on some genotypes having single powdery mildew resistance genes (Pm1
 through Pm8) and Michigan Amber having an unidentified resistance gene.  All
 the isolates could be grouped into 40 different pathotypes, 26 were from
 conidial isolates and 14 from the ascosporic isolates.  Pathotype 23 from
 the conidial isolates and pathotype 14 from the ascosporic isolates were the
 most virulent.  Pathotype 23 had virulence on all genes except Pm1, Pm2, and
 Pm7 whereas pathotype 14 from ascosporic isolates had virulence on all the
 genes except Pm1, Pm2, and Pm6.  Pathotype 11 from conidial isolates, was
 the least virulent.  Only one pathotype with virulence on genes Pm1 and Pm4
 was identified.  Postulation of powdery mildew resistance genes: 211
 cultivars were subjected to 8 cultures of E. graminis f. sp tritici.  Out of
 these, 77 behaved differently to all/some of the cultures.
 
             Genotypes            Resistance genes (postulated)
  ---------------------------------------------------------------  
           PBW 229, PBW 320                Pm3a/c +
           HS 322, VL 702                  PM3a or Pm3b
           HPW 42                          Pm3a or Pm3b, Pm(Ma) +
           DWR 162                         Pm3a/c, Pm(Ma)
           HD 2590                         Pm8
           WH 573                          Pm(Ma) +
           HS 284, HUW 294, K 9002         Pm3a/b
           HUW 385                         Pm3a, Pm7 +
           DWR 162, WH 569                 Pm3a/c, Pm(Ma)
                     (individual or in combination)
 
 --------------------
                                 ITEMS FROM ITALY
  
      Experimental Institute of Cereal Research - Section of S. Angelo
 Lodigiano     
      Qiao Y.M., Cattaneo M., Ajmone Marsan P., Rotino G.L., Macchi A.
 
      Wheat plant transformation: preliminary results obtained by combining
 biobalistic and Agrobacterium tumefaciens system.In the aim of evaluating a
 new method for plants transformation, we have studied the biobalistic and
 the Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A.t.) carrier methods on wheat. On the basis
 of the work of Bidney and coll. (1992) it was thought  to combine, also on
 wheat, the particle gun system followed by the A.t. method to infect the
 wounded tissues.
 High regenerable anther-derived calli from cultivar Veery and DH line L26
 were bombarded with gold microprojectiles, coated or not with the plasmid
 DNA, and then infected with A.t.
 
      In Tab. 1 actual situation is resumed as far as calli and regenerated
 plantlets, the different tests used are also reported. Two plantlets, after
 positive response with fluorimetric and hystochemical tests, present a
 characteristic NPT-II fragment following genomic DNA amplification through
 polymerase chair reaction (PCR).
 Further investigations will be carried out on mature plants to verify their
 fertility and progeny behaviour. Besides molecular researches with Southern
 blot are needed to analyse the pattern of transgene integration in the host
 genome.
 
 Table 1 Combination treatments of Bio-balistic and A.t. infection on anther-
 derived calli. Single green regenerated plantlets were tested by
 fluorimetric and histochemical GUS assays and PCR amplification about 3-4
 months after the treatments.
 
  -----------------------------------------------------------
 Treat. Treatment     No. anther  No. green  Plantlets with
 No.   combinations     derived  regenerated  GUS activity:
                         calli    plantlets  Fluor. X-Gluc PCR
  ------------------------------------------------------------
 i  2x bombard.-plasmid   585        39        8      4      2
    + Agrob.t.-plasmid
 
 ii 2x bombard.-wounds    543        32        5      1      0
     + Agrob.t.-plasmid
 
 iii 2x bombard.-plasmid  284        11        0      0      0
     no Agrob.t. infec.
 
 iv  no bombard.          225        18        2      1      0
     + Agrob.t.-plasmid
 
 v  no bombard.            64         2        0      0      0
     no Agrob.t. infec.
  ------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
      Cattaneo M., Qiao Y.M. AND Pogna N.E.
 
      Androgenesis response: gene localization in wheats with or without rye-
 wheat translocation.Genetic investigations were designed to study gene
 localization of androgenesis response in different lines of wheat carrying
 different number of chromosomes and with or without rye-wheat translocation.
 Preliminary results confirm the presence of different genes to regulate
 subsequent steps of growing: from embryoid stage to green plantlets
 production.
 For embryoids production the presence of the translocation doesn't seem to
 have a positive "per se" effect: it appears to be tried to the different
 origin of the rye half-chromosome (allelic genes with different activity),
 or to the dimension of the translocation (linkage of positive genes). In
 durum wheat the presence of translocation appears positive in any case ,
 even if there are some differences in the genotypes. High frequency of green
 plants production in the lines with translocation derived from Veery,
 suggests the presence of one or few genes, with positive effect, strictly
 linked with Glu-B1 locus (subunits 7+9), inherited from that variety. But
 low results reported for Amigo, that derives its translocation from rye
 Insave, instead from Petkus like Veery, show the high dependence from
 genetic background.
 
      It wasn't found any clear correlation between embryoid response and
 green and albino plantlets production, confirming the presence of different
 groups of genes involved in these regulations and also of different linkage
 groups.
 
 
     AJMONE MARSAN P.1, LUPOTTO E.1, LOCATELLI F.1, QIAO Y.M., CATTANEO M.
 
 1Istituto Sperimentale per la Cerealicoltura, Sezione di Bergamo
 
      Molecular analysis of transformed protoclones of hexaploid wheat. In
 hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the establishment of a protoplast
 system is still a rare event, and only recently decisive progress has been
 obtained in regenerating plants from protoplasts isolated from embryogenic
 suspension cultures. Our laboratories have reported the results obtained in
 the Annual Wheat Newsletter 1992. As a progressive step towards the
 regeneration of transformed wheat plants via direct gene transfer, we have
 developed a  transformation protocol based on PEG-mediated direct DNA uptake
 into protoplasts. The work performed in this field was aimed at defining a
 routine protocol for stable transformation of wheat protoplasts, and at
 characterizing the stable events of transformation for better understanding
 the modality of integration of a foreign gene into the wheat genome.
 
      Cell suspension cultures of hexaploid wheat cv. Oderzo were derived
 from fast growing friable calli obtained from immature embryos as previously
 described, and protoplasts isolated from them. Protoplasts culture was as
 extensively described in  the paper in Plant Cell Reports 11:262-265, 1992,
 by Qiao et al. Protoplasts were transfected via PEG-mediated DNA uptake with
 plasmid pCGN778 (a kind gift from Calgene, Davis, CA, USA), carrying the
 neomycin phosphotransferase-II gene (NPT-II) under the control of the 35S
 CaMV promoter. After transformation protoplasts were selected by using the
 bead-type culture in agarose beads, in a liquid phase containing 100 mg/l
 kanamycin. Selection was throughout a period of 6 weeks, during which the
 transformed protoclones grew out of the agarose beads and could be picked
 out and grown onto solid medium (ODZ-K calli). Suspension cultures
 originated from ODZ-K protoclones, were capable of growing in the presence
 of kanamycin, neomycin and geneticin (G418), and retained the trait of
 resistance also after a period of culture in absence of selective pressure.
 The protein blot analysis indicated as NPT-II assay, performed on calli
 stably growing on kanamycin containing medium were positive, thus confirming
 that resistance was due to the activity of the foreign gene introduced.
 The kanamycin resistant protoclones were analyzed for the presence and the
 modality of integration of the chimaeric gene. Genomic DNAs were subjected
 to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using primers designed to
 amplify an internal NPT-II fragment of 592 bp. Eight callus lines were then
 further analyzed in Southern. Integration of the chimaeric construct in the
 chromosomal DNA of ODZ-K calli was confirmed by hybridization in a region of
 high molecular weight when undigested DNAs were probed, and the 1000 bp NPT-
 II probe used evidenced the expected 1500 and 2200 bp bands when hybridized
 to the transformed DNAs digested with EcoRI or with HindIII and BamHI
 respectively. Bands at higher and lower than expected molecular weight were
 also present, indicating integration and alteration of restriction site(s),
 or integration of fragments of the chimaeric construct. All the assayed
 callus lines showed several bands indication multiple integration at
 different locations in the genome. In reconstruction experiments we
 estimated that the copy number of the gene inserted accounted from 1 to 20
 per haploid genome, which was a relatively small number compared to the copy
 number evaluated in other cases for cereals.
 The whole work described has been developed for transformation of
 protoplasts derived from the cultivar Oderzo. Meantime, since better and
 more regenerative cultures have been established in other genotypes, we
 expect to apply the methodology developed to cultures in which transformed
 plants can be obtained.
 
 Corbellini M., Castagna R. AND Perenzin M.
  
      Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in wild diploid wheats.About
 1400 accessions of wild diploid wheats have been considered to study
 taxonomy, variability and phylogeny of the genome A. All the accessions will
 be described for their main morphological and physiological traits and the
 clusters obtained will be compared with those coming from RFLP analysis.
 Polymorphism level have been tested on 55 lines using 4 restriction enzymes
 (HaeIII, RsaI, AluI and TaqI) and probes coming from genomic and cDNA
 libraries of wheat, barley and T. urartu.
 Up to date at least one probe/chromosome has been employed obtaining from a
 low to a high level of RFLPs for a total of 379 fragments.
 Pair-wise comparisons were used to calculate Jaccard's similarity
 coefficients; from these dendrograms for the three species monococcum,
 boeoticum and urartu, and a total one have been constructed.
 Interesting informations to infer about taxonomy, genetic distances and
 genetic variability of the lines use have been obtained.
 
 Perenzin M., Borghi B.
 
      Hybrid wheats.In 1982 a total of 690 bread wheat hybrids produced with
 CHA technology together with their parental varieties (chosen among the
 European material) were evaluated for agronomic traits in two rows
 unreplicated plots 1.6 m long.
 Combining ability was studied using a diallel cross (7 x 7 without
 reciprocals) in two locations. The results of this study indicate that
 several cultivars contributed positive gca effects and some hybrids
 contributed significant sca effects for grain yield and yield related
 traits. Some hybrids inherited positive traits present in each parent
 suggesting the possibility to exploit trait complementation (i.e. grain
 yield, plant height, bread making quality). A positive trend has been
 observed in the yield potential of the most recent hybrids produced on the
 basis of the acquired information concerning, combinity ability of the
 parental cultivars.
 
 Pogna N.E., Redaelli R., Biancardi A.M., Vaccino P., Accerbi M.
 
      Isolation and molecular characterization of a wheat line lacking the
 1Dx subunit 2 of glutenin.An Italian common wheat line, analysed by SDS-PAGE
 to describe the glutenin composition, showed an unusual pattern at the Glu-
 D1 locus: in the progeny analysed, 106 plants showed the normal Glu-D1
 allele 2+12 and 3 expressed only subunit 12. RFLP analysis was performed on
 the two different groups of plants (12 and 2+12) using a Glu-1 sequence
 (PTag1290) as a probe: the restriction patterns resulted to be identical
 after digestion with three different four-cutter restriction enzymes (AluI,
 RsaI, HaeIII). This result suggests two hypotheses: a) the gene for the "x-
 type" subunit (i.e. subunit 2) has been silenced by a mutation;  b) the
 transcription is stopped before the end of the gene by a mutation, and the
 molecular weight of the protein is changed (we can't recognize subunit 2 in
 the usual position). The plants were divided into two families (with and
 without subunit 2) and sowed in the field in spaced rows. Further analysis
 will evaluate the effect of the new composition on bread making quality.
 
 Redaelli R., Pogna N.E., Dachkevitch T., Cacciatori P., Biancardi A.M.,
 Metakovsky E.V.
 
      Genetical analysis of a 1AS/1DS translocation in the bread wheat
 cultivar Perzivan-1.  The two biotypes of bread wheat cultivar Perzivan-1
 have a translocated 1DS segment carrying the Gli-D1 locus on the short arm
 of chromosome 1A. The resident Gli-D1 allele is the Cheyenne-type in biotype
 1 and the Chinese Spring-type in biotype 2.  Genetical analysis of the
 translocation (Gli-D1g allele) was carried out in the F2 progeny of the
 cross between Perzivan-1 (biotype 2) and DM-111, a line lacking both Gli-D1
 and Gli-B1 alleles. The recombination percentage between Gli-D1g and the
 main locus for gliadins (Gli-A1) resulted to be 1.0 ñ 7.5; the map distance
 between Gli-D1g and Glu-A1 was calculated to be 42.0 ñ 4.5, suggesting that
 the translocated segment is distal to Gli-A1 in chromosome 1A. 
 
      Perzivan-1 biotype 2 was crossed as female with the durum wheat
 cultivar Rodeo and F2 progeny was screened by A-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. The Gli-
 D1g allele was present also in seed lacking HMW glutenin subunits 5+10,
 segregating independently from 1D chromosome and confirming its presence on
 chromosome 1A. This translocation offers the unique possibility to introduce
 a "good quality" 1D allele in a tetraploid genome and to evaluate its
 usefulness in improving pastamaking or bread making quality of durum wheats.
 Most of the F2 seeds expressed also HMW glutenin subunit 1, derived from
 Perzivan-1.
 
 Pogna N.E., Metakovsky E.V., Redaelli R., Dachkevitch T., Chernakov V.M.
 
      Identification of some remote gliadin loci in the group 1 chromosomes. 
 Genetical analysis of gliading-encoding loci was carried out in the
 progenies of several crosses involving Italian, Canadian and Russian
 varieties. Chromosomes 1A and 1B were shown to contain some remote loci
 coding for -gliadins. Gli-A4 codes for one  -gliadin that was evidenced in
 the progeny of the cross Perzivan-1 x DM-111; it is situated proximally to
 Gli-A1, at 10.0 ñ 2.5 cM. In the crosses between Salmone (red, hairy glumes)
 and Asiago, Claudia, Centauro and Pandas (white, hairless glumes), the locus
 for glume colour (Rg-1) was mapped  at about 2.0 cM from Gli-B1. An
 additional gliadin locus, Gli-B5, was mapped between Gli-B1 and Rg-1, 1.4 cM
 from the former. On chromosome 1A we found the Gli-A5 locus, probably
 homoeologous to Gli-B5, at 1.8 cM from the Hg-1 locus for hairy glumes. One 
 -gliadin in the cross Neepawa x Costantino was found to recombine with Gli-
 B1 at a percentage of about 20.2 ñ 3.0 and was assigned to the Gli-B3 locus,
 already  described. Moreover, in the progeny of the cross Skorospelka
 Uluchshennaya x Kharkovskaya 6,  evidence was accumulated that a gliadin
 locus homoeologous to Gli-B5 may be present on chromosome 1D, at 1%
 recombination from Gli-D1.
 
 Corbellini M., Vaccino P., Accerbi M., Pogna N.E.
 
      Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms in Triticum aestivum.Cultivar
 identification using highly polymorphic RFLP probes, four cutter enzymes and
 polyacrilamide gels has been carried out. Two probes, specific for HMW
 glutenins and -gliadins have been used to identify 50 common wheat Italian
 cultivars, most of which strictly related, and 4 common wheat cultivars
 originating outside Italy. The probes revealed complex polymorphic patterns;
 three probe/enzyme combinations had the necessary sensitivity for the
 identification of all the 54 cultivars. A study on RFLP utilization to make
 prediction on hybrid wheat vigour has been started. In order to correlate
 RFLP patterns to heterosis for grain yield and other agronomic and
 qualitative traits, thirty parental varieties of about one hundred hybrids
 will be analyzed with at least ten probes per chromosome.
 
 Gavuzzi P., Borghi B.
 
      Variability for early growth. Variability for early growth has been
 studied for two years in two cultivars, a spring type and a winter type, on
 bread wheat barley and rye. The six varieties were grown both in the open
 field and in controlled environment and the total biomass accumulated and
 protein concentration were monitored from the third leaf stage to heading
 time. Statistically significative differences for dry matter accumulation
 have been found among the growth curves of the three species, the highest
 values being recorded on rye and, within each species in the spring types.
                                         
                                      PUBLICATIONS
 
 BORGHI B., GUIDUCCI M., CORBELLINI M., MONOTTI .M. 1992. Attempts at
 avoiding the yield constraints of bread wheat (T. aestivum) in Mediterranea
 environments. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 168:49-60.
 
 METAKOVSKY E.V., BABOEV S. K. 1992. Polymorphism of gliadin and unusual
 gliadin alleles in T. boeoticum. Genome, 35(6):1007-1012.
 
 PERENZIN M., BORGHI B. 1992. Performance of wheat hybrids obtained using a
 chemical hybridizing agent. Proc. Int. Symp. Wheat Breeding - Prospects and
 future approaches. June 4th-8th Albena, Bulgaria. pp.91-102.
 
 PERENZIN M., POGNA N.E., BORGHI B. 1992. Combining ability for breadmaking
 quality in wheat. Can. J. Plant Sci. 72:743-754.
 
 POGNA N.E., REDAELLI R., DACKEVITCH T., CURIONI A. AND DAL BELIN PERUFFO A.
 1992. Benefits from genetic and molecular biology to umprove the end use
 properties of cereals. Proc. Paris 1-5 June 1992 pp.83-93.
 
 POGNA N.E., MELLINI F., REDAELLI R., BIANCHI A., 1992. Genetic aspect of
 proteins affection technological and nutritional quality in wheat. Proc.
 Int. Symp.  Wheat Breeding - Prospects and future approaches. June 4th-8th.
 Albena, Bulgaria. pp.91-102.
 
 QIAO Y.M., CATTANEO M., LOCATELLI F., LUPOTTO E. 1992. Plant regeneration
 from long-term suspension culture-derived protoplasts of hexaploid wheat (T.
 aestivum L.). Plant Cell Reports, 11:262-265.
 
 REDAELLI R., POGNA N.E., DACHKEVITCH T., CACCIATORI P., BIANCARDI A. AND
 METAKOVSKY E.V. 1992. Inheritance studies of the 1AS/1DS chromosome
 translocation in the bread wheat variety Perzivan-1. Genet. & Breed. 46:253-
 262.
 
 --------------------
 Experimental Institute for Cereal Research Via Cassia, 176-00191 Roma
 
      M. Pasquini*, V. Cecchi, L. Sereni, F. Casini, F. Causulli
 
      Fungal diseases on wheat in Italy:  virulence of their causal agents
 and search for sources of resistance.  Field and greenhouse evaluations are
 carried out yearly to analyze the presence, diffusion and virulence of some
 pathogens and to test the behavior of durum and bread wheat cultivars as
 well as to search for new sources of resistance.
 
      Powdery mildew and leaf rust are present almost every year in the
 Italian cereal growing areas, although their development is more or less
 epidemic depending upon climatic conditions.  Some genes for resistance to
 powdery mildew such as Pm3b, Pm4a from Khapli (T. dicoccum), Pm8, Pm17
 present in Amigo and those present in Vernal (T. dicoccum) and Einkorn (T.
 monococcum), have provided a high or intermediate level of resistance during
 a period of several years.  It is interesting to note that the Pm4a gene has
 been incorporated into Italian commercial durum wheat cultivars ("Val" group
 and cultivars derived from them), that have been widely cultivated in Italy
 over a period of at least 15 years.
 
      With respect to leaf rust, resistance genes Lr9, Lr19, Lr25, Lr28, Lr29
 seem to be the most effective in Italy.  Field and greenhouse data show that
 the virulence of leaf rust population has slightly increased, particularly
 in central and northern Italy, during the last years; nevertheless the
 widely cultivated durum wheat cv. Creso still expresses high resistance to
 the pathogen both in the field and greenhouse.  It probably carries yet
 unidentified genes that confer "durable" resistance.  The search for new
 genes of resistance carried out by testing large collections of T.
 monococcum, T. dicoccum and T. dicoccoides, showed that these species
 represent a rich reservoir of genetic variability for resistance to these
 pathogens.
 
 --------------------
      M. Pasquini, E. Biancolatte, G. Galterio
 
      Use of species related to wheat as valuable sources of disease
 resistance.  Isolates of Erysiphe graminis tritici virulent to Italian
 commercial durum wheat cultivars were identified.  Strains were collected
 from different countries of T. monococcum and T. dicoccoides  were screened
 to find new genes for resistance to these isolates.  The most interesting
 accessions served as parents in crosses with durum wheat cultivars.  Crosses
 between cv. Valitalico and T. monococcum lines Ga 10597 V. 207 and Ga 10594
 V. 175 showed that complete resistance to mildew had been transferred in the
 first cross, while a dilution of resistance during the transfer process was
 observed in the second cross.  All resulting lines were susceptible to leaf
 rust isolates, to which both parents were resistant.  Some lines were
 backcrossed to Italian durum wheat cultivars Strinakria and Creso,
 interesting for their good quality and agronomic characters or, as in the
 case of Creso, for leaf rust resistance.  Lines were selected with combined
 resistance to both diseases.
 
      Genetic analysis of progeny from crosses between Italian durum wheat
 cultivars and T. dicoccoides accessions  Ga 10732, Ga 10704 and Ga 10703
 indicated the occurrence of a single dominant gene for resistance to powdery
 mildew biotype Et10 in T. dicoccoides Ga 10732 and Ga 10704 and of two
 genes, one dominant and one recessive, in accession Ga 10703.  The F3 and F4
 progeny from the cross "Valnova x Ga 10703" shoed high protein content and
 low glutenin/gliadin ratio compared to the durum wheat parent.
 
      Field and laboratory screening tests are now being performed to
 evaluate the most interesting genotypes within this material for agronomic
 and quality characters.
 
                                   Publications
 
 Pasquini, M. and F. Casulli.  1992.  Durable resistance to leaf rust
 (Puccinia recondita tritici) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis tritici)
 in Italian durum wheat cultivars.  In: Abstracts of Symp. on Durability of
 Disease Resistance, Wageningen, Olanda, 24-29 febbraio.
 
 Pasquini, M., E. Biancolatte and G. Galterio.  1992.  Wild emmer (Triticum
 dicoccoides) as a valuable source of powdery mildew resistance and high
 protein content.  J. Genet. & Breed. 46:173-178.
 
 Pasquini, M.  1992.  Occurrence and virulence of Erysiphe graminis tritici
 in Italy.  Vortr. Pflanzenzuchtg. 24:178-180.
 
 Casulli, F. and M. Pasquini.  1992.  Virulence of Puccinia recondita f. sp.
 tritici in Italy.  Vortr. Pflanzenzuchtg. 24:87-89.
 
 --------------------
      Technology of Products Section
 
      M. G. D'Egidio* and S. Nardi
 
      The predictive value of well-established durum wheat characteristics on
 cooking quality parameters is being studied in collaboration with Dr. B. M.
 Mariani and P. Novaro of the section of Experimental Design (Istituto
 Sperimentale per la cerealicoltura, Roma).
 
      Different durum wheat varieties were analyzed by technological and
 chemical tests and their value in predicting pasta cooking quality was
 investigated.  Pasta was dried at low and high temperature.  Factor analysis
 was applied as a clustering tool; among the factors identified, three were
 useful in describing the relationships among variables.  The first, related
 to rheological characteristics, was identified as the quality factor and the
 second, associated with protein and gluten content, was called quantity
 factor.  Another factor was related mainly to cooking quality parameters of
 pasta dried at LT, whereas the quality parameters at HT were linked to the
 second factor.  Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the
 combined effects of one variable from the quantity factor and one from the
 quality factor on quality of pasta dried at LT and HT.  Among the many
 variables of gluten quality, manual evaluation and alveograph W value were
 the most efficient; for the quantity variable, protein content was used. 
 The role played by these variables differed with drying temperature: at LT
 the quantity of quality variables had almost the same worth but at HT
 protein content was prevalent  Predictive equations were  calculated with
 these variables.
 
      On pasta samples dried at low and high temperature cooking quality was
 evaluated using sensory judgement (SJ), total organic matter (TOM) and
 viscoelastograph parameters.  SJ was expressed by its components
 (stickiness, bulkiness and firmness) and by an overall score.  Factor
 analysis was applied as clustering tool to assess similar behavior of
 variables.  Four factors were useful in describing the relationships among
 variables for each temperature considered.  At 50 oC the first factor was
 related to viscoelastograph parameters, the second grouped SJ, stickiness,
 bulkiness, and TOM, whereas firmness was linked to a different factor.  At
 90oC firmness was associated with stickiness, bulkiness, and SJ on the
 second factor, whereas TOM shifted to another factor.  Multiple regressions
 were calculated to evaluate the relative worth of stickiness, bulkiness, and
 firmness on SJ and TOM as well as their relationships with viscoelastograph
 measures when different drying temperatures were applied.  At low
 temperature, stickiness was the most important SJ component and TOM was a
 suitable method in estimating SJ.  At high temperature, firmness played a
 more important role and viscoelastograph consistency was used to complement
 the TOM test.
 
                                   * * * * * *
 
                                   Publications
 
 Vallega, V., S. Nardi, M. G. D'Egidio.  1990.  Breeding value of durum wheat
 cultivar "Trinakria" as a spaghetti cooking quality donor parent.  Cereal
 Res. Commun. 18(1-2):75-80.
 
 D'Egidio, M. G., B. M. Mariani, S. Nardi, P. Novaro, R. Cubadda.  1990. 
 Chemical and technological variables and their relationships : a predictive
 equation for pasta cooking quality.  Cereal Chem. 67(3):275-281.
 
 Novaro, P., M. G. D'Egidio, B. M. Mariani, S. Nardi.  1991.  Durum wheat
 breeding: predictive value of chemical and technological variables to assess
 pasta cooking quality.  In Proceedings of the Eucarpia Cereal Section
 meeting. Schwein, 27 June 1991.
 
 D'Egidio, M. G., S. Nardi, V. Vallega.  1991.  Quality of diploid wheat,
 triticum monococcum L. In: Proceedings of Cereal International Conf.
 Brisbane, 9-13 September 1991.
 
 D'Egidio, M. G., S. Nardi.  1991.  Influence of high temperature drying
 systems on quality of durum wheat cultivars (in Italian). Tecnica Molitoria.
 42(5):429-434.
 
 D'Egidio, M. G., B. M. Mariani, S. Nardi, P. Novaro.  1993. Viscoelastograph
 measures and total organic matter test: suitability in evaluating textural
 characteristics of cooked pasta.  Cereal Chem. 70(1):67-72.
 
 --------------------
                                 ITEMS FROM JAPAN
 
      Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station
 
      S. Ito, M. Watanabe, A. Sato and T. Hoshino
 
       New Winter Wheat Cultivar `Akitakko' - To new winter wheat cultivars
 `Akitakko' and `Abukumawase' were registered in the Ministry of Agriculture,
 Forestry and Fisheries in 1992.  Akitakko, released by our station, was
 selected by the pedigree method from the cross Tohoku 143 (later
 Wakamatsukomugi)/Tohoku 144 in 1976.  Akitakko is semidwarf (91 cm),
 susceptible to leaf rust, moderatery susceptible to powder mildew and pre-
 harvest sprouting (Table 1).  Akitakko is moderatery resistant to cold and
 snow endurance and it seems to be adapted to the areas of northern Japan
 (Tohoku region) that are covered with snow for nearly 110 days.  In these
 areas `Kitakamikomugi' and `Nanbukomugi' are extensively cultivated. 
 Akitakko matures 3 days later than Nanbukomugi and 3 days earlier than
 Kitakamikomugi.  It has high yielding ability and high yielding stability. 
 Its yield (1985-92 average) is higher than Kitakamikomugi and Nanbukomugi. 
 It has a slightly glassy kernel and kernel weight of Akitakko is 39.9 mg. 
 The flour milling percentage and flour color (whiteness) are higher than
 many Japanese cultivars (Table 2).
 
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Cultivar                Akitakko        Kitakami-komugi        Nanbuko-mugi
                        -----------         -----------         -----------
 Culm length(cm)            91                   92                 91
 Lodging Resistance          R                   MS                  R
 Leaf Rust Resistance        S                   MS                  S
 Sprouting Preharvest       MS                    M                 MR
 Cold & Snow Endurance      MR                    M                 MR
 Snow Maturity           July 8                July 11            July 5
 Yield(kg/A)               41.7                  38.8               34.0
 Kernel Weight(mg)         39.9                  41.1               42.4
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 R=Resistance; MR=Moderatery Resistance; M=Medium; MS=Moderatery Susceptible;
 S=Susceptible
 
 
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Cultivar                Akitakko        Kitakami-komugi        Nanbuko-mugi
                        -----------         -----------         -----------
 Glassy Kernel             87.9                  50.6               56.7
 Flour Milling             72.2                  67.2               66.1
 Flour Protein (%)         11.4                  11.6               11.9
 Flour Color (R455)        53.5                  53.6               50.9
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 --------------------
       M. Watanabe
 
      Detection of 5+10 glutenin subunits in wheat seeds at pre- and post-
 maturity - HMW glutenin subunits were analyzed in pre- and post-maturity
 seeds of wheat cultivar Pliska which contained 5+10 subunits.  Analysis of
 HMW gulutenin subunit was performed by SDS-PAGE.  In sprouted seeds, treated
 with simulated rain, the pattern of electrophoresis was constant even 11
 days after rain treatment.
 
      The results showed that we could select breeding materials by using
 glutenin subunit composition at an early stage before maturity and also we
 could determine glutenin subunit composition in post-maturity seeds.  While
 all subunits in matured seeds were detected on 31 days after heading, 5+10
 subunits were detected on 27 days after that.
 --------------------
      Faculty of Agriculture, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-11
 
      N. Watanabe
 
      Increased antenna size of photosystem II and genetic improvement of
 wheat varieties since the nineteenth century.  The light-saturated rates of
 photosynthesis of leaves should be correlated with photosynthetic
 productivity of the crop in the field.  However, it is very clear from many
 different studies that crop canopies are not saturated and that even leaves
 at the top of canopies do not operate in the field at the light-saturated
 rate except in a few occasions.  Increased yield of bread wheat cultivars
 bred in Mediterranean type environments was associated with increased
 photosynthetic productivity.
 
       We applied electrophoretic analysis for assessing the variation of
 chlorophyll-protein complexes of several Australian cultivars adapted to
 Mediterranean type environments, which differed in year of release or
 introduction.  Chlorophyll (%) contained in core complex of photosystem II
 (CCII) decreased during the last century (Fig. 1). Linear regression of CCII
 on released year was statistically significant lending further evidence that
 the size of photosystem II increased in wheat cultivars during the last
 century.
 
      The direct evidence for photosynthetic attributes for yield improvement
 in wheat cultivars has not been mentioned.  It would be sensible to study
 the relationship between the changes in chlorophyll-proteins and the maximum
 quantum efficiency of photosynthesis.  We do not know whether the
 chlorophyll-protein complement of a leaf is more closely related to the
 photosynthetic performance under light-saturating conditions or light-
 limiting conditions.  To determine whether changes in the chlorophyll-
 proteins of a leaf have any significant effect on the efficiency of light-
 utilization by the leaf would be very interesting.
 
      An alternative selection criteria should be developed for improvement
 of wheat cultivars.
 
 
 [FIGURE 4 NOT SHOWN]
 
 --------------------
                                ITEMS FROM MEXICO
 
      CIMMYT/MEXICO
                               
      Developments in CIMMYT Wheat Program in 1992
                               
      Staff Changes.  Staff reductions continued into 1992 with Max Alcala in
 International Nurseries, Sirkka Immonen and Jonathan Robinson leaving during
 the year.  Arnoldo Amaya from Industrial Quality also left at the end of the
 year but will continue his long involvement with the Wheat Program as a
 consultant.  International Nurseries is now headed by Paul Fox, while Javier
 Pe¤a was promoted to head Industrial Quality.  Lukas Bertschinger from
 Switzerland was hired to the position in virology left by Peter Burnett in
 1991. Guillermo Fuentes and Ivan Ortiz Monasterio were promoted to Senior
 Scientists in Crop Protection (bunts and smuts), and Crop Management and
 Physiology (wheat component agronomy), respectively.  Associate scientist
 Zhong-hu He in Bread Wheat left to return to China via Kansas State
 University but was replaced by Gurdev Singh from Punjab Agricultural
 University.  Belgium funding for continuing work on non-specific foliar
 pathogens was approved and Etienne Duveiller promoted to that project. 
 Deborah Rees came as a Post-Doc in physiology supported by ODA.  Peter Hobbs
 is currently on sabbatical leave at the Cornell University.
      
      Revision of CIMMYT Wheat Megaenvironments.   As our winter and
 facultative wheat breeding gains more experience, and as a few weaknesses in
 our original megaenvironment (ME) classification (see AWN 1989, p.93) have
 been revealed over time, it has become desirable to revise this
 classification.  The definition of spring (temperate and hot), facultative
 (cool) and winter (cold) environments has not changed but the last two
 thermal environments have each been divided into 3 water supply environments
 so that the facultative and winter megaenvironment (old ME6) now becomes 6
 separate MEs (new ME7 to 12).  Table 1 outlines the new situation as of
 January 1993.  Please note that old ME4C and ME7 have been reclassified ME5C
 and 6, respectively.  Current crop areas and production for the new MEs are
 being revised and recalculated.  Nevertheless ME1 remains the largest
 relatively-homogeneous target for us with over 40% of the developing world's
 220 m tons of wheat production. 
 
       Northwest Mexico in 1991-92.  The winter growing season in 1991-92 at
 our main nursery site, CIANO, in northwest Mexico saw a seasonal rainfall
 total of 344 mm.  This is the highest total since at least 1969:  the
 average expected rainfall is only 61 mm. Many problems arose for researchers
 and growers alike.
 
      Yields were low (Yaqui Valley average of only 4.23 t/ha) because of
 cloudiness, poor stands, late seeding, and lodging; breeders did not escape
 these problems.  Disease levels were however not particularly high,
 including levels of Karnal bunt.  The new and disconcerting aspect of Karnal
 bunt was its first recorded appearance in the Hermosillo district in which
 our International Nursery seed was being produced.  Due to KB in our bread
 wheat seed (although at extremely low levels - 1 infected grain in 13,000),
 we decided not to send out bread wheat nurseries in 1993 for the 1993-94
 growing cycle.  In the meantime we have relocated our seed production to
 remote KB-free locations.  Ironically in 1992 INIFAP released the first
 varieties in Mexico having a good level of KB resistance.
 
       Internally-Managed External Review of Wheat Genetic Resources.  In
 order to enhance efficiency and scientific credibility, two years ago CIMMYT
 initiated a system of internally-managed external reviews.  Our plans are to
 review each of our activities once in five years by a panel of external
 experts.  This year a team headed by Prof. C.O. Qualset, and including Drs.
 T.T. Chang, V.L. Chopra, D. Ramirez and J. Snape reviewed the CIMMYT Wheat
 Genetic Resources Sub-Program.
 
     The main activities associated with this Sub-Program are:  (1)  Maintain
 a collection of wheat and triticale germplasm representative of all
 significant germplasm pools. (2)  Identify and document useful genetic
 variability in the gene bank.  (3)  Transfer variability into useful
 genotypes through wide crossing and pre-breeding.  (4)  Test and refine
 appropriate biotechnological tools that can complement all breeding efforts.
 
 The panel of reviewers made excellent suggestions for improvement.  They
 urged that wheat genetic resources be recognized as one of CIMMYT's major
 global strategic components, with the need to give high priority to
 construction of long-term storage facilities for the Germplasm Bank at the
 same time as the base collection is more thoroughly defined and
 evaluated. CIMMYT should take the lead in setting up an international
 network for genetic resource conservation in which materials and methods are
 documented and shared efficiently.  The Sub-Program needs to give more
 attention to effective collaboration within and outside CIMMYT.  Many
 suggestions are being implemented and more financial resources, needed to
 meet certain recommendations, are being sought.
 
      Research Activities.  The Wheat Program continues to record its
 Mexico-based research activities in the form of projects comprising initial
 descriptions and annual updates.  The project documentation for 1992
 contains  information on 280 projects spread across all four Sub-Programs
 (Fischer and Hettel 1992).  Part or all of the documentation is available in
 electronic form.  Highlights included completion of a classification
 analysis based on phenotypic correlations between 74 recurring locations of
 the first 26 years of the International Spring Wheat  Yield Trial.  Results
 showed a reasonably good relationship between location clusters and CIMMYT's
 empirically-defined megaenvironments.  Good progress has been reported on
 understanding durable leaf rust resistance (e.g. Singh and Rajaram 1992) and
 identifying other useful traits linked to LR34 (Singh 1992). RAPDs analysis
 has been used to look at genetic variability in Russian Wheat Aphid
 (Diuraphis noxia) and it appears DNA variation is minimal amongst
 samples from 4 continents.  A comprehensive set of projects on Xanthomonas
 leaf streak in wheat have been concluded (Duveiller 1992).  Finally, from
 outreach, 1991-92 season saw the first growing of the joint CIMMYT-ICARDA
 observation nurseries in the WANA region. These contain selections of spring
 bread wheat and spring durum wheat both out of CIMMYT Mexico and out of
 CIMMYT- ICARDA Aleppo, as described in the 1989 agreement between CIMMYT and
 ICARDA.
 
                                   Bibliography
 
 Duveiller, E.  (1992).  "Toward management of bacterial leaf streak of wheat
 and triticale".  ThŠse de Doctorat en Sciences Agrnomiques, Facult‚ des
 Sciences Agronomiques, Louvain-le-Neuve UCL, Belgique. 
 
 Fischer, R.A. and Hettel, E.  (1992).  Wheat Project Documentation for
 1991-92.
 
 Singh, R.P.  (1992).  "Genetic Association of Leaf Rust Resistance Gene Lr34
 with Adult Plant Resistance to 
 Stripe Rust in Bread Wheat".  Phytopathology, Vol. 82:835-838. 
 
 Singh, R.P. and Rajaram, S.  (1992).  "Genetics of adult-plant resistance of
 leaf rust in 'Frontana' and three CIMMYT wheats".  Genome, Vol. 35: 24-31.
 
 --------------------                                        
                  THE INTERNATIONAL WHEAT INFORMATION INITIATIVE
 
                                         
      P.N. Fox*, B. Skovmand, H.V. Sanchez, E. Duveiller and M. Van Ginkel,
 CIMMYT Mexico
 
 
      "..the scattered bits of information about the germplasm is beyond the
 grasp of any one researcher."
                a US wheat breeder, 1992.
 
      Summary. A revolution in wheat breeding occurred through germplasm
 exchange.  The second revolution will exchange information related to
 germplasm, not only adding value to germplasm, but also strengthening bonds
 between institutions and between scientists.  We are on threshold of
 dramatic advances, limited only by our imaginations in using them.  Positive
 dynamic feedback between genetics, conventional and molecular, and
 environmental information will provide unprecedented insights into crop
 adaptation.
 
      Until the CIMMYT Wheat Program developed a strategy based on unique
 identification of germplasm, information generated by different sources,
 e.g. national trials, international trials, laboratories and germplasm
 banks, could not be integrated around the germplasm to which it pertained.
 
      Implementation of the International Wheat Information Initiative is in
 three phases:
 
      ù The Wheat Pedigree Management System (WPMS) has been completed and
      uniquely identifies germplasm by cross identification (CID)
      and selection identification (SID) numbers.
      ù The completed Wheat Germplasm Bank System (WGBS).
      ù The Wheat Data Management System (WDMS), which will complement WGBS
      and will consider three types of data categories -- Genetic (G),
      Genotype x Environment (GE) and Environmental (E) -- and    the
      inter-relations between these categories.  We will link to Geographic
      Information Systems through E data and to genetic mapping initiatives  
 
      through G data.
 
 
      Introduction.  Norman Borlaug spoke of a revolution in wheat breeding
 brought about by germplasm exchange.  We predict a second revolution driven
 by exchange of information relating to germplasm.
 
      Small Leaps Forward.  international feedback loop.  International
 nursery data provide feedback to breeders.  There is an element of recurrent
 selection in the process of distributing elite germplasm from International
 Agricultural Research Centers and re-crossing or discarding this material in
 subsequent cycles, on the basis of international performance.  The challenge
 is to make the feedback loop more efficient through:
 
        1) better data exploration,
        2) quicker turn around of data and
        3) better access to raw data, results of analyses and .interpretative
          summaries.
 
      data exploration and breeding
 
      A battery of techniques is available for data exploration. Such
 techniques complement but in no way replace the intimate field experience
 breeders have for their germplasm. In tandem to these skills, newer
 statistical methods are useful in identifying subtle differences among
 sister lines and in rapid assessments, from wide testing, of adaptation of
 new germplasm.  Seri 82 appears the most broadly-adapted, high-yielding
 spring bread wheat and international data exploration forewarns breeders of
 the Achilles Heel of such outstanding widely sown germplasm in a way that is
 impossible with national testing.  For example, Seri 82's leaf rust
 resistance depends on Lr23 and Lr26 and its superiority is tending to
 decline in locations with heavy infection of BYD, septoria blotch and
 Helminthosporium species.  This warning allows timely initiation of
 corrective backcrossing and other measures.
 
