-------------------------
                            ANNUAL WHEAT NEWSLETTER
 
 
 
                                   Volume 40
 
 
 Edited by J. S. Quick, Department of Agronomy, Colorado State University, Fort
 Collins, CO, USA: Financial arrangements made by Ian B. Edwards, Treasurer,
 Pioneer Overseas Corporation, Johnston, IA, USA.  Carolyn Schultz, Senior
 Secretary, CSU Department of Agronomy, typed and collated the information for
 the printing of this volume.  Facilities and assistance during manuscript
 editing were kindly provided by Colorado State University.
 
 
      Additional regional editing and manuscript solicitation were done by:
 
      J. S. Noll, Canada Dept. of Agriculture, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
      R. A. Fischer, CIMMYT, Mexico, D. F., Mexico
      R. H. Maich, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Argentina
      T. E. Miller, Plant Sci. Res., Cambridge Laboratory, Norwich, England
      H. A. van Niekerk, Small Grain Center, Bethlehem, South Africa
      B. C. Curtis, Former CIMMYT Wheat Director, Retired
 
 
 This volume was financed by voluntary contributions - list included.  The
 information in this Newsletter is considered as personal contributions. 
 Before citing any information herein, obtain the consent of the specific
 author(s).  The Newsletter is sponsored by the National Wheat Improvement
 Committee, USA.
 
                               
                                  1 June 1994
 
 
                      90 copies and 350 diskettes printed
 
 
               Publications Services, Colorado State University
 
 
 
 
 -------------------------
 TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                            
 
 H. HARRISON
 
 R. E. HEINER
 
 C. F. KONZAK
 
 I.   SPECIAL REPORTS
      
           Minutes - Wheat Crop Advisory Committee
 
           Minutes - National Wheat Improvement Committee
 
           Members - National Wheat Improvement Committee
 
           Wheat Workers Code of Ethics
 
           Grain Genes and Triticea Database
 
 
 II.  CONTRIBUTIONS
 
      PRIVATE COMPANIES
 
      AGRIPRO BIOSCIENCES
 
           Joe Smith, Blake Cooper, Barb Cook, Jerry Betz, John Moffatt, Steve
           Askelson, Jerry Brick, Scott Seifert, Paul Griess, Jim Reeder, Bobby
           Talley, Berthoud, CO
 
           Barton Fogleman, C. Taylor - Jonesboro, AR
           Koy Miskin, Curtis Beazer, E. Glover, D. Scruggs - Brookston, IN
 
      CARGILL HYBRID SEEDS, INC.
 
           Nestor Machado, Pedro Paulucci, Hector Mertinuzzi - Argentina
 
           S. W. Perry, Sallly R. Clayshulte, Jill Handwert, 
           D. P. Shellberg - Fort Collins, CO
 
           R. Daniel, D. Donaldson, Lyn Hockings, Garry Lane, Michael
           Materne, Michael Nowland, Chris Tyson, Jane & Peter Wilson, 
           Tamworth, N.S.W.
 
      HYBRITECH SEED INTERNATIONAL, INC.
 
           John Erickson, Steve Kuhr, Karolyn Ely, Dennis Delaney,
           Bud Hardesty, Jerry Wilson - Wichita, KS; Gordon Cisar -
           Lafayette, IN;
           Hal Lewis - Corvallis, OR; Dudley Leaphart - Billings, MT
 
      HYBRINOVA
 
           A. Gervais - Les Ulis Cedex, France
           Stephen D. Sunderwirth, Christian Quandalle, Laurent Batreau
 
      NORTHRUP KING COMPANY
 
           June Hancock, Craig Allen - Bay, AR
 
      PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC.
           Johnston, IA - I. B. Edwards
           Windfall, IN - G. C. Marshall, W. J. Laskar, K. J. Lively
           St. Mathews, SC - B. E. Edge, P. L. Shields
           Frouville, France - G. Dorlencourt, R. Marchand, O. Vanderpol
           Sevilla, Spain - J. M. Urbano, M. Hidalgo, M. Peinado
           Sissa (Parma), Italy - M. Tanzi
           Northampton, England - Paul Wilson and Ian Edwards
           Buxtehude Germany - H. Schoenwallder, Ian Edwards
           Pandorf, Austria - G. Reichenberger
 
      TRIGEN SEED SERVICES
 
           Robert Romig, Bloomington, MN
 
      TRIO RESEARCH, INC.
 