      Long-term relationships among locations based on genotype by
 environment interactions for yield will be important in refining the
 definitions of mega-environments for breeding, as will more detailed
 quantitative analysis of pathological data.
 
 adding value to seed through data
 
      CIMMYT will increasingly distribute existing data with nurseries to aid
 in the selection efficiency of clients.  For example, there is much
 information on bread making quality generated before germplasm is
 distributed in an international yield trial.
 
  
      Data Integration -- A Great Leap Forward.  We have mentioned small
 improvements of an evolutionary nature.  However, relational database
 technology heralds the leap on which the Wheat Pedigree Management System
 (WPMS) is based and on which the Wheat Data Management System (WDMS) will
 follow.
 
 removing barriers to association
 
      WPMS overcame barriers to association by uniquely identifying wheat
 germplasm and is the core of the Wheat Information System.  Costly and
 unnecessary repetition of evaluations, such as industrial quality tests, is
 eliminated by unequivocal identification.  WPMS is a relational database and
 repository of information on genealogies and selection histories, using the
 Purdue/USDA system for cross notation and assuming a biparental mating
 system.  For this reason it is aimed at self-pollinating species.  Pedigrees
 may be extended with the discovery of additional information on ancestors.
 
      These genealogical features are being exploited through the development
 of tools such as coefficients of parentage (COPs).  Our COP algorithm will
 consider post-hybridization relationships, i.e. it will distinguish among
 sister lines.
 
      The power of WPMS has been seen in unexpected ways. For example,
 preliminary investigations suggest that cytoplasmic diversity in CIMMYT
 bread wheats is restricted and that one of the dominant cytoplasms is
 tetraploid.
 
      WPMS reports include cross expansions in either dendrogram or tabular
 form at any specified level, for example grandparents, great grandparents or
 as far back as data exist.  The Wheat Cultivar Abbreviations Report replaces
 Special Report 749 from Oregon State University, and is available as CIMMYT
 Wheat Special Report No. 4, in soft or hard copy.
 
 crossing data frontiers
 
      WPMS overcomes ambiguities and redundancies in germplasm identification
 and lays the foundation for WDMS, which will integrate information from
 different sources around the germplasm to which it pertains.  WDMS will
 provide a secure, flexible system for data storage for wheat, triticale and
 barley, facilitating powerful associations between genetic information and
 performance data.  This interface was seldom crossed because of problems in
 association of data from different sources.  Detailed genetic information
 generated  in laboratory studies was seldom coupled to field performance
 data for several reasons.  One was a different scale of operations.
 Thousands of lines might be evaluated in the field with the resultant data
 eventually forgotten on a series of flat files on magnetic tapes.  The
 results from the more intensive laboratory test on a limited number of
 genotypes might be committed to paper.  Even if the researchers involved in
 the separate efforts were aware of each other's work, combining the data was
 never considered because there would have been so many gaps in the intensive
 laboratory information if combined with the field data in a flat file. 
 Relational databases make cross referencing these types of information
 feasible and efficient.  Today, decisions on which types of data should be
 stored are not critical.  As data storage becomes increasingly cheaper
 relative to data generation, the issue becomes: on which characteristics is
 rapid querying required?
 
      Currently, in the pathological section of WDMS traits, we are
 accommodating the instances where no simple, direct relationship exists
 between field symptoms and causal organisms.
 
      The scope of WDMS will embrace data from international trials, national
 trials, WGBS, industrial quality and pathology laboratories and research in
 molecular biology, as well as hopefully interfacing to a Canadian initiative
 for a directory of elite germplasm for studies of plant mineral nutrition. 
 All genes registered in the "Catalogue of Gene Symbols for Wheat" will be
 included, along with RFLPs and other molecular markers.  Instead of storing
 genetic maps, WDMS will interface with the databases which store this
 information.
 
 passive and active data gathering
 
      CIMMYT has traditionally stored the data, principally field yields and
 reactions, returned at the discretion of cooperators, assuming that this
 information was the most relevant.  This policy will be continued,
 especially with cooperators in lesser developed countries.  However, WDMS
 will enable CIMMYT and others to make better use of race-specific rust
 reactions from the US, Canada, South Africa, Australia and other countries. 
 At the same time, CIMMYT is embarking upon a more directed phase of data
 collection, especially from developed countries where many important genetic
 data of international importance are generated but not disseminated.  CIMMYT
 aims to be a clearing house to make data work better for breeders.  Examples
 include pedigrees from Russia, China and India; scab reactions from China
 and Brazil; data from the USDA GRIN system; reactions  to Pratylenchus
 thornei, Heterodera avenae, boron and pre-harvest sprouting in Australia;
 other micro-nutrient reactions from Canada; powdery mildew reactions and
 industrial quality parameters from Europe.
 
 Genes and the environment: dynamic feedback
 
      Here is an example of how data integration might function.  If we knew
 the genetics of boron tolerance and could select a few contrasting entries
 for this trait in our extensive performance databases (e.g. the 29 years'
 data accumulated by the ISWYNs) and could then extract international
 performance data on them, preliminary inferences about the distribution of
 boron related problems could be made.  Similarly, we can examine the
 performance of known nematode resistant lines relative to susceptible ones
 across the world and achieve a rapid bio-assay for the pathogen.
 
      So-called neutral marker genes may prove to have adaptive significance
 if their influence can be gauged from extensive performance data such as
 that accumulated by CIMMYT.
 
      Conversely, better knowledge of the environment facilitates better
 characterisation of germplasm.
 
 Putting it all together
 
      WPMS, WGBS and associated functions were developed with System 1032 as
 the database management system on a cluster of VAX computers under the VMS
 operating system.  WDMS is being developed in this environment and will
 include a data access tool-kit for VAX systems, which facilitates reporting,
 querying and exporting.
 
 Why not touch base with us?
 
      We would like to hear from you if you are developing a database for
 wheat, triticale or barley (especially if we have not been in contact on the
 subject) with a view to facilitating exchange between databases.
 Once a mature Wheat Information System is functional, we will make a
 PC-based version to be utilized for any self-pollinated species and to be
 distributed to lesser developed countries.
 
      Acknowledgement.  Software development was generously supported by the
 Governments of The Netherlands and Denmark.
 
 
 Related Documents Available from Authors
 
 Fox, P.N. and Hettel, G.P. eds. (1992). Management and use of international
 trial data for improving breeding efficiency. Wheat Special Report No. 8.
 Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.
 
 Wheat Cultivar Abbreviations (1992). Wheat Special Report No. 4. Mexico,
 D.F.: CIMMYT.
 
 Wheat Data Management System Release 1. External Design. (September 8, 1992)
 Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.
 Updates of WDMS trait list from the above document.
 
 --------------------
      A.I.Morgunov, R.J.Pena, S.Rajaram
 
      The relationship between high-molecular weight glutenin subunits and
 bread-making quality of F1 hybrids in bread wheat.  During two growing
 cycles the grain from 26 F1s was evaluated for protein content,
 SDS-sedimentation value and mixing time along with the composition of
 high-molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the presence of 1BL/1RS
 translocation in order to study the influence of these loci on quality
 parameters. The bread-making quality parameters of F1s were close to
 midaparent values. Significant positive heterosis as compared to midparent
 value was observed for protein content - 5 F1s, for SDS-sedimentation - 5 
 F1s and for mixing time - 7 F1s. None of the hybrids performed significantly
 
 better then the best parent. There  were no consistent relationship between
 the heterosis observed and a particular combination of HMW glutenin 
 subunits.
 
      However the absolute values of quality parameters of F1s positively
 correlated to Glu-1 quality score or  rye-adjusted Glu-1 quality score. The
 coefficients of correlations were in the range of 0.54-0.87 for 
 SDS-sedimentation and mixing time and were nonsignificant for protein
 content. This indicates that these two  scores could be useful in predicting
 the performance of F1s. Hence using parents with HMW subunits known to 
 affect positively grain quality is more likely to result in hybrids with
 acceptable grain. 
 
      The presence of 1BL/1RS translocation negatively affected the quality
 of F1s especially being in homozygote  stage. The parents possessing the
 translocation had mainly negative general combining ability effects. This 
 suggests that when producing hybrids with enhanced quality at least one
 parents should have normal 1B chromosome. 
 
                                   Publication
 
 Morgunov A.I. 1992 Wheat and Wheat Breeding in the Former USSR. Wheat
 Special Report No.13. Mexico D.F. CIMMYT (available on request). 
 
 --------------------
                                ITEM FROM MOROCCO
 
      Mergoum, M., M. Jlibene, J.S. Quick, and N. Nsarellah
 
      Breadwheat Breeding for the Arid and Semi-arid Zones of Morocco - Bread
 wheat is the second major crop after barley in Morocco with more than one
 million hectares grown annually.  In addition, more than 50% of the
 continuously increasing areas of bread wheat are located in the arid and
 semi-arid zones (MARA, 1985).  Annual rainfall in these regions is low (200
 to 400 mm) and drastically variable within and between seasons.  Most
 cultivars grown in these areas are those released by the national breeding
 programs in the early 1980's.  In general, these cultivars have good
 adaptation and usually perform very well under relatively good conditions of
 the high rainfall zones in the northern parts of Morocco.  Therefore, a
 breeding program of this crop targeting the more arid environments of
 southern regions was initiated in 1991-92 season since the previous national
 breeding program was moved to the Meknes regions in order to emphasize
 research on the northern regions of Morocco.  The major objectives of the
 program for the arid and semi-arid zones are to:  (1) develop germplasm and
 "build" parents with drought and heat tolerance, (2) select specifically
 adapted cultivars and (3) screen for major prevalent diseases and insects
 (Rusts, septoria, root rot, Hessian fly...etc.)
 
      Genetic material selected from nurseries of the national breeding
 program were used to initiate the program.  However, due to a severe early
 season (January and February) drought, most material planted in rainfed
 locations was lost.  Selections in these environments were made basically on
 the reaction to Hessian fly and recovery and growth capacity of some
 genotypes after the rainfall following the dry period.  At Tassaout and Sidi
 El Aydi locations, where more nurseries were irrigated, selections based on
 yield, its components and other criteria (diseases, insects, plant
 vigor...etc.) were made.  Selections of 40, 40, 21, and 19 promising lines
 were made among MOL (Moroccan Observation Lines) in preliminary,
 intermediary and advanced nurseries, respectively.
 
      A substantial amount of genetic material was also received form the
 CIMMYT/Mexico.  This material included ISYN (International Screening Yield
 Nursery), ESWYT (Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trail), SAWYT (Semi Arid Wheat
 Yield Trial) and F3 bulk.
 
      Studies of root rot, caused primarily by Fusarium culmorum and
 Cochliobolus sativus (Lyamani, 1988; Mergoum and Quick, 1990; Mergoum,
 1991), were continued to evaluate reactions of most Moroccan grown cultivars
 and to assess yield losses caused by this disease under natural and
 artificial conditions.  Preliminary results showed that all Moroccan grown
 cultivars can be infected by root rot.  However, some cultivars such as
 `Teguey-32' were more tolerant.  In order to identify sources of resistance
 or tolerance to the root rot complex disease, evaluation of the Maghreb
 collection of bread wheat will be made in the 1992-93 crop season.  In the
 greenhouse, crosses were made and advanced to F1 and F2 generations.
 
                                   Publications
 
 Lyamani, A. 1988.  Wheat root rot in West Central Morocco and effects of
 Fusarium culmorum and Helminthosporium sativum seed and soil-borne inoculum
 on root rot development, plant emergence and crop yield.  Ph.D. Thesis, Iowa
 State University, Ames.
 
 MARA.  1985.  Statistiques agricoles.  Service des statistiques et de
 documentation.  P.V. 12. Ministere de l'Agriculture et de la Reforme
 Agraire, Rabat, Maroc. 100 p.
 
 Mergoum, M., and J.S. Quick.  1990.  Implications of root rot inoculation
 and nitrogen fertilization of wheat cultivars under varying moisture stress
 in West Central of Morocco.  Agron. Abstr. p. 101, ASA, San Antonio, TX.
 
 Mergoum, M. 1991.  Effects of infection by Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium
 culmorum, or Cochliobolus sativus on wheat.  Ph.D. Dissert. Colorado State
 University, Fort Collins, CO. USA.
 
 --------------------
      Nsarellah Nasserlehaq, Mergoum, M., and A.G. Taylor
 
      Breeding Durum Wheat for Moroccan Rainfed Agriculture - Durum wheat is
 of first importance in the rainfed areas in Morocco.  Constraints are lack
 of yield potential, drought and heat stress and susceptibility to the major
 pests, namely Hessian fly, tan spots, and root rots.  Seed quality is
 another important factor.  Current research projects and 1991-92 activities
 are addressing all these aspects.
 
      Hessian fly can be devastating durum wheat especially in dry years. 
 Total losses have been observed on several occasions.  Average loss
 estimates range from 35 to 45% depending on the season.  Resistance genes
 have been identified and progress made in bread wheat but no work has been
 done in durums.  A program of introgression of resistance was started in
 1991 using resistant accessions of Triticum araraticum and T. tauschii. 
 Hessian fly resistance is also being introgressed to durum wheat from
 resistant spring wheats, `Saada', `line 221', `line 254' using a back
 crossing scheme.  At the second backcrossing, the durum wheat phenotype and
 seed quality is not yet fully recovered.  This program of backcrossing is
 intended to continue for three to four generations.
 
      Tan spot is an important foliar disease for durum wheat.  Preliminary
 yield losses experiments have shown a 12 to 18% grain yield reduction in
 Morocco.  In other countries, losses of up to 70% have been reported. 
 Genetic resistance has been reported and utilized in several wheat breeding
 programs.  The evaluation of Phrenophora tritici-repentis isolates in
 Morocco has shown moderate variation and host specificity.  Screening for
 tan spot resistance has identified several resistant accessions and is still
 pursued in greenhouse and field work.  Segregating material from crosses of
 the past two years was screened and showed that resistance is linked to
 lateness in heading and maturity, undesirable characteristics for Morocco. 
 New resistant parent should be researched and crossed to adapted material.
 
      Root rot is another major disease of durum what especially in the arid
 and semi-arid zones of Morocco where plants aver very often weakened by
 adverse stresses such as drought, heat, diseases, and insects.  Effects of
 these pathogens on several agronomic and physiologic characters showed that
 all tested cultivars were susceptible to root rot.  Durum wheats were also
 more susceptible to root rot than bread wheats.  Up to 60% of yield loss was
 demonstrated for most grown cultivars `Cocorit', `Marzak' and `Kyperounda'
 under artificial inoculation.
 
      In early studies, barley yellow dwarf virus has been shown to be
 important in durum wheats and was very important in 1991-92 surveys. 
 Sources of resistance were selected under heavy infection conditions by
 virologists in two ICARDA nurseries (Key Location Disease and BYDV).  Two
 durum and four bread wheats will be crossed to adapted material this season.
 
      The objectives of the central durum wheat breeding program are to
 combine most of the desirable characters of durum wheats with high yield
 potential, good adaptation, and good seed quality.  Cooperation with plant
 pathologists and entomologists is maximized.  During the 1991-92 season
 drought was early and severe; screening of segregating material and advanced
 lines was done in only two out of the five regular experiment stations. 
 Most damaging pest was Hessian fly.  The foliar and root diseases were all
 present but less important in the nurseries.  All entries were visually
 screened for resistance to yellow berry, black point and seed shrivelling. 
 Yield data showed that several new entries were superior to the best checks
 and were advanced for probable registration.  Work in the greenhouse
 included a large number of crosses and backcrosses and increases of F1 and
 F2 generations.
 
                                   Publications
 
 El Bouhssini, M., A. Amri, and J. Hatchet.  1988.  Wheat genes conditioning
 resistance to the Hessian fly (Diptera: Ceci-domyiidae) in Morocco.  J.
 Econ. Entomol. 81:709-712.
 
 Elias, E., R. G. Cantrell, and R. M. Hosford, Jr. 1989.  Heritability of
 resistance to tan spot in durum wheat ad its association with other
 agronomic traits.  Crop Sci. 2:299-303.
 
 Mergoum, M. 1991.  Effects of infection by Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium
 culmorum, or Cochliobolus sativus on wheat.  Ph.D. Dissertation.  Colorado
 State Univ., Fort Collins, CO., USA.
 
 Nsarellah, N.  1992.  Evaluation of tan spot in North Dakota and Morocco. 
 Ph.D. Thesis, N.D. State University, Fargo.
 
 --------------------
                                ITEM FROM PAKISTAN
 
      Agricultural Research Station, Bahawalpur, Punjab
 
      Manzoor Husain
 
      Wheat Production - Pakistan has achieved wheat production targets for
 the last three years, but total requirements far exceed actual production. 
 Wheat demands of Afghanistan are met from Pakistan and there is increased
 consumption within Pakistan as well.  Wheat is the cheapest food grain. 
 Present price fixed by the Government is Rs. 124/- for 40 kg (one maund). 
 Rice, coarse grain sorghum, corn and millets sell at higher prices,
 resulting in the use of wheat as poultry and animal feed as well.  Three
 million tons had to be imported in 1992-93.
     
     Production figures for the last three years were as follows:
 
          1989-90        14.40 mmt
          1990-91        15.50 mmt
          1991-92        15.53 mmt
 
 Recommended Cultivars:
 
          Barani-83      for rainfed areas
          Chakwal-86     for rainfed areas
          Rawal-87       for rainfed areas
          Pak-81         for irrigated and rainfed areas
          Faisalabad-83  for irrigated and rainfed areas
          Punjab-85      for irrigated areas
          Sutlej-86      for irrigated areas
          Faisalabad-85  for irrigated areas
 
      New cultivars introduced were Rohtas-90 for rainfed areas, Inkilab-91
 and Pasban-90 for irrigated areas.  Pak-81 (Veery-5) has been under
 cultivation for the last ten years as a multi-purpose variety both for
 rainfed and irrigated areas and for early, medium, and late sowing.  Its
 leaf rust resistance is breaking down and it is likely to go out of
 cultivation in the near future.
     
          At present, percentage of total production and average yield in the
 Provinces are as follows:
 
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        Percentage                  Kg/ha
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Punjab                                     73.01                   2026
 Sindh                                      15.13                   2221
 Sarhad                                      7.49                   1380
 Baluchistan                                 4.37                   2109
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
     Low yield per hectare in Sarhad is mainly due to being rainfed (Barani).
 Higher yields in Sindh are attributed to irrigation and more timely seeding
 (mid-November) as the cotton and rice fields are vacated early. Improved
 agronomic practices including better use of fertilizer are also factors. 
 Northern Punjab is mostly rainfed.  In central (rice area) and southern
 Punjab (cotton area) most of the wheat is planted late or near end of
 December (optimum time being mid-November) after rice and cotton fields are
 vacated, which result in low yields per hectare.
 
      Seeding Wheat in Standing Cotton Crop - In the cotton area, a new
 technique of planting wheat in standing cotton crop is being adopted which
 is likely to increase the average yield as indicated by some field
 experiments.  Soaked wheat seed is broadcast in cotton field after flooding
 with irrigation water in mid-November when two pickings of cotton have been
 taken and most cotton leaves have shed.  Seeding rate of wheat is kept 30%
 higher.  Third and final picking of cotton occurs by mid-December and cotton
 stalks are removed by manual labor.  Phosphatic and nitrogenous fertilizers
 are applied with irrigation water soon afterward.  The most important factor
 in this method is control of weeds in the cotton crop right from the start
 of seeding.  If the cotton crop is weed infested, wheat crop will not
 succeed.  Winter weeds phalaris, wild oats, etc. and other broad-leafed
 weeds can emerge after seeding can be controlled by use of weedicides.
 
      This technique needs further experimental study and improvement for
 general adaptation.
 
 --------------------
                                ITEM FROM PARAGUAY
 
 CIMMYT/Paraguay
 
      P.C. Wall
 
      Development of a Soil Management Research Database
 
      Soil management is a major yield determining factor for wheat in much
 of the Southern Cone of South America. To help the interchange of
 information on this important topic, we are developing a database on soil
 management research in the region. Information on their trials has been
 elicited from national program soil management researchers, and the
 database/network continues to grow as information is received from more
 institutions and researchers. The data is recorded electronically using the
 Paradox relational database program. For each trial we record the names of
 researchers involved, together with information on their institutions,
 details of experimental design, year of initiation and probable duration, as
 well as references to any published data from the trial. All crop species,
 types of tillage, tillage implements employed and the variables measured in
 the trial are also recorded.
 
      To date we have 87 trials in the database - from a total of 21
 institutions in the six countries of the Southern Cone (Argentina, Bolivia,
 Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). Most trials are projected to run for
 at least five years. The most common crops included in these trials are
 wheat (68 trials), soybeans (61), maize (56) and black oats (Avena strigosa)
 as a green manure crop (32 trials). Thirty-two other species are represented
 at lower frequencies. Most trials include no-till treatments (61) and
 conventional tillage (50). Where tillage is used, the moldboard plow is the
 most common implement (32 trials) followed by disc plows (30) and disc
 harrows (27). Chisel plows and cultivators are used in slightly fewer
 trials. In most trials (74) researchers measure soil pH, organic matter
 content and macronutrient levels. The next most common measurement is bulk
 density (53 trials), followed by aggregate stability (41), porosity (38),
 CEC, bases and base saturation (37), Al levels and lime requirements (35).
 Traction requirements, surface roughness and soil movement are only measured
 in one trial, as is air and water permeability. Whereas the dynamics of
 nitrogen are studied in eight trials, the dynamics of P are not studied in
 any trial in the database at present. Apart from those mentioned, many other
 variables are measured or studied at intermediate frequencies.
 
 --------------------
                                ITEMS FROM ROMANIA
 
        S.C.A. (Agricultural Research Station), Turda, Jud. Cluj
 
        Maria Moldovan*, V. Botezan, V. Moldovan
 
      Wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight.  Five winter wheat cultivars,
 with different reaction in head    blight (cvs. Liebellula, Transilvania, as
 tolerant, cv. Partizanka, with medium reaction and cvs. Ranniaia 47,
 Novosadska Rana 2 as susceptible), have been involved in a backcross system,
 in order to study the heredity of wheat resistance to Fusarium graminearum.
 
      The six populations of each combination have been sown in the field and
 the ears were artificially inoculated by a suspension of conidia at anthesis
 into the central spikelets.  The reaction to head blight has been evaluated
 by the infection degree on ears and grains.
 
      The gene action effects (according to Gamble, 1962), the heritability
 coefficient in a large sense and the transgression rate, have been
 evaluated. The genetic determinism of wheat reaction to head blight appears
 to be complex.  The negative and significant gene effects concerning
 resistance, were quite important.  Generally, the dominance effects, the
 additive x additive and dominance x dominance epistatic effects were more
 important in almost all of them, then the additive effects. Therefore, the
 recurrent selection method would be effective in wheat breeding for Fusarium
 head blight resistance.  Also, the pedigree selection would be an efficient
 method in wheat breeding for this trait.
 
      Lower values obtained for the heritability estimated (0.32-0.60), could
 be attributed to the environmental effects. These values, as well as the
 estimated values of transgression rate (3.9% - 64.9%), indicate that the
 selection work regarding the resistance to Fusarium head blight, should be
 started with a higher amount of hybrid plants, in order to select resistant
 recombinants with desirable agronomic traits. These values, as well as the
 estimated values of transgression rate (3.9% - 64.9%), indicate that the
 selection work regarding the resistance to Fusarium head blight, should be
 started with a higher amount of hybrid plants, in order to select resistant
 recombinants with desirable agronomic traits.
 
 --------------------
      ICCPT (Research Institute for Cereals and Industrial Crops) Fundulea,
 8264, jud. Calarasi
 
      N.N. Saulescu*, Gh. Ittu*, P. Msutatea
 
      Coleoptile length, GA sensitivity and yield in progenies of a Sincron
 cross - Previous studies at ICCPT Fundulea identified a wheat line 487 H1-1
 later "nicknamed" Sincron, which combines semi-dwarf stature and long
 coleoptile (Saulescu and Ittu 1985, Probl. genet. Teor. aplic
 17(2):103-110).
 
     One hundred random lines from a cross of Sincron with a Rht 1 carrier
 semi-dwarf line were advanced to near-homozygosity using a SSD-like
 procedure, without conscious selection.  In F6 and FE all lines were
 characterized for GA sensitivity, coleoptile length, height, yield, and
 spike
 length.
 
     All GA intensive lines had short coleoptile (65 - 88% of mid-parental
 value) and were semidwarf (70 - 91 cm).  The GA sensitive lines had medium
 to long coleoptile (92 - 124% of mid-parental value).  Half of them were
 semidwarf (70 - 91 cm) and half were tall (95 - 110 cm).
 
     Results fit the hypothesis of a rht 1 Rht 8 x Rht 1 rht 8 cross with at
 least one additional gene producing variation of coleoptile length in GA
 sensitive genotypes but not in GAI ones.
 
    Averaged yields expressed as percentage of mean yields of the parents in
 two contrasting environments were as follows:
  
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    1988        1989
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 GAI semidwarf lines (Rht 1)                        98.5       104.1
 GA sensitive semidwarf lines (Rht 8)               92.4       100.1
 Tall lines                                        102.2        94.6
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
     Rht 8 lines seem to be inferior in yield to the RHT 1 lines by an
 average of 4.0 to 6.1%, even if the environment favors tall lines as
 compared with semidwarfs.  However, variation was high among lines in every
 group with much overlapping between groups, giving hopes that GA sensitive
 long-coleoptile semidwarf lines competitive yield might be selected.
 
     There was a significant linear relationship between spike length and
 culm height, but the correlation was higher, the regression slope higher and
 the intercept much lower for the GA sensitive lines than for GAI, showing
 semidwarf GA sensitive lines to have much shorter spikes than Rht 1
 semidwarf.
 
 --------------------
      G.H. Ittu* and N. N. Saulescu
 
      Triticale Breeding for Short Straw - Based on the pedigree analyses,
 length of coleoptile and the reaction in the seedling stage to exogenic
 gibberellic acid, a survey was made to identify the genes for reduced height
 present in our short triticale lines.
 
      The results showed that Rht 1 gene is common in most short triticale
 lines (crosses 318TR and 5735 TW).  Other short lines with long coleoptile
 and gibberellic acid sensitivity carried the short straw genes form rye
 (Malis and Snoopy).  Among the short triticale lines most promising are
 those with the Rht 1 gene.  Some of them in the preliminary trials had the
 same yield performances as normal height advanced lines.
 
 --------------------
      Mariana Ittu, N.N. Saulescu, Gh. Ittu
 
     Wheat resistance to Fusarium scab - Different criteria to appreciate the
 level of resistance to Fusarium scab in wheat were investigated.  In this
 respect the visual score of Fusarium attack, the weight of ears, the number
 and the weight of each of the normal, white and shrivelled seeds, and the
 dynamics of infection spreading were considered after artificial and natural
 inoculation.
 
     The natural Fusarium scab epidemics in 1991 allowed a comparison among
 these components following both natural and artificial infection. 
 Significant coefficients of correlation for the intensity of attack (r =
 0.92xxx), the number of shrivelled (r = 0.78xxx) and white + shrivelled
 seeds (r = 0.72xxx) and weight of shrivelled seeds (r = 0.77xxx) were found
 between artificial and natural infection.
 
     The dynamics of infection spreading with Fusarium scab (AUSFPC)
 following the artificial inoculation helped to estimate the level of
 resistance to Fusarium scab in wheat.  Genotypes with similar final values
 for the intensity of Fusarium scab attack in ears, but differing in the
 spreading infection (AUSFPC), showed different levels of spike weight
 reduction (tolerance). 
 
 --------------------
                                ITEMS FROM RUSSIA
 
      Kurgan Agricultural Research Institute, p/o Sadovoe, Kurgan reg.
 641325, Russia
 
      S. Polikarpov*, V. Surov, L. Maltseva*
 
      Wheat breeding for Zauralje region of Russia.  Zauralje region
 represents agricultural areas situated to the East of Ural mountains or in
 the Western part of Siberia. Kurgan region being the main part of this areas
 cultivates 1.1-1.8 ml ha of cereals. The percentage of wheat varies from 55
 to 79%. Yield of cereals varies from 0.5 to 1.9 t/ha depending on weather
 conditions. The average yield of 1.7 t/ha was obtained in 1992.
 
      Environmental conditions of the region are characterized by short
 growing period (April - September), drought in the early stages of wheat
 development (May - June), rainy weather during grain filling and maturity
 which can cause lodging and sprouting. Among biotic factors powdery mildew
 and leaf rust are most important diseases which in some years substantially
 reduce the yield. The other factors affecting yield are  lack of fertilizers
 and chemicals for plant protection, cultivation of relatively old varieties
 susceptible to diseases with limited yield potential.
 
    There are three wheat breeding programs in the institute:  spring bread
 and durum wheats, winter bread wheat. Spring bread wheat is given high
 priority since this is a major crop in the region. There are three groups of
 spring bread wheat varieties the program is aimed at: 1) varieties ranging
 in maturity for early planting dates (April); 2)medium and late varieties
 for normal planting dates (mid-May); 3) early varieties for late planting
 (June). All three groups of germplasm should have drought tolerance and
 resistance to main pathogens. However early varieties within each group are
 intended for human consumption thus having good bread-making quality and
 later varieties - for feed with higher yield potential. 
 
     Around 100 crosses are made annually. The number of lines screened every
 year varies from 20 000 to 40 000. Starting from preliminary yield trials
 the breeding material is evaluated using the planting dates which correspond
 to the groups of germplasm described above. The main method of breeding is
 intervarietal hybridization followed by selection. Different types of wheats
 are used for crosses. They represent varieties released in the region
 (Saratovskaya 29, 36, 39, Omskaya 9, 17, 18, Vera, Kurganskaya 1, Tselinnaya
 20, 26), old varieties and landraces (Tsesium 111, Milturum 553, Skala),
 advanced lines (Omskhi 6, Turtsicum 13, Lutescens 34, Lutescens 503), winter
 varieties (Bezostaya 1, Mironovskaya 808, Mironovskaya 25, Chaika, Obriy,
 Odesskaya 51 etc). The breeding work is done in cooperation with other
 institutions in Siberia and European part of Russia. Some efforts has been
 recently devoted to the development of PC database which  would allow to
 simplify the preparation of field books and analysis of data.
 
      New varieties of spring bread wheat: TERTSIA - received from the cross
 between the isogenic lines of variety Novosibirskaya 67 with resistance to
 powdery mildew, leaf rust, haired flag leaf and tolerance to sprouting.
 Height is 85-100 cm, resistant to lodging, drought tolerant. The variety has
 superior bread-making quality. It is immune to leaf rust and highly
 resistant to powdery mildew. The institutions involved into breeding the
 variety are Kurgan Agr. Res. Inst., Omsk Agr. College and Inst. of Cytology
 and Genetics.
 
      FORA (TPP/Carazino//Siete Cerros F66/3/2*Kinelskaya 30). Early-maturing
 variety with the period from seedlings emergence to maturity - 63-83 days.
 The variety is susceptible to leaf rust and powdery mildew but due to
 earliness the yield is hardly affected. Plant height is 70-85 cm, resistant
 to lodging. Variety FORA has superior bread-making quality and can be used
 to improve flour quality in mixture with other varieties. The variety is
 most suitable for early planting dates. FORA is bred in cooperation between
 Kurgan Agr. Res. Inst. and N.I.Vavilov Institute.
 
      SOLVEIG (Canthatch/Lutescens 19-56-42//Greacum 114/Kavkaz).
 Late-maturing variety (growing period 95-105 days). Plant height is 85-100
 cm, resistant to lodging. The variety has high yield potential, resistant to
 powdery mildew, tolerant to drought with superior bread-making quality. 1000
 kernel weight is 35-45 g. SOLVEIG is released as a cooperative variety
 between Kurgan Agr.  Res. Inst. and Siberian Agr. Res. Inst. in Omsk.
 
      Durum wheat breeding is aimed at creating varieties with different
 maturity range which would possess high drought tolerance along with
 excellent grain quality. In 1992 more then 5000 line were screened in the
 field. Some new advanced lines (KT-14, KT-3, KT-17, KT-54-207) demonstrated 
 high yield comparing to
 local checks.
 
      Winter wheat breeding is done in a small scale with 1000-1500 lines
 screened annually. The program is aimed at improving winter hardiness
 combined with yield potential since winter temperatures are very low in the
 region.
 
 --------------------
      Information and Computation Centre of Russian Academy of Agricultural
 Sciences, P.O. Emmaus 171330, Tver, Russia
 
      S.P.Martynov*, T.V.Dobrotvorskaya
 
      Breeding Oriented Database on Genetical Resuorces of Wheat.   Beginning
 from 1990 Information and Computation Centre of Russian Academy of
 Agricultural Sciences has been developing a project creating a database on
 the world wheat genetic resources, intended for use in breeding programmes
 and genetic research. The  data-base has the following structure: (i) Name,
 (ii) Registration  numbers of the national genebanks, (iii)Botanical species
 and variety, iv) growth habits, v) Pedigree, vi) Geographic origin, vii)
 Identified genes alleles, viii) Name synonyms, ix) Genetic status, x)Year of
 registration, xi) Note. This database differs from similar data-bases of the
 national genebanks in the following way. 1. It is  not the catalogue
 registration number but the name of a cultivar or line that is a unique
 accession identifier. 2. The database  contains limited number of passport
 descriptors. The main accent is made on theaccumulation and analysis of 
 pedigrees and identified genes alleles. This most important genetic
 information is needed by breeders and geneticists to plan crossings. The
 database creation was preceded by  data  unification. 
 Below you can find the rules for making records in the database.
 
      Name. Only capital letters are used. Name parts are joined  with a
 hyphen. Example: SIETE-CERROS-66. Original names written in Cyrillic
 alphabet are transliterated by Roman alphabet according to a standard scheme
 (Table 1). Exclusions are made for those parts of names which designate
 botanical variety of an  accession.  In such cases the mentioned part of a
 name is not transliterated but replaced by its equivalent in Latin. 
 
 Table 1. Transliteration of Cyrillic alphabet by Roman
 
                   [NOT SHOWN]
 
 
 
    It should be noted that neglecting the above given rule  would  lead  to
 multiple mistakes. For instance, GRIN database  contains  accessions named
 BEZENCHUKSKAYA-98 (PI-262613),  BEZENCHUKSKAJA-98  (PI-233208),
 BESENCUKSJAJA-98 (PI-277119). Obviously all  3  accessions sent are the same
 Russian cultivar named BEZENCHUKSKAYA-98 and the latter two names are
 incorrect.
 
     As a rule, it is not allowed to use abbreviations of names. Abbreviation
 often cause much confusion. For instance, the catalogue by Zeven A. and
 N.Zeven-Hissink (1976) gives a pedigree for the cultivar  BOLILLO =
 PITIC-62/GALLO/3/NURI-70//FLORENCE/CIANO-67.  The catalogue "Semidwarf Bread
 Wheats /CIMMYT (1988) gives the pedigree as  PI/GLL/3/NR//FLR/CNO, moreover 
 FLR = FLETCHER. There are many other examples of abbreviations being
 deciphered in different ways: ARU=ARUANA and ARU=ATREOCO, BNN = BONANZA and
 BNN= BENNI, CC=CORRE-CAMINOS and CC =HANCELLOR, FR = FEDERATION and FR =
 FROCOR, etc. It is not allowed to use the following symbols: / (crossing), *
 (backcross) either round or square brackets.  It should by noted that it is
 more convenient for a research worker to use the name of a cultivar as a
 unique accession identifier instead of national catalogues registration
 numbers. Nevertheless, the fact of existing homonyms (similar names for
 different cultivars) causes some difficulty. For instance, the name of 
 ALPHA is used for cultivars from Australia, Canada, and  Great  Britain. 
 Spring and winter cultivars of wheat from Czechoslovakia and winter wheat
 from Bulgaria have the name of VEGA. The name of STEWART  is  used for T.
 aestivum and T. durum cultivars. In such cases qualifiers are added to the
 name country of origin, species or growth habits. For example, ALPHA,AUS;
 ALPHA,CAN; ALPHA,GBR or STEWART,AE;STEWART,DR or PRESIDENT,S; PRESIDENT,W 
 etc.  In some cases genetic material, such as near-isogenic, addition,
 translocation lines, have no names and therefore such  ines are given
 synthetic names according to the following rule. If the line is created by
 way of backcrossing the names of the donor  nd the recipient are connected
 with an arrow directed towards the recipient. For instance, the name of
 substitution line CHINESE-SPRING*6/TIMSTEIN 2D is written as
 CS<-TIMSTEIN-2D. The name as well as the pedigree show that chromosome 2D of
 the TIMSTEIN cultivar is transferred to CHINESE-SPRING.
 
      The names of restorers for fertlity are written in the same way the
 cytoplasm being marked as CP. For instance, the restorer for fertlity
 T.timopheevii/3*Marquis with T. timopheevii cytoplasm is named as
 TI-CP->MARQUIS.
 
      Registration Numbers of National Catalogues. They are represented as
 one or several letters and a number. For instance,  -00000 represents the
 Vavilov Institute world collection, St. Petersburg, Russia; PI-000000 -
 Plant introduction number in  National  Plant Germplasm System, USA etc.
 
      Botanical Species and Variety. To denote species the following
 abbreviations are used (Table 2).  The names of species and varieties
 coincide with those given in the literature used.
 
      Habit. The following marks are used to designate the growth habits: S
 for spring wheat, I for intermediate habit and W for winter wheat.
 
      Pedigree. The system of pedigrees recording is based on that  of Purdy
 al. (1968). Formal description of pedigrees recording  system  is given in
 Table 3. System is supplemented with formal description of some methods for
 breeding material creation (Table 4). It is also possible to enter
 explanations into a pedigree record (Table 5).
 
 Table 2. Species code 
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 Species            Abbreviation |    Species          Abbreviation  
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 Aegilops aucheri     - AEAU     |    T. boeoticum         - BO   
 Ae. bicornis         - AEBI     |    T. carthlicum        - CA      
 Ae. biuncialis       - AEBU     |    T. compactum         - CO      
 Ae. caudata          - AECA     |    T. dicoccum          - DM       
 Ae. columnaris       - AECL     |    T. dicoccon          - DN       
 Ae. comosa           - AECO     |    T. dicoccoides       - DS       
 Ae. crassa           - AECR     |    T. durum             - DR       
 Ae. cylindrica       - AECY     |    T. georgicum         - GE   
 Ae. juvenalis        - AEJU     |    T. ispahanicum       - IS   
 Ae. kotschyi         - AEKO     |    T. longissimum       - LO   
 Ae. longissima       - AELO     |    T. macha             - MA   
 Ae. mutica           - AEMU     |    T. monococcum        - MO   
 Ae. ovata            - AEOV     |    T. orientale         - OR       
 Ae. searsii          - AESE     |    T. palaeocolchicum   - PA       
 Ae. sharonensis      - AESH     |    T. persicum          - PE   
 Ae. speltoides       - AESP     |    T. polonicum         - PO       
 Ae. squarrosa        - AESQ     |    T. pyramidale        - PY       
 Ae. tauschii         - AETA     |    T. sativum           - SA       
 Ae. triaristata      - AETR     |    T. searsii           - SE       
 Ae. triuncialis      - AETU     |    T. solomonicum       - SO       
 Ae. umbellulata      - AEUM     |    T. sphaerococcum     - SH       
 Ae. uniaristata      - AEUN     |    T. spelta            - SP       
 Ae. variabilis       - AEVA     |    T. speltoides        - SS   
 Ae. ventricosa       - AEVE     |    T. spontaneum        - ST       
 Agropyron            - AG       |    T. tauschii          - TA       
 A. elongatum         - AGEL     |    T. thaoudar          - TH       
 A. glaucum           - AGGL     |    T. timopheevii       - TI       
 A. intermedium       - AGIN     |    T. turanicum         - TN       
 A. junceus           - AGJU     |    T. turgidum          - TG       
 A. repens            - AGRE     |    T. urartu            - UR       
 A. trichophorum      - AGTR     |    T. vavilovii         - VA   
 A. umbellulatum      - AGUM     |    T. vulgare           - VU   
 Triticum abyssinicum - AB       |    T. zhukovskyi        - ZH       
 T. aegilopoides      - AP       |    Dasypyrum villosum   - DV   
 T. aestivum          - AE       |    Hordeum chilense     - HC       
 T. agropyrotriticum  - AT       |    Secale cereale       - SC       
 T. araraticum        - AR       |    S.montanum           - SM   
 T. aethiopicum       - ET       |    Triticale            - TR       
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
      The system is supplemented with important information for a breeder
 about generations in which the line was selected and/or involved into next
 crossing cycle. Symbols of Sk and Fn are introduced where S designates the
 fact of selection having been made, k is the number of generation, in
 which the line was selected, n - the number of generation in which the line
 was involved into next crossing cycle. In case of the first generation the
 F1 symbol can be omitted. This information as well as breeding name, growth 
 habits, species and the country of origin belong to explanations and are put
 between round brackets. Note, that explanations belonging to female  parent
 are placed at the end of the pedigree, and the explanations for the male
 parent - at the beginning of the pedigree. But in both case the explanations
 are close to the crossing symbol. The structure of explanations is given in
 Table 5.
 