           J. Wilson - Wichita, KS
 
 ARGENTINA
 
      G. E. Tranquilli, E. Y. Suarez, S. M. Lewis, M. L. Appendino,         
      N. Fatta, J. P. Ortiz, M. I. Reggiardo, S. Altabe, G. D. Cervigni,
      M. A. Spitteler, R. H. Vellejos, S. E. Feingold, H. E. Hopp,
      A. Acevedo - Castellar
 
      D. Avalos, A. Ordonez, N. La Porta, M. Cerana, S. Gil, A. L.
      Pascualides, M. R. Zaninetti, D. Igarzabal, A. A. Rollan, N. A. 
      Buteler, O. A. Bachmeiet, A. Barchuk, E. Allessandria, J. Zamar, 
      S. Lugue, R. M. Roldan, F. Salvagiotti, D. Opovin, G. Manera, R. 
      Maich, N. Contin, W. Londero, D. Bonelli, C. Ferraris, B. Pantanoi, 
      C. Principi, F. Bidinost, B. Ferro, G. Alemano, N. Guzman, C. Olmos, 
      M. Bianchi, M. E. Dubois, Z. A. Gaido, G. A. Manera, M. Conles, M. C.
      Salvadores, M. Barrientos - Cordoba
 
 
 AUSTRALIA
 
      Queensland
 
          Paul Brennan, Phillip Banks, John Sheppard, Peter Keys, Lloyd Mason
          Martin Fiske, Peter Agius, Jamie Ross
 
          Meryl Fordyce, Paul Brennan, Ian Delacy, Mark Cooper, David
          Butler, Ian Haak, Gay McKinnon, Robert Henryk, Wendy Lawson, 
          Ma Wujin, Ian Godwin, S. J. Kammholtz, P. M. Banks, D. J. Martin,
          M. W. Sutherland, R. Ramage, R. Marshke
 
          G. B. Wildermuth, R. B. McNamara and T. M. Sparks
 
      New South Wales
 
          R. A. Hare, Tamworth
 
          K. Adhikari, J. Bell, A. M. Bennet, L. W. Burgess, G. N. Brown,
          C. Zhao, H-S Hwang, S. Johnson, R. A. McIntosh, D. R. Marshall, 
          J. D. Oates, R. F. Park, J. E. Roarke, P. J. Sharp, F. Stoddard, 
          D. The, M. Turner, C. R. Wellings, Dept. of Crop Science, 
          University of Sydney and PBI, Cobbitty
 
          I. A. Watson, F. W. Ellison, D. J. Mares, S. G. Moore, K. Mrva,
          L. O'Brien, R. M. Trethowan
 
          C. W. Wrigley, Sydney
 
 AUSTRIA
 
          H. Brausgruber, H. Burstmayr, M. Lemmens, P. Ruckenbauer, Vienna
 
          S. Groger, H. Bistrich, T. Lelley
 
 BRAZIL
 
          J. C. S. Moreira, C. N. A. de Sousa, E. P. Gomes, L. J. A.
          Del Duca, J. F. Philipovsky, P. L. Scheeren
 
          W. I. Linhares
 
          L. J. A. Del Duca, R. S. Fontaneli, J. F. Philipovsky,
 
          O. Rodriguez, G. R. Cunha - Passo Fundo
 
          A. C. P. Goulart, F. de A. Paiva, P. J. M. Andrade - Dourados
 CANADA
 
      MANITOBA 
 
          J. Gilbert and A. Tekauz - Winnipeg
 
          P. L. Dyck
 
          J. A. Kolmer
 
          J. A. Kolmer and J. Q. Liu, O. M. Lukow, R. I. H. McKenzie,
          Taing Aung, E. R. Kerber
 
      PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
 
          H. W. Johnston, H. G. Nass
 
      SASKATCHEWAN
 
          R. M. De Pauw, J. M. Clarke, M. R. Fernandez, R. B. Irvine
 
 CHINA, PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF
 
      Zhaosu Wu, Shirong Yu, Xizhong Wei, Quimei Xia, Youjia Shen, 
      Jiming Wu, Yong Xu, Xhaoxia Chen, Guoliang Jiang - Nanjing
      Shi-Jia Liu
 
      Zhong-hu He and Zhen-hua Du
 
      F. W. Zhao, H. M. Ki, Z. Y. Liu, Y. Z. Shen, F. C. Liu,
      Z. Q. Li, Z. Z. Bai, C. S. Guo, L. Z. Sun
 
 CROATIA
 
      Slobodan Tamasovic, P. Javor, B. Koric - Zagreb
 
 CZECH REPUBLIC
 
      P. Martinek, Z. Nesvadba, J. Mikulcova - Havlickova
 
      P. Bartos, E. Stuchlikova, R. Hanusova
 
      J. Kosner
 
      Z. Stehno, M. Vlasak, I. Faberova - Prague
      K. Vacke, V. Sip, M. Skorpik
 
 ESTONIA
 
      O. Priilinn, T. Enno, H. Peusha, K. Jarve, L. Timofeyeva, 
      T. Tsimbalova - Tallinn
 
      M. Tohvar
 
 GERMANY
 
      J. von Kietzell and K. Rudolph - Grisebachstr
 
      R. Schlegel, U. Vahl, G. Muller - Gatersleben
 
      A. Borner, J. Plaschke, I.M.B. Amer, V. Korzun - Gatersleben
 
 HUNGARY
 
      B. Barnabas, G. Kovacs, E. Szakacs, I. Takacs, M. Kovacs
 
      J. Sutka, G. Galiba, M. Molnar-Lang, B. Koszegi, E. Farshadfar,
      M. Arshadfar, O. Veisz, G. Linc
 
      T. Janda, G. Szalai, J. Kissimon, E. Paldi
 
      J. Matuz, Z. Kertesz, L. Bona, B. Beke, A. Mesterhazy
      J. Falusi, Cs. Kertesz, J. Matuz, L. Cseuz,
      M. Papp, A. Mesterhazy, L. Purnhauser - Szeged
 
 INDIA
 
      R. N. Sawhney, et al. - New Delhi
      S.M.S. Tomar, et al. - Wellington
      J. G. Bhowal and G. Guha - Wellington
      D. Singh - New Delhi
      J. G. Bhowal, G. Huha, R. Brahma and R. Singh
      P. Bahadur, K. Srivastava, D. Singh, R. Aggarwal
      Neelam Vir, Mandip Kaur, R. G. Saini - Ludhiana
      Harjit Singh, H. S. Dhaliwal, Khem Singh Gill, Ludhiana
 
      R. Asir, V. R. K. Reddy, P. Viswanathan
 
      Aloka Saikia and V. R. K. Reddy
 
      J. S. Bijral, et al. - R. S. Pura
 
      R. N. Brahma
 
 ISRAEL
 
      Sem Atsmon, Udi Meidan - Hazera
 
 ITALY
 
      M. Pasquini, L. Sereni, F. Casini, F. Casullil - Via Cassia
      N. E. Pogna, R. Redaellil, S. Pagliaricci, P. Cacciatori,
      R. Castagnal et al.
 
      V. Vassilev, P. Lavermicocca, N. S. Lacobellis
 
      C. Rubies-Autonell
 
      V. Vallega
 
      M. G. D'Egidio, B. M. Mariani, S. Nardi, P. Novaro
 
      M. Cattaneo
 
      G. M. Borrelli, S. Travella, N. Di Fonzo, E. Lupotto
      et al.
 
 JAPAN
 
      Ichiko Nishimura and N. Watanabe - Gifu University
 
      H. Nakamura - Kannondai
 
 MEXICO
 
      R. A. Fischer, G. Varughese - CIMMYT
      R. L. Villareal, G. Hernandez, S. Rajaram
 
      K. D. Sayre, M. Van Ginkel, S. Rajaram, I. Ortiz-Monasterio
 
      A. I. Morqunov, M. Albarran, S. Rajarm
 
 MOROCCO
 
      M. Mergoum et al. - Settat
 
 PAKISTAN
 
      Munawar Husain - Islamabad
 
 ROMANIA
 
      N. N. Saulescu, Gh. Ittu, Mariana Ittu, Mustatea - Fundalea
 
      M. Moldovan, et al. - Turda
 
 RUSSIA
 
      N. S. Vassiltchouk, V. I. Kassatov, S. N. Gaponov - Saratov
 
      S. V. Tuchin, Yu V. Italianskaya, T. I. Dyatchouk
 
      S. P. Martynov, T. V. Dobrotvorskaya
 
      Alexandr Fedorov - People's Friendship University
 
      Book Review
 
      S. N. Sibikeev, S. A. Voronina, Y. E. Sibikeeva, V. A. Krupnow
 
 SOUTH AFRICA
 
      G. F. Marais, R. Prins, A. Antonov, H. S. Roux, M. Horn,
      A. S. Marais - Stellenbosch
 
      Z. A. Pretorius, F. J. Kloppers, A. L. Vorster - Bloemfontein
 
      H. A. van Niekerk, M. C. B. Coetzee, H. A. Knobel, D. J. 
      Exley, W. Miles, Riana Pretorius, et al. - Bethlehem
 
      J. Purchase, A. Barnard, C. Burbridge, J. deWet, T. Walsh, et al.
 
      H. Smit, D. Scott, E. Lubbe, J. Smith, S. Smith, D. van Neikerk,
      K. Wilken, L. Visser, C. de Villiers
 
      H. Smit, G. Prinsloo, V. Tolmay, J. Hatting, J. du Toit,
      H. Knobel, C. Pool,, R. Lindeque
 
      Lombard, Du Toit, Malan, Engelbrecht, Boonzaaier, et al. - Sensako
 
      R. de V. Pienaar, D. Lesch - Stellenbosch
 
      F. du Toit, S. S. Walters, A. Brummer, P. Thorpe - Pannar, Ltd.
 
 SYRIA
 
      S. K. Yau, J. Ryan, M. Nachit, G. Ortiz-Ferrara, J. Hamblin - Aleppo
 
 TURKEY
 
      Hans-Joachim Braun, Thomas Payne - Ankara
 
 UKRAINE
 
      L. A. Zhivotkov, et al. - Mironovka
 
 UNITED KINGDOM
 
      NORWICH, John Innes Centre, Colney
       T. E. Miller, S. M. Reader, K. A. Purdie, R. P. Dunford
       A. J. Worland
 