 
 Table 3. A pedigree structure
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 Pedigree record elements |  Designation*
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 Crosses                  |  / or // or /C/, 
                          |  where C - number of cross 
                          |
 The number of cross      |  Figure [3,4,5,...]                        
                          |                 /                        
 Pedigrees                |  { // }        
                          |                 /C/                      
 Female parent pedigree   |  [][*B]          
                          |  or
                          |  [][*B]  
                          |
 Male parent pedigree     |  [B*][]           
                          |  or
                          |  [B*][] 
                          |
 Backcross                |  [*B] or [B*], 
                          |  where B - figure [2,3,4,...]
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
    *Optional parameters are given in square brackets. 
     Angle brackets point to content.
               
 
 Table 4. Formal description of breeding method
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 The method of creating             |
 breeding material                  |  Designation*
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 Selection from cultivar-population | (S)  
 Open pollination                   | /OP           
 Mutagenesis                        | (M)
 Recombinogenesis                   | (R)
 Transformation                     | (T)         
 Injection                          | (I) <-     
 TTreatment with a phytohormone     | (P)
 Multiline cultivar                 | (ML)       
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 *Angle brackets point to content.
 
 Example: LUTESCENS-62     = (S)POLTAVKA
          NIVA             = CAESIUM-111/OP
          CHARBATI-SONORA  = (M)SONORA-64
          VEKTOR           = (R)SARATOVSKAYA-29
          MIRONOVSKAYA-808 = (T)ARTEMOVKA
          POLESSKAYA-70    = (I)BEZOSTAYA-1<-(SC)TATSINSKAYA-GOLUBAYA
          BAGRATIONOVSKAYA = (P)MIRONOVSKAYA-YUBILEINAYA
          MIRAMAR-63       = (ML)FROCOR
 
 Explanations are illustrated by the following hypothetic pedigree:
      SARATOVSKAYA-29/ALBIDUM-43(S2-4,F6)//2*LUTESCENS-62*3/
      SARATOVSKAYA-38(S8,C-164)/3/(CAN)SELKIRK. It means that from the
 combination  SARATOVSKAYA-29/ALBIDUM-43  selections were made in F2, F3 and
 F4. Then F5 was selfpollinated and F6 was backcrossed by  the 
 LUTESCENS-62*3/SARATOVSKAYA-38  hybrid.  The C-164 line selected in F8 was
 crossed with Canadian cultivar of SELKIRK.  Each pedigree has a reference to
 the source.
 
 
 Table 5. The structure of explanations
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 Elements of explanation     Designation*                
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 Explanation                 ([S[k[{,}l]][[,]Fn]][[,]]
                             [[,]][[,]])
                                  
 Generation of selection     S - selection symbol
                             k - figure [2,3,4,...]
                             l - figure [3,4,5,...]
 Continuous selection        Sk-l            
 Interrupted selection       Sk,l                  
 
 Generation of cross         F - symbol of the generation of cross           
 
 
                             n - figure [2,3,4,...]                 
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
    *Optional parameters are given in square brackets. 
     Angle brackets point to content.
 
      Geographical Origin.  Three-letter abbreviated names system 
 recommended by United Nations Statistical Office is used. The system  is
 supplemented by the names of new states founded on the territory 
 of the former USSR: ARM - Armenia, AZE -Azerbaijan, BLR-Belarussia, EST -
 Estonia, GRG - Georgia, KAZ -  Kazakhstan,  KYR -  Kyrgystan, LAT - Latvia,
 LIT - Lithuania, MLD - Moldova, RUS -  Russia,  TAD - Tadjikistan, TRK -
 Turkmenistan, UKR - Ukraine,  UZB -  Uzbekistan. The name of the state,
 province or  egional  center  is  separated  from the name of the country 
 by a colon.  Example:  RUS:SARATOV, USA:KANSAS.                             
 
 
     Gene Alleles. Identified gene alleles are given according to the
 catalogue for gene symbols of wheat by McIntosh (1988) and its annual
 supplement. Genes symbols are separated from each other by a
 comma or semicolon. References to authorities are placed in square brackets.
 Example:  Ne1,ne2[24];Vrn1,Vrn2,vrn3[51];Lr10,Lr14a[117];
 Sr6,Sr17[524];Pm5[524];  Genetic Status. The following designations are used
 to  indicate genetic status: AL -  addition line, APL - alloplasmatic line,
 BL - breeding line, CL - combination line, CV - cultivar, GP -germplasm,  LV
 - landrace, ML  - multiline cultivar, NIL -  near-isogenic line,  RCMS - 
 restorer for cytoplasmic male sterility, RF -  restorer for 
 fertlity, SL - substitution line, TL - translocation line. 
  
     The database includes T. aestivum, T.durum, T. turgidum and some other
 wheat species. By January 1, 1993 the database has  accumulated 44,512
 entries (Table 6).
 
    Table 6. The extent to which the database on genetical resources  of
 wheat is filled up
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    |             Species        
 Records characteristics           
                                    |T.aestivum |  T.durum  |  All
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 Accessions with known pedigrees    |  19591    |   3211    |  27108
 Accessions with known genes        |  10088    |   1210    |  12259
 Accessions from the former USSR    |   7460    |   1250    |   8911
 Total                              |  34652    |   4845    |  44512
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      The database filling index (the ratio of the filled up fields number
 to the total number of fields) is 63%.  The database on genetic resources of
 wheat interacts with 6 information databases: abbreviated cultivar names
 (4096 entries), gene symbols of wheat (628 entries), abbreviations for 
 species (76 entries), morphological description of varieties (1334 
 entries), abbreviations for countries of origin (158  entries), 
 bibliography  (1002 entries).  Information databases can substitute full
 names for  abbreviated names in pedigrees, display full information  on 
 entering  gene symbols, abbreviated names of species, and literary
 references. Geographical origin database allows to group  countries, 
 states  and provinces, from which accessions come from  into  agricultural 
 and natural regions, areas and provinces. The database functions in KARAT
 environment in IBM-PC-compatible computers. The data are stored in FOXBASE
 files. Hence, the database can be operated by the commercially available 
 FOXBASE  package. Standard KARAT or FOXBASE packages are extensively
 extended by original GENBAS software developed especially for analysis of
 breeding oriented database on genetic resources of wheat. The  GENBAS 
 software provides a user with means to analyse data. Some of the  means are
 described lower.
 
    1. Offspring choice for a given cultivar. Figure 1  illustrates how the
 program operates.
 
 
    Fig. 1. Search according to an ancestor [NOT SHOWN]
 
 
    2. Contingency table constructing (bivariant  records  grouping) for
 genetic information analysis. Such tables can be used for study of
 geographical distribution of genes. Table 7  is  an  example  of 
 such a table where inputs are genes alleles of hybrid necrosis  and 
 geographical origin of accessions.
 
    3. Pedigrees tracing and their  graphic  representation  in  the shape of
 dendrographs. Fig. 2 shows a dendrograph of  a  new  durum cultivar
 BEZENCHUKSKAYA-182.
 
    Table 7. Geographical distribution of genes of hybrid necrosis
             on the territory of the former USSR
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
        |    Agricultural and natural provinces*              |
 Alleles|-----------------------------------------------------------
           1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 Ne1    |  5  10   8  32  36  44  67  47  28   18   19   12   |  326
 Ne2    | 19  33  20  32  23  56  26  12  12   10   15    4   |  262
 ne1,ne2| 31  46  29  34  38 111  32  73  38   34   24   11   |  501
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 Total  | 55  89  57  98  97 211 125 132  78   62   58   27   | 1089
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
    *1-The south of taiga in Belorussia and Baltic, 2 - The south of taiga in
 middle of Russia, 3-Forest-steppe region in middle of Russia, 4-Ukraine, 5
 -The northern region at the foothills of the Caucasus, 6 -The south of
 Russian steppe, 7 - The southern part of the Caucasus, 8-Subtropic in the
 Middle Asia, 9 -The steppe of Kazakhs-tan, 10 - The forest-steppe region in
 West Siberia at the foothills  of the Urals, 11-The steppe region in East
 Siberia, 12-The Far East region.
 
    Fig. 2. Graphic image of the BEZENCHUKSKAYA-182 cultivar traced pedigree
 
 
                                                                             
 
                                                                              
                                                             /HORDEIFORME-1717
                                             /LEUCURUM-BG-40-|
                                             |               \MELANOPUS-212   
                        /BEZENCHUKSKAYA-105--|
                        |                    \RUSSELLO       
                    /F8-|
                    |   |                    /DR-VOLGA-REGION
                    |   \KHARKOVSKAYA-46-----|
                    |                        |               /DM              
                    |                        \LINE-5129------|
                    |                                        \TG             
 BEZENCHUKSKAYA-182-|
                    |                                        /HORDEIFORME-1717
                    |                        /LEUCURUM-BG-40-|              
                    |                        |               \MELANOPUS-212   
                    |   /BEZENCHUKSKAYA-105--|
                    |   |                    \RUSSELLO       
                    \F8-|
                        |                    /DR-VOLGA-REGION
                        \KHARKOVSKAYA-46-----|
                                             |               /DM              
                                             \LINE-5129------|
                                                             \TG             
 
 
    4. Computation of coefficients of parentage  between  cultivars.
 Coefficients of parentage can be used in quantitatve estimations of genetic
 divergency of parental forms when planning crossing.
    5. Necessary means  for  information  accumulating,  correcting, scanning
 and printing. Table 8 gives a computer listing of the  latest cultivars from
 ex-USSR records.
    6. Service functions can be executed: homonyms search,  transliteration
 of Cyrillic alphabet by Roman, the database export into  a text file,
 records
 verification, informing about the database separate fields filling index,
 etc.
 
    The database provides the breeder with latest information on available on
 initial breeding material which creates good preconditions for plant
 breeding on strictly genetic basis.
 
 Table 8.  The pedigree of the latest cultivars from ex-USSR.
 
 [NOT SHOWN]
 
 
 --------------------
      Krasnyi Kut Breeding Station, Krasnyi Kut, Saratov reg. 413241
 
      L.Germantsev
 
      Durum wheat breeding in Krasnyi Kut Breeding Station.  According to
 Arabic scientists durum wheat has been cultivated in Volga region since the
 10th century. Well-adapted landraces of durum wheat were developed by
 peasants who selected best spikes for seeds. In 1848 there was a report
 about wheat seed production in the Department of Agriculture concerning
 Volga region.
 
      During last century many gold awards of the international exhibitions
 in London and Paris were given to durum wheat produced in dry steppe area of
 Novouzenski district (presently Saratov reg.). This indicates the superior
 quality of wheat grain grown in the area.
 
      Krasnyi Kut Breeding Station is one of the oldest breeding institutions
 in Russia. It was established in 1909 in the center of huge region involved
 into cultivation of durum wheat. It is situated to the South-East of
 Volga-river in Saratov reg. Average annual rainfall accounts for 307 mm and
 precipitation during growing cycle of spring wheat is 83 mm. Four years out
 of five are affected by drought. In 1975 there were only 10.4 mm of rain
 during growing season (70 days) and relative humidity was less then 30%
 during 60 days.
 
      The breeding work in the station was established by Academician
 P.N.Konstantinov who developed the strategy and methods of breeding for
 these environmental conditions. He considered plant breeding as a main way
 for stabilizing agricultural production in drought-affected areas. Durum
 wheat varieties bred in Krasnyi Kut were characterized by excellent quality
 with protein content around 17% and gluten content 35-40%. Variety
 Melyanopus 69 used to be a standard for quality on the world wheat market.
 Durum wheat varieties bred in the Station were recommended for cultivation
 in 37 regions of the USSR and in some years accounted for 85% of all durum
 wheat grown in the country. The area under durum wheat varied from 2.3 to
 6.0 mln ha in the USSR and from 0.3 to 1.2 mln ha in Saratov region. There
 is a sharp drop in durum wheat area during last 10-15 years. This crop is
 replaced by barley which provides higher yield (+0.5 t/ha). As a result
 macaroni-producing factories lack grain of durum wheat.
 
      Breeding station in Krasnyi Kut submitted 8 varieties to the State
 Commission during its 83 years of activity. Seven of them were recommended
 for cultivation and performed well in the fields. 
 
      One of the main directions in breeding is to increase yield without
 decrease of quality parameters. The basic germplasm used for crosses
 represent local well-adapted material. Breeding fields used to occupy 30 ha
 and up to 30 000 lines were screened annually. Yield trials are conducted
 under different agronomy practice with preceding crops being maize, legumes
 or bare fallow. The best lines are given to Vavilov Institute (VIR) in
 St.Petersburg. One of the recent varieties - Krasnokutka 10 overyielded
 check varieties by 10%. The method of rapid seed multiplication in drought
 conditions is developed on the station. It allowed a new variety Melyanopus
 26 to occupy the biggest area among durum wheats in the country during 5
 years after release. Recent changes in the country resulted in the reduce in
 funding, lack of mashinery (combine-harvesters for small plots,
 seed-cleaning equipment) and eventually to decrease in breeding work.
 
 --------------------
      Siberian Institute of Agricultural Research, Omsk-12 644012
 
      M. Evdokimov
 
      Durum Wheat Breeding in Western Siberia.  Western-Siberian region is
 characterized by continental climate with dry and hot summer and cold
 winter.  The growing season lasts 110-130 days. The sum of temperatures
 above 10oC varies around 1800-2200o. Annual precipitation is 300-450 mm.
 
      Western Siberia represent huge agricultural areas with variable soil
 and weather conditions. It is subdivided into four zones: northern forest,
 subforest, forest-steppe and steppe. The zones differ in water availability
 and temperature during summer.
 
      Durum wheat is mainly cultivated in steppe and forest-steppe zones.
 Since these zones have different environmental conditions there is a need in
 varieties with different adaptability. For forest-steppe zone the varieties
 should form grain of good quality with a lack of warm weather. For steppe
 zone the varieties need to provide stable yield in drought hot conditions.
 
      The breeding is aimed at creating varieties of medium maturity range,
 resistant to diseases (stem rust, powdery mildew, loose smut) and lodging
 with high grain quality.  The main method of breeding is intervarietal
 hybridization followed by individual plant selection. Interspecific crosses
 are also used. The germplasm involved into crosses represent released
 varieties, best breeding lines and material from other regions of the
 country or from abroad received via Vavilov Institute.  The breeding
 procedure includes the following nurseries: introductions, crossing block,
 segregating populations, screening nursery of the 1st and 2nd years,
 preliminary yield trials, yield trials and multilocational yield trials.
 
      The introductions nursery includes 200-300 entries annually which are
 estimated for different traits. Plot size is 4 m2 with two replications.
 Around 150-180 crosses are made in summer. For each cross 200 florets are
 pollinated by twin method. In winter 30-40 more crosses are made in the
 greenhouse - mainly top or backcrosses. The seeds obtained from
 hybridization are planted in the greenhouse during winter where two
 generations can be obtained - the first cycle from September to December and
 the second - from January to April.
 
      Starting from F3 segregating populations are planted in the field.
 Individual plant selection takes place in F4-F5 and rarely in earlier
 generations. Selected plants are threshed and then visually screened for
 grain parameters. The seeds from best plants are planted in the 1st year
 screening nursery on hill plots. Normally there are 15 000 - 20 000 lines in
 this nursery. In the second year screening nursery 1000 - 1200 entries are
 planted in plots of 2-4 m2.
 
      There are 100-120 entries in preliminary yield trials which are planted
 in 15-20 m2 plots in two replications. Along with yield its components are
 measured starting from this stage. Yield trials have 25m2  plot size in four
 replications. They are planted in two planting dates and follow two
 different preceding crops - bare fallow and grasses. Annually there are 40
 entries in this trial. Multilocational testing is conducted in places with
 different soil and weather conditions which represent the typical areas of
 Western Siberia. Best germplasm is sent to other breeding programmes as
 well.
 
      Grain quality analysis starts in the 2nd year screening nursery for
 some entries where test weight, protein content and macaroni color are
 estimated. Complete analysis involving 11 parameters is done for yield
 trials. All the work on grain quality estimation takes place in the
 laboratory of grain quality which is a part of the institute. Similarly the
 laboratory of plant pathology have responsibility for screening for disease
 resistance.
  
      Presently, two varieties bred in the institute are cultivated in
 different areas: Almaz and Omski Rubin.
 
      Almaz (Raketa/Kokchetav Tr.dicoccoides//Cerrulescens 95/3/ Leukurum 18)
 - period from seedlings to maturity is 85-87 days, protein content - 17-20%,
 gluten content - 39%, macaroni color - score 3-4.
 
      Omski Rubin (Almaz/Kharkovskaya 46/3/Kharkovskaya 46/Gordeiforme
 10//Wells) - period from seedlings to maturity is 85-90 days, resistant to
 lodging, leaf rust and powdery mildew, good grain quality.
 
      Far East Agricultural Research Institute, 107 Marx St., Khabarovsk,
 680031
 
      I.M.Shindin
 
      Spring wheat breeding fo Far-East.  Three institutions work on spring
 bread wheat breeding for Far East region of Russia: Far East Agricultural
 Research Institute (Khabarovsk), Primorski Agricultural Research Institute
 (Ussurisk) and Blagoveshensk Agricultural College (Blagoveshensk).  The
 breeding is aimed at creating varieties with the range of yield 4.5-5.0
 t/ha, adapted to specific environment of Far East (spring and early-summer
 drought, rainy summer weather), resistant to lodging, sprouting and fungi
 (Fusarium head blight, loose smut, leaf and stem rusts) with good
 bread-making quality.  The breeders in the Far East created 40 varieties of
 spring wheat and 15 of them were released. At present five varieties bred in
 the region are cultivated and occupy more then 70% of all area under spring
 wheat. These varieties are Dalnevostochnaya 10, Amurskaya 75, Primorskaya
 21, Khabarovchanka, Monakinka.  The main method of breeding is intervarietal
 crosses followed by selection. One of the parents is usually local adapted
 variety and another is foreign line/variety (Canada, India, Mexico, USA and
 others). The germplasm from Canada (VIR-k-51241, CV-163-1, Akadia) is
 valuable as a source of drought resistance, bread-making quality, earliness.
 Indian and Mexican varieties (Sona 227, Indus 66, VIR-k-290043, Nainari 60,
 Tobari 66, Nadadores 63) possess resistance to leaf and stem rusts coupled
 with short stature. American varieties (Red River 68, Pilot) have high
 protein content. 
 
      In order to increase the yield potential of spring wheat the crosses
 spring x winter are implemented. Winter wheat varieties from Ukraine
 (Mironovskaya 808, Odesskaya 51, Predgornaya 2, Polesskaya 70), Bulgaria
 (Hebros, Rusalka), Yugoslavia (Java, NS 435, NS 440), USA (Scout 66, Timvin,
 Sturdy) are used for crosses. The material which is being developed from
 spring x winter crosses look promising.
 
      The latest varieties created in the Far East region include
 Dalnevostochnaya 10, Khabarovchanka, Primorskaya 21, Amurskaya 90.
 
      Dalnevostochnaya 10  (Monakinka/Akadia). The variety is bred in FarEast
 Agr.Res.Inst., authors - E.Lysykh, I.Shindin, V.Konechnyi. It has medium
 height, resistant to lodging and drought, moderately resistant to loose smut
 and resistant to leaf and stem rusts. High quality wheat. The variety
 demonstrated yield of 5 t/ha. It is the main variety for Far East region.
 
      Khabarovchanka  (Primorskaya 1737/Indus 66). The variety is bred in Far
 East Agr.Res.Inst., authors - I.Shindin, E.Meshkova, E.Lysykh. Growing
 period (seedlings - maturity) - 80-85 days, plant height - 75-80 cm,
 resistant to lodging. Yield range - 5.0-5.5 t/ha. The variety is resistant
 to leaf and stem rusts, moderately resistant to loose smut. It has high
 bread-making quality.
 
      Primorskaya 21  (Erithrospermum 06/Acadia//Bezostaya 1). The variety is
 bred in Primorski Agr.Res.Inst., author -Yu.Melanich. The variety is
 resistant to lodging, resistant to stem rust and loose smut, moderately
 resistant to Fusarium head blight. It has good bread-making quality.
 
      Amurskaya 90  (Glenlea/Altair). The variety is bred in Blagoveshensk
 Agr.College, authors - G.Miklushonok and B.Pushkin. Growing period is 80-84
 days, plant height is 80-85 cm. Resistant to lodging. Yield range 4.5-5.0
 t/ha. 
 --------------------
          Agricultural Research Institute for South-East Regions, Saratov
 
          N. S. Vassiltchouk*, V. M. Cinyak, V. I. Kassatov
 
      New durum cultivar release.  Saratovskaya 59 (Leucurum 1943) was
 released in 1992.  It has strong gluten and is shorter than the check
 cultivar Bezentchoukskaya 139.  Saratovskaya 59 has yields higher than
 Kransnokoutka 6 and Kharkovskaya 46 and early maturity equal to Saratovskaya
 57 and Svetlana.  The kernel weight is significantly higher than all check
 varieties.  Yellow pigment and protein content is near to Krasnokoutka 6 and
 Bezentchoukskaya 139.  
 
    Saratovskaya zolotistaya (Leucurum 1980) was released in 1993.  It is a
 tall, strong gluten cultivar, that has yielded about 12% more grain than
 Saratovskaya 47 and equal to Svetlana.  Kernel weight and kernel size is
 equal to Saratovskaya 59.  Yellow pigment content is much (almost two times)
 higher than Kharkovskaya 46 and Bezentchoukskaya 139, that provides good
 color of pasta products.  Protein content is equal to Krasnokoutka 6 and
 Saratovskaya 59, but less than Kharkovskaya 46.  Saratovskaya zolotistaya is
 used as a parent source of high gluten quality and high yellow pigment
 content and has contributed desirable genetic variation for combination of
 those traits in the germplasm development program at many research
 institutes of Russia.
 
          A study on Suni bug influence.  Suni bug spread in the Saratov
 region has often resulted in damaged kernel up to 15-20%.  A study of Suni
 bug damage on gluten strength of the different durum genotypes was
 conducted.  Results of 20% damaged grain on farinogram curve characteristics
 of a strong gluten cultivar Saratovskaya 57 (left) and a inferior gluten
 variety Kharkovskaya 46 are shown in the Figure below.  The strong gluten
 cultivar is much more tolerant to Suni bug damage.
 
       Fig.  Farinograms of two durum cultivars of healthy (upper) and 20%
 damaged grain (lower).
 
 [NOT SHOWN]
 
 
 --------------------
      The Moscow, People's Friendship University
 
      Alexandr Federov
 
 Genetical-Physiological Basis for the Length of the Vegetation Period in
 Wheat - Different types (winter alternative and spring) of plants and length
 of the vegetation period is not conditioned by the duration of vernalization
 and by its processes as it was thought earlier (Lysenko, 1936; Pugsley,
 1971).  The basic thesis of these authors disagrees with many published
 data:
 
 1)  The absence of reaction to vernalization under normal growing conditions
 in many spring cereals;
 
 2)  The heading of winter cultivars without vernalization in case of growing
 under continual intensive light (Federov, 1971, 1976, 1983, Moshkov, 1983)
 or
 firs under the short day for a certain period followed by growing under the
 long day (Rasumov, 1961; Federov, 1971; Krekule, 1987);
 
 3)  The alternative wheats and the winter ones (originating from the same
 geographical region) have, as a rule, identical vernalization.  In the field
 their vernalization begins and finishes approximately in the same period
 (Federov, 1971, 1976).
 
     To study the genetical-physiological basis of ontogenesis we crossed
 cultivars of different types of plant development and of different origin
 (winter, alternative, and spring wheats).  The character of developmental
 traits (response to photoperiod and vernalization) determining the nature of
 their ontogenesis was studied.  Wheat cultivars of different growth habit
 and their F1 and F2 hybrids differ in their light reaction in the tillering
 stage and thereby in development rate.  How cultivars respond to
 vernalization is determined by the light reaction.
 
          Our experiments on the determination of vernalization length have
 demonstrated that the wheat cultivars as F1 and F2 from their crossing of
 different types of plant development (alternative, winter), which originated
 form the same geographical region, have, as a rule, identical vernalization
 (in its length and its process conditions).  For example, the wheat
 Mironovskaya 808 (winter), Czech alternative and F1 and F2 plants from
 crossing have the same length of vernalization (45 days).  In the Moscow
 region the vernalization of winter and alternative plants terminates at the
 end of October-November according to the sort.  The normal course of the
 vernalization begins when the average day temperatures range about +10oC and
 below (September).
 
     The F1 of winter Mironovskaya 808 x Czech alternative on a short (12-
 hour) day showed 35 days more lag in generative differentiation of the shoot
 apex, then the parent alternative cultivar.  The F1-headed on August 25,
 while the alternative parent cultivar headed on July 10, and the winter
 parent remained at the tillering stage.
 
      But they (F1 and parents) do not differ in the length of the
 vernalization period (45 days for all of them) and in the conditions of the
 vernalization period (vernalization taking place at 0-3o).  They do not
 differ either in the degree of their photoperiodic reaction after the
 vernalization period.  For example, on a short (12-hour) day they all showed
 27 days more lag in heading than when grown in conditions of natural
 daylengths.
 
     These conditions indicate that the difference in the length of the
 vegetative period of the F1 and the parent cultivars cannot be determined by
 vernalization or the photoperiodic reaction after vernalization but is
 determined essentially by their reaction to light in the beginning of their
 vegetative period, i.e. before the process of vernalization.
 
          After spring sowing of the first generation, all the plants headed,
 although often somewhat later than the spring parent cultivar.  For example,
 the first-generation hybrids of the winter Mironovskaya 808 and the spring
 Saratovskaya 29 headed 8-9 days later than the Saratovskaya 29.  In case of
 the crosses between these same winter cultivars and the late spring cultivar
 Milturum 321, the difference in heading dates was even greater, vix., 20-23
 days.
 
    After autumn sowing, at a date somewhat later (a week or two) than
 optimal for winter cultivars, the hybrids survived the winter every time
 over a number of years, while the spring parent cultivar sown either at the
 same time or even later did not survive.
 
     How can this be explained?  Tests were carried out which showed that F1
 reacts somewhat differently to the spring cultivar to a short day regime. 
 For example, in one test the F1 of Mironovskaya 808 x Saratovskaya 29 headed
 28 days after the spring Saratovskaya 29.  The hybrids were delayed by about
 the same amount as the weakly winter-hardy alternative wheats 28 and 109.
 
     Observations of growth and development of wheat sown at various dates
 showed that in autumn (short day), the hybrid plants were much more retarded
 than those of the spring parent cultivar.  For example, when sown 21 August
 plants of F1 of Mironovskaya 808 x Saratovskaya 29 reached differentiation
 of the shoot apex 54 days after complete germination, i.e., at about the
 same time as the weekly winterhardy alternative (Surhak 5688, 28), while the
 spring cultivar Saratovskaya 29 reached this stage after 21 days, i.e., 33
 days earlier.
 
     The first generations of crosses between winter, alternative and spring
 cultivars differ in their reaction to light during the initial period of
 life (up to the transition of the shoot apex from the vegetative to the
 generative phase).  Crosses of winter x alternative wheat were more retarded
 in development under short day conditions than winter x spring and spring x
 alternative crosses.  The first generation obtained by crossing winter and
 alternative wheat showed considerable retardation in development under
 natural summer (long) day conditions, heading only at the end of summer,
 unlike crosses of the other two combinations.
 
    In developmental type, reaction to light and winterhardiness the first
 generation hybrids are intermediate between the parent cultivars, but nearer
 to the earlier cultivar.
 
    In the second generation there was rather complex segregation in
 vegetation period, and the hybrid plants covered almost all stages of the
 transition from one parent to the other, but with a predominance of plants
 closer to the cultivar with the shorter vegetation period (less pronounced
 winter property and photoperiodicity).
 
 
 
 ============================================================================
 Cross          Total    Frequency distribution of F2 individuals in   Winter
                         duration of the period days (interval 1O)     Plants
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89 90-99 100-109 110-119
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 W x S           343    79   146    30    15    12    10      9      8     34
 Mironovs
 -kaya 808 x
 Saratovskaya
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 W x A           349     0    12   141    24    13    11     10     11    127
 Mironovs-
 kaya 808 x
 Czech
 alternative
 ============================================================================
 Note:    The duration of the period days from seedling to heading: 
               Saratovskaya 29 - 46; Czech alternative - 58
 
     Hence, in F2 there was great diversity in growth period, ranging form
 early spring types, similarto the initial spring cultivar, through medium-
 early, late spring and alternative types, to semi-winter and winter
 cultivars.  In F2 there were not only the spring types but winter and plants
 of other types of plant development, i.e., all plants had different lengths
 of the vegetation period (there were not 2 classes but 9 (Table 1).
 
      The different crossing combinations of types of plant development
 differed in the proportion of winter forms observed in F2.  In F2 of spring
 x alternative there were not winter forms - all plants headed after spring
 sowing.  In F2 of winter x spring, a small percentage of winter forms
 (5-10%) segregated.  In F2 of winter x alternative there was quite a large
 percentage (up to 30 to 50%).  The more pronounced the photoperiodic
 reaction of the spring or alternative cultivar, the closer it is to a winter
 cultivar, the greater usually, the proportion of winter forms segregating in
 F2 of a cross with a winter cultivar. These data and the results of
 observation of the development of first generation hybrids show that the
 winter property is not determined by the duration of vernalization and the
 conditions under which it take place, as was earlier considered, but
 basically by the plant's reaction to light, i.e., similar to
 photoperiodicity (of long day plants).  Differences in type of plant
 development and winterhardiness are to a large extent due to differences in
 the plant's reaction to light during the initial period of life.
 
      Our experiments on the determination of vernalization length
 demonstrated that wheat cultivars of different types of plant development
 (alternative, winter) and their hybrids (F1 and F2), which originated from
 the same geographical region, have, as a rule, identical vernalization. 
 They may not have a different length of the vernalization period because it
 depends on the duration of the autumn period.  Therefore, the type of plant
 development was well as length of the vegetation period cannot be
 conditioned by vernalization.
 
      A genetical-physiological study has been shown that differences in the
 type of plant development (winter, alternative and spring) are due to their
 different responses to light in the tillering stage.  Their different
 responses to vernalization is determined by the light reaction.
 
      The plants show two reactions to photoperiod slightly different in the
 degree of expression; the strongest one is manifested by non-vernalized (I),
 the weaker one by vernalized plants (II).  As a result of vernalization,
 plants lose the ability of adaptive reaction, i.e., lagging development and
 growth under the light conditions preceding the oncoming of adverse winter
 conditions, the reaction essential for the normal vegetation in the
 favorable season of the year spring-summer.  The reaction of photoperiod and
 lagging development under short-day conditions of non-vernalized spring and
 alternative cultivars, and wintering of winter cultivars (lagging
 development under both long- and short-day conditions) are basically the
 phenomena of the same order, the differences between them are mainly
 quantitative.
 
     Wintering of winter cultivars is the most pronounced reaction to
 photoperiod.  The least expressed reaction to photoperiod is shown by spring
 cultivars as a slight lag of development under short-day conditions.  It is
 expressed to a greater extent by alternative as a more significant lagging
 under short-day conditions, and to the greatest extent by winter as the most
 marked lagging of development under short and even long (natural summer) day
 conditions.
 
      Differences in the types of plant development (winter, alternative and
 spring), mode of life (annual or perennial) and duration of the vegetative
 period of plants are largely determined by their light reaction at the
 initial period of life.
 
     The type of plant development as well as length of the vegetation period
 cannot be conditioned by the vernalization.  It is a facultative process,
 which takes place under certain conditions (in autumn) and does not take
 place under the other ones (in summer).
 
     The type of plant development is due to their different reaction to
 light at the beginning of their life (in the gramineous plants at the
 tillering phase).  The spring plants have the ability for a slight
 development delay under the short-day.  The alternative plants have the
 ability for a considerable delay under the short-day and the winter plants
 have the ability to delay under the short and long day.
 
     The length of the vegetation period for the spring-sown plants (spring
 and alternative) is conditioned by the light reaction in the non-vernalized
 plants (we called it the lst photoperiodic reaction) but for winter-sown
 plants (alternative, winter) it is conditioned by the light reaction in the
 vernalized plants (we called it the 2-D photoperiod reaction).
 
      A photoperiodic reaction in non-vernalized plants is slightly different
 in the degree of expression from that in vernalized ones.  As a result of
 vernalization plants lose the ability of adaptive reaction expressed as a
 lag of development under definite light conditions, the light reaction is
 affected.  Plants of all types respond  to vernalization with an
 acceleration of development depending on their light reaction.  They respond
 only under definite illumination conditions, and the response is higher with
 the greater the delay.  Thus, the differences in the type of plant
 development, the length of the vegetation period in wheats, are due to their
 different light reaction in the tillering stage and related response to
 vernalization.
 
      The role of vernalization in ontogenesis of plants comes to changes in
 their photoperiod reaction (light reaction) as a result, they lose their
 ability to delay growth and development considerably under influence of the
 photoperiod preceding wintering (alternative, plants - short photoperiod,
 and winter plants-short and long photoperiod).
 
                                    References
 
 Federov, A.K. 1971.  The reaction of plants on the "yarovization". Bot. J.
 56, 1610-1624.
 
 Federov, A.K.  1973.  Some data on genetics of wheat ontogenesis.  Proc. 4.
 Int. Wheat Genet. Symp. (Univ. of Miss., USA) 801-803.
 
 Federov, A.K. 1976.  On photoperiodism, wintering and vernalization in
 wheat. Cereal Res. Commun. 4:419-429.
 
 Federov, A.K. 1983.  Plants of Alternative Character. Alma. Ata: Kaynar. 
 128p.
 
 Gupalo, P.I., Skripchinsky, V.V.  1971.  Physiology of Individual
 Development of Plants.  N. Kolos. 224 p.
 
 Krekule, J. 1987.  Vernalization in wheat.  Manipulation of flowering. 
 London: Butterworths, 159-169.
 
 Lyssenko, T.D.  1936.  Fundamental basis of Jarovization. M.L. Selchozgiz.
 94p.
 
 Moshkov, B.S.  1983.  The significance of the juvenile period in the
 ontogenesis of the wheat. Dokl. Vaskhnil, 6:22-24.
 
 Pugsley, A.T.  1965.  Inheritance of correlated daylength response in spring
 wheat. Nature, 207:4992, 108.
 
 Pugsley, A.T.  1971.  A genetic analysis of the spring-winter habit of
 growth in wheat.  Australian J. Agric. Res. 22:21-31.
 
 Rasumov, V.I. 1961.  Environment and Development of Plant, M.L. Selchozgiz.
 368 p.
 
 --------------------
                             ITEMS FROM SOUTH AFRICA
 
      Department of Plant Breeding, University of the Orange Free State,
 Bloemfontein 9300
 
      C.S.van Deventer*, M.T.Labuschagne, M.C.B.Coetzee and A.Claassen
 
      Breeding programme: The breeding programme for multipurpose, white,
 spring wheats has made good progress. Multi purpose wheats are classified as
 an intermediate class between the very soft wheats and bread wheats, with a
 protein content of between 9 and 11.5 percent (within the same range as the
 Australian standard white wheats). They are softer than bread wheats, with a
 higher breakflour yield, smaller particle size, and lower water retention.
 The soft wheat market in South Africa is to small to breed for just biscuit
 wheats, therefore we hope that with this breeding programme we will include
 a wider market. Approximately 100 crosses are made yearly, introductions
 from several countries  are crossed with locally adapted material. The F6
 generation has already been reached, and in 1992 an elite trial was planted
 at four different localities.
 
      A. Claassen 
 
      A study on the influence of the dominant kernel softness gene on the
 milling- and baking quality of soft wheat is currently being undertaken. The
 main objective of the study is to develop isogenic lines through
 backcrossing. One line will have the dominant softness gene, and the other
 line will lack it. These lines will then be compared in terms of biscuit
 quality. 
 
      M.C.B. Coetzee
 
     Breeding value of soft white wheat for biscuit quality: The objective of
 this study is to determine the environmental variance, genetic variance,
 heritabilities, general- and specific combining abilities and correlations
 for several of the most important soft wheat quality parameters. Our aim is
 to use these results to improve the efficiency of soft wheat breeding, and
 to set a strategy for continuous genetic improvement on both the short- and
 long term.
 
      M.T. Labuschagne
 
      The expression and inheritance of high molecular weight glutenin
 subunits: Several wheats with different subunits on the Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and
 Glu-D1 loci were crossed and tested in the F2 generation. Additive
 inheritance with incomplete dominance was evident for subunits of the Glu-A1
 and Glu-D1 locus. Subunits of the Glu-B1 locus proved to be very variable
 and unpredictable. New subunits occurred in the progeny of parents which
 tested homozygous for their subunits. In some crosses such as between
 subunits 17+18 and 7+8, subunit 8 was absent in a number of F2 progeny.
 These deviations would have an influence on planning for crossing blocks in
 breeding programmes, since the HMW glutenin subunits have a large effect on
 breadmaking quality.  
 --------------------
      Department of Plant Pathology, University of the Orange Free State,
 Bloemfontein 9300
 
      Z.A. Pretorius*, F.J. Kloppers* and A.L. Vorster
 
      Germplasm development.  Lr genes effective to all South African
 pathotypes of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici are being transferred
 through backcrossing to adapted local bread wheat cultivars.  The genes
 Lr21, Lr29, Lr32, Lr34, Lr35, Lr36, Lr37, Lr39, Lr40, Lr41, and the genes in
 lines KS91WGRC11 and KS91WGRC12, have been incorporated in the local
 cultivars Palmiet, SST66 and Karee.  The most advanced lines are in BC5F1. 
 The objective of this study is to develop high-yielding breeding lines
 containing effective Lr genes, either singly or in combination.  
          
      Lr gene combinations.  Using Thatcher near-isogenic lines containing
 different Lr genes, several two-gene combinations were developed.  This
 study was conducted to determine whether combinations could be confirmed in
 single genotypes, to investigate the enhancement of resistance due to
 interaction between genes, and to study pathotype and temperature effects on
 expression of resistance.  The combinations Lr13+34, Lr13+37 and Lr34+37
 were confirmed in F3 plants.  Compared to the monogenic lines, primary leaf
 infection types showed that all combination lines were more resistant.  This
 enhancement of resistance was, however, strongly influenced by pathotype,
 temperature and their interaction.
 
      Histological characterization of resistance mechanisms. The resistance
 mechanisms in cereal rust pathosystems have been related to durability. 
 Histological techniques are currently being implemented to determine the
 resistance mechanism(s) conferred by leaf rust resistance genes. 
 Fluorescence and phase contrast microscopy are used to study fungal
 structures, colony development, host cell necrosis and cell wall appositions
 in wheat leaves infected by Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici.  Results have
 shown that the development of fungal structures is influenced by the elapsed
 time between inoculation and sampling, pathotype, temperature, and their
 interactions.  Standardized techniques, and a combination of Uvitex 2B,
 trypan blue and oil of wintergreen stains, are required to characterize
 resistance expression histologically.
 
      Grain protein in wheat lines containing Lr29 or Lr37.  F3 families
 derived from the crosses Karee/RL6080 (Lr29) and Karee/RL6081 (Lr37) were
 tested as seedlings for resistance to Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici.  
 Segregation ratios confirmed monogenic resistance and homozygous resistant
 and susceptible families from both crosses were identified.  Grain protein
 was determined for these selected families grown in the greenhouse (at two
 different fertilizer levels) and in the field (at a single fertilizer
 level).  The aim of this study was to determine if the association of Lr29
 or Lr37 with increased grain protein, as reported in Canada, also occurred
 in South African wheats.  In the field and greenhouse (irrespective of
 fertilization level), the Lr29-resistant group yielded higher protein than
 the group without the gene.  For Lr37, only the unfertilized, leaf
 rust-resistant greenhouse-grown plants contained more grain protein.
 
     Field evaluation of lines containing Lr29, Lr35 and Lr37.  The potential
 of these Lr genes for cultivar improvement was determined by evaluating the
 wheat lines RL6080 (Thatcher*6/Lr29), RL6081 (Thatcher*8/Lr37) and RL6082
 (Thatcher*6/Lr35) under field conditions for leaf rust severity, yield loss
 and quality attributes.  Depending on the Lr gene and leaf position, leaf
 rust reaction types varied between resistance and moderate susceptibility. 
 The severity ratings on these lines did not exceed 10%.  Kernel mass in leaf
 rust-infected Thatcher (susceptible control) was reduced by 10.4% whereas
 lines with Lr29 (+1%), Lr35 (2.8%) or Lr37 (1%) did not sustain significant
 losses.  According to grain and flour protein, flour yield, loaf volume and
 baking strength index, no serious deleterious quality characteristics were
 detected.                 
 
 --------------------
          Department of Botany and Genetics, UOFS, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein,
 9300
 
          Anna-Maria Botha
 
      Genetic mapping of resistant and susceptible wheat to the Russian wheat
 aphid (Diuraphis noxia) using the RAPD technique. Wheat resistant to the
 Russian wheat aphid has been bred at the Small Grain Centre at Bethlehem. 
 Segregation data strongly suggest that the resistance is due to single
 dominant gene.  In order to accelerate selection procedures, we attempt to
 map the resistance factor through PCR technology.  We use random decamer
 primers from Operon Technologies to amplify loci in the wheat genome.  Four
 primers scored polymorphisms between the resistant and susceptible wheat.
 
                                   Publications
 
 Brink, E.G., Pretorius, Z.A. & Kloppers F.J. 1992.  The influence of Lr35 on
 the dimensions of wheat leaf rust uredinia.  Phytophylactica 24:122
 (Abstr.).
 
 Drijepondt, S.C., Pretorius, Z.A. & Kloppers F.J. 1992.  The effect of
 inoculum concentration on the expression of wheat leaf rust resistance gene
 Lr34.  Vortr„ge fr Pflanzenzchtung 24:261-262.
 
 Kloppers, F.J. & Pretorius, Z.A. 1992.  Histological studies of pathotype
 and temperature effects on leaf rust resistance conferred by Lr29 in wheat. 
 Vortr„ge fr Pflanzenzchtung 24:8-10.
 
 Kloppers, F.J. & Pretorius, Z.A. 1992.  Recognition and inheritance of leaf
 rust resistance gene Lr37 in wheat seedlings.  Phytophylactica 24:102
 (Abstr.).
 
 Pretorius, Z.A. & Kloppers F.J. 1992.  Enhancement of resistance to leaf
 rust among combinations of Lr13, Lr34 and Lr37 in wheat Vortr„ge fr
 Pflanzenzchtung 24:242-243.
 
 Pretorius, Z.A., Marais, G.F., Le Roux, J. & Kloppers F.J. 1992.  Comparing
 genes for resistance to leaf and stem rust in the wheat cultivars Tugela and
 Kavkaz.  Phytophylactica 24:105 (Abstr.).
 
 --------------------
      Department of Genetics, University of Stellenbosch
 
      G. F. Marais*, R. Prins, A. Antonov, H.S. Roux and M.Horn.
 
      Durum wheat breeding. The 1992 durum trials were grown under irrigation
 along the Orange river.  Replicated yield trials (320 entries) as well as
 rod rows (700 advanced lines and 400 segregating families) were planted at
 Rietrivier near Kimberley.  The crop rotation systems employed in the area
 necessitate the development of earlier maturing durum cultivars.  Advanced
 lines that mature 10 to 20 days earlier than the cultivar `Orania' have been
 derived.
 
      Triticale breeding. Commercial spring triticale was grown on an
 estimated 35 000 ha in the Cape Province, mostly for use as a fodder crop.  
 Silage is normally made from pure triticale or a 3:1 mixture of triticale
 and oats and is supplemented with 4% molasses.  Yields of 25-27 t/ha are
 regularly obtained with the present cultivars.  No negative effects
 regarding taste, intake or milk production of dairy cattle were reported.  
 The limited market for triticale grain resulted in farmers producing only
 enough for their own use.  However, recent increases in railing costs may
 prompt the animal feed industry to use locally produced triticale as a
 substitute for maize in animal rations.
 
      Yield trials (357 lines), advanced lines (575) and segregating
 populations (480) were planted at the Mari‰ndahl experiment station near
 Stellenbosch.  Under the trial conditions the newly released USGEN 19
 outyielded the leading wheat cultivar, Palmiet, by 18-25%
 
      Cytogenetics.  The genes in Triticum dicoccoides that code for high
 protein content are being transferred to triticale via a T.
 dicoccoides/Henoch rye amphiploid.  Segregates from a third backcross to
 triticale were tested for protein content.  In collaboration with the Small
 Grain Centre, Bethlehem, an attempt is also being made to incorporate the
 genes for increased protein content in spring wheat.  The starting material
 consisted of 25 lines from the International Wild Emmer Derivatives Nursery
 of Dr. Grama (Volcani Institute, Israel).
 
 
      Monosomic analyses were done with seven modified Lr19d translocations. 
 
 These were derived after the use of the ph1b mutant to induce homoeologous
 recombination in plants heterozygous for the Indis translocation.  The data
 were complicated by the presence of a segregation distortion locus(i) and
 the modified translocations could not be assigned unambiguously to
 chromosomes.  In the four white endosperm selections, Lr19d appears to be
 associated with chromosomes 6D, 7A, 7B and 7D, respectively.   Polymorphisms
 for marker genes would suggest that regions on both sides of Lr19d were
 exchanged/affected.  Only two of the selections with partially white
 endosperm could be assigned to a chromosome (7D).   The latter may have
 resulted from single crossovers.  It was confirmed that the expression of
 segregation distortion in the modified translocations (white endosperm
 selections) differs from that of the `Indis' translocation.   It is possible
 that more than one locus on the `Indis' translocation would normally
 interact to produce a gametocidal effect.  Some of the loci may have been
 lost/affected in each of the exchanges.
 
      The allopolyploid hybrid of Chinese Spring and the Russian wheat aphid
 resistant rye, Turkey 77, was backcrossed to the wheat parent.  From the
 B1F2 a resistant monotelosomic addition of rye to Chinese Spring was
 selected.  The rye telosome is being identified with the purpose of
 transferring the resistance to wheat.
 
      Triticum tauschii accession RL5289 (source of Lr21) was obtained from
 Dr. E.R. Kerber (Winnipeg, Canada).  A single dominant gene for stem rust
 resistance was transferred from RL5289 to chromosome 1D of common wheat.  
 The gene proved to be ineffective against many Canadian isolates of stem
 rust but provides resistance against the prevailing stem rust races in South
 Africa.
 
      In an attempt to transfer leaf rust resistance from a Triticum
 speltoides accession, resistant derivatives were backcrossed six times to
 Pitic 62.  The B6F1 plants appear to have normal meioses yet are very
 infertile.  This may be due to the presence of a gametocidal gene.   Various
 means to break the linkage between sterility and resistance are being
 investigated.  A systematic typing of a collection of wild relatives of
 wheat for especially leaf rust resistance was also launched.  Resistant
 material is being crossed to common wheat.
 
                                   Publications
 
 Marais, G.F. (1992) Gamma irradiation induced deletions in an alien
 chromosome segment of the wheat `Indis' and their use in gene mapping.
 Genome 35:225-229.
 
 Marais, G.F. (1992) Genetic control of a response to the segregation
 distortion allele, Sd-1d, in the common wheat line `Indis'. Euphytica
 60:89-95.
 
 Marais, G.F. (1992) The modification of a common wheat-Thinopyrum distichum
 translocated chromosome with a locus homoeoallelic to Lr19. Theor Appl Genet
 85:73-78.
 --------------------
      Winter Grain Centre, Welgervallen, Exp. Sta., Univ. of Stellenbosch 
 
      R. de V. Pienaar
 
      Cytogenetics. The 8th backcross has been completed in the transfer of
 the Chinese Spring (CS) telosomic series to Pavon 76.  Kathleen Ross of the
 USDA, ARS at the University of Missouri, Columbia, check-crossed this
 material with their respective CS monosomics.  Spikes at metaphase I of
 meiosis were collected from all the F1 plants with 2n=40+tL+tS to verify if
 their Pavon 76 doubletelotrisomic parents possessed the correct telosomes. 
 The transfer of the kr crossability genes from CS to Pavon 76 has progressed
 to the B5F2.  In this generation plants were identified that were fully
 fertile when crossed with Florida and Henoch spring rye as well as with
 self-fertile German winter rye.  Using a modification of Laurie's (1991)
 protocol for producing doubled haploids (DH) from wheat x maize crosses, it
 was possible to obtain 10-30 (depending on the genotype) haploid embryos per
 spike on the material described above.  On average only 10% of these embryos
 regenerated plantlets when rescued on modified MS and W14 tissue culture
 media.  In the first batch of 202 plantlets, 197 had 21 chromosomes, two had
 22 chromosomes, one had 20, and two had 20 + a maizelike chromosome.  Nearly
 all the plants produced fertile DH sectors after 0.1% colchicine treatment
 for 24 hours.  Durum wheat lines have been produced that possess either Rht8
 or Rht12.
 
      Ph.D. degree. G.M. Littlejohn received the Ph.D degree in Desember
 1992, on the thesis 'Cytogenetics of wheat Thinopyrum hybrids and
 derivatives'.  Using the C-band technique she was able to distinguish each
 the 14 paires of th. distichum chromosomes.  She was able to obtain 11 of
 the possible 14 addition lines in wheat after a series of backcrosses.  She
 also transferred Lr19 from 'Agatha' and 'Transfer # 12', as well as a
 homoeoallele from 'Indis' to durum wheat, but was unable to obtain
 homozygous plants as yet.
 
 --------------------
     Small Grain Centre, Grain Crops Research Inst.,Bethlehem
 
     H.A. van Niekerk*, P.R. Celliers, D.J. Exley, H.Knobel, Mentzchen Marais
 and Riana Pretorius
 
     Winter wheat breeding.  A second RWA  resistant cultivar 'Tugela-DN' has
 been released.  This cultivar has excellent yield and quality
 characteristics, but the mixograph mixing time is longer than generally
 acceptable in South Africa.
 
      Mentzchen Marais, who has been responsible for the RWA resistance
 programme is getting married, and she will be replaced by E. Malan.  Malan
 will also concentrate on using molecular markers as identified by PCR to
 select for RWA resistance.
 
      The winter wheat program is cooperating with the CIMMYT program in
 Turkey to establish "shuttle breeding" programme between these two
 countries.
 --------------------
      H.A. van Niekerk, F. Koekemoer, Anschen Grobbelaar, Ren‚e Prins, T.G.
 Paxton, Suzette Jordaan, R. Britz, T. van A. Bredenkamp and Sureta
 Pelser
 
     Spring wheat breeding.  Only one line has been identified as a potential
 new cultivar for dryland conditions (the winter rainfall area), should the
 quality be acceptable.  This line is W91/2.  For irrigation conditions one
 line has been released as a new cultivar namely 'Marico'.  The line BSP89/14
 will be submitted for release as a cultivar and BSP91/7 will be submitted
 for provisional classification.  BSP89/14 has high yield potential and
 excellent quality characteristics.
 
 --------------------
     I.B.J. Smit and Antoinette Otto
 
     International Nurseries.  A total of 391 selections were made from the
 previous seasons International Nurseries and evaluated as single rows under
 irrigation at various locations.  Of these entries 9% were selected for
 elite
 trials.  
 
      The variety that is now released as the cultivar 'Marico' (BSP89/11),
 originated from this program.
 
      Some 15 International nurseries, established under irrigation, were
 evaluated for all relevant agronomic characteristics and various diseases. 
 Apart from a moderate powdery mildew infection on wheat in general and a
 slight virus infection on winter wheat, the lack of infection was apparent. 
 This is probably related to the dry and hot conditions prevailing during
 most of the growing season.  The entries to these nurseries were, wheat
 1382, barley 492 and triticale 200.  Of these entries 15% were selected for
 further evaluation.
 
      A total of 8 International yield trials were evaluated under field
 conditions and with supplementary irrigation only.  The lack of infection
 was again apparent.  Only slight leaf rust was observed.  Entries were wheat
 510, barley 50 and triticale 49.  Some 7% of entries were selected for elite
 trials.
 
 --------------------
     F. Koekemoer and F. Groenewald
 
     Germplasm bank.  All available germplasm material was planted during the
 winter to obtain missing data.  A vacuum packing machine was obtained to be
 used for vacuum packing of seed.  We have continued with the process of
 updating the germplasm facility.
  
 --------------------
      J.L. Purchase*, P.A. Visser, A.H. Botha, M.Maritz, Hesta van Tonder, C.
 de Wet, A.Rautenbach, H.L.J. Potgieter, Jeanette du Plessis, Hannelie du
 Plessis and E.J. Visser
 
     Crop Science.  1992 Crop Conditions.  The three major wheat producing
 regions of South Africa are the Western Cape (Mediterranean climate), the
 Orange Free State (summer rainfall region) and the irrigation areas along
 the major rivers.  Spring types are generally planted in the Western Cape
 and under irrigation, while winter and intermediate types dominate
 production under dryland conditions in the Orange Free State.  The total
 wheat crop for the 1992/93 season, as estimated by the Wheat Board, should
 amount to 1,3 million.  This is considerably down on the long term average
 and can be ascribed to the devastating drought that hit Southern Africa in
 1992.  In the Western Cape, however, conditions were favorable and
 near-record yields were realized.
 
     Cultivar performance under dryland conditions.  Due to the relatively
 large variation that exists in climatic conditions and soil types in the
 wheat producing regions, a fairly intensive cultivar adaptation program is
 followed.  In the OFS a range of diverse cultivars are planted, including a
 number af hybrids.  As a result of the low seeding rates (10 - 30 kg ha-1)
 used, the cultivation of hybrids is a viable proposition in certain areas,
 despite the high seed cost.  The semi-dwarf hybrids outperform the tall
 purelines under favorable conditions, but not under drought conditions,
 which are more the norm.  With the release of a number of Russian wheat
 aphid
 resistant cultivars, it is expected that production could increase
 substantially, and that marked changes could occur in the pattern of
 cultivars planted and in the planting dates of these cultivars.  In the
 Western Cape the cultivar 'Palmiet' still accounts for the major part of the
 production.  However, recently, released cultivars such as 'Nantes' and
 'Adam Tas' also show wide adaptability, are high yielding and have various
 desirable agronomic traits.
 
     Plant physiology.  The plant physiology programme is mainly concerned
 with factors affecting coleoptile length, the determination of physiological
 and morphological factors associated with drought tolerance,
 characterization of wheat cultivars in terms of aluminium tolerance, the
 affect of coal-derived humate products on growth and yield of wheat,
 preharvest sprouting and the characterization of the irrigation cultivars in
 terms of grain filling rate and duration.  The last two subjects are
 discussed later in more detail.
 
 --------------------
     Annelie Barnard and J.L. Purchase
 
     Preharvest sprouting.  An evaluation trial over two sites and four
 planting dates was conducted to determine the effect of varying
 environmental conditions on the preharvest sprouting resistance of a number
 of winter and intermediate bread wheat cultivars.
 
      Spikes were exposed to a wetting treatment at a predetermined
 temperature and humidity in a rain simulator.  Planting date, as well as
 sites, had a significant effect on preharvest sprouting.  Great variation in
 germinability occurred within cultivars maturing at different times in the
 same growing season.  Preharvest sprouting resistance is positively
 correlated with lower temperatures during seed maturation.
 
      The mean percentage germination over the four planting dates showed
 cultivars to have a wide range of sprouting resistance, varying from 8% to
 95%.  This study indicated that 'SBK 906', 'Karee', 'Oom Charl', 'Scheepers
 69' and 'Betta' are the most resistant to preharvest sprouting over planting
 dates and sites, while 'SBK 904', 'Caritha', 'Tugela' and 'SST 124' are the
 most susceptible cultivars.
 
 --------------------
     C.G Burbidge, H.A van Tonder, H.S.C.A. van der Merwe and W. van der
 Westhuizen
 
     Cultivar adaptation under irrigation.  An intensive spring wheat
 cultivar adaptation research programme is run in five irrigation areas which
 each vary in climatic conditions.  The objectives of the programme are  to
 characterize commercial cultivars and newly released lines suited to
 irrigation, in terms of wide adaptability, high yield stability and
 agronomic characteristics.  This information is then made available to the
 wheat producer in order to assist him with cultivar choice, to reduce his
 risk and increase profitability.  The cultivars 'Palmiet' and 'Gamtoos' (a
 Veery selection from CIMMYT) have been found to be well adapted over a wide
 range of environmental conditions while certain cultivars, for example
 'Harts' and 'T4', show very specific adaptation.
 
     Plant physiology.  In most irrigation areas of South Africa, the grain
 yield of spring wheat is often adversely affected by high temperatures
 during the grain filling period.  All commercial spring wheat cultivars and
 advanced breeding lines are characterized under temperature controlled
 conditions and in field trials in terms of grain filling rate and duration. 
 It was found that the cultivar 'Harts' possesses a relatively long grain
 filling duration while 'Gamtoos' fills its kernels over a relatively shorter
 period, which may to a large degree explain the difference in adaptation of
 the two cultivars.
 
                                   Publications
 
 Barnard, Annelie and Purchase J.L., 1993.  Assessment of preharvest
 sprouting in South African winter wheats (Triticum aestivum L.).  South
 African Society of Crop Production Congress, Rustenburg, South Africa.
 
 Burbidge, C. G. and Smit, H.A., 1993. Grain filling in spring wheat. South
 African Society of Crop Production Congress,  Rustenburg, South Africa.
 
 Purchase, J.L., Le Roux J. and Van Tonder, Hesta, 1992.  The effects of
 various seed treatments on the germination, coleoptile length and emergence
 of South African winter wheats (Triticum aestivum).  S A Journal Plant and
 Soil 9(3), 139-143.
 
 Purchase, J.L., Botha, A.H., Maritz, M. and Van Tonder, Hesta, 1993. 
 Interpretation of winter wheat genotype x environment interaction in the
 Orange Free State using regression analysis and the AMMI model.  South
 African Crop Production Society Congress, Rustenburg, South Africa.
 
 Purchase, J.L., Rautenbach, A.J., Singels, A. and Du Plessis, Jeanette,
 1993.  Air temperature as a basis to predict the development of winter wheat
 cultivars in the Eastern Orange Free State.  South African Crop Production
 Society Congress, Rustenburg, South Africa.
 
 --------------------
          H.A. Smit*, C.F. Pool, H.H. Knobel, B.L. de Villiers, R.C. Lindeque
 and J P du Toit
 
     Weed Research.  Water quality studies.  Research in this regard has
 proved that various South African wheat applied herbicides are susceptible
 to salt antagonism in certain water carriers.  Glyphosate, 2,4-D (amine) and
 tralkoxydim appear to be susceptible to cation antagonism.  Tralkoxydim
 efficacy was decreased by as much as 20% by certain carriers and glyphosate
 with up to 72%.  Research in this regard is at present being carried out
 with imazamethabenz-methyl, MCPA and the sulfonylureas to establish the
 precise amount of salts in the water sufficient to deplete chemical weed
 control with these herbicides.
 
     Adjuvant studies.  Studies concerning the influence of adjuvants on the
 efficacy and selectivity of herbicides and herbicide combinations are still
 in progress.  The influence of the adjuvants Citrex(R), Ethokem(R),
 Biofilm(R) and Triton 1956(R) were evaluated on the selectivity of the wild
 oat herbicide CGA 184927, MCPA, bromoxynil, parathion and thiometon in
 different combinations.  It appears as if most of the adjuvants had little
 effect on the selectivity of these pesticides.  Certain adjuvants for
 example Ethokem(R) resulted in a stimulutory effect on the growth of wheat
 plants.
 
    Residual studies.  Bioassays with lentils indicated that pH resulted in a
 significant effect on the half live and activity of both
 imazamethabenz-methyl (Assert(R)).  Assert(R) was degraded rapidly at higher
 soil pH levels while Finesse(R) was degraded rapidly at lower soil pH
 levels.  Leaching depth of both herbicides was highly correlated with soil
 pH.  The higher the soil pH the more pronounced was the extend of leaching. 
 Further studies on the effect of soil water content, temperature and micro
 organisms on the residual activity of these two herbicides are in progress.
 
                                   Publications
 
 Pool, C.F., and de Villiers, B.L. 1992.  Importance of certain soil
 properties on the activity of imazamethabenz-methyl and
 chlorsulfuron/metsulfuron-methyl.  Applied. Plant Sci. (In press).
 
 --------------------
     Stienie Smith
 
     Leaf rust.  During the past season, the occurrence of leaf rust
 continued to be generally low due to dry conditions throughout the country. 
 In the Southern and Eastern Cape, however, the usual amount of disease was
 observed. In the Alexandria-area, susceptible-type reactions were seen on
 the spring cultivar 'Palmiet', which usually shows moderately resistant to
 susceptible infection.  In the annual survey over six agro-ecological areas,
 ten leaf rust pathotypes were typefied.  The most common pathotypes in these
 areas was 3SA137 and 3SA140, which both have virulence for Lr26.
 
 The occurrence of leaf rust of barley in the Southern Cape production areas,
 was higer than usual, which only stresses the importance of resistance
 breeding for this disease.  Seed from the Canadian and Australian barley
 differential sets were imported to establish race specialization in the
 South African barley leaf rust pathosystem, and this seed is currently being
 multiplied.
 
 --------------------
     J. Smith*
 
     Stem rust research.  As was reported during 1991, no stem rust
 infections occurred in commercial wheat fields in South Africa.  This can be
 attributed to the very dry season as well as excellent levels of resistance
 to Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici in commercial cultivars.
 
     Annual stem rust survey.  No new stem rust pathotypes were identified in
 the annual wheat survey which in conducted in all the major wheat producing
 areas of South Africa.  Stem rust samples totalled 9 originating from four
 agro-ecological areas.  Seventy-five percent of the samples originated from
 the Southern Cape wheat production area.  Five pathotypes were identified. 
 Pathotypes, 2SA102 and 2SA103, carrying virulence for Sr27, comprised 73% of
 the total single pustule identifications made.
 
      Further stem rust research.  Combinations of stem rust resistance genes
 are being generated to study the complementary effect of these combinations.
 
 To facilitate the study genes are also being tested under specific
 temperature/pathotype combinations.  Results this far have been
 disappointing.
 
 --------------------
     G J Prinsloo, Vicki Tolmay, J L Hatting and J du Toit
 
     Entomology.  Good progress has been made towards establishing an
 integrated control programme:
 
     Two cultivars with Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) resistance were
 released during 1992.  More lines are expected to be released in near
 future.  Studies are in progress to determine the allelic relationship
 between different sources of resistance as well as the components of
 resistance in these sources.  Field trails to determine the efficacy of the
 resistant cultivars in combination with chemical control measures are being
 conducted.
 
      The Russian strain of the parasitoid Aphelinus varipes has shown host
 preference for Russian wheat aphid.  Attempts are being made to import the
 aphid predator fly Leucopis ninae.
 
 --------------------
     D B Scott*
 
     Root diseases.  Field trials consisting of different tillage and soil
 fertility treatments were conducted to study possible causes of yield
 decline of monoculture wheat in high rainfall areas.  Soil fumigation with
 methyl bromide enhanced plant growth, reduced fungal infections of roots and
 increased grain yields in both clean-tilled (mouldboard-ploughed) and
 minimum-tilled (stubble-mulch) plots.  Higher yields were obtained under
 commercial tillage than under minimum tillage.  Wheat in stubble-mulch plots
 reacted strongly to combined applications of nitrogen and phosphorous.  In
 the absence of phosphorous-containing fertilizers nitrate nitrogen gave
 higher yields than ammonium nitrogen.  A dense population of denitrifying
 and manganese-oxidising bacteria were associated with plant residues in the
 stubble-mulch plots.  Laboratory rests showed that Bacillus spp. and other
 deleterious bacteria are inhibited by manganese-reducing bacteria.  Future
 investigations are aimed at biological control of root diseases in wheat by
 means of seed treatment with manganese-reducing bacteria.
 
 --------------------
      SENSAKO, South Africa
 
      B. Lombard*, J.P. Jordaan*, Messrs. J. Boonzaaier, N. de Lange and D.
 Visser
 
     Sensako is a research and development organization belonging to all
 agricultural cooperatives in the country.  It's main objective is to develop
 new cultivars, produce breeder and foundation seed for the production of
 commercial seed by the different agricultural cooperatives.  It is also
 responsible for the National Foundation seed scheme including all public
 cultivars.  It undertakes research, apart from those on summer crops, on all
 small grains including wheat, barley, rye, triticale, oats and also on
 Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus albus.
 
      Research are being conducted at research farms at Bethlehem in the
 Orange Free State (Winter wheat, Irrigation wheat, Rye, Triticale and Oats),
 Napier in the Southern Cape (Barley and Spring wheat), Gouda in the Western
 Cape (Spring wheat, spring Triticale and Lupinus).  Research activities are
 being supported by greenhouse facilities at Stellenbosch (rented from the
 University of Stellenbosch) and an irrigation facility of 100 hectare for
 the production of breeder seed.
 
      Research are being conducted on a team basis including a plant
 pathologist, Dr A.B. van Jaarsveld and Prof. R. de V. Pienaar (who has
 retired from the University of Stellenbosch) on a consulting basis and also
 responsible for implementing the dubble haploid technique in the breeding
 programs.
 
     Spring wheat.  Selection is based on resistance to leaf and stemrust,
 Septoria tritici, Septoria nodorum and eyespot;  adaptation to the
 Mediterranean climate of the Western Cape and acceptable baking quality.
 
      New releases are 'Dias', 'Adam Tas', 'Nantes' and 'SST 55'.  Two new
 cultivars are to be finally released this fall.  A cultivar 'Alpha' with
 eyespot and Septoria resistance was released as a feedwheat cultivar with
 yield 30 percent above the breadwheats.
 --------------------
     A.F. du Toit, J.P. Jordaan and P.L. Bergh
 
     Irrigation wheat.  The environment where wheat cultivars are grown under
 irrigation varies from subtropical to hot areas in the Transvaal to cold
 highveld regions in the Orange Free State and Northern Cape.
 
      Lodging is one of the main problems and a programme for the development
 of semi-dwarf and dwarf lines is in good progress.  'SST 86' a dwarf
 cultivar has been released and a red seeded provisional, derivative, 'SST
 822' has been submitted for classification, as well as a medium straw
 cultivar 'SST 825' that outyield the best commercial cultivar by 10%. 
 Several dwarf and semi-dwarf lines are under testing for higher yield, good
 baking quality, standability and resistance to maize streak virus, powdery
 mildew, stemrust, leafrust and bacterial blight diseases.
 --------------------
     J. Malan, M. Roos and J.P. Jordaan
 
     Winter wheat.  The whole program which is almost 30 years old and
 contains unique germplasm, was transformed to a basis of resistance to
 Russian Wheat Aphid.  All available genetic resistance sources were obtained
 and incorporated while selection is done on a seedling stage in the
 aphidhouse and on adult plants in the field.  Rapid progress has been made
 and the first cultivar 'SST 333' is released to be grown by farmers this
 coming fall.  It is an early wintertype with daylength sensitivity.  Typical
 wintertypes are now subjected to registration and quality classification.
 
      Other recent new releases are 'SST 124', 'Riemland' and 'Hugenoot'.
 
 --------------------
     S.A. Engelbrecht, J.P. Jordaan and J.D. Cilliers
 
     Hybrid wheat.  Emphasis is being placed on developing female and male
 lines with RWA resistance.  Several new hybrids are being prepared for
 release and production.  Yields are significantly higher than the cultivars
 presently being grown.  The low seeding rates which are being recommended
 for winter wheat, 15 - 20 kg/hectare, make hybrid wheat a more promising
 commercial proposition in South Africa.
 
 Commercial production of new hybrids will be started in the 1993/94 season.
 
 --------------------
     J.P. Jordaan and J. Wessels
 
     Rye, Triticale, Oats.  The aim in these programs are to develop
 cultivars with high biomass production and suitable for grazing purposes. 
 In the case of rye a new cultivar 'SSR 727' with resistance to RWA was
 registered and released to farmers, two new Triticale cultivars 'SSKR 626'
 and 'SSKR 628' and two new oat cultivars 'SSH 421' and 'SSH 423' were
 registered andreleased to farmers.
 
 --------------------
          PANNAR (PTY) Ltd., P. O. Box 17164, Bainsvlei, 9338
 
          F. du Toit*, S. S. Walters, Audrey Brummer
 
      Since November 1991 through December 1992 the whole of southern Africa
 experienced probably the worst drought this century.  Extremely difficult
 conditions prevailed in April to June 1992 for planting of winter wheat
 trials in the Orange Free State Province.  At a few locations no trials
 could be planted due to inadequate soil moisture.
 
     Pannar's first winter wheat cultivar PAN 3211, which was not released in
 April 1992, did well under the dry and hot spring temperatures.
 
     Russian wheat aphid resistance breeding.  We are steadily increasing the
 number of RWA resistant parents in the crossing block of both the winter and
 spring wheat breeding programs.  Parallel to the main breeding programs,
 development of resistant lines through backcrossing is proceeding well and
 169 lines were tested in the field in 1992.  Nine RWA resistant lines also
 were included in elite trials.
 
     Allelism tests, using nine RAW lines from the US Small Grains Collection
 and also local lines, are currently being conducted.  A scoring system for
 RWA resistance reactions in the field on adult plants was developed and will
 be tested again in the field in 1993.  The rating scale is based on
 chlorotic symptoms, leaf rolling and aphid numbers.
 
      Equipment.  A wheat dryer with a capacity of 3.5 metric tons and a cold
 room for long term storage of germplasm have been erected and storage
 facilities for seed and implements have been upgraded.
 
                                   Publications
 
 Du Toit, F.  Russian wheat aphid resistance in a wheat line from the Caspian
 Sea area.  Cer. Res. Commun. 20:55-61.
 
 --------------------
                                 ITEM FROM TURKEY
 
          CIMMYT/ICARDA, P.K. 39 Emek, 06511 Ankara, Turkey
 
          Hans-Joachim Braun*, Thomas S. Payne*
 
       Summary.  In many aspects, 1992 was the most exciting year since the
 establishment of the Turkey/CIMMYT International Winter Wheat Improvement
 Program.  Though the overall objective of the winter wheat program remained
 unchanged, i.e., to develop widely adapted winter wheat germplasm by means
 of multilocational testing, major modifications were initiated in terms of
 priority setting, seed multiplication and screening of germplasm.
 
      Micro-nutrient disorders (in particular Boron toxicity, and Zinc and
 Copper deficiency) were identified as important and widespread adaptation
 limiting factors in Turkey.  Nematodes (Heterodera avenae, Pratylenchus spp)
 were also identified as widespread on the Central Anatolian Plateau.  Due to
 lack of consistently annual yellow rust epiphytotics in Turkey, an agreement
 was reached with Fundulea, Rumania to screen advanced lines for yellow rust
 resistance at two locations in Rumania.   Oregon State University multiplied
 seed of the 2nd Facultative and Winter Wheat Observation Nursery (2FAWWON)
 and distributed the nursery to cooperators in the USA and Canada.  To
 accelerate germplasm development, a germplasm shuttle was established with
 the wheat program in Bethlehem, South Africa to allow two generation cycles
 per year.
 
      Lloyd Nelson and David Marshall, USDA/Texas A&M conducted an
 "Exploration for fungal endophytes in wild cereals" in collaboration with
 CIMMYT/Turkey in an attempt to identify systemic clavicipitaceous fungi that
 may be transferred to cultivated cereals to convey biocontrol to cereal
 aphids.  Cal Qualset was involved in collection of cereal landraces in
 western Turkey to allow comparison between contemporary accessions and those
 collected by Jack Harlan in the 1940's.
 
          Micro-nutrient disorders.  During an eight week visit to Turkey and
 Syria, A. J. Rathjen (University of Adelaide) confirmed what had amounted to
 several years of accumulated suspicion that soils in Turkey and Syria may be
 significantly contributing to cereal production limitation.  Delayed spring
 rains (resulting in what appeared to be moisture-limiting, drought symptoms,
 but may have been more the effects of nutrient toxicity and deficiency)
 aided in micronutrient symptomology.  
 
      Road surveys throughout Turkey indicated wide spread boron toxicity,
 particularly evident using the classical "net blotch" symptomology the
 widely planted, tolerant barley cultivar 'Tokak'.  Check cultivar grain
 analysis for B concentration indicated mean ppm values of 6.4 for Konya, 4.4
 for Eskisehir, and 2.0 for Haymana (Ankara), where >2.0 ppm is considered
 indicative of B toxicity in Australia trials.  This data, in retrospect, is
 illustrative of the importance of representative testing sites for a
 cultivar release directed program.
 
      Zinc deficiency symptoms were observed widely on the Anatolian Plateau
 but were not evident in Syria.  In general, symptoms were almost always
 apparent on the Plateau where the surface soil horizon had been reduced in
 depth by 1) moldboard plowing, either in the center of the cultivated field,
 or along the diagonals, 2) erosion on the steepest sections of the
 landscape, or 3) subsoil disturbance through levelling or trenching (e.g.,
 at Eskisehir and Konya).
 
      The symptoms of copper deficiency were almost universally apparent on
 the Anatolian Plateau.  Often these were merely the occasional leaf with a
 withered tip or head with the rat-tail symptom, but in barley, presumably
 almost entirely the cultivar 'Tokak', the symptoms were often widespread
 enough to be readily identified from the road.  In these instances, the
 symptoms could extend over many hectares, manifest in the bleached and
 withered awns and heads.  Test site Cu and Zn status (i.e., degree of
 deficiency) was determined with check cultivar grain sample analysis.
 
      The accepted dogma on trace element deficiencies states that the
 cereals are tolerant of iron deficiency.  Although quite striking, Fe
 deficiency was fairly rare in bread wheat and barley, however, it did appear
 to be quite common in the durum wheats.
 
      In order to determine if visual scores for leaf appearance (B toxicity,
 Hamidiye; Zn deficiency, Eskisehir) were related to grain yield, all
 preliminary yield trial entries were scored on a 1 to 5 scale, with 1 =
 best.  In general, an inverse relationship existed between score and mean
 yield, with the mean yield of 'Gerek 79' (the predominantly grown Anatolian
 cultivar), and "stared" genotypes, surpassing score 1 genotypes,
 respectively.  Furthermore, none of the 25 highest yielding entries at
 either location had a score worse than 3.  The increase in mean yields
 versus score indicated that visual selection is effective.
 
      A NATO funded project between the Universities of Cukurova (Adana,
 Turkey) and Hohenheim (Germany), in collaboration with CIMMYT/Turkey, on
 "Selection and characterization of cereal genotypes with high resistance to
 Zn and Fe-deficiencies and B-toxicity for GAP region and Central Anatolian
 Plateau" was approved.  This project may allow the development of a 
 reliable, fast screening method for Zn-efficiency and response to high
 levels of B through the relationship between phytosiderophore production and
 nutrient utilization.
 
     Nematodes.   Initial surveys of the Anatolian Plateau for presence and
 distribution of nematode species was conducted in conjunction with A. J.
 Rathjen, and Gerhard Lung (University of Hohenheim).  In early March,
 virtually all the cereal crops on the Plateau had a general appearance
 reminiscent of severely cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae)
 affected crops in Australia--blotchy bluish-yellowish with low crop vigor
 but without the typical drainage patterns or yellowish-green leaves of
 nitrogen deficiency.  
 
      By the end of May, CCN was found in 6 of 11 (33 - 104 cysts per 250 cm3
 sample), and Pratylenchus spp. in 8 of 11 samples at densities high enough
 to cause damage.  It may be relevant that 'Gerek 79' is particularly
 tolerant to the race of CCN in Australia and this could be reflected in its
 success as a variety in Turkey.  The high number of Pratylenchus spp. (350 -
 24050 nematodes / 250 cm3 sample, where 100 - 500 nematodes per 250 cm3 is
 considered the damage threshold) deserves special attention, since these
 freely living nematodes invade the roots in the autumn and can cause severe
 seedling killings.  If Pratylenchus spp. are confirmed to be widespread in
 high population densities, it may, in part, explain why the seedling rate
 (200 - 300 kg/ha) is so extraordinary high in west asia and north africa
 (WANA), i.e., Pratylenchus could be a factor which affects the "winterkill
 complex".
 
      Collaboration with Dr. Lung has continued with a second survey  on the
 Plateau conducted in November 1992 where 22 representative samples from 13
 locations were taken.  Due to the presumed importance of nematodes in WANA,
 a joint CIMMYT/ICARDA and Universities of Hohenheim and Bonn project has
 also
 been initiated.
 
                                   Publications
 
 Braun, H.-J., W. Pfeiffer and W. G. Pollmer.  1993.  Environments for
 selecting widely adapted spring wheats.  Crop Science In Press.
 
 Braun, H.-J. and E. E. Saari.  1992.  An assessment of the potential of
 Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici to cause yield losses in wheat on the
 Anatolian Plateau of Turkey.  Proc. 8th European and Mediterranean Cereal
 rusts and Mildew Conference.
 
 Results of the 6th International Winter Wheat Screening Nursery (6IWWSN),
 1990/91.  CIMMYT/Turkey.
 
 Singh, R. P., T. S. Payne, P. Figuera and S. Valenzuela.  1992.  Comparison
 of the effect of leaf rust on the grain yield of resistant, partially
 resistant and susceptible spring wheat cultivars.  American Journal of
 Alternative Agriculture.
 
 --------------------
                                ITEM FROM UKRAINE
 
      Remeslo Mironovka Wheat Institute, p/o Tsentralnoe, Mironovka dist.,
 Kiev reg. 256816
 
      L.A. Zhivotkov*, V.V. Shelepov, A.F. Melnikov, L.A. Kolomiyets, V.A.
 Vlasenko*
 
      The results of winter wheat breeding.  Wheat breeding in Mironovka has
 been carried out since 1915. During this period 32 varieties were submitted
 to the State Commission for Testing Varieties and 15 were released.
 
      The first winter wheat variety was Ukrainka known for its high
 bread-making quality. It was cultivated in different regions of the country
 since 1924 and in 1941 occupied an area exceeding 7 mln ha.
 
      Presently, wheat breeding efforts are concentrated on winter hardiness,
 drought resistance, short stature, resistance to diseases. Bread-making
 quality is given very high priority.
 
      The different methods are used in order to create genetic variability
 for selection, such as crosses between diverse bread wheat germplasm,
 interspecific crosses, change of the growth habit, selection within
 varieties and mutagenesis. The main method is however intraspecific
 hybridization. The majority of the varieties have been developed by this
 method including those cultivated at present. These varieties include:
 Volgogradskaya 84 - was released for Volgograd region in 1989. It combines
 winter hardiness and drought resistance.
 
      Komsomolskaya 56 was released for Western Siberia and Kazakhstan in
 1990. It possesses high winter hardiness along with resistance to shattering
 and drought. Mironovskaya Semiintensive is under the procedure of testing by
 the State Commission. It is highly resistant to powdery mildew during all
 growing season. Mironovskaya 27 was released for cultivation in 1992. It is
 resistant to lodging and powdery mildew (score 7-9), has good bread-making
 quality.
 
       Varieties Volgogradskaya 84, Komsomolskaya 56 and Mironovskaya
 Semiintensive have high grain quality: gluten content is 30-34%, alveograph
 value - 300-420 a.u., loaf volume - 1150-1460 cm3.
 
       One of the methods used in breeding is the transformation of spring
 habit wheats into winter ones. The method was developed by Academician
 V.N.Remeslo and gave rise to a number of varieties such as:
 Mironovskaya 808 (transformed spring wheat Artemovka) occupied an area about
 10 mln ha in the USSR. In the 70-s it was widely cultivated in Germany,
 Poland, Czechoslovakia as well as in Hungary and Yugoslavia.
 Mironovskaya 40 (transformed Siete Cerros 66) was releaseed in 1989. It is
 resistant to lodging and rusts with very good bread-making quality.
 Mironovskaya 29 (transformed BT 2288 from Tunisia). It is early maturing,
 resistant to lodging and slightly affected by powdery mildew. Also
 characterized by good bread-making quality. The variety is under official
 testing procedure since 1991.
 