       G. Galiba, S. A. Quarrie, J. Sutka, J. Snape, et al.
 
       R. Koebner, P. Martin, J. Flintham, J. Hewslop-Harrison et al.
 
 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
 
      ARKANSAS
 
            R. K. Bacon, E. A. Milus, et al.
 
      CALIFORNIA
 
            C. A. Curtis, Bahman Ehdaie, K. Knio, A. Lukaszewski,
            R. Tayyar, J. Waines, Xitang Xu - Riverside
 
      COLORADO
 
            J. S. Quick, G. H. Ellis, R. Normann, A. Saidi,
            J. S. Stromberger, H. Doug, Q. Khan
 
      GEORGIA
 
            J. W. Johnson, B. N. Cunfer, J. J. Roberts
            G. D. Buntin, D. E. McMillin, J. P. Wilson
 
      IDAHO
 
            R. S. Zemetra, E. Souza, S. Guy, et al. - Moscow & Aberdeen
 
 
      ILLINOIS
 
            F. L. Kolb, E. D. Nafziger, W. L. Pedersen, et al.
 
      INDIANA
 
            H. Ohm, H. Sharma, I. Dweikat, S. Mackenzie, D. McFatridge,
            F. Patterson, G. Buechley, D. Huber, R. Lister, G. Shaner,
            F. Maas, R. Ratcliffe, R. Shukle, G. Safranski, S. Cambron
 
      KANSAS
 
            O. Chung, G. Lookhart, V. Smail, J. Steele, W. McGaughey,
            I. Zayas, D. Bechtel, A. Dowdy et al.
 
            B. S. Gill, T. S. Cox, R. G. Sears, W. J. Raupp et al - 
            Kansas State University
 
            T. J. Martin, T. L. Harvey, T. S. Cox et al. - Wheat Genetics
            Resource Center - Kansas State University
 
            Jingxian Zhang and M. B. Kirkham - Evapotranspiration Lab
 
            Xu Gu, George Liang - Dept. of Agronomy - Kansas State Univ.
 
            T. J. Byram - Topeka
 
      KENTUCKY
 
            D. A. Van Sanford, et al.
 
      LOUISIANA
 
            S. A. Harrison, C. Clark, P. Colyer, S. H. Moore, C. Hallier et al.
 
      MINNESOTA
 
            A. P. Roelfs, D. L. Long, M. E. Hughes, D. H. Casper, J. J. Roberts
  
            Cereal Rust Lab - St. Paul
 
            R. Busch, D. McVey
 
            R. Busch and Jochum Wiersma
 
      MISSOURI
 
            A. L. McKendry, J. P. Gustafson, K. D. Kephart et al.
 
      MONTANA
 
            
            C. F. McGuire, S. P. Lanning, R. l. Burrows, et al.
            H. B. Chen, J. M. Martin, L. E. Talbert
 
      NEBRASKA
 
            P. S. Baenziger, C. J. Peterson, D. R. Shellton, R. A.
               Graybosch,
            D. D. Baltensperger, L. A. Nelson, D. J. Lyons, G. L. Hein, et
               al.
 
      NEW YORK
 
            M. E. Sorrells, A. Neiss
 
            G. C. Bergstrom, J. E. Carroll et al.
 
      NORTH DAKOTA
 
            J. A. Anderson, C. R. Riede
 
            G. A. Hareland
            Cereal Science Department
 
      OKLAHOMA
 
            R. M. Hunger, J. L. Sherwood - Oklahoma State University
            C. A. Baker, J. D. Burd, N. C. Elliott et al. - ARS
               Stillwater
 
      OREGON
 
            W. E. Kronstad, R. S. Karow, D. K. Kelly, R. W. Knight,
            W. D. Moore, S. E. Rowe, S. Rezgui
 
      SOUTH DAKOTA
 
            J. C. Rudd, G. Buchenau, et al.
            S. D. Haley, R. A. Schut
            M. A. Langham, D. J. Gallenberg
            H. Woodard, A. Bly
 
      TEXAS
 
            Mark Lazar, J. Hu, G. L. Peterson, et al. - Texas A&M
 
      UTAH
 
            R. S. Albrechtsen
            David Hole
 
      VIRGINIA
 
            C. A. Griffey, D. E. Brann, E. Stromberg, E. C. Jones
            J. M. Johnson - Virginia Polytechnic & State University
 
      WASHINGTON
 
            R. E. Allen, S. S. Jones, R. F. Line, et al. - USDA-ARS
 
            S. S. Jones, M. M. Cadle, L. M. Rayfuse, A. Yildirim
 
            M. K. Walker-Simmons, E. Cudaback, A. Galvez, et al.
            C. F. Morris, H. C. Jeffers, A. D. Bettge, D. Engle, et al.
            Roland F. Line, Xianming Chen, Stephen Jones
 
            T. D. Murray, . C. Pritchett, C. A. Blank, et al.
 
      SERBIA (formerly YUGOSLOVIA)
 
            Desimir Knezevic, Miroslav Kuburovic, et al.
 
            Miroslav Kuburovic, Desimir Knezevic et al.
 