      A considerable attention is paid to the method of intravarietal
 selection using artificial inoculation of fungi or special screening methods
 which simulate different environments. A number of varieties were developed
 by this method - Mironovskaya 808 improved, Mironovskaya short-stature,
 Mironovskaya 11, Mironovskaya 26. A new variety Mironovskaya ostistaya
 (released in 1992) was created by individual selection from line
 Erythrospermum 6204. It is resistant to lodging and leaf rust has superior
 bread-making quality.
 
       Complex problems for improving adaptability, yield and its stability,
 resistance to stresses need cooperative efforts with colleagues from abroad.
 Cooperation with breeders from Bernburg-Hadmersleben (Germany) started in
 1970. The cooperative breeding programme resulted in four varieties released
 in Mironovka (Mechta 1, Mechta 2, Mironovskaya 61, Mirleben) and two - in
 Germany (Ramiro and Miraz).  Mironovskaya 61 has been widely cultivated in
 the Ukraine and Central Chernozem Zone of Russia since 1989. It has high
 yield potential (yield of 10.4 t/ha was recorded in 1987). Strong straw
 provides good resistance to lodging. It is attributed to "valuable"wheats as
 far as bread-making quality is concerned. Variety Mirleben is also
 high-yielding and resistant to lodging. It is not affected by powdery
 mildew, moderately resistant to leaf rust, very tolerant to pre-harvest
 sprouting. The variety was released for cultivation in Ukraine in 1992.
 
      Cooperative breeding work with research institutions of Czecho-Slovak
 Federative Republic began in 1976.Along with exchange of germplasm the
 cooperative multilocational testing started from the first years of
 cooperation. It enabled to select widely adapted material during short
 period of time. One line was submitted to the State Commission under the
 name of Mironovskaya 62. It is high-yielding (10.2 t/ha in 1987) with
 superior
 bread-making parameters: protein content is 14.2-15.5%, gluten content -
 32-34%, gluten strength - 300-310 u.a., loaf volume - 1170-1300 cm3.
 
      Cooperative research with the Institute of Wheat and Sunflower in
 Dobrudzha (Bulgaria) started in 1985. This work also spread to Hungary,
 France and Austria.
 
      At present among the varieties bred in Mironovka the biggest area is
 occupied by Mironovskaya 808. It is cultivated in Russia, Kazakhstan,
 Belorussia, Baltic states and Ukraine. The most popular new varieties are
 Mironovskaya 61, Volgogradskaya 84, Mirleben and others. The following table
 represent the area occupied by winter wheat varieties bred in V.N.Remeslo
 Wheat Institute.
 
  -----------------------------------------------------------
                       |        Area (mln ha)
    Variety            |       Ukraine       |    USSR*
                       |   1992   |   1991   |    1991
  -----------------------------------------------------------
 
 Mironovskaya 808          0.119      0.162       2.220
 Mironovskaya 61           0.817      0.805       0.847
 Volgogradskaya 84           -          -         0.189
 Mironovskaya ubileinaya   0.004      0.001       0.133
 Komsomolskaya 56            -          -         0.009
 Mironovskaya 40           0.003      0.007       0.007
 Mironovskaya ostistaya    0.025      0.008       0.008
 Mironovskaya 27           0.032      0.005       0.005
 Mirleben                  0.022      0.003       0.003
 Others                    0.004      0.013       0.025
 
 Total                     1.026      1.004       3.446
  -----------------------------------------------------------
 * including Ukraine
 
 --------------------
                          ITEMS FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM
 
      Cambridge Laboratory, John Innes Centre, Colney, Norwich.
 
      K S Aitken, P Jack (Plant Breeding International Cambridge) and J W
 Snape*
 
      Tagging genes for higher levels of grain protein using molecular
 markers. Previous studies of differences in grain protein amount in high
 yielding UK winter wheats have shown the importance of genes on chromosomes
 5A and SD. Indeed, using chromosome assay techniques, effects associated
 with 5D accounted for more than half of the 2% difference between "high"
 protein cultivar, Avalon, and "low" protein cultivar, Hobbit sib (AWN 1988).
 Recent studies have concentrated on examining variation in other UK quality
 wheats and applying molecular makers to tag presumptive "high protein"
 genes.
 
      Using backcross reciprocal monosomic analysis, variation for SA and SD
 was examined in the UK quality wheats Mercia, Apostle, Avalon and Pastiche.
 Results, over two seasons, confirmed the importance of SD, which, when
 derived from any quality wheat, consistently increased protein over
 homologues from feed wheats. This result was confirmed by developing and
 assessing the grain protein content of the Hobbit sib (Avalon SD)
 substitution line, which over three growing seasons had a grain protein
 content about 1% higher than its recipient cultivar. Additionally, all SDs
 from the quality wheats carried the gene Ha conferring grain hardness,
 confirming the co-segregation of these traits in UK quality wheats. However,
 not all of the quality cultivars carried a "good" SA, and indeed, genes on
 SA from feed wheats often conferred higher grain protein levels than their
 quality wheat homologues. Thus, for example, the Hobbit sib (Avalon SA)
 substitution line consistently displayed a lower protein content than Hobbit
 sib.
 
      Mapping populations of single chromosome recombinant lines were
 developed from crosses between the Hobbit sib (Avalon SA) and Hobbit sib
 (Avalon SD) substitution lines and Hobbit sib, and screened with RFLP probes
 known to be located on chromosomes of homoeologous group S. Over 75 clones
 were screened but very few polymorphisms were detected, probably because of
 the relatedness of the parental cultivars. Nevertheless, by using a range of
 restriction enzymes, 19 polymorphic loci were mapped to SA, and 9 to SD. The
 relationship between the protein content of the individual recombinant lines
 and the marker locus variation was then examined. Variation for grain
 protein in the SD population was discontinuous and suggested segregation of
 a single major gene linked to markers located on the short arm, where it
 mapped about 61 cM from the centromere. However, grain protein variation in
 the chromosome SA recombinant population was continuous and QTL methods of
 analysis had to be employed to locate the presumptive loci. These analyses
 suggested the presence of two loci controlling grain protein content, one
 distal on the long arm, unlinked to centromeric markers, and one on the
 short arm about 50 cM from the centromere, and possibly homoeologous to the
 major gene locus on SD. Overall, no close linkages between any of the
 molecular markers and the protein loci were established which would enable a
 gene tagging strategy to be yet employed to select for this trait.
 
 --------------------
      A J Worland*
 
      Alternative dwarfing genes - Rhtl (Bezostava mutant). As part of a
 continuing programme new dwarfing genes/alleles are being evaluated as
 isogenic lines. A winter induced mutant of Bezostaya 1 has provided the most
 important source of dwarfism in the former USSR commercial wheat cultivars.
 The dwarfing gene in this cultivar (Krasnodari 1) has been shown to be an
 allele of the Rhtl /Rht3 locus on chromosome 4B. Isogenic lines for this new
 allele (Rhtl Bezostaya mutant ) have been developed in five varietal
 backgrounds (Bersee, Bezostaya 1, Cappelle-Desprez, Maris Huntsman and
 Mercia). Field tests were conducted in 1992 on spaced plants of dwarfs and
 tall controls extracted after six backcrosses.
 
       Initial results show the gene reduces height by an average of 26%,
 ranging from 22% in CappelleDesprez to 30% in Maris Huntsman and Mercia.
 These results indicate the new allele is intermediate in effect between Rhtl
 and Rht3. In all varietal backgrounds the new allele significantly increased
 the number of grains per spikelet (average increase 20%) and number of
 grains per ear (average increase 20%). The allele has no effect on spikelet
 number. Final plant yield showed interactions between the dwarfing gene and
 varietal background ranging from a 32% yield increase in the tall background
 of Bersee to a 40% decrease in the shorter background of Mercia. Final plant
 yield was dependant mainly on the plant's ability to fill its grain.
 Although grain size was always reduced in isogenics carrying the Bezostaya
 mutant allele (average reduction 15%), the reduction was much larger in
 shorter backgrounds like Mercia (-20%) than the taller backgrounds like
 Bersee(-13%). It is anticipated that when the dwarf isogenics carrying the
 Rhtl Bezostaya mutant allele are grown in larger drilled plots and given the
 required nutrient inputs, the new allele could, with its associated
 increases in spikelet fertility, have commercial potential in Western
 European breeding programmes
 
 --------------------
      I P King, K A Purdie, H N Rezanoor, T E Miller*, S M Reader, P
 Nicholson.
 
      Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers specific to an alien
 chromosome. Ten RAPDs specific to chromosome SEb of Thinopyrum bessarabicum
 have been detected. Genomic in situ hybridization and conventional
 cytological observations were used to confirm the location of these markers.
 Six were found to be located on the SEb short arm and five to be located on
 the long arm. RAPD markers have been used to confirm the identity of
 putative (SA)SEb and (SD)SEb substitution individuals. Flourescent in situ
 hybridization using a ribosomal DNA probe has confirmed that chromosome 5Eb
 carries a nucleolus organizing region.
 
 --------------------
      I P King, T E Miller, S M Reader, K A Purdie
 
      Detection of homoeologous recombination in wheat/alien hvbrids using
 genomic in situ hvbridization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) has been
 used to study the nature of homoeologous recombination in crosses between
 Triticum durum cv Creso, homozygous for the phl c mutation and Thinopyrum
 bessarabicum. The relative frequencies of wheat/wheat and
 wheatlTh.bessarabicum recombination were determined. Pairing between
 apparently non-homologous Th.bessarabicum chromosomes was also observed.
 GISH has proved a useful tool for assessing the potential for obtaining
 homoeologous transfers between wheat and alien chromosomes.
 
 --------------------
      M Taeb (Seed and Plant Improvement Centre, Karadj, Iran), R M D
 Koebner, B P Forster Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie).
 
       Waterlogging tolerance in the Triticeae A number of Triticeae species
 were tested for tiller production, shoot dry matter production and root
 penetration in waterlogged soil, and Thinopyrum elongatum and Elytrigia
 repens were shown to have better tolerance than wheat using these criteria.
 There was at least partial expression of this exotic genetic variation in a
 wheat genetic background in both the CS x Th.elongatum amphidiploid and in
 the CS x E.repens hybrid. We were unable to colchicine double the latter
 hybrid. Chromosomes 2E and 4E of Th.elongatum were identified as having
 positive effects on root growth in waterlogged conditions. The positive
 effect of the 4E chromosome addition was mimicked by tetrasomic lines
 carrying extra doses of wheat homoeologues 4B and 4D, and it was concluded
 that the beneficial effect contributed by the presence of 4E was probably
 due to an increased dosage of group 4 chromosomes. However, the positive
 effect of adding chromosome 2E to wheat could not be reproduced by added
 doses of chromosomes 2A, 2B or 2D, suggesting that this alien chromosome
 carries gene(s) for tolerance not present on its wheat homoeologues. This
 gene(s) was further located to the long arm of chromosome 2E by testing
 ditelosomic addition lines.
 
 --------------------     
 S A Quarrie and A Steed, M Gulli and C Calestani (University of Parma,
 Italy).
 
      Genetic analysis of responses to environmental stresses. Work to locate
 genes controlling high abscisic acid (ABA) production has continued using F2
 plants from the cross between the spring wheats Chinese Spring (low QBA) and
 SQ1 (high ABA). Further RFLP and isozyme markers on chromosomes 3BS and 5AL
 have been scored in up to 140 of the F2 plants. A simple one-way analysis of
 variance of genotype means using all the F2 plants failed to confirm the
 effect on ABN found initially on chromosome 3BS using a subset of 48 plants
 (AWN 1992, p 185). However, analysis of all F2 with an RFLP probe on
 chromosome 5AL still showed a significant linakge with high ABA content. Two
 other probles for chromosome 5AL have also shown significant association
 with differences in ABA production using a subset of the F2 plants, though
 the relative map positions of these probes was not as expected.
 
      The parental genotypes being used for this work also differ
 significantly in several other responses to environmental stresses. As well
 as producing less ABA than SQ1 in response to drought stress, Chinese Spring
 (CS) is much less sensitive to applied ABA than SQ1. The two genotypes
 differ markedly in the relative responses of shoot and root growth to
 drought stress and CS has much better salt exclusion and tolerance and frost
 tolerance than SQ1./ These two genotypes are therefore ideal for studying
 genes regulating responses to a range of environmental stresses. About 150
 doubled haploid (DH) lines have been prepared from Fl plants from the cross
 CS x SQ1 using the maize pollination method. The genotype of these lines is
 currently being determined at loci for a range of isozyme and RFLP markers
 that are polymorphic between the parents, concentrating initially on markers
 for chromosome 5AL.
 
 --------------------
      P Nicholson, H N Rezanoor, A J Worland.
 
      Chromosomal Location of Resistance to Septoria nodorum in a Synthetic
 Hexaploid Wheat. Resistance to Septoria nordorum was investigated in
 seedlings of Triticum dicoccum x Aegilops squarrosa amphiploid and in a
 series of substitution lines of single chromosomes from this synthetic
 hexaploid into Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring in three tests. From the
 Ae. squarrosa parent (D genome), chromosome 5D was found to confer a high
 level of resistance, reducing lesion cover to near that of the amphiploid in
 the three tests. Chromosomes 3D and, to a lesser extent, 7D were also found
 to confer significant resistance to the amphiploid. Three chromosomes, 2A,
 3B and 5A, from the T.dicoccum parent (AB genomes) also conferred resistance
 but to a lesser extent than 7D. Two chromosomes, 2B and 2D, caused a
 significant decrease in resistance. Chinese Spring may thus carry on these
 chromosomes genes for resistance to S.nordorum which are absent in the
 synthetic hexaploid.
 
 --------------------
                                   Publications
 
 Amer IMB, Worland AJ, Borner A. 1992. In vitro culture variation of wheat
 and rye caused by genes affecting plant growth habit in vivo. Euphytica 61,
 233-240.
 
 Borner A, Worland AJ, Law CN. 1992. Chromosomal location of genes for
 gibberellic acid insensitivity in "Chinese Spring" wheat by tetrasomic
 analysis. Plant Breeding 108, 81-84.
 
 Bozorgipour R. 1991. In: The Use of In vitro Techniques for Crop Improvement
 in Cereals. PhD Thesis, University of Cambridge.
 
 Bozorgipour R, Snape JW. 1991. In vitro selection of herbicide-tolerant
 variants of wheat. In: Herbicide Resistance in Weeds and Crops. Oxford,
 Butterworth-Heinmann, 422-423.
 
 Bozorgipour R, Snape JW 1991. The assessment of in vitro characters and
 their influence on the success rates of doubled haploid production in
 barley. Euphytica 58,137-144.
 
 Chen DF, Dale PJ. 1992. A comparison of methods of delivering DNA to wheat:
 the application of wheat dwarf virus DNA to seeds with exposed apical
 meristems. Transgenic Research 1, 93-100.
 
 Cheung WY, Moore GT, Money TA, Gale MD 1992. Hpall library indicates
 'methylation-free islands' in wheat and barley. Theoretical and Applied
 Genetics 84, 739-746.
 
 Chinoy CN, Devos KM. Bringloe D, Gray JC, Gale MD, Dyer TA 1991. Chromosomal
 location of the genes for ferredoxin in wheat, barley and rye. Theoretical
 and Applied Genetics 82, 1-2.
 
 Cox AV, Bennett MD, Dyer TA 1991. Use of the polymerase chain reaction to
 detect spacer size heterogeneity in plant 5S-rRNA gene clusters and to
 locate such clusters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Theoretical and Applied
 Genetics 83, 684-690.
 
 Devos K 1991. Genetic Mapping in Wheat, Rye and Barley. PhD Thesis, State
 University of Ghent.
 
 Devos K, Atkinson MD, Chinoy CN, Liu CJ, Gale MD 1991. RFLP-based genetic
 map of the homoeologous group 3 chromosomes of wheat and rye. Theoretical
 and Applied Genetics 83, 931939.
 
 Flintham JE, Gale MD 1991. Components of heterosis in dwarf hybrid wheat.
 In: Report of the Third FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meeting on Use of
 Induced mutations in Connection with Haploids and Heterosis in Cereals. IAEA
 323.D2.RC.351.3. Vienna, IAEA 25-31.
 
 Forsyth SA, Koebner RMD 1991. Wheat endosperm high molecular weight albumins
 and Bamylases; genetic and electrophoretic evidence of their identity.
 Journal of Cereal Science lS, 137141.
 
 Hyne G, Snape JW 1991. Mapping quantitative trait loci for yield in wheat.
 In: Biometrics in Plant Breeding. Proceedings of the Eight Meeting of the
 Eucarpia Section Biometrics in Plant Breeding, July 1-6 1991. Brno,
 Eucarpia, 47-56.
 
 Johnson R, Knott DR 1991. Specificity in gene-for-gene interactions between
 plants and pathogens. Plant Pathology 41, 1-4.
 
 Killan A, Gale MD 1991. Induction of RFLPs by mutagenesis. Cereal Research
 Communications 19, 119-129.
 
 King IP, Purdie KA, Miller TE, Law CN, Rogers WJ 1992. Exploitation of
 chromosome 4SI, from Aegilops sharonensis, for the production of stable
 44-chromosome wheat lines. Heredity 69, 160-165.
 
 King IP, Koebner, RMD, Schlegel R, Reader SM, Miller TE, Law CN 1991.
 Exploitation of a preferentially transmitted chromosome from Aegilops
 sharonensis for the elimination of segregation for height in semidwarf bread
 wheat varieties. Genome 34, 944-949.
 
 Law CN, Worland AJ, Snape JW 1991. The use of aneuploids in wheat. In
 Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Chromosome Engineering
 in Plants. (Ed: Kimber G) Missouri University College of Agriculture,
 409-64.
 
 Leckie D, Snape JW 1991. The location and effects of genes modifying the
 response of wheat to the herbicide difenzoquat. Journal of Agricultural
 Science 118, 9-15.
 
 Leitch AR, Schwarzacher T, Wang ML, Moore G, Heslop-Harrison JS 1991. Flow
 cytometry of cereal chromosomes. Cytometry Supplement 5, 39.
 
 Liu CJ, Gale MD 1991. Application of isoelectric focusing in the
 characterisation of biochemical markers in hexaploid wheat. In: Proceedings
 of the Second International Symposium on Chromosome Engineering in Plants.
 August 13-15 1990. Columbia, University of Missouri, 325331.
 
 Liu CJ, Atkinson MD, Chinoy CN, Devos KM, Gale MD 1991. Nonhomoelogous
 translocations between group 4, 5 and 7 chromosomes within wheat and rye.
 Theoretical and Applied Genetics 83, 305-3 12.
 
 Manyowa NM, Miller TE 1991. The genetics of tolerance to high mineral
 concentrations in the tribe Triticeae. EuphyticaS7, 175-185.
 
 Masojc P, Gale MD 1991. a-amylase structural genes in rye. Theoretical and
 Applied Genetics 82, 77 1-776.
 
 Masojc P, Gale MD 1990. The factor modifying a-amylase isozyme pattern from
 rye endosperm is an endogenous a-amylase inhibitor. Hereditas 113, 151-155.
 
 Miller TE 1991. A cautionary note on the use of morphological characters for
 recognising taxa in wheat (genus Triticum). In: Prehistoire de
 l'agriculture: Nouvelles Approaches Expermentale et Ethnographiques. CRA
 Monograph No 6 Paris, CRNR, 249-253.
 
 Miller TE, Reader SM 1991. Polyploid meiocytes in wheat - a heritable trait.
 Carylogia 44, 293299.
 
 Moore G, Lucas H, Batty N, Flavell R 1991. A family of retrotransposons and
 associated genomic variation in wheat. Genomics 10, 461-468.
 
 Moore G, Cheung W, Schwarzacher T, Flavell R 1991. BIS 1, a major component
 of the cereal genome and a tool for studying genomic organization. Genomics
 10, 469-476.
 
 Nicholson P, Rezanoor HN, Hollins TW 1991. Occurrence of Tapesia yallundae
 on field and laboratory-inoculated material and evidence for recombination
 between isolates. Plant Pathology 40, 626-634.
 
 Nicholson P, Hollins TW, Rezanoor HN, Anamthawat-Jonsson K 1991. A
 Comparison of cultural, morphological and DNA markers for the classification
 of Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides. Plant Pathology, 584-594.
 
 Read JJ, Johnson RC, Carver BF, Quarrie SA 1991. Carbon isotope
 discrimination gas exchange, and yield of spring wheat selected for abscisic
 acid content. Crop Science 32, 139-146.
 
 Schwarzacher T, Anamthawat-Jonsson K, Harrison GE, Islam AKMR, Jia JZ, King
 IP, Leitch AR,Miller TE, Reader SM, Rogers WJ, Shi M, Heslop-Harrison JS
 1991. Genomic in situ hybridization to identify alien chromosomes and
 chromosome segments in wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 84, 778-786.
 
 Snape JW, Leckie DA, Metakovsky E, Miura H 1991. Genetic analysis of
 different responses to phenylurea herbicides in wheat. In: Proceedings of
 International Symposium 'Wheat Breeding Prospects and Future Approaches'.
 (Ed: Panayotov I) Dobroudja, Institute for Wheat and Sunflower, 157-161 .
 
 Snape JW, Ouyang JW, Parker BB, Jia SE 1992. Evidence for genotypic
 selection in wheat during the development of recombinant inbred lines by
 anther culture and single seed descent. Journal of Genetics and Breeding 46,
 167-172.
 
 Snape JW, Nevo E, Parker BB, Leckie D, Morganov A 1991. Herbicide response
 polymorphisms in wild populations of Emmer wheat. Heredity 66, 251-157.
 
 Snape JW, Leckie D, Parker BB, Nevo E 1991. The genetical analysis and
 exploitation of differential responses to herbicides in crop species. In:
 Herbicide Resistance in Weeds and Crops. (Eds: Casely JC, Cussans GW, Atkins
 RK) Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 305-317.
 
 Sutka J, Worland AJ, Maystrenko OI 1991. Slight effect of the cytoplasm on
 frost resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Cereal Research
 Communications 19, 3211-317.
 
 Tao YZ, Hu H, Snape JW 1991. Genetic analysis of M27, a wheat lR(lD)
 substitution line, by backcross monosomic analysis. Journal of Genetics and
 Breeding 45, 189-196.
 
 Wang CL, Atkinson MD, Chinoy CN, Devos KM, Gale MD 1991. Comparative
 RFLP-based genetic maps of barley chromosome 5 (lH) and rye chromosome lR.
 Theoretical and Applied Genetics 84, 339-334.
 
 Wang ML, Leitch, AR, Schwarzacher T, Heslop-Harrison JS, Moore G 1991.
 Construction of a chromosome-enriched Hpall library from flow-sorted wheat
 chromosomes. Nucleic Acids Research 20, 1897-1901.
 
 Youssefian S, Kirby EJM, Gale MD 1991. Pleiotropic effects of the
 GA-insensitive Rht dwarfing genes in wheat. 1. Effects on development of the
 ear, stem and leaves. Field Crop Research 28, 179-190.
 
 Youssefian S, Kirby EJM, Gale MD 1991. Pleiotropic effects of the
 GA-insensitive Rht dwarfing genes in wheat. 2. Effects on leaf, stem, ear
 and floret. Field Crop Research 28, 191-210.
 
 --------------------
      John Innes Institute, John Innes Centre, Colney, Norwich, NR4 7UJ.
 
      J S Heslop-Harrison, T Schwarzacher, A R Leitch, K Anamthawat-Jonsson
 and co-authors.
 
      Genomic in situ hybridization. We have continued to advance methods
 using total genomic DNA as a probe to identify alien chromosomes and
 chromosome segments in wheat lines by in situ and Southern hybridization.
 Particular developments include expansion of the range and similarities of
 species which can be separated, application of multiple labelling systems to
 label different alien chromosomes in different colours, or to identify
 cloned DNA sequences and alien chromosomes simultaneously, and use of
 necleotides directly labelled with fluorochromes.
 
      Isolation of species-specific sequences. Efficient strategies have
 enabled us to clone repetitive DNA which differs greatly in sequence,
 abundance and genomic distribution between Triticeae species. Such sequences
 are being examined to find the modes of sequence and genome evolution and
 diversification, as well as being used to look at alien chromosomes or
 genomes in wheat and hybrids.
 
      Sites of rDNA gene expression. We have studied sites and expression of
 rDNA repeating units in wheat by in situ hybridization using light and
 electron microscopy. Inactive condensed rDNA was found unassociated with
 nucleoli, while active NORs had condensed rDNA associated with the nucleolar
 periphery. Within nucleoli, decondensed and presumably active rDNA was
 located within the dense fibrillar component, but not fibrillar centres.
 Condensed rDNA was also found within the nucleous, so there was fragmented
 decondensation. In contrast, rye showed only decondensed rDNA within the
 nucleolus. Implying that expression involved largely terminal
 decondensation.
 
 
 
 
                                   Publications
 
 Anamthawat-Jansson K, Heslop-Harrison JS. 1992. Species specific DNA
 sequences in the Triticeae. Hereditas 116: 49-54.
 
 Heslop-Harrison JS. 1991. Natural and artificial hybrids in the grasses. In:
 Mulcahy D, BergaminiMulcahy G, eds Angiosperm Pollen and Ovules. New York:
 Springer.
 
 Heslop-Harrison JS . 1992. Molecular cytogenetics, cytology and genomic
 comparisons in the Triticeae Hereditas 116:93-99.
 
 Leitch AR, Mosgoller W, Shi M, Heslop-Harrison JS. 1991. Different patterns
 of rDNA organization at interphase in nuclei of wheat and rye. Journal of
 Cell Science 101: 751-757.
 
 Schlegel R, Kynast R, Schwarzacher T, Romheld V, Walter A. 1991. Mapping of
 genes for copper efficiency in rye and the relationship between copper and
 iron efficiency. Proceedings of the VIIIth International Colloquium for the
 Optimization of Plant Nutrition, 1. Sept. 1991, Lisbon, Portugal.
 
 Schwarzacher T, Anamthawat-Jonsson K, Harrison GE, Islam AKMR, Jia JZ, King
 IP, Leitch AR, Miller TE, Reader SM, Rogers WJ, Shi M, Heslop-Harrison JS.
 1991. Genomic in situ hybridization to identify alien chromosomes and
 chromosome segments in wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 84:778-786.
 
 Wang ML, Leitch AR, Schwarzacher T, Heslop-Harrison JS, Moore G. 1991.
 Construction of a chromosome-enriched HpaII library from flow-sorted wheat
 chromosomes. Nucleic Acids Research 210: 1897-1901.
 
 --------------------
      PBI Cambridge Ltd, Cambridge, United Kingdom
 
      Stephen J. Brown.
 
      Hunter Winter Wheat - Hunter was added to the UK Recommended List for
 1993.  It combines high yield potential, similar to Haven and Beaver, with
 improved grain quality and very good all round resistance to diseases. 
 Hunter also has stiff straw, is early ripening and is a true winter wheat,
 i.e. it is not safe for sowing after the end of January.  The development of
 Hunter was advanced using the single seed descent technique.
 
      There is potential for reducing fungicide applications from that
 commonly used on other varieties as Huner has very good resistance to yellow
 and brown rust, mildew and Septoria nodorum; good resistance to Septoria
 tritici and eyespot; and moderate to good resistance to fusarium ear blight.
 
 The degree of resistance to diseases is reflected by Hunter having the
 highest yield in UK National Trials when not treated with fungicides.
 
      Hunter is soft milling with a high Hagberg Falling Number and good
 specific weight.  Protein content is similar to other animal feed type
 varieties.
 
 --------------------
 Peter I. Payne
 
      Several years ago, a near-isogenic line of Sicco (a hard milling,
 strong mixing spring wheat cultivar) was developed that was deficient in HMW
 glutenin subunits.  The subunit composition of Sicco is 1, 7+9, 5+10 and its
 isogenic line, containing only subunits 7+9, produced a very weak mixing
 dough that was totally unsuited for making bread.  This proves the
 importance of HMW subunits in developing the strength and elasticity of
 doughs that is so important in the bread-making process.
 
      More recently we have transferred the apparent null alleles at the Glu-
 D1 and Glu-A1 loci into the soft milling Galahad, a cultivar currently grown
 in the UK.  As expected, doughs produced by the Brabender Farinograph from
 this isogenic line of Galahad (called Galahad-7 because it only contains one
 HMW glutenin subunit, subunit 7) are very weak mixing, weaker than any
 commercial variety that has been analyzed similarly.  The dough is far too
 weak, wet and sticky to be analyzed by the Brabender Extensograph unless it
 is stiffened by adding salt and reducing water content.  It then produces a
 very weak and a very extensible dough that it is predicted to be highly
 suitable for the production of semi-sweet biscuits, and non-fermented
 crackers and wafers.
 
      Galahad-7 produced the lowest SDS-sedimentation volume ever recorded at
 the company and when doughs were washed with running tap water, virtually no
 gluten was recovered.  This demonstrates again the fundamental importance of
 the HMW subunits in imparting dough strength.  Galahad-7 was analyzed by
 dot-blotting using a HMW subunit, DNA probe.  The results show that the Glu-
 D1 locus is actually deleted, whereas the Glu-A1 locus is still present, but
 presented by a true null allele.
 
 --------------------
                          ITEMS FROM THE UNITED STATES 
 ARKANSAS
 
       University of Arkansas
 
       R.K. Bacon*, E.A. Milus*, B.R. Wells, J.T. Kelly and D.G. Dombek
 
       Production.  According to the Arkansas Agricultural Statistics
 Service, Arkansas farmers planted 950,000 acres and harvested 850,000 acres
 of winter wheat in 1992.  Average yield in the state was 46 bu/A accounting
 for a total production of 39,100,000 bu.  In recent years, dockages at the
 elevator for low test weight and other problems have been subtracted from
 the number of bushels instead of the price. The actual numbers of bushels
 produced was probably higher because net bushels are now being reported. 
 Yields were very high due to the favorable weather and reduced diseases but
 test weights were low in many areas.
 
       Management.  Field studies were conducted at three locations to
 evaluate the response of six cultivars to  spring N fertilization rates and
 use of a foliar fungicide.  At the location with a clay loam soil type with
 a lower native soil N all of the cultivars responded to N rates up to 200
 lb/A.  At the Stuttgart location (silt loam soil), grain yields of all
 cultivars was maximized with 120 lb N/A.  The 120 lb N/A rate maximized
 yields at the third location (silt loam soil) of all the cultivars except
 `Wakefield' which increased yield with rates up to 200 lb/A.
 
       Phosphorus timing studies were conducted at two locations.  Phosphorus
 response was noted onlyon the low P testing Crowley silt loam soil.  At this
 location, the addition of 60 lb/A of P(2) O(5) applied either preplant,
 banded with seed, or topdressed anytime between October and early February,
 increased grain yields by 20 bu/A (from approximately 70 to 90 bu/A). 
 Visual response to the P applications were noted within three to four weeks
 after application.  Biomass was increased over the winter two to three fold
 as compared to the controls.
 
       Mr. Don Obert completed research determining the possible allelopathic
 effects of rice straw on a succeeding wheat crop.  In general, he found that
 the effects of the rice straw decreased as the time of decomposition
 increased.  Although wheat genotypic differences in tolerance to rice straw
 were found, no differences in alleopathic effect were found in straw from
 different rice genotypes.
 
       Diseases.  Stand establishment was good, and Fusarium seedling blight
 was not a problem even though most of the seed lots contained shriveled,
 scabby seed as a result of the severe scab epidemic in 1991.  Symptoms of
 soilborne viruses were widespread in northeastern Arkansas, the major area
 of wheat production.  Foliar diseases were less severe than usual because
 weather from flag leaf emergence through milk stage was drier and cooler
 than normal.  In general, disease pressure was low, and it was an excellent
 season for wheat production until harvest was delayed by rain for two weeks.
 
       A test tube assay was developed to facilitate epidemiological studies
 with Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens.  Population size of a
 rifampicin-resistant mutant of the pathogen on wheat leaves from the field
 or in artificially inoculated leaves can be estimated by submersing the
 leaves in tubes of antibiotic-amended broth medium, incubating the tubes on
 a shaker at 25 C, and recording the time until initial turbidity of the
 medium due to growth of the rifampicin-resistant mutant.  Incidence of the
 pathogen on individual seeds also can be determined.  The technique has been
 useful for determining the primary source of inoculum and population size of
 the pathogen in various wheat cultivars.
 
        An inoculation technique and disease reaction scales were developed
 for rating wheat cultivars for resistance to X. c. pv. translucens.  A
 syringe with the needle replaced by a short piece of rubber tubing was used
 to infiltrate a uniform amount of inoculum into leaves.  The percentage of
 watersoaking within the inoculation sites was rated on a 0-6 scale for
 primary leaves of seedlings and a 0-4 scale for flag leaves of adult plants.
 
 Ranking of cultivars for disease reaction was similar to ranking of
 cultivars for disease severity in the field.  Coker 983, FFR 525W, and
 Florida 302 were among the most susceptible cultivars, and Terral 101,
 Bayles, and Twain were among the most resistant cultivars.  
 
       A world-wide collection of X. campestris strains from cereals are
 being evaluated for host range and fatty acid profile to determine if fatty
 acid profile is related to host range.  Strains that are pathogenic on wheat
 are being tested for virulence on a set of 19 wheat cultivars to determine
 if there is any evidence for race specific resistance.
 
       Test Weight.  Dr. Steve Schuler has completed a study determining
 factors affecting test weight and their relationship to quality.  Despite
 removal of shriveled kernels prior to evaluation, considerable environmental
 variation was still present among the quality parameters.  The greatest
 effect of the environment was on SEQ, and the least effect was found in
 AWRC.  Test weight was not correlated with flour yield but was significantly
 correlated with flour protein content (r=0.54) as was kernel density
 (r=0.49).  Thousand kernel weight, diversity of seed size, proportion of
 large seed, and average kernel length and width were not significantly
 correlated with flour yield and quality.  Test weight did not predict flour
 yield in SRWW when shriveling was absent, but it was related to baking
 quality due to its relationship to flour protein content.  Also, kernel size
 or size distribution did not affect end-use quality after shriveled kernels
 were removed. 
       
       Of the seed and spike characters measured, only flour protein content
 and the average number of seed within a spike were significantly correlated
 to test weight (r=0.56 and r= -0.41, respectively) at P=0.05.  Average
 kernel length and width and the average number of seed per spikelet showed
 weak negative correlations with test weight (r=-0.38, r=-0.35 and r=-0.35,
 respectively) at P=0.10.  Increasing kernel density was weakly associated
 with increasing test weight (r=0.39 P=0.10).  Thousand-kernel weight,
 diversity of seed size, kernel length to width ratio, spike length, number
 of spikelets per spike, and spike density were not directly related to test
 weight.
 
       Breeding and Genetics. The experimental line AR 26413B showed promise
 in the state yield trials. It is one of the earliest maturing line in the
 trials and showed excellent yield potential, particularly in the southern
 part of the state.  It has performed well in Louisiana in  the Uniform
 Southern Soft red winter wheat nursery.  It is being tested in the 1992-93
 Louisiana state variety trials, as a possible joint release between the
 University of Arkansas and Louisiana State University.
 
      Lines selected for high and low nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in two
 populations, Keiser/McNair 1003 and Keiser/Saluda, were increased to begin
 yield testing.  An experiment was planted in the fall to study the
 interaction of these lines with four rates of spring-applied N
 fertilization.
 
       The inheritance of metribuzin tolerance in four soft wheat cultivars
 commonly grown in Arkansas is being continued by Mr. Robert Wright.  The
 study is also investigating the linkage of coleoptile color to metribuzin
 tolerance in order to use it as a genetic marker.  
 
       Forty-two cultivars and experimental lines were tested in the small
 grain performance tests at five locations in the state. Duplicate tests were
 planted at each location. One test received standard management practices
 whereas the other test received additional spring nitrogen and a foliar
 fungicide. The mean yield of the high-input trials was 4.9 bu/A greater than
 the mean of the standard trials. The top yielding cultivars in the high-
 input trials were Wakefield, Mallard, Northrup King Coker 9803, Northrup
 King Coker 9543, Saluda, and Freedom, all of which had an average yield
 across locations of 103 bu/A or higher. The top yielding cultivars in the
 standard-input trials were Freedom, Northrup King Coker 9543, Wakefield,
 Northrup King Coker 9803, Northrup King Coker 9835, and Mallard,  all of
 which had an average yield across locations of 100 bu/A or higher.
 
       Personnel.  After completing his Ph.D., Dr. Steve Schuler has taken a
 post-doc position at Kansas State University in sorghum breeding and
 genetics.
 
       Mr. Don Obert, who finished his M.S. degree in December,  has taken a
 research associate position with USDA-ARS in Manhattan, KS working in the
 area of alfalfa genetics.
 
       Dr. Susan Penix completed her dissertation on the epidemiology of
 Septoria nodorum and has taken a post doctorate position at the University
 of Missouri where she is working to incorporate scab resistance into soft
 red winter wheat.
 
       Dr. Agha Mirlohi left the pathology program to return to Iran where he
 anticipates getting a faculty position at the University of Isfahan.
 
       Mr. David Chalkley joined the pathology program as a research
 assistant.  Previously he was a research technician with the USDA small
 grains program in Beltsville.
 
                                   Publications
 
 
 Bacon, R.K. 1992. Principles and methods of plant breeding (Book Review). J.
 Nat. Resour. Life Sci. Educ. 21:184.
 
 Bacon, R.K., D.G. Dombek, and J.T. Kelly. 1992. 1991-92 Arkansas small-grain
 cultivar performance tests. pp. 31.
 
 Bacon, R.K., S.F. Schuler, and J.T. Kelly. 1992. The interaction of cultiv-
 ars on test weight in wheat blends. Cereal Res. Comm. 20:103-104.
 
 Hattey, J.A., W.E. Sabbe, and B.R. Wells. 1992.  Nitrogen timing on wheat
 yields associated with the wheat monitoring program. p. 35-38.  In W.E.
 Sabbe, editor.  Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 1991.  Arkansas Agric. Exp.
 Stn. Research Series 421.
 
 King, S.R., and R.K. Bacon. 1992. Vernalization requirement of winter and
 spring oat genotypes. Crop Sci. 32:677-680.
 
 King, S.R., and R.K. Bacon. 1992. Comparison of northern spring and southern
 winter oat cultivars in spring plantings in Arkansas. Ark. Agric. Exp. Stn.
 Bull. 930.
 
 Mahmood. T., R. C. Gergerich, E.A. Milus, C. P. West, and C. J. D'Arcy,
 1993. Incidence of barley yellow dwarf viruses in wheat, endophyte-infected
 and endophyte-free fescue, and other hosts in Arkansas. Plant Disease (in
 press).
 
 Mascagni, H.J., Jr., E.D. Vories, R.K. Bacon, E.A. Milus, and P.L. Finney.
 1992. Effect of soil moisture regime, fungicide, and cultivar on wheat grain
 yield, test weight, and baking and milling quality. Ark. Agric. Exp. Stn.
 Bull. 934.
 
 McKinney, N. V., R. K. Bacon, E. A. Milus, and D. Dombek,  1992. Arkansas
 wheat performance tests and variety selection -1992. Univ. of Ark. Coop.
 Ext. Serv. Fact Sheet. 10 p.
 
 Milus, E. A., T. L. Kirkpatrick and J. K. Mitchell. 1992. Principle wheat
 diseases and control. Univ. of Ark. Coop. Ext. Serv. Fact Sheet 6 p.
 
 Milus, E. A. and A. F. Mirlohi 1992. Differentiating levels of bacterial
 stripe resistance in wheat by disease reaction. (abstr.) Phytopathology
 82:1113.
 
 Milus, E. A. and A. F. Mirlohi, 1993. A test tube assay for estimating
 populations of Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens on individual wheat
 leaves. Phytopathology (in press).
 
 Milus, E. A., A. F. Mirlohi, C. E. and Parsons. 1992. Evaluations of foliar
 fungicides on wheat, 1991. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 47:202. 
 
 Milus, E. A., Parker, P. and Holt, W. 1992. Evaluation of fungicide seed
 treatments to improve performance of wheat seed produced in wet
 environments. Proc. Ark. Agric. Pest. Assoc. 30:20.
 