 III. CULTIVARS AND GERMPLASM
 
      H. E. Bockelman, D. M. Wesenberg, S. Nieto, A. Urie, B. J. Goats
      - Evaluation of National Small Grains Collection Germplasm
 
      J. S. Quick - CSSA Cultivar and Germplasm Registration
 
 IV.  CATALOGUE OF GENE SYMBOLS, 1994 SUPPLEMENT
 
      R. A. McIntosh, G. E. Hart, M. D. Gale
 
 V.   ANNUAL WHEAT NEWSLETTER FUND
 
 VI.  VOLUME 41 MANUSCRIPT
 
 VII. MAILING LIST
 
 VIII. FAX/TELEPHONE
 
 
 ------------------------- 
                                HOWARD HARRISON
 
 Howard Harrison, retired since July of 1989 from his position as senior and
 oat breeder, Northrup King Seed Co (formerly Coker's Pedigreed Seed Company of
 Hartsville, South Carolina) since 1989, died on May 25, 1993.  He was a small
 grain breeder with Coker's for more than 30 years, and released over 30
 improved wheat and oat varieties that substantially contributed to smalll
 grain and livestock production throughout the southern U.S.  He was also very
 active in his church and community.
 
 Howard Harrison was born January 4, 1924, in Crafordville, Georgia, where he
 was raised on a farm.  After serving in World War II, he entered the
 University of Georgia, where he received a B.S. and M.S. in 1952 and 1954,
 respectively.  He began his long and successful career as a plant breeder in
 1954, at the headquarters of Coker's Pedigreed Seed Company in Hartsville.  He
 and his predecessor/co-worker released 'Suregrain' oats in 1957 and
 'Moregrain' in 1958.
 
 In 1958, Howard was employed as an peanut Agronomist at the University of
 Georgia's Coastal Plains Station in Tifton, Georgia.  He returned to Coker's
 Pedigreed Seed Company in 1961 and assumed sole leadership of the small grains
 breeding program.  Howard had an extremely successful career as a wheat
 breeder, releasing 19 improved varieties of soft red winter wheat.  These
 varieties did much to revitalize wheat production in the southeastern United
 States.  Varieties he developed accounted for 57, 35, 79, 80, 66, 38, and 27%
 of the total wheat acreage in Georgia, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, North
 Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia, respectively, in 1984.  His
 varieties and lines have been widely utilized as parental material regionally
 and globally.  He also released 11 oat varieties, including 'Coker 227' and
 'Coker 234', the first U.S. varieties with crown rust resistance from Avena
 sterilis.
 
 He was recognized as "Man of the Year in Southern Agriculture" by Progressive
 Farmer Magazine in 1982, in recognition of his contributions toward improved
 agricultural production.  He was also named "Distinguished Agronomist of the
 Year" by the Agronomy Society of South Carolina in 1982 and received the Gamma
 Sigma Delta Award of Merit for Distinguished Service to Agriculture from the
 University of Georgia in 1983.  He also received recognition from the
 Carolina-Virginia chapter and national groups of the national Agricultural
 Marketing Association in 1985.  In 1989 he was given a "Certificate of
 Appreciation" by the North Carolina Crop Improvement Association, and was also
 awarded the "Drug and Science Foundation of South Carolina Award for
 Contributions to Science" in 1989.  Howard was recognized with an "Award for
 Distinguished Service to Oat Improvement" in the 1989 Annual Oat Newsletter.
 
 He is survived by his wife Louise, of Hartsville; two sons: Stephen, small
 grain breeder with Louisiana State University, Howard Jr., weed scientist -
 physiologist with the USDA-ARS Vegetable Research Station in Charleston, SC;
 two daughters: Beth, a journalist in Charleston, SC; and Celia, a teacher in
 Charlotte, NC; and five grandchildren.
 
 
 
                               ROBERT E. HEINER
 
 Dr. Robert (Bob) E. Heiner recently retired from his position as Vice
 President of Plant Research and Development for AgriPro Biosciences Inc.  His
 extensive contributions to the science and art of wheat breeding make Bob one
 of the all-time elite contributors to applied wheat improvement.
 
 Bob started his long and distinguished wheat career as ARS-USDA Regional
 Coordinator of the North Central HRS Region from 1968-77.  During this time,
 he also coordinated the Winter Increase Nurseries in Obregon Mexico for the
 spring wheat breeders of the US and Canada.  He established strong ties with
 CIMMYT breeders during those years and fostered free germplasm exchange which
 eventually resulted in many of the improved U.S. wheats we enjoy today.  Many
 of the "Green Revolution" wheats released by CIMMYT had parents developed by
 Bob during this period of time.
 
 During his twelve years at Minnesota, seven improved wheat varieties were
 released.  The most important of these varieties was Era.  It was the first
 semidwarf hard red spring wheat released in the US, and was 25% higher
 yielding than any variety grown in that region at that time.  Needless to say,
 the impact was extraordinary.  This landmark variety was a primary contributor
 for a four-fold increase in the wheat acreage in Minnesota from 1970 to 1976. 
 It was the dominant variety in the Red River Valley for 11 years, generating
 an estimated $30 million of genetically derived extra income annually for the
 producers of that region.
 
 The impact of Bob's dedication continued at NAPB/AgriPro Biosciences Inc. top
 science position in 1985.  As Vice President of Plant Research and
 Development, Bob was responsible for corporate performance, policy, and
 strategic planning as well as directing the activities of 85 researchers. 
 Scientific ethic was always the foundation that Bob relied on as he fulfilled
 these important functions for the corporation.
 