 Milus, E. A. and C. S. Rothrock 1993. Rhizosphere colonization of wheat by
 selected soil bacteria over diverse environments. Can. J. Microbiol. (in
 press)
 
 Milus, E. A., C. S. Rothrock, and M. L. Rhoads, 1992. Biological control of
 Pythium root rot of wheat. Ark. Farm Res. Vol. 41, No. 4, Pg. 4-5.
 
 Milus. E. A., C. S. Rothrock and M. L. Rhoads 1992. Control of Pythium root
 rot of wheat in the field with bacterial seed treatments. (abstr.)
 Phytopathology 82:1128.
 
 Mirlohi, A. F. and E. A. Milus 1992. Comparison between growth chamber and
 field evaluations of bacterial stripe resistance in soft red winter wheats.
 (abstr.) Phytopathology 82:1130.
 
 Obert, D.E., R.K. Bacon, and B.R. Wells. 1992. Alleopathic effect of rice
 straw on a succeeding wheat crop. Agron. Abstr. American Society of
 Agronomy, Madison, WI. p. 152.
 
 Penix, S. E., E. A. Milus and E. E. Gbur Jr. 1992. Progress of Septoria
 nodorum infection on susceptible and moderately resistant wheat cultivars.
 (abstr.) Phytopathology 82:1113.
 
 
 Wells, B.R., R.K. Bacon, and M.L. May.  1992.  Intensive management studies
 with wheat. p. 21-34.  In W.E. Sabbe, editor.  Arkansas Soil Fertility
 Studies 1991.  Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Research Series 421.
 
 Zablotowicz, R. M., R. E. Hoagland, E. A. Milus, and C. S. Rothrock 1992.
 Glutathione S-transferase activity in rhizosphere competent bacteria.
 (abstr.) Phytopathology 82:1067.
 
 --------------------
      CALIFORNIA
 
      Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California,
 Riverside
 
      Dave Barnhart, Christine A. Curtis, Bahman Ehdaie, Adam J. Lukaszewski,
 M. Sadehdel-Mogaddam, Malik M. Rafi, Shakir H. Shah, and J. Giles Waines
 
      Genetic analyses of transpiration efficiency, carbon isotope
 discrimination, and growth characters in bread wheat (Ehdaie, Barnhart,
 Waines)
 
      Transpiration efficiency (W = total dry matter/water transpired) in
 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been improved during the last
 decades, mainly because of a lack of an effective selection method
 applicable in breeding programs.  Recently, carbon isotope discrimination
 (D) has been suggested as a criterion to select for improved W.  A
 successful breeding program for improving W in bread wheat requires
 knowledge of inheritance of W, of D, and of genetic association between W
 and D.  Contrasting parents, `Chinese Spring' and `Yecora Rojo', and their
 F1 and F2 generations were grown in replicated pot experiments in a
 glasshouse under well-watered and water-stressed treatments.  Genetic
 correlations between W and D were negative in both wet (-0.36*) and dry
 (-0.77**) environments, as the theory predicted.  Transpiration efficiency
 (W) was positively correlated with shoot dry matter, root dry matter, total
 dry matter, and grain yield under wet and dry conditions.  Generation means
 analysis indicated significant additive and dominance variation for W and D
 under wet and dry environments with additive variance accounting for more
 than 85% of total variation observed among the generations.  Broad-sense
 heritabilities of W and D were 0.78 and 0.94 under wet conditions and 0.69
 and 0.86 under dry conditions, respectively.  Our results indicated that D
 could be used as an indirect selection criterion to advance W under
 water-stressed conditions in the early segregating generations.  
 
 --------------------
      Growth and water-use efficiency among lines nearly isogenic for three
 reduced-height genes (Ehdaie, Waines)
 
      The two most commonly used reduced-height genes of wheat (Triticum
 aestivum L.) are Rht1 and Rht2.  The Rht3 gene is also a potent dwarfing
 gene.  Information is limited as to the comparative effects of these genes
 on water-use efficiency and related traits.  Four homozygous near-isogenic
 lines, rht, Rht1, Rht2, and Rht3 in `Maringa' background and four of their
 near-isogenic F1 hybrids were used to determine the effects of dwarfing
 genes on plant traits under well-watered and droughted pot experiments in
 the glasshouse.  Rht1 and Rht2 reduced height by 20%, and Rht3 by 52% under
 both wet and dry conditions.  Rht3 had the most negative effects on all
 traits examined when water was not limited.  Rht1 and Rht2 had similar
 negative effects on number of tillers, grain weight, shoot dry matter, and
 total dry matter; but showed positive effects on number of grains, root dry
 matter, and harvest index in wet conditions.  The negative effects of the
 dwarfing genes, in general, were less under droughted than under
 well-watered conditions.  However, in some cases, the negative effects
 increased or even were reversed.  The relationships between plant height and
 total biomass, grain yield, transpiration efficiency, and water-use
 efficiency were positive.  Harvest index was negatively associated with
 height.  Sources of dwarfness in wheat that lack the negative effects of the
 Rht1, Rht2, and Rht3 genes on plant characters are worth exploring.
 --------------------
      Inheritance of carbon isotope discrimination and agronomic characters
 in a spring wheat cross grown in the field (Ehdaie, Waines)
 
      Significant variation was detected in transpiration efficiency (W =
 total dry matter/water transpired) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). 
 Improved W should result in greater water-use efficiency (WUE = grain
 yield/evapotranspiration) and therefore increased yield in water-stressed
 environments.  Carbon isotope discrimination (D) has been proposed as a
 criterion to select for improved W.  Knowledge of inheritance of D is
 important to plant breeders.  This study was conducted to determine the
 inheritance of D, plant height (PH), number of spikes (NS), and number of
 grains (NG) per plant, grain weight (GW), grain yield (GY), aboveground dry
 matter (AGDM) per plant, and harvest index (HI) in a spring wheat cross,
 `Chinese Spring' x `Yecora Rojo.'  Parents, F1, F2, and backcross
 generations were evaluated under well-watered and water-stressed field
 conditions at Moreno Valley, California, in 1989.  Significant variation was
 observed among the generations for PH, NS, NG, GW, and D under well-watered
 conditions and for PH, NS, GW, GY, AGDM, and HI under water-stressed
 conditions.  Generation x irrigation interactions were significant only for
 NS, NG, and HI.  Generation mean analyses indicated that additive gene
 action is of primary importance in the expression of these traits except
 AGDM.  Dominance gene action was detected for PH, GW, D, GY, and AGDM, and
 the direction of dominance was toward higher values of these traits. 
 Narrow-sense heritabilities were moderately high for PH (0.83 and 0.66) and
 for D (0.60), but were somewhat lower for NS (0.49 and 0.39), for GW (0.45
 and 0.32), for NG (0.34), for AGDM (0.46), for HI (0.26), and for GY (0.25).
 
 The correlation coefficient between D and AGDM (-0.62) and between D and GY
 (-0.47) were moderate under well-watered field conditions, but they were not
 statistically significant due to a small number of degrees of freedom
 associated with these coefficients.  The significant additive variation and
 moderately high estimate of narrow-sense heritability observed for D
 indicate that selection in early segregating generations under well-watered
 conditions should be effective in reducing D and thus improving W in spring
 bread wheat.  
 
 --------------------
      Genetic variation within and between populations of Triticum urartu 
 (Sadehdel-Mogaddam, Ehdaie, Waines)
 
      Dr. Mohammad Sadehdel-Mogaddam from Department of Agronomy, Tabriz
 University, Iran, spent his sabbatical leave at UC Riverside studying the
 genetic variation within and between populations of T. urartu under field
 conditions using isozyme marker genes and agronomic characters.  He also
 conducted field experiments to measure the extent of genetic variation
 existent within and between tetraploid and hexaploid spring wheat
 populations collected in southwestern Iran (Khuzestan Province) and in
 southeastern Iran (Bluchestan Province).  The pure lines collected from
 these landrace populations of wheat from Iran were also evaluated for
 different growth and agronomic traits.  The interrelationships between grain
 yield components and grain yield for these lines will be determined using
 path-coefficient analyses.  
 
 --------------------
      Drought resistance in wheat relatives and their additions lines
 (Shakir, Waines)
 
      Drought is one of the major environmental factors reducing grain
 production of rainfed wheat in semi-arid regions.  The morphological and
 physiological basis of drought resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
 cv. `Chinese Spring', rye (Secale cereale L.) cv. `Imperial', barley
 (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. `Betzes', and accession G870 (Dasypyrum villosum)
 and their derived disomic addition lines were studied in the field and
 glasshouse under nonstressed and stressed conditions.  The four parental
 genotypes were first compared with each other for their performance in the
 field.  Results from water-stressed conditions showed that Imperial rye was
 superior for plant height, aboveground biomass, grain yield and its
 components such as number of spikelets, and florets per main spike.  Chinese
 Spring wheat and Betzes barley were intermediate in performance for most of
 the plant characters studied.  Dasypyrun villosum G870 was a poor entry for
 the characters studied.  
 
      The glasshouse studies of root dry matter, total biomass, the amount of
 water used, and water-use efficiency also confirmed the field results. 
 Imperial rye was assumed to be the most drought resistant because it
 produced larger root dry matter and total biomass while it consumed a
 smaller amount of water.  Dasypyrum villosum was assumed to be drought
 sensitive because it showed lower means for water-use efficiency, root dry
 matter, and consumed a larger amount of water.  Chinese Spring wheat and
 Betzes barley were intermediate.  
 
      The disomic addition lines were primarily used to study the effect of
 alien chromosomes of Imperial rye, Betzes barley, and Dasypyrum villosum
 G870 on the recipient genome of Chinese Spring wheat and to identify alien
 chromosome(s) carrying gene(s) which are responsible for the improved
 adaptation to water-stressed conditions.  Among Chinese Spring wheat and the
 disomic addition lines, those for Imperial rye chromosome 2 and Betzes
 barley chromosome 4 had better performance over the other genotypes for
 aboveground biomass, number of tillers, number of spikes, root dry matter,
 amount of water consumed, and water-use efficiency.  These alien chromosomes
 may carry loci which are responsible for the expression of plant characters
 that confer drought resistance.  Grain yield data suggested that rye
 chromosome 2 also carries undesirable gene(s) which cause partial floret
 sterility.  However, these gene(s) are not present on Betzes barley
 chromosome 4, because the disomic addition line for 4H had significantly
 higher grain yield than other disomic addition lines.  
 
 --------------------
      Wheat Cytogenetics (Curtis, Lukaszewski)
 
      We have demonstrated previously that recombination in the B-genome
 chromosomes of wheat is concentrated in distal chromosome regions and
 virtually absent from proximal regions, and that the frequency of
 recombination increases exponentially with distance from the centromere. 
 Concentration of recombination in distal segments probably results from the
 telomeric initiation of meiotic pairing, which provides greater opportunity
 for formation of distal chiasmata.  The coefficient of interference in short
 adjacent segments averaged 0.81, while interference over the entire
 recombining portion of chromosome arms averaged 0.57.  When the data were
 re-analyzed, a linear relationship was found between interference and
 physical distance along the chromosome arms. It suggests that in the
 B-genome, there may be a lower limit of physical distance between adjacent
 cross-overs of about 1 micron (approx. 5.53 x 108 DNA bp). 
 
      Distribution of chiasmata was studied in a large sample of metaphase I
 cells and was found to parallel the distribution of recombination.  This
 indicates that there may be no chiasma terminalization in wheat.  The data
 also suggested that there may be substantial differences in interference
 values between A, B, and D genomes.
 
      As a consequence of recombination skewed toward distal regions of
 chromosomes and strong positive chiasma interference, some strong linkages
 observed in wheat may be due not to physical proximity of genes, but to
 their location in chromosome regions where recombination is effectively
 absent.  Such linkages may not be broken even if large populations are
 screened, thus limiting the variation available to breeders.  A study was
 undertaken to determine if premeiotic applications of colchicine could
 change the normal pattern of recombination and the level of interference. 
 Five markers on chromosome 1B were used:  telomeric C-band, Gli-B1, Gli-B6
 on S, centromere, and Glu-B1 on L.  Following application of 1 x 10-5 M
 aqueous colchicine solution with 1% DMSO 2-3 days before MI, the overall
 frequency of recombined chromosomes in backcross progeny decreased from 49
 to 35%, as expected, but the frequency of chromosomes with double
 cross-overs increased from 3.9 to 10.9%.  This indicates that colchicine
 reduced the level of chiasma interference.  Taken on relative basis, the
 proportion of proximal to distal recombination also changed dramatically in
 favor of proximal cross-overs.  This demonstrates that the pattern of
 recombination can be changed experimentally, but it is not clear at this
 point whether this approach can be used to break unfavorable linkages in
 breeding programs.
 
      Chromosomal location of genes for resistance to the Russian wheat aphid
 was studied in hybrids of resistant hexaploid triticales PI 386148 and
 Brumby with susceptible wheat.  In PI386148, which is based on Secale
 montanum, the major gene for resistance was located on chromosome arm 4RLm.
 However, a possibility cannot be entirely ruled out that another gene may
 also be involved.  In Brumby, a satisfactory level of resistance was found
 only in plants with both chromosomes 3R and 6RL present.  Because two
 chromosome arms are involved, and both have mixed homoeology to wheat
 chromosomes, transfer of RWA resistance from triticale Brumby to wheat would
 be difficult. 
 
      Several sets of lines of Pavon wheat with substitutions and
 translocations involving rye chromosomes were developed.  All lines have had
 seven backcrosses to Pavon and come with their sister lines without
 substitutions/translocations as controls.  Three substitutions:  1R(1A),
 1R(1B) and 1R(1D) were produced by monosomic shift from a 1R(1D)
 substitution in the CIMMYT line E12165.  Consequently, all three
 substitutions involve the same chromosome 1R.  The same chromosome 1R was
 used to produce translocations lines 1RS.1AL, 1BS.1RL, and 1RS.1DL.  In
 addition, translocations 1RS.1AL of Amigo, 1RS.1BL of Kavkaz origin (via
 Genaro, a Veery line), another 1RS.1BL of unknown origin and two different
 1RS.1DL translocations, and a 5RS.5BL translocation were transferred to
 Pavon and homozygotes selected.  Complete chromosomes 1B and 1R were
 reconstructed in Pavon from a 1RS.1BL translocation of Kavkaz origin.  The
 reconstruction was accomplished by centric misdivision and fusion in a
 double monosomic 20" + 1RS.1BL + 1BS.1RL.  The reconstructed chromosome 1B
 has its short arm from Pavon and the long arm from Genaro; reconstructed
 chromosome 1R has its short arm from Genaro (hence from Kavkaz) and its long
 arm from E12165.  The lines with the reconstructed chromosomes should allow
 the localization of yield-increasing factors in the 1RS.1BL translocation. 
 Also, a 1RS.1AL translocation involving the same 1RS arm present in the
 Kavkaz translocation can now be produced.  Several additional wheat-rye
 translocations involving arms of rye chromosomes 2R, 3R, 5R and 6R are in
 various stages of backcrosses to Pavon.  A BC7 disomic substitution of Ae.
 speltoides chromosome 7S for 7A was developed in Pavon.  Chromosome 7S
 carries resistance to leaf rust, greenbug, and appears to reduce
 susceptibility to black point.  Recombination between 7A and 7S has been
 induced by the ph1b mutation. 
 
 --------------------
      Triticale cytogenetics (Curtis, Lukaszewski)
 
      In triticale Rhino the total number of single substitutions of D-genome
 chromosomes was brought up to 17.  Substitutions 7D(7B), 3D(3R), 4D(4R), and
 7D(7R) are still missing.  The set of monosomics was advanced by two
 generations.  In triticale Presto, the total number of single
 D-substitutions was brought up to 16.  Substitutions 4D(4A), 6D(6B), 7D(7B),
 4D(4R), and 7D(7R) are still missing.  Two disomic addition lines, of 2D and
 4D, were developed.  Monosomics were advanced by two generations.
 
      To transfer the Glu-D1 gene from chromosome 1D to chromosome 1A
 homoeologous recombination was induced between the long arms of the two
 chromosomes in triticale Rhino using two different sources of 1DL.  Among a
 number of recombinant chromosomes 1A recovered five carry the d allele of
 Glu-D1 (encoding for HMW glutenin subunits 5+10) and eleven carry the a
 allele (subunits 2+12).  It appears certain that the recombinants involving
 the a allele are interstitial; those involving the d allele require
 additional tests.  The recombination frequency between 1D and 1A approached
 that expected for a pair of homologues.  The recombined chromosomes 1A.1D
 with the Glu-D1 gene are being transferred to several different triticale
 lines, and to bread and durum wheats.  Together with the recombined
 chromosomes 1R.1D that also carry the Glu-D1 gene it should be possible to
 introduce the Glu-D1 gene to durum wheats, to produce hexaploid triticales
 with two or four doses of Glu-D1 and breadwheats with up to six doses of
 Glu-D1. 
 
                                   Publications
 
 Curtis, C. A. and A. J. Lukaszewski.  1993.  Localization of genes in rye
 that restore male fertility to hexaploid wheat with timopheevi cytoplasm. 
 Plant Breeding (in press).
 
 
 
 Curtis, C. A. and A. J. Lukaszewski.  1993.  The effect of colchicine on the
 distribution of recombination and chiasma interference in wheat.  Proc. 3rd
 ITMI Meeting, CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico (in press).
 
 Ehdaie, B., D. Barnhart, and J. G. Waines.  1993.  Genetic analyses of
 transpiration efficiency, carbon isotope discrimination, and growth
 characters in bread wheat.  In J. R. Ehleringer, A. E. Hall, and G. D.
 Farquhar (eds.), Stable Isotope and Plant Carbon/Water Relations.  Academic
 Press, San Diego (in press).  
 
 Ehdaie, B. and J. G. Waines.  1992.  Heat resistance in wild Triticum and
 Aegilops.  J. Genet. & Breed. 46:221-228.
 
 Ehdaie, B. and J. G. Waines.  1992.  Water requirement and transpiration
 efficiency of primitive wheats:  A model for their use.  The International
 Workshop: Evaluation and Utilization of Biodiversity in Wild Relations and
 Primitive Forms for Wheat Improvement.  Oct. 10-15, Aleppo. Syria.  
 
 Ehdaie, B. and J. G. Waines.  1993.  Variation in water-use efficiency and
 its components in wheat:  I. Well-watered pot experiment.  Crop Sci. (in
 press).
 
 Lukaszewski, A. J. and C. A. Curtis.  1992.  Recombination pattern and
 chiasma interference in tetraploid wheat.  In S. Rajaram, E. E. Saari, G. P.
 Hetter (eds.), Durum wheats, challenges and opportunities.  Wheat Special
 Report No. 9. Mexico, D.F. CIMMYT, pp. 174-177.
 
 Lukaszewski, A. J. and C.A. Curtis.  1993.  Distribution of recombination in
 B-genome chromosomes of tetraploid wheat.  Theor. Appl. Genet. (in press).
 
 Rafi, M. M., B. Ehdaie, and J. G. Waines.  1992.  Quality traits, carbon
 isotope discrimination and yield components in wild wheats.  Annals of
 Botany 69:467-474.
 
 Shakir, H. S.  1992.  Drought resistance in wheat relatives and their
 addition lines.  Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of California, Riverside.  
 
 --------------------
 COLORADO
 
      Colorado State University 
 
      J. S. Quick, G. H. Ellis, R. Normann, K. Nkongolo, A. Saidi, J.
 Stromberger, H. Dong
 
      Production.  The 1992 Colorado winter wheat production was 69.0 million
 bushels, 97 percent of the 1991 crop, and the yield average was about 26
 u/a.  Hard red spring, soft white spring and durum wheats were collectively
 grown on about 50,000 acres.  Leading cultivars were TAM 107, Lamar, Baca,
 Scout 66, Hawk and Sandy. The most significant 1992 production factors were
 the damages caused by an early winter freeze in northeastern Colorado and
 extremely dry conditions during March and April (tillering and jointing
 stages). 
 
      Breeding program.  Several new winter wheats were evaluated for
 potential release and 'Jules' a semidwarf HRWW tested as CO860094, was
 released for northeastern Colorado. It is superior to other cultivars in
 grain yield, leaf rust resistance, winter hardiness, coleoptile length, and
 hail resistance. Jules is superior to TAM 107 in baking quality and leaf
 rust resistance. Two advanced HRWW lines, CO880210 and CO900777, performed
 very well in 1992 Colorado tests, and along with 8 RWA-resistant lines, are
 under breeder seed increase for possible release in 1994 pending final seed
 increases and evaluation. 
 
       Selection progress was made for grain yield, grain volume weight,
 winter hardiness, resistance to shattering, drought tolerance, WSMV
 resistance, and bread-making quality. Cultivar performance trials and
 Russian wheat aphid evaluations were conducted statewide. 
 
      Russian wheat aphid. The Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) damage
 and cost in 1992 was about $5.0 million. The accumulated losses since 1986
 in Colorado are about $96.4 million. The aphid overwinters in Colorado and
 survives the dry summer on native and introduced grasses. Much project
 activity was associated with Russian wheat aphid (RWA) research where
 excellent cooperation resulted in useful information for improvement of RWA
 resistance in wheat. The first field studies to determine the economic
 injury level on a resistant wheat line were conducted at Fort Collins. RWA
 infestations resulted in significant yield reduction on susceptible wheat,
 but not on the improved resistant wheat.
 
      Resistance to the RWA has been transferred from triticale to wheat
 lines by backcrossing. Resistance to the RWA in three Russian triticale
 lines is controlled by the same single dominant gene in each line. This gene
 has been transferred into wheat, and in situ hybridization studies with a
 rye-specific DNA probe showed that Secale montanum is the rye parent of the
 triticales. A clear association was established between the 4R chromosome
 and resistance to the RWA. Other genetic studies on allelism among different
 sources of resistance will allow efficient gene pyramiding into new
 cultivars.
 
     Field tests of 112 T-57-derived resistant F6 lines at 5 locations in
 eastern Colorado identified 46 lines with cultivar potential for 1993 tests.
 Evaluation of their agronomic, disease and bread-making properties suggests
 possible resistant cultivar release in 1994. 
 
                                   Publications
 
 Sun, Q.X., and Quick, J.S. 1991. Chromosomal locations of genes for heat
 tolerance in tetraploid wheat. Cer. Res. Commun. 19:431-437.
 
 Nkongolo, K.K., Quick, J.S., and Peairs, F.B. 1992. Inheritance of
 resistance of three Russian triticale lines to the Russian wheat aphid. Crop
 Sci. 32:689-692.
 
 Nkongolo, K.K., Lapitan, N.L., and Quick, J.S. 1992. Association of Russian
 wheat aphid resistance and rye DNA detected by in situ hybridization in
 triticale x wheat hybrids. Agron. Abstr., p. 109. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison,
 WI.
 
 Saidi, A., and Quick, J.S. 1992. Inheritance of three winter wheats to the
 Russian wheat aphid. Agron. Abstr. p. 113. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI.
 
 Quick, J.S. 1991. Aphid-resistant variety released. Colorado Wheat Farmer.
 33 (No.4):1.
 
 Quick, J.S. 1991. Yuma is new CSU wheat variety. Colorado Wheat Farmer.
 33(No.4):2-8.
 
 Quick, J.S., Nkongolo, K.K. and Peairs, F.B. 1992. Breeding wheat for
 resistance to the Russian wheat aphid. p. 74-78. IN: Proc. Fifth Russian
 Wheat Aphid Conference, Fort Worth, TX.
 
 Nkongolo, K.K., Quick, J.S. and Peairs, F.B. 1992. Transfer of Russian wheat
 aphid resistance from 6x triticale to common wheat. p. 79-82. IN: Proc.
 Fifth Russian Wheat Aphid Conference, Fort Worth, TX.
 
 Saidi, A., Quick, J.S., and Peairs, F.B. 1992. Effects of plant water stress
 and plant resistance on RWA damage in winter wheat. p. 130-135. IN: Proc.
 Fifth Russian Wheat Aphid Conference, Fort Worth, TX.
 
 Kroening, M.K., Peairs, F.B., Quick, J.S., and Shanahan, J.F. 1992. Economic
 injury level for Russian wheat aphid on a resistant wheat line in Colorado.
 Entom. Soc. Am. Annual Meeting.
 
 Peairs, F.B., Quick, J.S., and Echols, J.E. 1992. Research progress on wheat
 aphid control. Colorado Wheat Farmer. 34(No.1):4.
 
 --------------------
      GEORGIA
 
      J. W. Johnson,* B. M. Cunfer,*  J. J. Roberts,* G. D. Buntin, and R. E.
 Wilkinson
 
      The 1992 Georgia winter wheat crop was grown on about 425,000 harvested
 acres and produced an average of 44 bushels per acre. Favorable fall and
 winter temperatures resulted in good growth.  Grain yields were above
 average due to favorable winter and spring growing conditions.  However, at
 harvest ten days of wet weather conditions resulted in low test weight and
 some sprouting.
 
      Drought.  A study was conducted to determine the effect on plant water
 relations and growth when some roots grow into dry soil.  Part of the roots
 grew in fully irrigated soil on one side of the partition while the rest of
 the roots grew into a  very dry (-4.1 MPa) soil on the other side of the
 partition.  Some roots were found in the dry side already at 21 DAE at a
 soil depth of 15 to 25 cm.  Soil water potential around these roots was 0.7
 to -1.0 MPa at midday.  Therefore, water apparently flowed from the plant
 into the dry soil.  It was concluded that the exposure of a relatively small
 part of a plant root system to a dry soil may result in a plant-to-soil
 water potential gradient which may cause severe plant water stress, leading
 to reduced plant growth and yield.    
 
      Winter Cover Crop.   Non-legumes (small grains, rape, and forage
 turnip) were capable of scavenging 50 to 100 kg N/ha, and were far superior
 to winter annual legumes in recovery of profile nitrate.  Recovery of 15N-
 labeled nitrate from the soil profile was nearly 100% for rape, greater than
 85% for rye, about 60% for the weeds, but less than 10% for crimson clover. 
 On the instrumented tile-drained site, first year results show that a rye
 cover crop reduced nitrate leaching by reducing drainage volume by a third,
 and nitrate concentrations by more than half (0.8 vs. 21.6 ppm N 1111, rye
 and fallow, respectively).  Overall, summer nitrate concentrations of the
 drainage effluent tended to be lower where rye was grown the previous winter
 than where the land had been left fallow.
 
      Hessian Fly in Wheat. Damage by the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor
 Say) was limited in Georgia in the 1992 season, because most fields were
 planted with resistant cultivars and/or treated at planting with a systemic
 insecticide.  The effect of spring infestations of the Hessian fly on grain
 yield of winter barley was studied during a severe outbreak in 1988-1989. 
 Hessian fly reduced grain yield of winter barley when spring infestations
 exceeded 1.0 larva/culm or 40% infested culms.  Yield was reduced mostly by
 a reduction in seeds per spike which was caused by a reduction in spikelets
 per spike.  The cultivar 'Anson' and two breeding lines, UGA 761522 and UGA
 761786RA22, were found to be highly resistant to prevalent biotypes (E, G,
 M, & 0) in Georgia.  The first generation of the European corn borer
 (Ostrinina nubilalis (Hubner)) infests winter wheat in the spring. 
 Tunnelling by 95% of larvae occurred in the peduncle which reduced grain
 weight by 45% mostly ba reduction in weight per seed.  Field infestations
 were well below the estimated infested culms needed to justify control.  
 
      Plant Pathology.   A selective agar medium was developed for isolation
 of the wheat biotype of Stagonospora nodorum from wheat seed.  The medium is
 composed of a minimal nutrient medium plus antibiotics and three fungicides
 to suppress other seedborne bacteria and fungi.  The advantages of the
 medium compared with oxgall agar are improved recovery of S. nodorum,
 sporulation of colonies in 7-10 days, and lower cost of ingredients.  S.
 nodorum does not sporulate on oxgall agar.  The medium was modified for
 optimal recovery of the barley biotype from barley seed.  The wheat biotype
 also was isolated from barley seed from Georgia, North Carolina, and
 Maryland.  These results indicate that barley can be a reservoir for the
 wheat biotype of S. nodorum.
 
      
      A book was completed on the seedborne diseases of wheat by S.B. Mathur
 and Barry M. Cunfer (see publication list).  The chapters were written by an
 international group of wheat pathologists with expertise in seed pathology. 
 The book contains detailed information on pathogen identification, disease
 diagnosis, the role of seedborne inoculum in the epidemiology of each
 disease, seed health testing, and methods for control.  It is illustrated
 with numerous color photographs.  The book is published by the Danish
 Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries and will be
 available in 1993.  Persons interested in purchasing a copy should write to
 the Danish Institute at P.O. Box 34, Ryvangs Alle 78, DK-2900 Hellerup,
 Copenhagen, Denmark. 
 
      Cereal Rust Research.  Cereal rust epidemiology research and surveys
 were continued from the Gulf Coast to the Ohio Valley from March to June. 
 New virulences occur rapidly in the Southeast, limiting the effective life
 of a new cultivar to 3-5 years, fostering much greater use of fungicides
 throughout the Region.  In western Kentucky, 30 fields observed between
 Hopkinsville, KY and Evansville, IN, had obviously been sprayed.  Popular
 cultivars, although susceptible, remain in use due to the effectiveness of
 modern fungicides.  Other diseases of cereals detected during survey
 activities throughout the Southeast this past season included severe powdery
 mildew early in the season, typical glume blotch late in the crop year and
 generally more loose smut than in past years.  A substantial increase in the
 prevalence and severity of damage from the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema
 melanopus L. was noted in many areas this season.
 
      The sixth year of the interstate highway nursery survey technique has
 been completed and the seventh year planted.  The three years each of "off-
 season" and "on-season" data are currently in manuscript review for
 publication.  The technique is promising for cereal rust surveys supplying
 both incidence, severity and virulence information.  Additional applications
 of this technique for detecting other pests of cereals or additional crops
 are being evaluated.  Thirty-one samples were collected and sent to Urbana
 for Barley Yellow Dwarf virus assay last summer.  Twelve tested positive for
 BYDV.  Another preliminary trial indicated the technique is also suitable
 for detecting viruses on peanuts.  
 
       Further research on the role of epicuticular wax components continued
 with field studies at St. Paul, MN and with cooperating scientists at CIMMYT
 in Mexico.  CIMMYT nurseries in Mexico at Ciudad Obregon, El Batan and
 Touluca offer unique opportunities for rust control experiments.  The
 following patent abstract describes the recently-granted patent covering the
 proposed method of rust control. 
 
                            Patent No. 226608 ABSTRACT
                "Methods for inhibiting rust infections of plants"
 
          "Methods are provided which will inhibit leaf rust infections of
 plants, especially wheat.  Non-membrane penetrating compounds are used as
 inhibitors of the enzymes used by the leaf rust germ tubes to ingest and
 metabolize components of epicuticular waxes.  These compounds disrupt the
 extracellular sulfhydryl bonds in leaf rust proteins which are involved in
 the utilization and transport of epicuticular wax components by leaf rust
 germ tubes during the preinfection process.  Limiting the capacity of the
 germ tubes to obtain metabolites from the surface waxes effectively limits
 the frequency of successful infections since only those food reserves stored
 in the urediniospores are available to sustain germ tube growth until a
 stomate is reached.  Methods are delineated whereby the non-membrane
 penetrating compounds are prepared and applied in order to reduce the amount
 of infection." 
 
          Wheat leaf pubescence which has been shown to interfere with normal
 infection processes of wheat leaf rust, also exhibits similar effects on
 three other rust species, crown, stem and stripe rust.  The germplasm
 cultivar, Combo, has leaf hair dense enough to disrupt germ tube growth of
 four cereal rust species.  The mechanism of this disruption is not yet
 known, but may be related to the extremely high levels of Calcium which
 occur at the base of the leaf hairs.  
                                   Publications
  
 
 Blum, A. and J.W. Johnson.  1992.  Transfer of water from roots into dry
 soil and the effect of wheat water relations and growth.  1992.  Plant and
 Soils 145:141-149.
     
 Buntin, G. D.  1992.  Damage by the European corn borer (Lepidoptera:
 Pyralidae to winter wheat.  J. Entomol. Sci.  27:361-365.
 
 Buntin, G. D., and P. L. Raymer.  1992.  Response of winter barley yield and
 yield components to spring infestations of the Hessian fly (Diptera: 
 Cecidomyiidae).  J. Econ. Entom. 85: 2447-2451.
 
 Buntin, G.D., S.L. Ott, and J.W. Johnson  1992.  Integration of plant
 resistance,insecticide, and planting date for management of Hessian fly in
 winter wheat.  J. Econ. Entom. 85:530-538.
 
 Bruckner, P.L., R.D. Barnett, D.D. Morey, J.W. Johnson, B.M. Cunfer, P.L
 Raymer, G.D. Buntin, R.L. Smith, and A.R. Soffes.  1992.  Sunland: A new
 high yielding triticale for the Southeast.  University of Georgia
 Agricultural Experiment Station Res. Rpt. 603.
 
 Cunfer, B. M. 1992.  Leptosphaeria. pp. 64-66. In: Methods for research on
 soilborne phytopathogenic fungi.  Singleton, L. L., Mihail, J. D., and Rush,
 C. M. (eds.). APS Press. St. Paul, MN 265 pp.
 
 Cunfer, B. M., and J. B. Manandhar. 1992.  Use of a selective medium for
 isolation of Stagonospora nodorum from barley seed.  Phytopathology 82:788-
 791.
     
 Hargrove, W.L., J.W. Johnson, J.E. Box, Jr., and P.L. Raymer.  1992. 
 Recovery of soil nitrate by winter cover crops.  p. 17.  Abstract Southern
 Br ASA.
 
 Hargrove, W.L., J.W. Johnson, J.E. Box, Jr., and P.L. Raymer.  1992.  Role
 of winter cover crops in reduction of nitrate leaching from agricultural
 soils.  No. 15. Designing Tomorrow's Sustainable Environment Today.  Proc.
 Univ. System Symp. on Research, Athens, GA.
 
 Hargrove, W.L. J.W. Johnson, J.E. Box, Jr., and P.L. Raymer.  1992.  Role of
 winter cover crops in reduction of nitrate leaching. p. 114-119.  Proc.
 Southern Conserv. Tillage Conf., Jackson, TN.
 
 Johnson, J. W., and R. E. Wilkinson.  1992.  Wheat growth response of
 cultivars to H+ concentration.  Plant and Soils 146: 55-59.
 
 Johnson, J. W., B. M. Cunfer, P. L. Bruckner, J. J. Roberts, and G. D.
 Buntin.  1991.  Registration of `Georgia 100' wheat.  Crop Sci. 31:491-492.
 
 Long, D.L., J.J. Roberts, J.F. Schafer, J.W. Johnson, H.A. Fowler, JR., and
 B.M. Cunfer.  1992.  Registration of six leaf rust resistant soft red winter
 wheat germplasm lines.  Crop Sci. 32:1514-1515.
 
 Long, D. L., A. P. Roelfs and J. J. Roberts. Virulence of Puccinia recondita
 f. sp. tritici in the United States during 1988-1990.  Plant Dis.
 76:495-499. 1992.
 
 Manandhar, J. B., and B. M. Cunfer. 1991.  An improved selective medium for
 the assay of Septoria nodorum from wheat seed.  Phytopathology 81:771-773.
 
 Mathur, S. B., and B. M. Cunfer (eds.). 1993.  Seed-borne diseases and seed
 health testing of wheat.  Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for
 Developing Countries.  Copenhagen. (in press).
 
 McMillin, D.D., J.W. Johnson, and J.J. Roberts. 1992.  Linkage of a
 biochemical marker to a leaf rust resistance gene.  International Crop
 Science Congress, Ames, IA. July 14-22, p S33.
 
 Roelfs, A. P., D. H. Casper, D. L. Long and J. J. Roberts.  Races of
 Puccinia graminis in the United States in 1989.  Plant Dis. 75:1127-1129.
 1991.
 
 Roberts, John J. and Barry. M. Cunfer.  Diseases, In: 1990-91 Small Grain
 Performance Tests. The University of Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station
 Research Report #604, 1991.
 
 Roberts, J.J., J.W. Johnson, and D.L. Long.  1992.  Effect of cultivar
 deployment on leaf rust virulence in the Southeastern United States. 
 Agronomy Abstr. p. 112.
 
 Spradlin, T., J. Youmans, D. V. Phillips, and B. M. Cunfer. 1991.  A simple
 and inexpensive system for collection of data at remote locations.  Plant
 Dis. 75:645-647.
 
 Wilkinson, Robert E., and John J. Roberts. Barriers in the wheat leaf rust
 preinfection phase. 1993. Book chapter in: Plant Response Mechanisms to the
 Environment.   
 
 Yocum, J. A., and B. M. Cunfer. 1992.  Effects leaf age on components of
 partial resistance to Stagonospora nodorum on wheat.  (Abstr.)
 Phytopathology 82:1179-1180.
 
 Yocum, J.A. 1992. Components of partial resistance to Leptosphaeria nodorum
 in winter wheat. Ph.D. thesis. 185 pp.
     
     Personnel: Dr. Phil Bruckner has taken a position in the wheat breeding
 program at Montana State University.  Bingru Huang has started a Post-Doc
 position in the Crop and Soil Sciences Department where she will be
 conducting research in the area of root physiology. 
 
 --------------------
 IDAHO
 
       University of Idaho, Moscow and Aberdeen
 
       R. Zemetra*, E. Souza*, S. Guy*, S. Quisenberry, D. Schotzko, M.
 Lauver, M. Heikkinen, Malik Rafi, and        Mohammed Fida
 
      Production.  The 1992 Idaho winter wheat production was 52 million
 bushels, a  6% increase from 1991.  The increase can be attributed to
 favorable winter conditions that allowed a greater number of acres to be
 harvested. Seventy-five percent of the production was soft white winter
 wheat with the rest being hard red winter wheat.  Due to the mild winter
 conditions and low precipitation in spring, foliar diseases were not a
 problem in most areas.  Low precipitation did reduce yields and test weights
 in some areas causing a reduction in average bushels per acre produced in
 the state.  Statistics for the Idaho winter wheat production for the last
 five years are shown below.
 
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Year              Acres           Acres         Yield           Prod.(bu)
                   Planted         Harvst.
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   x1000           x1000          bu/ac          x1000
                   ------------------------------------------------------
 1988                820             770           66            50,820
 1989                880             810           70            56,700
 1990                960             920           75            69,000
 1991                870             700           70            49,000
 1992                870             800           65            52,000
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
      Personnel.  Dr. Juliet Windes joined the Aberdeen wheat breeding
 program in September as an assistant breeder.  Dr. Windes recently completed
 her Ph.D. at the University of Illinois in plant pathology.  Karen Dempster
 transferred from the Moscow wheat breeding program to the barley enhancement
 program.  Jennifer Hansen joined the Moscow breeding program in October as a
 Laboratory/greenhouse technician.  Luis Pierola completed his masters degree
 and returned to his wheat breeding position in Bolivia.
 
      Germplasm Releases.  Two winter wheat populations segregating for a
 Dominant male sterile gene were released as germplasms in 1992.  These are
 unimproved populations of intermated genotypes that form a base population
 for genetic selection.  Idaho Intensive Management Male Sterile Population,
 Cycle 0 (IDIMMS-C0) is a population generally adapted to intensive
 management based on intermating Idaho breeding lines, European winter
 wheats, and Southern Mid-Western hard red winter wheats that performed well
 in irrigated trials at Aberdeen, Idaho.  IDIMMS-C0 has a high frequency of
 alleles for resistance to stripe rust and a low frequency of resistance
 alleles to dwarf bunt and leaf rust.  The second population, Idaho Snow Mold
 Male Sterile Population, Cycle 0 (IDSMMS-C0) has a high frequency of snow
 mold resistance alleles and the dwarf bunt resistance alleles Bt5, Bt8, Bt9,
 Bt10, and Bt12.  Background genotypes for IDSMMS-C0 includes Idaho hard red
 winter wheats, snow mold resistance sources, and for quality improvement,
 'Plainsman V' derivatives. 
 
      Russian Wheat Aphid.  Progeny from backcross populations with Russian
 wheat aphid (RWA) from several resistant sources were tested in the field
 for RWA resistance.  Several lines of both spring and winter wheats were
 identified with resistant equivalent to the resistant accession.  Evaluation
 for agronomic performance of these lines was initiated in both Moscow and
 Aberdeen.
 