 Bob's no-nonsense dedication to germplasm development and the resulting
 improved varieties has resulted in significantly improved agricultural
 production world wide.  Bob earned his recognition through his skilled plant
 breeding and consummate interpersonal and managerial skills.
 
 Bob is looking forward to continuing his contributions to wheat improvement as
 a wheat specialist consultant for AgriPro Biosciences Inc.  He and his wife
 Marilyn have recently relocated to Sandy Utah.
 
 
 
                               CALVIN F. KONZAK         
                               
 Dr. Calvin Konzak retired from Crop and Soil Sciences Department of Washington
 State University (WSU) in December 1993 after an exemplary career of 37 years
 as professor, agronomist and spring wheat breeder.  A native of North Dakota,
 he obtained his B.S. in Agriculture from North Dakota State University (1948)
 and his Ph.D. in Plant Breeding and Genetics from Cornell University (1952). 
 Prior to coming to WSU he was an Associate Geneticist at the Brookhaven
 National Laboratory from 1951 to 1957.
 
 The scope and impact of his scientific discoveries, plant breeding
 accomplishments, teaching, and advising graduate students have been
 extraordinary.  He developed 24 cultivars including spring oats, durum wheats,
 soft white spring wheats and hard red spring wheats.  His variety Penawawa is
 currently the most widely grown spring wheat in the Pacific Northwest.  He
 advised 14 PhD. and 14 M.S. students in their graduate studies in genetics and
 agronomy.  He taught several genetics and agronomy courses and had numerous
 post doctorates and visiting scientists that collaborated with him on
 research.  Many of his former students have gone on to become nationally and
 internationally recognized scientists, educators and CEO's.
 
 Throughout his career C.F. Konzak has directed his genius and energy toward
 facilitating plant breeding.  To that end, his efforts include: contributing
 over 300 scholarly papers on cereal genetics research; conceiving innovative
 germplasm evaluation procedures; designing standardized ways for data
 collection, processing, and analysis; outlining methods to enhance genetic
 variability and reduce genetic vulnerability; and writing in depth reviews of
 important topics in cereal breeding and genetics.  Dr. Konzak and his
 coworkers have contributed valuable landmark publications on the genetic
 diversity for semidwarfism, wheat quality and mutation breeding strategy. 
 More recently he and his students have focused on double haploids in wheat,
 and on wheat transformation.
 
 Among the most notable accomplishments for which he was instrumental include
 developing a standard-computer friendly pedigree system; a one-person plot
 combine/data acquisition system; the first procedure for embryo rescue via
 tissue culture (1951); a decimal code for cereal growth stages; a staining
 procedure to detect A1. toxicity; and developing dual-purpose pastry and bread
 wheat varieties.  He pioneered modern mutation breeding and conducted
 exhaustive studies to improve the efficiency of mutagenesis and to identify
 effective mutagens.  His strategies for exploiting mutation breeding to
 augment conventional breeding have been adopted worldwide.  Because of his
 broad expertise he served as consultant to numerous organizations including
 FAO, the National Research Council, International Atomic Energy Agency and
 several private companies.  He has received many honors including U.S. Public
 Health Senior Scientist Fellow, the O.A. Vogel Plant Breeding Award and Fellow
 in AAAS, ASA and CSSA.
 
 Cal remains actively involved in research.  He began a private mutation and
 plant breeding program in 1982, focusing mainly on oats and durum wheats. 
 This program has produced a wide range of semidwarf and other mutants in oats
 and several valuable semidwarf durums.  He and his wife, Margaret will
 continue to make their home in Pullman.
 
 
 -------------------------
 I.   SPECIAL REPORTS
 
                Minutes of the Wheat Crop Advisory Committee
 
                           November 18, 1993
                           El Batan, Mexico
 
 Committee members in attendance were T.S. Cox (Chairman), R.F. Line (Vice-
 Chairman), G. Waines, J.S. Quick, D.V. McVey, R.H. Busch, B. Skovman, I.B.
 Edwards, O. Anderson, S. Jones, S. Leath, and H.E. Bockleman (ex-officio).  
 
 Stephen S. Jones and Steven Leath were introduced as new members.  The by-
 laws permit 16 committee members.  There are now 14 members.  No new members
 were proposed.
 
 In addition to the WCAC members, many of the members of the National Wheat
 Improvement Committee also attended the meeting.
 
 Minutes of the 1992 meeting, as published in the 1993 Annual Wheat
 Newsletter, were approved by voice vote.
 
 Germplasm Collections.  G. Waines reported on the proposal to collect
 germplasm in S.E. Turkey before a large irrigation project is installed and
 reported that C. Sterling did not think that it is necessary.  Other areas
 that were considered for future collection were Albania, N. Iraq, Syria,
 Kurdistan, Ethiopia, Niger, China, and Tibet.  Waines will be in contact
 with ICARDA regarding future collection in the Middle East.  Dave Marshall
 and L.R. Nelson, Texas A&M, collected wild cereals from Turkey on a proposal
 "Exploration for Fungal Endophytes in Wild Cereals".  That collection is
 being evaluated for a number of traits.  It will be increased and deposited
 in the National Small Grains Collection.  There was concern that some
 germplasm from active breeding programs may be lost when current wheat
 breeders retire.  H. Bockleman will maintain contact with those people
 regarding their material.  Limited funds are available to help prevent the
 loss of valuable germplasms.
 
 Germplasm Protection.  The Wheat Advisory Committee was greatly concerned
 about recent developments regarding the distribution of germplasm.  They
 voted unanimously to support the current USDA-ARS policy regarding seed held
 by the National Plant Germplasm System; recommended that a letter be sent to
 Dr. Shands expressing our concern, and recommended that the topic be
 discussed at the National Wheat Improvement Committee Meeting.  The letter
 to Dr. Shands is included at the end of the minutes.
 
 Germplasm Evaluation.  H. Bockleman provided a detailed report on evaluation
 of wheat accessions in the National Small Grains Collection.  Evaluation of
 the accessions is showing great progress and considerable new data are being
 added to the GRIN system.  A letter from Dr. Eberhart regarding "Core
 Subsets" was distributed to the committee.  Considerable discussions of the
 definition of a core, how it should be constructed, and the need for a core
 subset followed.  The general conclusion of the group was that a random
 sample would not be useful.  An elite set for a specific purpose may be
 useful.  A subcommittee to study the details of the subject will be
 appointed.
 
 Wheat Nomenclature.  G. Waines reported on the results of a workshop on
 Triticum systematics.  The last taxonomic revision was in the 1960's.  They
 concluded that the present state of taxonomy and nomenclature in Triticum is
 confusing for people who collect germplasm and maintain germplasm and for
 breeders and geneticists.  They proposed that a monographic revision is
 necessary.
 
 Wheat Databases.  B. Skovman reported on the Genetic Resources Information
 Package (GRIP) and a planning meeting that occurred on July 22, 1993 at
 Beijing, China.  The data will be available on CD-ROM.  O. Anderson
 discussed progress in developing the Wheat Genome Database that is part of
 the USDA Plant Genome Project.  Wheat is one of four species used as models
 for a database that will be in the National Agricultural Library.  Major
 emphasis is in gathering wheat data from numerous sources.  Some of the the
 data included in the database are mapping data, information on genetic
 stocks, data on disease and insect resistance, and historical data on
 cultivars and lines.  It is accessible by phone using various methods.  They
 are looking for more data and other types of data to add to the database.
 
 Quarantine Update.  There were no major changes in the quarantine situation
 for seed coming from Mexico to the United States.  CIMMYT has developed a
 system of producing and treating their seed to prevent the distribution of
 karnal bunt.
 
 
 ------------------------- 
 Dr. Henry Shands
 Associate Deputy Administrator
 Genetic Resources, USDA-ARS
 Bldg. 005
 BARC-West
 Beltsville, MD 20705
 
 Dear Dr. Shands:
 
     I am writing on behalf of the Wheat Crop Advisory Committee (CAC), which
 voted unanimously on Nov. 18, 1993 in support of the current USDA-ARS policy
 regarding seed held by the National Plant Germplasm System. Specifically, we
 support the USDA's unrestricted distribution of germplasm.  (Cultivars
 registered under Plant Variety Protection Act, while not distributed by the
 NPGS, are by law available as parental germplasm.)  By maintaining its
 current policy, USDA-ARS is demonstrating to the world's agricultural
 community a strong commitment to the free exchange of plant germplasm; this
 free exchange is, as you know, the foundation upon which plant breeding
 progress worldwide has been and continues to be built.
 
     As a committee, we are well aware of the changes occurring in the seed
 distribution policies of other countries.  To ensure that the NPGS can
 continue to play a key role in protection of genetic diversity of the
 world's crop plants in the face of political, economic, and environmental
 disruptions, it may become necessary to hold collections from abroad at the
 National Seed Storage Laboratory (NSSL) with restrictions on their
 distribution.  However, this necessity - one that the United States
 government at times may have no choice but to accept - should not lead our
 nation to abandon its own commitment to the free exchange of germplasm.
 
      There are more accessions of wheat than of any other crop held by the
 NPGS. Our CAC recommends the following actions, intended simultaneously to
 provide maximum protection of crop diversity and to foster germplasm
 exchange to the greatest extent possible:
 
 (1)  When it is necessary, in the interest of national and world
 agricultural security, for USDA to enter into agreements with foreign
 governments to store plant germplasm at NSSL with restrictions on
 distribution, we support such action.
 
 (2)  However, we strongly oppose restrictions on distribution of germplasm
 deposited at NSSL by private firms or by public institutions within the
 United States.  By holding such germplasm, USDA would be lending its
 considerable prestige to, and in effect endorsing, the commercialization of
 germplasm exchange within our own system.  The function of NSSL is to ensure
 the long-term viability of germplasm; this is often a concern regard to seed
 collections representing the genetic diversity of a region, but not ones
 that are of current commercial value as parents.  We support the storage of
 the latter class of germplasm within NPGS only after restrictions on
 distribution have expired and long-term preservation becomes an issue.
 