      A crude RWA extract was used to screen for somaclonal variants with
 improved RWA resistance.  Modest levels of resistance were still present
 after two generations based on greenhouse evaluation for RWA resistance. 
 Research by Malik Rafi, Ph.D student, demonstrated that changes occurred in
 callus growth and protein profiles of callus from resistant and susceptible
 wheat accessions after treatment with fractionated RWA extract.  
 
      Snow Mold.  Research by Fida Mohammed, Ph.D. student, has confirmed
 earlier research correlating Total Non-structural Carbohydrate (TNC) of
 crown tissue to snow mold tolerance in winter wheats.  TNC was quantified
 using a revised method of the Nelsons Colorimetric Sugar Assay.  The TNC
 content of cultivars estimated on growth chamber reared plants chilled at 4
 C for 2 weeks was correlated to the survival of those cultivars in field
 trials with moderate to severe snowmold survival.
 
                                                Publications
 
 Guy, S.O., M. Heikkinen, B. Zemetra, andM. Lauver. 1992. Variety Development
 in Idaho.  University of Idaho, Cooperative Extension System, Current
 Information Series No. 976.
 
 Quisenberry, S., C.M. Smith, D.J. Schotzko, R.S. Zemetra, and E.Souza. 1992.
 
 Wheat resistance to Diuraphis noxia and effects of preconditioning host
 plants.  Proceedings XIX Intern. Cong. of Entomol. Beijing, China.  p. 184d.
 
 Pierola, Luis. 1992.  Improving selection for yield in wheat by nearest
 neighbor adjustment and path coefficient analysis.  Master's thesis. 
 University of Idaho.
 
 Rafi, M., and R.S. Zemetra. 1992.  Differential response of resistant and
 susceptible wheat calli culture to Russian wheat aphid phytotoxin.  Abst.
 World Cong. on Cell and Tissue Cult. in In Vitro 28: 92A.
 
 
 Smith, C. Michael, Dennis Schotzko, Robert S. Zemetra, and Edward J. Souza.
 1992.  Categories of resistance in wheat plant introductions resistant to
 the Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae).  J. Econ. Entomol. 85:1480-
 1484.
 
 Souza, E., and D.W. Sunderman. 1992.  Pair-wise superiority of winter wheat
 genotype for spring stand.  Crop Sci. 32: 938-942.
 
 Souza, D., D.W. Sunderman, and J. Tyler. 1992.  Registration of 'Vandal'
 wheat. Crop Sci. 32: 833-834.
 
 Souza, E., D.W. Sunderman, J. Whitmore, and K. O'Brien. 1992.  Registration
 of 'Survivor' wheat.  Crop Sci. 32: 833.
 
 Souza, E. J. Tyler, and K. O'Brien. 1992.  Registration of 'Idaho Dark
 Northern Spring, Cycle 0' wheat germplasm.  Crop Sci. 32: 290-291.
 
 Souza, E., C.M. Smith, D.J. Schotzko. and R.S. Zemetra. 1991.  Greenhouse
 evaluation of red wheats for resistance to the Russian wheat aphid
 (Diuraphis noxia, Mordvilko). Euphytica 57: 221-225.
 
 Souza, E., P.N. Fox, D. Lee, B. Skovmand, S. Rajaram, and J. Crossa. 1992.
 Changes in spring wheat diversity in Pakistan and Northern Mexico estimated
 from coefficients of parentage.  Abst. First Intern. Crop Sci. Cong. Crop
 Sci. Soc. Amer., Madison, Wisconsin, p. 85. 
 
 Zemetra, R.S., D.J. Schotzko, C.M. Smith, and M. Lauver. 1993. In vitro
 selection for Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) resistance in wheat
 (Triticum aestivum). Plant Cell Reports (in press). 
 
 Zemetra, R.S., M.M. Rafi, and K. Dempster. 1992.  Effects of abscisic acid
 in wheat calli culture.  Agr. Abst. p. 199.
 
 Zemetra, R. J. Johnson, S. Quisenberry, G. Knudsen, E. Souza, D. Schotzko,
 C.M. Smith, E. Bechinski, M. Feng, S. Schroeder-Teeter, M. Rafi, Z. Wang,
 and G.H. Lee. 1992.  Developing integrated control strategies for the  
 Russian wheat aphid in wheat.  Abst. First Intern. Crop Sci. Cong. Crop Sci.
 Soc. Amer., Madison, Wisconsin, p. 84.
 --------------------
       Camas Wheat Breeding, Moscow ID Plant Breeders 1, Moscow ID 
 
       W.K. Pope (CWB) and Wayne McProud (PB1)
 
       Tolerance to dry land footrot. There was severe drought stress in the
 1991-92 wheat breeding plots near Culdesac, Nez Perce county, ID. The root
 disease pattern changed from the usual mixture of Cercosporella and
 Cephalosporium to an unidentified disorder presumed to be dryland footrot,
 Fusarium spp. The main symptoms were weak roots, reduced vigor and yield
 with smaller, thinner seeds. The surprise was that Weston CI17727 which
 usually has moderate yields at this location, became the superior variety.
 No other commercial hard red winter wheat was grown. In 7x7 hill plot yield
 trials only seven of 32 entries, previously selected for tolerance to
 Cephalosporium, were equal or superior to Weston. Four of these seven lines
 (from seven entries) were from the family Weston/"Bare". Bare was selected
 originally for tolerance to Rhizoctonia and has a complex pedigree in which
 PI178383 occurs four times and the European wheats Staring and Odin occur
 once each. A second wheat clearly superior was Sel-l of Weston/Louvrin-24.
 Sel-l has been superior in many soil disease situations in northern Idaho
 except against Cephalosporium. In derivatives of the first backcross,
 Weston/Sel-l, a few head clumps were recovered that had both good yield and
 plump seed, implying additive interactions of Weston and Louvri~-24 genetic
 components for tolerance to this disorder.
 
      White winter wheat. Wayne McProud (FBl). Superior selections were found
 at different frequencies according to the hierarchy of the selection
 nursery. In advanced 7x7 hill plot yield trials 57 out of 110 entries had 50
 percent or higher yields than the mean of the Stephens and Daws checks which
 had poor yields. In a more preliminary nursery nine out of 150 entries were
 50 percent better and in the beginning screening trials 128 of approximately
 4000 entries had 50 percent higher yield than the mean of the checks. These
 derivatives trace to crosses with F2 selections from an Oregon State
 University--CIMMYT International Wheat Population. Selection in the
 screening trial was based on root strength as determined by the plant's
 resistance to being pulled out of the ground. These results imply the
 presence of genes influencing tolerance to this trouble can be followed
 using conventional yield comparisons.
 --------------------
 ILLINOIS
 
      F.L. Kolb* and E.D. Nafziger, Dep. of Agronomy; W.L. Pedersen*, Dep. of
 Plant Pathology; W.H. Brink, Cooperative Extension Service, University
 of Illinois
 
      Production.  Farmers in Illinois planted 1.45 million acres (587,000
 hectares) of soft red winter wheat in the fall of 1991.  In early November,
 temperatures fell sharply, resulting in the death of most or all plants in
 many fields in the northern part of the state.  This was followed by some
 excessively wet soil conditions and another freeze in March, after the crop
 had begun to grow.  As a result, only about half of the crop was rated
 "fair" or better in early April, and eventually about 350,000 acres (140,000
 hectares) of the crop were abandoned.  Because of the thin stands, the May 1
 official estimate of yield for the state was 49 bushels per acre (3,300
 kg/ha), dropping to only 42 bushels per acre (2,830 kg/ha) by June 1.  The
 spring conditions were extremely favorable, however, with cool temperatures
 and little rainfall during May and June.  The final harvested yield was 54
 bushels per acre (3,640 kg/ha), and test weights were very high.  Despite
 the late harvest of summer crops, producers planted about 1.65 million acres
 (668,000 hectares) of wheat in the fall of 1992.  At mid-winter, the
 condition of the crop appears to be quite good.
 
      Management Research and Cultivar Evaluation (E.D. Nafziger).  We again
 conducted N rate studies in eleven farm fields in areas where the wheat
 survived the winter.  The crop was much more responsive to N than in 1991;
 the average optimum N rate was found to be about 88 lb N per acre (99 kg
 N/ha) applied in the spring, following about 21 lb N per acre (23 kg N/ha)
 in the fall.  Planting rate x seed size x seed treatment studies conducted
 at two locations showed very little effect of these variables on grain
 yield.
 
      Cultivar comparisons were planted at six locations, with an average of
 about 60 entries per location.  Entries consisted of advanced lines from the
 University of Illinois breeding program, public varieties, and commercial
 entries.  Three of the six locations were lost to the fall freeze.  Yields
 at the two southernmost locations were extremely high, with several
 cultivars yielding more that 100 bushels per acre (6,700 kg/ha) at each
 location.  A report of performance of commercial cultivars was distributed
 in early August.  Copies are available on request.
 
      Cultivar Development (F.L. Kolb).  Trials to evaluate experimental
 breeding lines were planted at three locations, but the freeze in early
 November killed all plants at two of the locations.  About 125 experimental
 breeding lines were evaluated at the surviving location.  Approximately 220
 preliminary breeding lines were also evaluated at that location.  Yields
 were excellent and test weights were high.  Some septoria leaf blotch
 occurred but was not severe.  
 
      Evaluation of Seed Treatment Fungicides (W.L. Pedersen and W.H. Brink).
 Three seed lots of Cardinal having 52, 57, or 62 lb/bu test weight were
 treated with eight fungicide seed treatments and evaluated at three
 locations in Illinois in 1992.  The level of scab infection was 23%, 14%,
 and 4% for the 52, 57, and 62 lb/bu seed lots, respectively.  Fall and
 spring stands were not significantly different among the seed treatments or
 among the seed lots.  Yields were significantly affected by test weight at
 only one location; however, seed treatments increased yields for all seed
 lots at all locations.  There was no significant difference among the eight
 seed treatments.  Mean yields for the fungicide treatments averaged across
 all test weights, ranged from 71.6 to 73.6 bu/a, with the nontreated control
 having a yield of 66.3 bu/a.
 
      Evaluation of Wheat Cultivars for Resistance to Septoria nodorum (Wayne
 L. Pedersen) .  We tested several wheat cultivars and experimental breeding
 lines for resistance to the foliar phase of Septoria nodorum under
 greenhouse conditions using the technique described by Hagbord in 1970 (Can.
 J. Bot 48:1135-1136).  Several cultivars showed no symptoms following
 inoculation at the seedling stage.  Of the cultivars tested, Caldwell had
 the largest lesions and the shortest latent period.  This project is
 continuing and greenhouse data will be compared with field reactions in
 1993.
 --------------------
 INDIANA
 
      H. W.  Ohm, H. C. Sharma, I. M. Dweikat, S. A. Mackenzie, D.
 McFatridge, F. L. Patterson (Dept. Agronomy), G. Shaner, R. M. Lister, D. M.
 Huber, G. Buechley (Dept. Botany and Plant Pathology), R. H.      
 Ratcliffe, R. H. Shukle, G. Safranski, S. Cambron (USDA-ARS and Dept.
 Entomology), Purdue University 
 
      Production. Farmers in Indiana planted 800,000 acres (324,000 hectares)
 of soft red winter wheat in the fall of 1991. The harvested wheat area of
 450,000 acres (182,000 ha) in 1992 was 63% of that in 1991. Total production
 in 1992 was 22.5 million bushels (613,000 metric tons), 78% of production in
 1991. Average yield in 1992 was 50 bu/acre (3.36 m-tons/ha) compared to 40
 bu/acre (2.69 m-tons/ha) in 1991.  Clark, Cardinal, and Caldwell were the
 three leading public cultivars, occupying 22, 15, and 12% of the wheat area,
 respectively.  Private cultivars occupied 45% of the wheat area, compared to
 36% in 1991.
 
      Season. Wheat seeding progressed more rapidly than normal, and was
 complete by the end of October.  The large abandonment of acreage for
 harvest resulted from severe and extensive winter killing.  During the last
 10 days of October, daily high temperatures ranged from 59 to 76 F (15 to 24
 C), and lows were generally above 52 F (11 C).  On November 8 and 9
 temperatures dropped to 7 F (-14 C).  This abrupt and unusual drop in
 temperature resulted in almost complete killing of foliage in many fields. 
 During mid-November temperatures were again consistently above freezing,
 with daily lows ranging from 35 to 55 F (2 to 13 C), and wheat resumed
 growth.  Another blast of cold air hit Indiana on November 25, followed by a
 week of unseasonably warm temperatures.  These two episodes of extreme cold,
 circumscribed by unusually warm weather, resulted in extensive winter
 killing.  The first cold episode, striking before wheat had hardened off,
 stressed the plants and killed some of them outright.  During the
 intervening warm period, Rhizoctonia cerealis invaded the senescent tissue. 
 The buildup of this fungus on the abundant substrate of dead leaf tissue,
 and the additional stress of the second cold episode, allowed the fungus to
 invade crown and root tissue, and by early December it was evident that
 wheat in many fields was dead.  Many variations in severity of winter kill
 were observed within and among fields, but differences in tillage, cultivar,
 soil type, or field exposure could not be consistently associated with
 winter hardiness.  Wheat sown exceptionally early or exceptionally late
 survived better.  This may have been because of insufficient leaf tissue
 available for initial saprophytic invasion by R. cerealis of late sown
 wheat, which was barely in the 1-leaf stage when the November freezes
 occurred.  There was less winter killing when cattle manure had been applied
 preplant, in the lower sedimented areas of sandy fields, or within the leaf
 drop area of trees in fence row areas.  Lower levels of disease were
 correlated with higher tissue concentrations of Zn.  There was enough Zn in
 the cattle manure and sedimented soils to account for the observed effect;
 however, the higher Zn in wheat (disease and non-disease conditions) growing
 adjacent to tree-lined fence rows apparently resulted from the  increased
 availability of Zn by mycorrhizae on the trees and its greater availability
 for wheat during leaf mineralization.  Resistance to Rhizoctonia was
 correlated with higher Zn and carbohydrate levels in plant tissues, and
 those environmental or biological conditions which increased its
 availability. 
 
      Many fields that survived the winter sufficiently to warrant harvest
 had irregular stands.  As the season progressed, the average crop condition
 improved as poorer fields were destroyed.  Wheat heading and maturity were
 somewhat later than average.
 
      Disease surveys.  Wheat diseases were generally not as severe as in the
 previous two years.  Some fields in southern Indiana had heavy infestations
 of aphids and yellow dwarf was severe.  Septoria leaf and glume blotch were
 present in many fields.  Leaf rust appeared early in southern Indiana, but
 remained at a rather constant and low level.  Fusarium head scab was
 sporadic.
 
 Insect surveys (Safranski and Cambron).  
 
      Based on a survey of 206 fields in 55 Indiana counties, there was less
 Hessian fly infestation in 1992 than in 1991.  For 1992, 28.6% of fields
 were infested, and 2% had an infestation level of at least 10%.  The mean
 percentage infestation for all wheat varieties sampled was 1.5%, and the
 number of puparia per 100 stems was 2.  This was the third year that Hessian
 fly infestations have remained low in Indiana following a sharp increase in
 1989.  Thirty entries in the Uniform Hessian Fly Nursery were evaluated in
 Arkansas, Georgia, and South Carolina (total of 8 trials).  Fly populations
 at Plains and Tifton, Georgia were highly virulent to H3 and H5 genes for
 resistance. No infestation was recorded on wheat entries with H7H8, H9H10,
 H12 and 2RL genes for resistance at the Georgia locations.
 
 Cultivar and germplasm development. 
 
      Two soft red winter wheat lines, P811670A9-10-6-7-63 and P8138I1-16-2-
 2-1-1-3-3 were released.  They will be named in the summer of 1993. 
 P811670A9-10-6-7-63 will be released as a certified cultivar.  Its pedigree
 is Caldwell//Beau/Kavkaz, and it carries the 1B/1R translocation.  This line
 is resistant to powdery mildew, moderately resistant to leaf rust, resistant
 to wheat spindle streak mosaic virus, and slightly more resistant to
 Septoria leaf and glume blotch than Caldwell and Clark, but not as resistant
 as Auburn.  P811670A9-10-6-7-63 is about 2 days later in maturity than
 Caldwell and it has excellent milling and baking quality.  P8138I1-16-2-2-1-
 1-3-3 will be released under a license program, like earlier releases INW
 8841 and INW 8852.  It is similar in appearance to Auburn, but has better
 yield potential.  It is moderately resistant to wheat spindle streak mosaic
 virus, resistant to powdery mildew and leaf rust, and a degree of resistance
 to Septoria leaf and glume blotch similar to Auburn's.  Germplasm lines
 homozygous for several genes for resistance to Hessian fly were released
 (see details under Hessian fly section). Eight known genes for resistance to
 Hessian fly were backcrossed into Newton susceptible wheat (Patterson, Maas,
 Foster, Ratcliffe, Cambron, Safranski, P. Taylor, Ohm).  Representative
 lines for genes H3, H5, H6, H9, H10, H11, H12, and H13 are in the process of
 germplasm release.  Seed has been furnished to the National Small Grains
 Collection, Aberdeen, ID.  Plant identification numbers PI 562612 through PI
 562619 have been assigned.  Proposed names have been cleared.  A crop
 registration manuscript has been prepared and will be submitted to Crop 
 Science.  The lines are being used to identify DNA markers for some of the
 genes. Additional germplasm, determined to be homozygous resistant to
 biotype  L  of the Hessian fly, is also available for sharing (Maas). 
 Biotype  L  is the most virulent biotype described.  Plants were selected
 for low vernalization requirement in the greenhouse, so these lines will
 probably have some adaptation to the deep south of the U. S.  We expect that
 selection for winter habit and winter hardiness in future generations will
 yield types well adapted to the entire soft red winter wheat region.  These
 lines are:
 IN93HF307 is an F2 plant selection from the cross Boone/FL85267-G15-PG9-3. 
 FL85267-G15-PG9-3 has the parentage: Ella//FL74265/FL7924/3/FL 303 Sib. 
 Ella is the source for the H9 gene.  ( FL  indicates University of Florida
 origin). IN93HF265 is an F2 plant selection from the cross PSR Exp.
 A916/8686A1-8.  8686A1-8 is a Purdue University germplasm line with the
 parentage: 72482/Beau//66203/Sullivan/3/Auburn*2/Parker 76.  Parker 76 is
 the source for the H18 gene. IN93HF391 is a BC2F2 plant selection from the
 cross FL85238-G94-6 *3/KS86HF012-23-6.  KS86HF012-23-6 is a germplasm
 release from Kansas State University that is the source for the H21 gene
 (2RL/2BS translocation). IN93HF407 is an F2 plant selection from the cross
 Boone/3/FL7925-G47-J10-L1-N1//KS86HF012-23-6/FL85238-G28-G4. IN93HF622 is an
 F2 plant selection from the cross 2580//FL85238-G94-6 *2/KS86HF012-23-6.
 
      Wheat breeding.  A few breeding lines survived the winter to some
 degree, and selections were made in these for early maturity, short straw,
 and tolerance to yellow dwarf.  It is possible that these lines will show
 superior winter hardiness.  Fungal disease development in surviving plants
 was inadequate for selection.   Among lines selected were progeny from
 crosses to combine leaf rust resistance (either hypersensitivity or slow
 rusting) with resistance to Septoria blotch and yellow dwarf.  Many of the
 F2 populations from crosses made in the fall of 1990 were lost;  residual
 seed will be used to regrow these populations.  The transfer of several
 genes conferring resistance to prevalent biotypes of Hessian fly, and of
 genes conferring resistance to Fusarium graminearum (head scab), Septoria
 tritici and Stagonospora nodorum (Septoria leaf and glume blotch), Erysiphe
 graminis (powdery mildew), Puccinia recondita (leaf rust), and barley yellow
 dwarf virus into adapted wheat lines was continued.
 
      Genetics of slow rusting  (Shaner and Buechley).  Slow rusting wheat CI
 13227 was crossed with fast rusting wheat Suwon 92.  We evaluated parents,
 F1, F2, and both back cross generations for slow rusting in the greenhouse. 
 The distribution of latent period for each generation was normal, except for
 the backcross to Suwon 92.  Distributions for F2 and both backcrosses were
 broader than distributions for parents and the F1.  At least two genes
 appear to control latent period in this cross, and additive and dominance
 effects make about an equal contribution to genetic variation.
 
      Durability of slow-rusting resistance in wheat.  Graduate student Jeff
 Lehman found that leaf rust isolates selected for shortened latent period on
 slow-rusting cultivar CI 13227 caused 4-11% higher average rust severity on
 CI 13227 in the field than did the original wild-type population of leaf
 rust.  Based on a yield reduction study in the greenhouse, we estimate that
 these selected isolates could reduce yield 2-5% compared to wild-type on CI
 13227.
 
      Two other Indiana populations of leaf rust (881-WT and 882-WT) were
 subjected to selection for shortened latent period on slow-rusting wheats SW
 72469-6 and CI 13227.  Selection decreased latent period by 2-4 days on
 these varieties.  Jeff found that sporulation, pustule size, and pustule
 expansion rate are better predictors of epidemiological parameters in the
 field than is latent period or infection frequency. 
 
      Adult-plant hypersensitivity to leaf rust (Shaner and Buechley).   In
 the spring of 1992, crosses were made between various Purdue breeding lines
 with complex leaf rust resistance and other elite lines to combine this
 effective leaf rust resistance with resistance to Septoria blotch and high
 yield potential. 
 
      Septoria leaf and glume blotch  Crosses were made between new
 accessions resistant to Septoria tritici and susceptible wheats or known
 resistant lines, to determine the inheritance of resistance in the new
 accessions and the relation between their genes for resistance and known
 genes for resistance.
 
      We are cooperating with Dr. Peter Ueng (USDA, ARS, Beltsville) in
 investigations of S. tritici and S. nodorum, and of resistance to these
 pathogens in wheat at the molecular level.  Dr. Ueng was able to detect
 RFLPs among isolates of S. nodorum from various geographical regions with
 several probes made from genomic DNA from an isolate of S. nodorum from New
 York. From Dwight Bostwick's Ph.D. thesis research, three chromosomes (3A,
 4A, and 3B) in cultivar Cotipora carried genes with significant effect on
 resistance to S. nodorum.  Graduate student X. Hu is following up this work
 to locate resistance genes on chromosome arms in Cotipora and in resistant
 Purdue breeding lines.
 
      Fusarium head scab  (Bai, Ohm, and Shaner) Graduate student G-H. Bai
 crossed six Chinese cultivars with resistance to head scab to two
 susceptible cultivars, Clark and Morocco.  Their F1, F2, and backcross
 progenies were evaluated for resistance following inoculation with Fusarium
 graminearum in the greenhouse at flowering.  Progression of symptoms
 throughout the spike was recorded over a 21-day period.  Resistance was
 controlled largely by the action of three genes.  Heritability of resistance
 was reasonably high.  For most crosses, an additive-dominance genetic model
 explained the segregation patterns observed, with additive effects being
 most important.  When they occurred, genetic interactions (epistasis) were
 small, but tended to reduce resistance.  The genetic studies indicate that
 selection for head scab resistance can be made in early segregating
 generations with proper selection pressure. Tested resistant plants from the
 second backcross of scab resistant Chinese wheats to Clark were crossed to
 Clark, Cardinal, or other elite breeding lines.  F2 seed from these crosses
 was produced in the spring vernalized nursery, and this seed was sown in a
 field nursery in the autumn of 1992.  Residual F2 plants from this same
 source were screened for resistance in the greenhouse in the autumn of 1992.
 
 About 15% of the population had resistance nearly as effective as that in
 Ning 7840.
 
      Fungicidal control of wheat diseases (Shaner and Buechley)  The
 fungicide trial plots at the Purdue Agronomy Research Center were entirely
 lost to winter kill.  Plots in southern Indiana survived reasonably well,
 but stands were thin.  Among 30 treatments, Septoria leaf blotch was
 severest on the untreated control.  The best control was achieved with an
 application of Folicur 3.6 F  (tebuconazole) at 438 ml/ha at early spike
 emergence.  Plots that received this rate of Folicur at early boot had as
 much disease as the untreated control, emphasizing the importance of timing
 of application.  Altogether 14 treatments were significantly better than the
 control for leaf blotch control, including Tilt (propicanozole) applied at
 flag leaf emergence (292 ml/ha)and a mixture of Bayleton (triadimefon) and
 Penncozeb (mancozeb) applied at early spike emergence (280 g + 2.24 kg/ha). 
 
 
      Take-all (Don Huber, Tina McCay-Buis, Darrell Schulze)  Selection of
 microorganisms for their manganese reducing activity in soil is more likely
 to generate a potential biological control agent than direct selection for
 antagonism to Gaeumannomyces graminis.  Siderophore production, phenazine
 antibiotic production, and gram reaction again were not associated with
 biological control capability.  Bacterization with manganese oxidizing
 organisms generally increased disease and reduced Mn tissue levels in host
 plants while the opposite was observed with manganese reducing organisms.  A
 moderately virulent manganese oxidizing isolate was able to complement an
 avirulent isolate to result in increased disease severity.  Some potential
 biological control organisms can oxidize as well as reduce manganese
 depending on the soil pH or redox reaction.  Nuclear magnetic resonance
 evaluations supported the role of redox reactions with manganese for the
 pathogen as well as the host.  All of the plant growth promoting rhizosphere
 bacterial strains and potential biological control organisms (bacteria and
 fungi) tested are manganese reducers which may account for their growth
 stimulation in the absence of severe disease. 
 
      The ability to inhibit Mn-oxidation by G. graminis tritici in situ
 appears to be essential for biological control of this pathogen.  Strong Mn-
 reducing potential is associated with plant growth stimulation (PGPR
 bacteria) which may reduce disease severity and be effective under mild
 disease conditions, but ineffective under more optimal conditions.  It is
 only when Mn-oxidation by G. graminis tritici is blocked that infection is
 prevented.  This  blocking  of virulence as a mechanism of biological
 control may occur without significantly affecting growth of the pathogen.
 
      Synchrotron X-ray Microprobe and Microspectroscopy (both x-ray
 fluorescence and x-ray absorption spectroscopy) provides a potential way to
 follow pathogenesis and screen for biological control in vivo by following
 the valence states of Mn (and other transition metals) in the rhizoplane. 
 This equipment can be focused through soil to the root interface with a
 sensitivity of a 0.2 mm beam.  Quantification of the valence changes can
 provide an index of plant resistance and/or severity of disease.  This
 research is in cooperation with Dr. Darrell Schulze (Purdue soil physicist)
 and researchers at the Brookhaven National Laboratory.
 We are continuing to develop improved nitrification inhibitors which can
 enhance biological disease control while improving the efficiency of applied
 fertilizers (both organic and inorganic) by preventing leaching and
 denitrification losses.  The fertilizer resource value and plant uptake
 efficiency of N, PO4, Zn, and Mn are improved when nitrification is
 inhibited.  Amendment of soil with animal manure provides a readily
 available source of C and N which stimulates microbial activity and
 increases nitrification and denitrification losses of N.  Inhibiting
 nitrification prevents  this loss and provides a greater proportion of the N
 in soil for plant uptake as the stable ammonium form.
 
 
      Barley yellow dwarf virus (Sharma)  Isolation of resistant monosomic
 alien addition lines from crosses between Agropyron species and wheat was
 completed.  Fourth generation fertile and BYDV-resistant wheat plants with
 one, half, or no alien chromosomes were selected.  Currently, we are
 characterizing this material and developing homozygous/disomic resistant
 addition lines.  Incomplete data suggest that transmission of wheatgrass
 chromosomes through pollen is low.  Many 42-chromosome plants are
 susceptible to BYDV.  They probably contain only the wheat genome with no
 genetic material from wheatgrasses.  Some, however, are resistant.
 
      Aphid vectors of BYDV. J. E. Araya and S. Cambron studied life
 parameters of apterous and alate females of  green and pink forms of the
 English grain aphid, a vector of BYDV.  Data on pre-reproductive,
 reproductive and post-reproductive period, longevity, progeny production and
 intrinsic rate of increase was collected for use in development of
 population models of cereal aphids.  Variations among forms may affect the
 ability to predict aphid infestations in the field and complicate efforts to
 reduce aphid feeding injury and BYDV transmission. There were significant
 differences among aphid forms in all life parameters, except total progeny. 
 Pre and post-reproductive periods were significantly longer for alate than
 apterous aphids of both color forms, and significantly longer for pink than
 green forms of apterous aphids.  The reproductive period was significantly
 shorter for pink apterous aphids than all other forms, and the intrinsic
 rate of increase was significantly greater for pink than green forms for
 both apterous and alate aphids.  This variability among forms shows the
 importance of determining life parameters of different forms within an aphid
 species when developing population models for predicting aphid infestation
 in the field.
 
      Genetics of Hessian fly resistance  Hari Sharma is investigating the
 genetic control of resistance to biotype L of Hessian fly in einkorn wheat. 
 He has tested over 400 progenies of segregating populations from crosses
 between resistant and susceptible accessions of einkorn.  He has also
 initiated research to cytogenetically locate and map Hessian fly resistance
 genes H3, H9, H10, and H12 identified in Purdue breeding lines.  Segregating
 populations from monosomic hybrids are being tested for their reaction to
 biotypes of the fly.  Monotelodisomic hybrids between relevant cytogenetic
 stocks and Purdue sources of fly resistance are being developed.
 
 
      Hessian fly biotype nomenclature (Patterson, Foster, Ohm, J.H.
 Hatchett, and P. Taylor).  A new system of biotype designation is proposed,
 similar to what is now used for wheat stem rust and wheat leaf rust.  Three
 differential cultivars or lines are assigned to a set.  Sets are designated
 A, B, C, and so on.  There are eight combinations of resistant and
 susceptible reactions within a set.  These patterns are coded 1 to 8.  Three
 sets are proposed to begin biotype designation.  A biotype avirulent to all
 differentials in three sets is coded 111.  The biotype designation system
 provides flexibility for the addition of new sets of differentials as new
 genes are identified and for the deletion of sets no longer deemed useful. 
 The eight reaction patterns within a set are:
 1RRR      2RRS      3RSR       4RSS      5SRR      6SRS      7SSR       8SSS
 
      Genetic and molecular basis of virulence in the Hessian fly (Shukle,
 Hwang, Zantoko).  Virulence in Hessian fly is controlled by single recessive
 genes at different loci and operates on a gene-for-gene basis with
 resistance in the host plant.  Our goal is to understand the genomic
 organization and molecular basis of virulence in the Hessian fly. With a
 small size (Haploid DNA content 0.1 pg) and little repetitive DNA, the
 genome of the Hessian fly is ideal for molecular analysis.  We have
 developed in situ hybridization of DNA sequences to salivary polytene
 chromosomes.  Low copy clones have been selected from genomic libraries for
 evaluating putative DNA polymorphisms among biotypes and for positioning on
 salivary polytene chromosomes through in situ hybridization.  Southern
 analyses suggest that many of these clones represent single copy sequences. 
 The position of putative single copy sequences as single bands on polytene
 chromosomes was then determined by in situ hybridization.  Evaluation of
 RAPD markers indicates this procedure may detect useful nucleotide sequence
 polymorphisms among biotypes. We have an inbred Hessian fly line virulent to
 resistance gene H9 and carrying a white-eye morphological marker.  Hessian
 fly lines potentially virulent to resistance genes H13, H15 and H18 are
 being developed to test the gene-for-gene hypothesis with respect to
 virulence to these genes and to determine linkage relationships among the
 virulence loci. Chromosome imprinting plays an important role in the
 genetics of the Hessian fly and determination of sex.  Drosophila sequences
 for Heterochromatin proteins potentially involved in repression of gene
 expression, position-effect variegation, and chromosome imprinting give
 strong signals in Southern and Northern analyses.  These results suggest
 that sequences with similarity to Heterochromatin protein 1, Polycomb (Pc)
 genes and polyhomeotic (ph) gene are present in the genome of the Hessian
 fly.  These sequences could function in chromosome imprinting and gene
 expressibility during development and in sex differentiation.
 
      Biotype development in Hessian fly  R. H. Ratcliffe and G. Safranski
 conducted laboratory tests with 15 Hessian fly populations from 13
 midwestern or eastern states to evaluate biotype development at these
 locations and response (avirulence/virulence) of the fly populations to
 genes for Hessian fly resistance that have (H3, H5, H6, H7H8) or have not
 (H9, H10, H12, H13, H14H15, H17, H18, H19) been deployed in soft red winter
 wheat cultivars.  Biotype L, or unnamed biotypes more virulent, but
 inseparable from L in our present biotype test, were identified in
 populations collected from Maryland, Mississippi, New York, Pennsylvania,
 South Carolina, and Tennessee, and made up more than 50% of populations
 collected from Arkansas (88%), Illinois (96%), Missouri (78%), and Virginia
 (68%).  Wheat lines with H9, H13, H14H15, H17 and H18 genes were resistant
 to all or most Hessian fly populations evaluated.  However, there was
 indication of virulence to H9 in Hessian fly populations from Florida,
 Missouri and South Carolina, to H13 in populations from Florida and Maryland
 and to H18 in populations from Maryland and Pennsylvania. 
 
      Temperature sensitive resistance to Hessian fly (Maas)  Several  lines
 of Triticum spp. that were discarded because of low level resistance
 response to biotypes L, C or E in greenhouse tests were retested with
 biotype L in a growth chamber at 17 C.  From 176 such lines, 92 exhibited
 typical resistance to biotype L.  Temperature contrast experiments were run
 to determine which lines behave most similarly to lines with H18.  This type
 of resistance may be more durable because it allows the survival of
 avirulent larvae.  Genetic studies have been initiated to find the number of
 genes conferring resistance to biotype L, and determine if they are
 different from H18. Use of spring habit to transfer insect resistance to
 winter wheat rapidly (Maas).  Since the genes for spring are dominant,
 spring x winter heterozygotes are phenotypically spring habit.  Three
 generations per year can be grown routinely.  Individuals are selected in
 every generation of backcrossing for Hessian fly resistance and spring
 habit, and then backcrossed to the vernalized recurrent winter parent. 
 After sufficient backcrossing, progeny tests will be conducted to determine
 which lines are homozygous for a Hessian fly resistance gene.  Since some of
 these lines will still be segregating for the vernalization genes, selecting
 winter phenotypes should reconstitute the winter parental background.  Field
 tests of backcross progenies will be conducted to check that winter
 hardiness has not been reduced.  This procedure should be of value for the
 rapid transfer of any trait to winter wheat that would normally be a subject
 for the backcross method.  Enhanced tillering as a means for improved
 Hessian fly tolerance (Maas).  Utilizing the low vernalization requirement
 genes mentioned above, work has been initiated to improve the tillering
 capacity (and yield stability) of soft red winter wheat germplasm via
 modified recurrent selection for per plant yield.  Three generations per
 year can be grown to constitute one complete cycle of recurrent selection
 per year.  The method being used is a modification of the one described by
 Frey et al. (Crop Sci. 28:855).  Improved tillering should be of significant
 value under low to moderate infestations.  Enhanced tillering should aid the
 general stability of wheat yields (e.g. compensation for intermediate levels
 of winter damage ). Hessian fly resistant Agropyron (Maas).  Amphiploid F1s
 between wheat and wheatgrass accessions resistant to biotype L have been
 made.
 
      DNA markers (Dweikat, Mackenzie, and Ohm)  We used random amplified
 polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in combination with denaturing gradient gel
 electrophoresis (DGGE) to fingerprint closely related lines of wheat, barley
 and oat.  Pedigree relationships among selected cultivars were estimated
 using this technique.  Several clusters of cultivars within the three
 species were distinguished.  There was good agreement between DNA
 polymorphism analysis and pedigree analysis for relatedness among wheat and
 barley cultivars, and somewhat less agreement among oat cultivars.  Cluster
 analysis of cereal cultivars should enable the breeder to better select
 diverse parents for breeding purposes.
 
      We are adapting the RAPD-DGGE system for identifying DNA markers
 associated with resistance to Hessian fly in wheat.  To date, we have
 identified markers for genes H3, H5, H6, and H9.  The RAPD markers tested to
 date cosegregate with resistance in segregating F2 populations, demonstrate
 association with the resistance gene in a number of different T. aestivum
 and T. durum genetic backgrounds, and are readily detected using either DGGE
 or DNA gel blot hybridization.
 
      Personnel. Herb Ohm is on sabbatical leave at the CSIRO, Canberra,
 Australia in the laboratory of Rudi Appels from November 1992 to April 1993.
 
 Lubaki Zantoko completed the requirements for the M. S. degree in entomology
 under the guidance of R. Ratcliffe.
 
      Jaime Araya, University of Chile, Santiago, returned to Chile in August
 1992 after completing cooperative research with Sue Cambron on aphid vectors
 of BYDV. 
 
 Publications and presentations at meetings
 Araya, J. E. and  J. E. Foster. 1992. Insect, mite and nematode pests of
 oat.  In. H. G. Marshall and M. E. Sorrells (eds.). Oat Science and
 Technology. Amer. Soc. Agron. Madison, WI.
 
 Araya, J. E. and S. E. Cambron. 1992. Control of aphids on spring oats and
 winter wheat with slow release granular systemic insecticides.  Great Lakes
 Entomol. 25:223-236.
 
 Baird, R.E., D.M. Huber, and C.W. Mansfield.  1992.  Evaluation of four
 fungicides and a biological agent to control two winter pathogens of wheat. 
 Phytopathology 82:990.
 
 Bostwick, D.E., Ohm, H.W., Shaner, G.  1993.  Inheritance of Septoria glume
 blotch resistance in wheat.  Crop Science In press.
 
 Buechley, G. and Shaner, G.  1992.  Control of wheat bunt and loose smut
 with fungicidal seed treatments, 1991.  Fungicide and Nematicide Tests
 47:261.
 
 Buechley, G. and Shaner, G.  1992.  Effect of seed treatments and foliar
 fungicides on wheat, 1991.  Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 47:262.
 
 Dweikat, I., Mackenzie, S. Levy, M., Ohm, H.  1992.  Pedigree assessment
 using RAPD-DGGE in cereal crop species.  Theor. Appl. Genet. 85:497-505.
 
 He, S., H. Ohm, and S. Mackenzie. 1992. Detection of DNA sequence
 polymorphism among wheat varieties. Theor. Appl. Genet. 84:573-578.
 
 Housley, T.L., Ohm, H.W.  1992.  Earliness and duration of grain fill in
 winter wheat.  Can. J. Plant Sci. 72:35-48.
 
 Huber, D.M. and R.D. Graham.  1992.  Techniques for studying nutrient-
 disease interactions.  pp  204-214.  In: L.L. Singleton, J.D.
 
 Mihail and C.M. Rush (eds.).  Methods for Research on Soilborne
 Phytopathogenic Fungi.  APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
 
 Huber, D.M. and T.S. McCay-Buis.  1993.  A multiple component analysis of
 the take-all disease of cereals.  Plant Disease 77: (In Press).
 
 
 Huber, D.M., R.E. Baird and T.S. McCay-Buis.  1992.  Environmental
 conditions associated with Rhizoctonia  winter-kill  of wheat in Indiana. 
 Phytopathology  82:1114.
 
 Lehman, J. S., Shaner, G.  1992.  Correlation between pathogen fitness
 components and epidemics of wheat leaf rust.  Phytopathology 82:1161
 (Abstr).
 
 Maas, F. B.  1992.  Durable single gene resistance to the Hessian fly. Host
 Plant Resistance to Insects Workshop.  Feb. 23-27, Indianapolis, IN.  McCay-
 Buis, T.S. and D.M. Huber.  1992.  Effect of soil organisms on growth rate
 and manganese oxidation ability of Gaeumannomyces graminis.  Phytopathology
 82:993.
 
 Patterson, F.L., Foster, J.E., Ohm, H.W., Hatchett, J.H., Taylor, P.L. 
 1992.  A proposed system of nomenclature for biotypes of Hessian fly
 (Diptera:Cedidomyiidae) in North America.  J. Econ. Entomol. 85:307-311.
 
 Quiroz, C., R.M. Lister, R.H. Shukle, J.E. Araya and J.E. Foster.  1992.
 Selection of symptom variants from the NY-MAV strain of barley yellow dwarf
 virus and their effects on the feeding behavior of the vector Sitobion
 avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environ. Entomol. 21:  (in press).
 
 Ranieri, R., Lister, R.M., Shaner, G., Burnett, P.A., Vallejo, J.  1992. 
 Cross protection among Mexican barley yellow dwarf isolates.  Phytopathology
 82:1172 (Abstr).
 
 Ratcliffe, R. H. 1992.  Breeding for Hessian fly resistance in soft winter
 wheat.  Amer. Farm Bureau Federation Meeting. Jan. 13, Kansas City, MO.
 
 Riegel, C. and D.M. Huber.  1992.  Variation in virulence and effects of
 associated organisms on Rhizoctonia winter-kill of wheat.  Phytopathology
 82:994.
 
 Shaner, G. and Buechley, G.  1992.  Effect of foliar fungicides on wheat,
 1991.  Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 47:206-207.
 
 Shaner, G., Buechley, G.  1992.  Slow crown rusting in oat.  pp. 38-40, Vol
 III, In Proc. Fourth International Oat Conference, Barr, A.R., McLean, R.J.,
 Oates, J.D., Roberts, G. Rose, J., Saint, K., Tasker, S, eds.  Adelaide,
 South Australia. 
 
 Shaner, G., Stromberg, E.L., Lacy, G.H., Barker, K.R., Pirone, T.P.  1992. 
 Concepts of pathogenicity and virulence.  Annu. Review of Phytopathology
 30:47-66.
 
 Sharma, H.C.  1992.  Bifurcated inflorescence in Agropyron spicatum.  Rachis
 10:2.
 
 Sharma, H.C., Foster, J.E., Ohm, H.W., Patterson, F.L.  1992.  A note on
 resistance to Hessian fly biotype L in tribe Triticeae.  Phytoprotection
 73:79-82.
 
 Sharma, H.C., Varnum, J., Sato, S., Baenziger, P.S., Metz, S.G.  1992. 
 Analysis of plants derived from wheat tissue culture.  Cereal Research
 Communications 20:75-79.
 
 Shukle, R. H., P. B. Grover, Jr., and G. Mocelin. 1992. Responses of
 susceptible and resistant wheat associated with Hessian fly (Diptera:
 Cecidomyiidae) infestation. Environ. Entomol. 21:845-853.
 
 Shukle, R.H. and Stuart, J.J.  1992.  Physical mapping of the Hessian fly
 genome.  Annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Dec. 5-9,
 Baltimore, MD.
 
 
 Shukle, R.H. and Stuart, J.J.  1992.  Positioning of DNA sequences through
 in situ hybridization:  An approach to mapping the genome of the Hessian
 fly.  Host Plant Resistance to Insects Workshop.  Feb. 23-27, Indianapolis,
 IN.
 
 Shukle, R.H. and Stuart, J.J.  1993.  A Novel Morphological Mutation in the
 Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor.  Journal of Heredity  in press.
 
 Shukle, R.H., P.B. Grover, Jr. and G. Mocelin.  1992.  Responses of
 susceptible and resistant wheat associated with Hessian fly infestation. 
 Host Plant Resistance to Insects Workshop.  Feb. 23-27, Indianapolis, IN.
 
 Ueng, P.P, Bergstrom, G.C., Slay, R. M., Geiger, E.A., Shaner, G., Scharen,
 A.L.  1992.  Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the wheat glume
 blotch fungus, Phaeosphaeria nodorum.  Phytopathology 82:1302-1305.
 
 Zantoko, L. Z. 1992.  Relationships between wheat leaf trichomes and biology
 of the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say). M.S. thesis. Purdue
 University, West Lafayette, IN.
 
 --------------------
 KANSAS
 
      Wheat Genetics Resource Center, Kansas State University, Kansas
 Agricultural Expt. Sta., and USDA-ARS
 
      T.S. Cox*, R.G. Sears*, B. S. Gill*, T.J. Martin*, W.W Bockus, R.L.
 Bowden, G. H. Liang*, W. J. Raupp*, D. L. Wilson, K. S. Gill, R. S. Kota, S.
 S. Gill, B. Friebe, J. Jiang, E.N. Jellen, G. L. Brown, D. Papa, J.       
 Zhang, D. E. Miller, L. E. Young, T. R. Endo, Y. Mukai, M. Yamamoto, U. C.
 Hohmann, S. H. Hulbert, Xu Gu
 
      The 1991-92 Crop Year.  Each year the southern Great Plains continues
 to both impress and bewilder wheat workers. This past year was no exception
 as most locations across Kansas saw extremes caused by drought, flooding,
 freeze damage and heat stress. Foliar leaf diseases were also a significant
 problem for the 1992 crop.
 
      Fall stand establishment was exceedingly poor and the crop remained
 stressed from lack of moisture throughout the spring. Expectations for a
 good crop were slight. An extremely mild winter also allowed leaf rust to
 successfully overwinter throughout much of southcentral Kansas. In late
 April rain returned to Kansas and from that point through harvest the entire
 state received above average precipitation. Pre-harvest sprouting and lower
 test weights were a significant problem for producers, especially in
 southcentral growing areas.
 
      Kansas produced an average yield of 2300 kg/ha-1 on 4.33 million ha,
 for a total production of approximately 9.7 million metric tons. Although
 the crop was disappointing, most of us were grateful to harvest anything
 considering the poor prospects until late April when it finally started to
 rain.- Sears   
 
      Mild Kansas Winter Causes Disease Problems in 1992.  The very mild
 winter of 1991/92 allowed extensive overwintering of leaf rust in Kansas.
 Estimated state-wide losses were 11% (roughly 40,000,000 bu) and were
 heaviest in the central third of the state. At Hutchinson in southcentral
 Kansas, backcross lines of TAM 107, TAM 200, and Century possessing Lr41 (0
 or 0; IT) were compared to the susceptible recurrent parents. Losses were
 44, 33, and 54%, respectively. Fungicide trials also allowed estimation of
 losses. At Hesston in central Kansas, 56% yield loss was recorded in the
 susceptible Newton while moderately resistant Karl lost 14%. Hesston results
 were partially confounded because tan spot was also present. At Manhattan in
 northeast Kansas, Newton lost 33%. In the western third of the state, rust
 severity was low in dryland wheat. However, at Garden City in southwest
 Kansas, 22% yield loss was recorded in flood-irrigated TAM 107 while
 Thunderbird (intermediate reaction) lost 9%. 
 
      The mild winter was also blamed for the worst barley yellow dwarf
 epidemic since 1976. Aphids overwintered and caused early spring infections.
 
 Losses were difficult to document, but were estimated at 4.5%. Infection
 apparently caused some head darkening in certain varieties.
 
      Finally, mild, wet winter weather apparently favored development of a
 seedling blight caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis, which is also the cause of
 sharp eyespot. Significant damage was seen in some fields in central and
 northcentral Kansas. Small, late-emerging seedlings were attacked at the
 subcrown internode. Lesions were light tan with dark margins. - Bowden, Cox
 
      Experimental Lines.  Two new wheats were released this past year.
 KS831374-142, a reselection from the variety Karl was released and named
 'Karl 92'. Karl 92 has essentially the same agronomic and quality
 characteristics as Karl except it has demonstrated a 6% yield advantage over
 the past 4 years of testing. It represents a slight improvement in test
 weight.
 
      KSSB369-7 was released and named 'Arlin'. Arlin is a hard white winter
 wheat variety and will be grown strictly on a limited acreage on an identity
 preserved basis by the American White Wheat Producers Association (AWWPA). 
 Arlin represents a 3% yield increase over currently grown white wheats as
 well as improvements in disease resistance and milling quality.
 
      KS89H48-1 (Dular/Eagle//2*Cheney//(Larned//Eagle/Sage)/3/Colt)
 developed by Joe Martin at the Fort Hays Branch Experiment Station is
 presently being increased for release consideration this fall. It has been
 tested both in elite state trials and regional USDA trials and its
 performance, milling and baking quality and overall disease resistance look
 very good. This wheat is primarily a dryland wheat adapted to western
 Kansas.
 
      KS84HW196 (Bison/Sterling/3*Scout/3/Eagle/4/Pinnacle/2*Eagle) is a hard
 white wheat developed by Joe Martin. It was released as germplasm this past
 year. KS84HW196 has been grown on an experimental basis by the AWWPA for the
 past 3 years. It is an early, short, Scout type wheat with good tolerance to
 drought. Its best area of adaptation has been in the drier areas of western
 Kansas. Under dry conditions, KS84HW196 has produced good yields and
 excellent test weights. It is a very good milling wheat with good baking
 quality. - Sears, Martin, Cox
 
      Germplasm Releases.  KS91WGRC14 durum wheat germplasm homozygous for a
 T1BLú1RS translocation.  KS91WGRC14 is a durum wheat germplasm line
 homozygous for T1BLú1RS wheat-rye chromosome translocation, developed
 cooperatively by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, the Wheat
 Genetics Resource Center, Kansas State University, USDA-ARS, and the
 Technical University of Munich.  It was released as a germplasm in February
 1992.  KS91WGRC14 is a BC1F2-derived line from the cross Cando*2/Veery. 
 Cando is a durum wheat cultivar, and Veery is a bread wheat cultivar with a
 T1BLú1RS wheat-rye chromosome translocation.  KS91WGRC14 is the bulked,
 selfed progeny of a BC1F2 plant that had 2n=28 chromosomes and was
 homozygous for T1BLú1RS, based on C-banding analysis.  KS91WGRC14 is
 resistant to cultures of the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp.
 tritici that are avirulent to the gene Sr31 located on 1RS.  It is resistant
 to cultures of the powdery mildew fungus that are avirulent to the gene Pm8
 located on 1RS.  KS91WGRC14 also produces polyacrylamide gen electrophoretic
 bands coded by the secalin locus on 1RS.  Friebe, Cox, Gill B
 
      Three new leaf rust-resistant germplasms.  KS92WGRC15, KS92WGRC16, and
 KS92WGRC23 are hard red winter wheat germplasm lines, resistant to leaf rust
 (caused by Puccinia recondita Roberge ex Desmaz.) and developed
 cooperatively by USDA-ARS, the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, and
 the Wheat Genetics Resource Center, Kansas State University.  
 
      KS92WGRC15 seedlings produced a low infection type (01C-03C) when
 inoculated with cultures PRTUS19, PRTUS24, and PRTUS25 of P. recondita. 
 Adult plants exhibited low infection types in the field at Manhattan and
 Hutchinson, Kansas in 1991 and 1992.  KS92WGRC15 is an F4-derived line with
 the pedigree 'Karl'//'TAM 200' / KS86WGRC2.  It results from an effort to
 transfer an allele of Lr21 from KS86WGRC2 into a more desirable agronomic
 background.  KS92WGRC15 is similar to Karl in height and overall phenotype
 and heads one day later.  Under an early and severe leaf rust infection at
 Hutchinson, KS in 1992, KS92WGRC15 yielded 22 percent more than Karl,
 whereas at Manhattan, where the leaf rust epidemic occurred later in the
 growing season, KS92WGRC15 and Karl had equal grain yields.  KS92WGRC15 is
 homozygous for the T1AL1RS wheat-rye chromosome.  KS92WGRC15, released in
 1992, should prove a more useful source of leaf rust resistance for wheat
 breeding programs than was KS86WGRC2.  
 
      KS92WGRC16 seedlings exhibit an low infection type (01C) when
 inoculated with cultures PRTUS19, PRTUS24, and PRTUS25 of P. recondita. 
 Adult plants displayed low infection types under moderate to heavy leaf rust
 infections at Manhattan and Hutchinson, Kansas in 1991 and 1992.
 
      KS92WGRC16 is an F3-derived line with the pedigree Triumph 64/3/KS8010-
 71/TA2470//TAM 200.  TA 2470 is a leaf rust-resistant accession of Triticum
 tauschii (Coss.) Schmal.  Seeds from 20 resistant, F3-derived F4 progeny,
 selected in the field in 1992, were bulked to form KS92WGRC16.  It is
 similar to TAM 200 in height and days to heading, but lacks the T1AL1RS
 translocation carried by TAM 200 and is extremely susceptible to powdery
 mildew.  Leaf rust resistance in KS92WGRC16 is conditioned by a single,
 completely dominant gene, Lr43, from TA 2470.  The gene's location has not
 been determined, but it segregates independently of all other known D-genome
 genes for seedling leaf-rust resistance.
 
      KS92WGRC23 seedlings exhibit a very low infection type (01C) when
 inoculated with cultures PRTUS19, PRTUS24, and PRTUS25 of P. recondita.   
 Adult plants displayed an immune reaction under heavy leaf rust infection at
 Manhattan and Hutchinson, Kansas in 1991 and 1992.  KS92WGRC23 is a BC2F2-
 derived line with the pedigree Karl*3//PI 266844/PI 355520.  Karl was
 pollinated with an F1 plant of Triticum monococcum (PI 266844/PI 355520),
 and the three-way F1 was backcrossed twice to Karl.  Leaf rust-resistant F3
 progeny of one F2 plant were selected in the field in 1991, and resistant,
 BC2F2-derived F4 progeny were produced in 1992.  KS92WGRC23 is similar to
 Karl in height and overall phenotype but heads two days later.  Karl
 seedlings exhibit intermediate infection types (56X to 78X) with cultures
 that induce a 01C infection type on KS92WGRC23.  Late in the 1992 growing
 season, KS92WGRC23 remained free of leaf rust, while Karl was heavily
 rusted.  
 
       A T. monococcum F1 plant was used to transfer resistance to KS92WGRC23
 because one of the parents, PI 266844, produces only female-sterile hybrids
 with hard red winter wheats.  PI 355520 carries genes that allow production
 of female-fertile hybrids (1).  The leaf rust resistance of KS92WGRC23 is
 conditioned by genes derived from one or both of the T. monococcum parents. 
 KS92WGRC23 may also carry some or all of the unidentified genes in Karl that
 confer its "slow-rusting" phenotype.  The location of the genes from T.
 monococcum has not been determined.  KS92WGRC23 was released as germplasm in
 1992.
 
      Small quantities (3 grams) of seed of KS91WGRC15, KS92WGRC16, and
 KS92WGRC23 are available upon written request.  Appropriate recognition of
 source should be given when this germplasm contributes to research or
 development of new cultivars.  Seed stocks are maintained by T.S. Cox, Wheat
 Genetics Resource Center, Dept. of Agronomy, Throckmorton Hall, Kansas State
 University, Manhattan, KS  66506. - Cox, Sears, Gill
 
       Two new germplasms resistant to soilborne mosaic virus, spindle-streak
 mosaic virus, and powdery mildew.  KS92WGRC21 and KS92WGRC22 are hard red
 winter wheat germplasms resistant to wheat soilborne mosaic and wheat
 spindle-streak mosaic viruses and powdery mildew [caused by Blumeria
 graminis (DC.)E.O. Speer f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal].  They were developed
 cooperatively by the Wheat Genetics Resource Center at Kansas State
 University, USDA-ARS, the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, the
 Cornell Agricultural Experiment Station, the North Carolina Agricultural
 Research Service, and University College Dublin, Ireland . They were tested
 under experimental numbers U1261-2-5-7 and U1273-5-18-8 (2,3) respectively,
 and released as germplasms in 1992.  
 
      The pedigree of KS92WGRC21 is 'TAM 200'*3/TA 2570, and that of
 KS92WGRC22 is 'Century'*3/TA 2567.  Both are  BC2F2-derived lines.  TA 2567
 and TA 2570 are two closely related accessions of Triticum tauschii (Coss.)
 Schmal. from Armenia.  Both germplasms were highly resistant (scoring "R")
 to a combined infection of wheat spindle streak and soilborne mosaic viruses
 in head rows at Manhattan, Kansas in 1990 and in replicated experiments at
 Oxford, Kansas, in 1991.  In the same nurseries, their recurrent parents,
 TAM 200 and Century, respectively, displayed severe symptoms (scoring "VS":
 "very susceptible").  At Oxford, KS92WGRC21 and KS92WGRC22 yielded 359 and
 425 g m-2, respectively - significantly more than their recurrent parents,
 which yielded 148 and 277 g m-2, respectively.     
 
      At Ithaca, New York in 1991 and 1992, where only the spindle streak
 virus was present, KS92WGRC21, KS92WGRC22, and Century were rated as highly
 resistant (all with mean scores of 1.7 on a 1-9 scale), while TAM 200 was
 severely infected (with a mean score of 7.3).  The local resistant check
 cultivar, 'Geneva', had a mean score of 5.0 
 
      The genetic basis of resistance has not been determined, but our
 unpublished results indicate that resistances to the two viruses are
 conditioned by different loci.  Resistances to both viruses in KS92WGRC21
 are derived from TA 2570, and resistance to soilborne mosaic virus in
 KS92WGRC22 is derived from TA 2567.  It is not known whether KS92WGRC22
 carries gene(s) for resistance to spindle streak mosaic virus from TA 2567
 in addition to those from Century.  
 
      In absence of infection by either virus, KS92WGRC21 and KS92WGRC22 are
 similar to TAM 200 and Century, respectively, in height, maturity, and
 overall phenotype.  Of the two germplasms, KS92WGRC22 has shown the better
 adaptation to New York conditions.  In a replicated experiment at Dublin,
 Ireland in 1991, both germplasms displayed a significantly lower level of
 infection by powdery mildew  than did their respective recurrent parents
 (both of which carry the Pm17 resistance gene) .  In tests at Raleigh, NC,
 both germplasms and their recurrent parents had resistant reactions as
 seedlings to isolates of powdery mildew that are avirulent to Pm17.
 
      Small quantities (3 grams) of seed of KS92WGRC21 and KS92WGRC22 are
 available upon written request.  Appropriate recognition of source should be
 given when this germplasm contributes to research or development of new
 cultivars.  Seed stocks are maintained by T. S. Cox (USDA-ARS), Wheat
 Genetics Resources Center, Dept. of Agronomy, Throckmorton Hall, Kansas
 State University, Manhattan, KS 66506. - Cox, Sears, Gill; M.E. Sorrells and
 G.C. Bergstrom (Cornell); E.J. Walsh (Dublin), S. Leath (USDA-ARS and NCSU)
 and J.P. Murphy (NCSU)
                                    References
 
 Cox. T.S., L.G. Harrell, P. Chen, and B.S. Gill. 1991. Reproductive behavior
 of hexaploid / diploid wheat hybrids. Plant Breeding 107:105-118
 
 Bergstrom, G.C., M.E. Sorrells, and T.S. Cox. 1992.  Resistance of winter
 wheat cultivars and breeding lines to wheat spindle-streak mosaic virus
 under natural infection in New York, 1991.  Biol. Cult. Tests Control Plant
 Dis. 7: 84
 
 Bergstrom, G.C., M.E. Sorrells, and T.S. Cox. 1993.  Resistance of winter
 wheat cultivars and breeding lines to wheat spindle-streak mosaic virus
 under natural infection in New York, 1992.  Biol. Cult. Tests Control Plant
 Dis. 8: (in press)
 
 WGRC research reports
 
      Breeding value and cytological structure of Triticum timopheevi var.
 araraticum.  Triticum timopheevi var. araraticum (often designated simply T.
 araraticum) is a wild tetraploid wheat species containing the At and G
 genomes. that are closely related to the A and B genomes of T. turgidum L.
 and T. aestivum L.  The Wheat Genetics Resource Center holds 300 accessions
 of this species originating from Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Armenia, and
 Azerbaijan.  Of those accessions screened, 39%, 10%, 91%, and 0% were
 resistant or segregating for resistance to leaf rust, Russian wheat aphid,
 Hessian fly, and greenbug, respectively.  The collection is being screened
 for reaction to wheat curl mite as well.  Accessions identified as resistant
 to leaf rust, Russian wheat aphid, and/or Hessian fly have been backcrossed
 to locally adapted hard red winter wheat cultivars and breeding lines. 
 Chromosome banding analysis and marker loci will be used in introgression of
 resistance genes from this species into wheat.  Brown, Gill B, Cox.
 
      Molecular cytogenetic analysis of wheat-Agropyron chromosome
 translocation lines resistant to wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV).  Wheat
 streak mosaic is a serious virus disease of wheat in many areas of the
 world.  No wheat cultivar is immune to WSMV and good sources of resistance
 are only known in some perennial species of Secale or Agropyron.  C-banding
 and in situ hybridization were used to determine the chromosomal
 constitutions of wheat-Agropyron derivatives resistant to WSMV.  Two
 different sources of resistance were identified and one of the genes was
 designated Wsm1.  Wsm1, derived from Ag. intermedium, is available in the
 form of a compensating whole arm translocation line T4DSú4Ai#2L.  The second
 source of resistance, derived from an Ag. elongatum group 1 chromosome, is
 available in the form of a T4DSú4DL-1Ae#1L translocation.  Both wheat-
 Agropyron translocation lines may have significance in cultivar improvement.
 
 Friebe, Jiang, Gill B
 
      Chromosomal location of Hessian fly-resistance genes H22, H23, and H24
 derived from Triticum tauschii in the D genome of wheat.  Triticum tauschii,
 the D-genome donor of common wheat has been a source of several genes for
 resistance to the Hessian fly.  Three genes, H22, H23, and H24, which
 condition antibiosis to first-instar larvae were transferred from T.
 tauschii to common wheat.   Monosomic analysis was used to locate the H22,
 H23, and H24 genes present in the D genome of wheat germ plasms KS85WGRC1,
 KS89WGRC3, and KS89WGRC6, respectively.  The seven D-genome Wichita
 monosomics were crossed with the three germ plasms, and F2 populations
 derived from F1 monosomic plants were tested for reaction to biotype D
 Hessian fly.  Critical and noncritical crosses were identified through
 goodness-of-fit tests for 3:1 ratios of resistant to susceptible plants. 
 Results established that the H22 gene is located on chromosome 1D, H23 is on
 chromosome 6D, and H24 is on chromosome 3D.  Genetic analysis for
 determination of the allelic relationship of H23 to the H13 gene, also
 derived from T. tauschii and previously mapped on chromosome 6DL, indicated
 the two genes are different and linked at a distance of 25 ñ  5.0 map units.
 
 Raupp, Amri, Hatchett, Gill, Wilson, Cox
 
      Mapping of quantitative trait loci in BC2F2 populations of common wheat
 x Triticum tauschii.  Triticum tauschii, as the D genome donor of common
 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), has the potential to make significant
 contributions to the gene pool of common wheat.  These contributions are for
 quantitative as well as qualitative traits.  RFLP analysis was utilized to
 analyze BC2F2 populations between specific probes and traits such as yield,
 kernel hardness, test weight, protein content, and baking quality were
 examined via the Mapmaker QTL and QTL-Stat programs.  Fritz, Cox, Gill B,
 Sears
 
      An updated genetic linkage map of Triticum tauschii, the D-genome
 progenitor of wheat.  The current map of Triticum tauschii consists of 280
 loci, 260 of which are present as linkage groups.  An F2 population of 60
 plants, derived from a cross between two accessions of T. tauschii
 (TA1691/TA1704), was used for the mapping.  Triticum tauschii was used to
 make the map because it is diploid, highly polymorphic, and its D genome is
 almost identical to that of polyploid wheat.  All the markers are RFLP loci
 except for eight protein loci and a leaf rust resistance gene.  Most of the
 clones used as RFLP markers were isolated from Pst1 genomic library of wheat
 cDNA library, wheat genomic library, and barley genomic library.  There is
 an average of 35 loci per chromosome.  The map covers more than ninety
 percent of the genome.  Most of the probes map of the homoeologous
 chromosomes of wheat.  Gill K, Hassawi, Raupp, Gill B, Fritz, Cox, Namuth,
 Sears, Lapitan
 
      Molecular characterization of the midget chromosome of Secale cereale. 
 Various classes of repeated DNA sequence families exist in the rye genome,
 and about 30% of the repeat DNA is rye specific.  The distribution of these
 sequences varies from highly repetitious, tandem repeats to moderately
 dispersed in the genome.  By utilizing a differential screening procedure,
 we have isolated a few interspersed sequences that are specific to the rye
 genome.  The clones are further utilized to study their distribution on
 various chromosome arms of rye as well as the midget chromosome.  The midget
 chromosome is believed to have derived from chromosome 1R of rye, and
 approximately represents about 5% of the physical length of chromosome 1R. 
 Kota, Gill B, Hulbert
 
      Alloplasmic wheat-Elymus ciliaris chromosome addition lines. 
 Alloplasmic euploid wheat with the cytoplasm of Elymus ciliaris (2n=4X=28,
 ScScYcYc) is male sterile and has reduced vigor.  However, alloplasmic
 plants with E. ciliaris chromosomes 1Sc or 1Yc marked by gliadin genes Gli-
 Sc1 and Gli-Yc1, respectively, are vigorous and fertile.  The Rf genes on
 1Sc and 1Yc are named Rf-Sc1 and Rf-Yc1.  Two chromosome translocations
 involving 1Yc were isolated.  The first involved the short arm of 1Yc
 translocated to the short arm of wheat chromosome 3B.  The second involved
 the short arm of 1Yc translocated to the short arm of a chromosome,
 designated L. of E. ciliaris.  The second line also has another E. ciliaris
 chromosome designated A and lacks wheat chromosome 6A.  This line is
 resistant to Puccinia recondita.  The relationship between fertility
 restoration and nucleolar organizing regions is discussed.  Jiang, Chen,
 Friebe, Raupp, Gill B.
 
      Toward a cytogenetically based physical map of the wheat genome.  Bread
 wheat is well suited for cytogenetic analysis because the genome, buffered
 by polyploidy, can tolerate structurally and numerically engineered
 chromosomes for analysis over infinite generations.  This feature of
 polyploidy can be used in developing a high-resolution, cytogenetically
 based physical map of the wheat genome.  We show that numerous deletions,
 observed in the progeny of a monosomic addition of a chromosome from
 Triticum cylindricum in wheat, result from single breakpoints and a
 concomitant loss of distal fragments.  Breakages occurred in euchromatic and
 heterochromatic regions.  Forty-one deletions for chromosomes 7A, 7B, and
 7D, and a set of genetically mapped DNA probes, were used to construct
 physical maps.  Recombination was low in proximal chromosomal regions and
 very high toward the distal ends.  Deletion mapping was more efficient than
 genetic mapping in resolving the order of proximal loci.  Despite variation
 in size and arm ratio, relative gene position was largely conserved among
 chromosomes 7A, 7B, and 7D and a consensus group 7 physical map was
 constructed.  Several molecularly tagged chromosome regions (MTCRs) of
 approximately one to a few million base pairs were identified that may be
 resolved  by long-range mapping of DNA fragments.  Thus, a cytogenetically
 based physical map may be used to integrate chromosome and DNA-based maps. 
 The MTCRs may simplify strategies for cloning of agronomically useful genes
 despite the genetic complexity and the large genome size of wheat.  Werner,
 Endo, Gill B
 
      Microspore Culture, Protoplast Culture, and Plant Transformation 
 Microspores are isolated at mid- and late-uninucleate stage from anthers by
 1) floating technique where anthers are floating on liquid medium
 supplemented with Ficoll, anthers are transferred to fresh medium
 periodically and the microspores are pelleted by centrifuging, resuspended,
 and cultured in dark at 25oC with a density of 1-4 x 105 grains/ml, and 2)
 excising anthers aseptically and extract the microspores by stirring the
 anthers in 0.3 M mannitol solution and then filter through a nylon sieve
 (pore size 100 æm), washed twice in a solution (0.3 M mannitol,5 mM CaCl
 2H20, 5 mM MES) and collect the microspore pellet by centrifugation, then
 resuspend the microspores in a medium supplemented with 0.3 M mannitol
 without sucrose.  Culture the microspores at the density of 1 x 105
 grains/ml at 25o C in darkness.  Subculture the microspores in a medium
 containing 3 mM glutamine, 5 mM myo-inositol, and 6% sucrose.  icrospore
 calli can be used for haploid production after transferring onto a 
 regeneration medium supplemented with 250 mg/l lactalbumin hydrolysate, 160
 mg/l glutamine, 50 mg/l proline, 0.5 mg/l kinetin and 1-2 mg/l 2,4-D and
 incubated under dim light at 25-28o C.  Likewise, the haploid calli can be
 used for plant transformation experiment using biolistic gun.  The effected
 calli, upon regeneration, will produce haploid plantlets whose chromosomes
 can be doubled for homozygosity, hence the introduced gene.
       
      Culture media include N6, 85D12 series, and C90 each is supplemented
 with glutamine, serine, and inositol.
 We are using this scheme to produce haploid plantlets and transgenic plants
 carrying protease inhibitory genes which have been cloned.  To use
 protoplast as recipient to produce transgenic plants, embryogenic calli from
 immature embryos and anthers are obtained from 4 cultivars and subcultured
 on MS medium and N6 medium (or 85D12 and W14 media), respectively, and
 maintained in darkness at 27o C.  Friable calli are cultured on DMS medium
 for two weeks and used to initiate cell suspensions by placing them into 150
 ml flasks containing liquid MS medium with 2 mg/l 2,4-D and kept in darkness
 at 24o C on a rotary shaker at 120 rpm.  The cell suspensions are
 subcultured at 2-3 week intervals initially and then at 4-day intervals
 afterward.
 Protoplasts are released from the cell  cultures three days after
 subculture: the cell aggregates are mixed with 10 ml of filter sterilized
 enzyme solution containing 0.1% pectolyase Y23, 2% cellulase "Onozuka" RS,
 0.1% MES and 11% mannitol, pH 5.6, and are placed on a rotary shaker at 50
 rpm, at 28o C for 2 h in darkness, then in a static state for 4 h. 
 Protoplasts are separated from undigested cells by filtering through 76 æm
 and 38 æm filter and washed twice with a washing solution, CPW.  Protoplasts
 are collected with a Pasteur pipette and resuspended in a protoplast culture
 medium (WPM I) at a density of 1.0-8.0 x 105 protoplasts/ml in a liquid
 medium or embeded in an agarose medium (0.8%) in petri dishes and kept in
 darkness at 26-28o C without shaking.  After 4-5 weeks of culture,
 microcalli formed from protoplasts are removed from the liquid medium and
 placed onto a solid WPM II medium.  The cultures are placed in darkness in
 an incubation  chamber for 2 weeks, then the calli are transferred onto a
 differentiation medium at 23-25o C with a photoperiod of 15 h at the
 intensity of 4,000 lux.
 
      Use of oat-kernel inoculum of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici
 (Ggt) to obtain take-all of wheat.  Take-all is a severe root disease that
 occurs wherever wheat is grown continuously.  Recently, several new seed
 treatment fungicides have shown promise for control of take-all. 
 Additionally, there is renewed interest in attempting to increase the levels
 of resistance to take-all in commercial cultivars.  In either case, it is
 important for researchers to be able to reproduce the disease in the
 greenhouse and experimental plots.  Numerous procedures to obtain take-all
 are presented in the literature; however, these frequently are not as
 detailed as one would like for successful experimentation.  Below are the
 procedures that we use in Kansas to obtain take-all using artificial
 inoculum.
      Production of inoculum:  Place 150 g whole oat grains in a one-quart
 canning jar or 1-L flask and add 140 ml distilled water.  Cap the canning
 jar with a perforated (1.5 cm), cotton-plugged lid, or the flask with a
 cotton plug.  Shake to moisten the oats and incubate at room temperature for
 1-16 hr to allow the oats to imbibe much of the water.  Reshake the jars
 immediately prior to autoclaving and autoclave for 1 hr.  Many methods
 recommend autoclaving for 1 hr on each of three successive days.  We have
 found that this is not necessary; one autoclaving episode is sufficient.  If
 possible, cool the jars or flasks in a laminar-flow hood to avoid
 contamination when they are opened for inoculation.  When cooled in a
 nonsterile environment, dust and fungal spores (esp. Penicillium spp.)
 collect on the rims and lids and enter the container when it is opened for
 inoculation.  When cool, open the jars or flasks and inoculate with about
 four cubes (0.5-1.0 cm square) of agar cut from a fresh culture of Ggt
 growing on one-half strength potato-dextrose agar (PDA).  For the most rapid
 and uniform colonization, cubes should be buried in the oats (by shaking the
 jars) about 2 cm or more.  Incubate at room temperature on a lab bench,
 shaking periodically (every 4-5 days) to help prevent clumping of kernels. 
 After 2-3 wk of incubation (when kernels are somewhat blackened from the
 fungus mycelium), spread the kernels out (no more that 2.0 cm thick) on a
 shallow tray and air dry in the lab.  Drying kernels in a hot (>35 C)
 greenhouse will kill or weaken the inoculum.  Air-dry inoculum will keep at
 room temperature 3-6 mo before it begins to lose its effectiveness.  When
 refrigerated, it will keep substantially longer.
 
      Use in the greenhouse:  We grow wheat in vermiculite in cotton-plugged
 plastic cones 2.5 cm X 12.5 cm [Stuewe & Sons, Inc. Corvallis, OR (503-757-
 7798)].  Coarse growth media will give better results than fine.  Relatively
 little disease will develop in 4 wk in nonsterile field soils in the
 greenhouse.  Three to five infested oat kernels are introduced into each
 tube about 1 cm below the wheat seeds, which are planted about 2 cm deep. 
 Three wheat seeds are planted per cone with 10 cones per replication and
 four replications per treatment.  We use a split-plot design with entries
 (eg. fungicide or cultivar) as main plots and presence or absence of
 inoculum as sub-plots.  To obtain high levels of take-all, tubes should be
 watered daily.  Supplemental light is not required; however, temperature in
 the greenhouse should be low to moderate (15-28 C).  High temperature
 inhibits disease development and we have not been able to conduct accurate
 experiments during the months of June through August in the greenhouse in
 Kansas.  After seedling emergence, plants are fertilized with a soluble
 fertilizer (20:20:20, N:P:K) and grown for about 4 wk.  After growth, fresh
 weights of the plants above the soil line are determined and compared with
 noninoculated controls.  Loss in fresh weight is highly correlated (r2>0.90)
 with amount of root rot.  If desired, roots can be removed from the tubes,
 washed free of vermiculite, and rated for percentage root rot under a
 dissecting microscope.  Vermiculite, roots, and cotton can be removed from
 an inverted tube with a rapid downward, then upward, motion.  The growth
 medium (vermiculite) is removed from the root system with a stream of water
 from a flexible dish rinser.  To help prevent clogging of sink drains, most
 of the growth medium can be collected by washing the plants over a plastic
 dish pan.  We visually estimate (to the nearest 5%) the amount of root area
 with fungus runner hyphae and/or discoloration on the entire root system. 
 With this procedure, losses in fresh weight of 70-90% and root-rot ratings
 of 70-100% are common in the checks.  Whole oat kernels can also be
 introduced into pots or flats to run other types of experiments in the
 greenhouse.  Additionally, oat kernels may be fragmented (blended), sized
 (dry sieving to obtain 0.35- to 2.0-mm-diameter particles), and blended with
 the soil (0.01 g inoculum per gram of soil).
 
      Use in the field:  Whole oat kernels, colonized by Ggt, are introduced
 with the seed at planting.  Inoculum may be mixed with the seed and planted
 with a drill or cone-type plot seeder.  Although some separating of the
 wheat seed and oat-kernel inoculum can take place in the drill box due to
 vibration, this has not been a problem for us.  Applying 2-3 cm of water by
 sprinkler irrigation immediately after seedling emergence increases the
 severity of the disease.  During the past 7 yr under our conditions,
 introducing 0.43 g inoculum per meter of drill row (regardless of row
 spacing) produced take-all that resulted in 30-58% (mean = 45.3) yield loss.
 
 Alternatively, whole oat-kernel inoculum may be sprinkled over the surface
 of the soil in plots and rototilled into the soil to a depth of 10 cm
 immediately prior to planting.  During the past 4 yr, using 32.2 g inoculum
 per square meter of plot area resulted in 52-72% (mean = 62.8) yield loss. 
 Different workers have obtained different results in the field with the same
 amount of inoculum; therefore, rates may need to be adjusted for different
 environments.  Inoculum incorporated into the soil longer than 1 mo prior to
 planting will not cause significant disease in Kansas.  It appears that the
 fungus is rapidly inactivated by high soil temperatures encountered during
 the summer. - Bockus
 
                                    1992 Publications from the Wheat Genetics
 Resource Center
 
 Shu, G., Muthukrishnan, S., Liang, G. H. and Paulsen, G. M. 1993. 
 Restriction Fragment Patterns of Chloroplast and Mitochondrial  DNA of
 Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy and Wheats.  TAG  (accepted). 
 
 Liang, G. H., Skinner, D. Z., Sun, Y., and Sorensen, E. L. 1993. The
 Discovery of Mendel's Genetic Laws. Plant Biology (ed. S.  D. Kung).  Vol.
 II, Part VIII, Sect. 35.  World Scientific Publ. LTD.
 
 Breeding value and cytological structure of Triticum timopheevi var.
 araraticum.  1992.  G.L. Brown,  B.S. Gill, and T.S. Cox.  Agronomy
 Abstracts:90. Resistance to foliar diseases in a collection of Triticum
 tauschii germ plasm.  1992.  T. S. Cox, W. J. Raupp, D. L. Wilson, B. S.
 Gill, S. Leath, W. W. Bockus, and L. E. Browder.  Plant Dis.  76:1061-1064.
 
 Registration of KS90WGRC10 leaf rust-resistant hard red winter wheat
 germplasm.  1992.  T. S. Cox, R. G. Sears, and B. S. Gill.  Crop Sci. 
 32:506.
 
 Development of genome region-specific libraries for mapping in cereals. 
 1992.  D. E. Delaney, S. H. Hulbert, R. S. Kota, and B. S. Gill.  The
 International Conference of the Plant Genome, November 9-11, 1992, San
 Diego, CA.  p. 24.
 
 Attempted transformation of wheat and tobacco by plasmid DNA uptake via the
 pollen-tube pathway.  1992.  H. S. Dhaliwal, B. R. Tyagi, F. F. White, and
 B. S. Gill.  J. Plant Biochem. Biotech.  1:127-128.
 
 Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of Wheat-Agropyron Chromosome Rotation Lines
 Resistant to Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV).  1992.  B. Friebe, J. Jiang,
 and B. S. Gill.  Agronomy Abstracts:96.
 
 Registration of KS91WGRC14 stem rust and powdery mildew resistant durum
 wheat germplasm homozygous for a T1BLú1RS translocation.  1992.  B. Friebe,
 B. S. Gill, T. S. Cox, and F. J. Zeller.  Crop Sci.  (In press).
 
 C-banding polymorphisms in several accessions of Triticum tauschii (Aegilops
 squarrosa).  1992.  B. Friebe, Y. Mukai, and B. S. Gill.  Genome  35:192-
 199.
 
 C-banding and in-situ hybridization analyses of Agropyron intermedium, a
 partial wheat x Ag. intermedium amphiploid, and six derived chromosome
 addition lines.  1992.  B. Friebe, Y. Mukai, B. S. Gill, and Y. Cauderon. 
 Theor. Appl. Genet.  84:899-905.
 
 Mapping of quantitative trait loci in BC2F2 populations of common wheat x
 Triticum tauschii.  1992.  A. K. Fritz, T. S. Cox, B. S. Gill, and R. G.
 Sears.  Agronomy Abstracts:97.
 
 Recent Progress in Plant Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis.  1992.  B. S. Gill.
 Agronomy Abstracts:97.
 
 A strategy to identify probes that detect a high degree of polymorphism in
 bread wheat.  1992.  K. S. Gill and B. S. Gill.  J. Plant Biochem. Biotech. 
 1:81-85.
 
 Progress in genome mapping of wheat and related species:  Proceedings of the
 2nd public workshop of the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative. 
 1992.  B. S. Gill, W. J. Raupp, and H. C. Corke, eds.  September 27-29,
 1991, Manhattan, KS.  Report No. 10, University of California Genetic
 Resources Conservation Program, Davis, CA.  82 p.
 
 An updated genetic linkage map of Triticum tauschii, the D-genome progenitor
 of wheat.  1992.  K. S. Gill, D. Hassawi, W. J. Raupp, B. S. Gill, A. K.
 Fritz, T. S. Cox, D. Namuth, R. G. Sears, and N. L. V. Lapitan.  Agronomy
 Abstracts:190.
 
 Alloplasmic wheat-Elymus ciliaris chromosome addition lines.  1993.  J.
 Jiang, P. Chen, B. Friebe, W. J. Raupp, and B. S. Gill.  Genome (In press).
 
 Molecular cytogenetic analysis of Agropyron elongatum chromatin in wheat
 germplasm specifying resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus.  1993  J.
 Jiang, B. Friebe, H. S. Dhaliwal, T. J. Martin, and B. S. Gill.  Theor.
 Apppl. Genet.  (In press).
 
 Wheat-Agropyron recombinant chromosomes with Lr24 gene analyzed by genomic
 in situ hybridization.  1992.  J. Jiang and B. S. Gill.  The International
 Conference