      We hope the above comments will be a helpful contribution to the
 continuing discussion of national germplasm policy. 
 
 
 Sincerely,  T.S. Cox, chair             
 
 CC:       Dr. Dean Plowman
           Dr. Steve Eberhart
 
 --------------------------
    Minutes of the National Wheat Improvement Committee (NWIC) Meeting
                            November 19-20, 1993
                         CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico
 
 ATTENDANCE
 
 Committee Members:  R.G. Sears, Chair; C.J. Peterson, Secretary; H.F.
 Bockelman; R. Bruns; R.H. Busch; T.S. Cox; G. Hareland; D. Hole; L. Joppa;
 F.L. Kolb; R.F. Line; C. Morris; P. Murphy; D. Porter; D. Van Sanford; W.D.
 Worrall; R. Zemetra.  Absent: R. Frohberg; Ellen Ferguson, NAWG. 
 
 Non-Committee Members: O. Anderson, ARS, WRRC Albany, CA; I. Edwards,
 Pioneer, Johnston, IA; S. Jones, ARS, Pullman, WA; S. Leath, ARS Raleigh,
 NC; D. McVey, ARS, Cereal Rust, St. Paul, MN; J. Quick, Colorado State
 Univ., Fort Collins, CO; B. Skovmand, CIMMYT, Mexico; G. Waines, Univ. of
 California, CA. 
 
 PRELIMINARIES
 
      Chairman Sears called the meeting to order and members and guests were
 introduced.  WELCOMES were presented by Dr. Roger Rowe, Deputy Director
 General for Research, CIMMYT; and Dr. Tony Fischer, Director of the CIMMYT
 Wheat Research Program.
 
      Dr. Rowe discussed current status of CIMMYT programs in light of recent
 funding problems.  Since 1989, CIMMYT has faced a 25% reduction in funding,
 the number of senior staff has dropped from 93 to 63, and the wheat program
 has lost 12 people.  Efforts have been made to sustain core programs, such
 as breeding and related support activities.  However, CIMMYT is under
 pressure to develop a new research agenda as improving crop productivity is
 viewed as a lesser concern at the present time.  New focus areas include:
 biodiversity, exploiting diversity in plant species; sustainable
 agriculture; and natural resource management, including cropping systems
 research.
 
      Dr. Fischer indicated that, with passage of the North American Free
 Trade Agreement, competition will develop between US and Mexican produced
 wheat and quality will be an important consideration.  Providing wheats to
 the developing world with improved end-use quality is an important goal of
 the CIMMYT wheat program.  He also indicated that, although improving
 productivity is of less concern at present, growth in production is unlikely
 to keep up with estimated demand, which is increasing at 3% per year. 
 Providing free exchange of germplasm and information to developing countries
 will continue to be an important function of CIMMYT.  
 
      Dr. George Varughese, Assistant Director for the Wheat Project,
 indicated that changes were expected in funding of the international
 centers.  The World Bank will provide a fixed percentage (7%) of funds for
 each center, but will no longer reduce support when centers receive special
 project funds.  Four of the centers will receive fewer funds (including
 ICARDA) and four centers more funds from the World Bank than in the past. 
 CIMMYT will essentially remain even, relative to current World Bank funding.
 
 
 MINUTES OF THE 1992 MEETING
 
      Peterson asked for a motion to waive reading Minutes, which were
 published in the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Vol. 39.  Busch made the motion,
 motion carried.
 
 RESPONSES TO 1992 LETTERS
 
      Several letters were sent by the NWIC in 1992.  Dr. Plowman,
 Administrator, ARS, responded by expressing his appreciation for the NWIC
 letter supporting the wheat genome database project.  A letter to Secretary
 Mike Espy, regarding support of FGIS applied research activities, was
 received and acknowledged by his office.  Dave Galliert, Administrator,
 FGIS, responded regarding formation of a working group on wheat test weight
 issues.  He indicated that FGIS, as a federal agency, was unable to take the
 lead in forming the working group and suggested that NWIC or NAWG take the
 leadership role.  FGIS would, however, be a willing participant in the
 working group.  
 
      In February, Sears sent a letter to Mr. Glen Lee, Deputy Administrator,
 USDA-APHIS, regarding potential impact of relaxing barberry quarantine laws,
 allowing for stem rust susceptible barberry plants to be grown commercially. 
 Mr. Lee responded that budget constraints have caused APHIS to adopt
 regulatory procedures to conform to fiscal limitations, implying that black
 stem rust (BSR) quarantine enforcement is now up to state plant protection
 offices.  APHIS is under pressure from nurserymen to make regulations less
 restrictive, as their industry bears the regulatory and financial burden for
 the BSR program.  Sears stressed that the NWIC must be very proactive on
 this issue, initiating contacts with state quarantine representatives and
 providing information regarding potential impact of stem rust.  The need to
 communicate with nursery associations also was stressed.  Sears will provide
 background information on BSR quarantine to NWIC members, to be forwarded to
 nursery associations and plant protection offices in each state.  A letter
 to NAWG and state wheat grower associations will be prepared to develop
 additional support.
 
 WHEAT WORKERS WORKSHOP
 
      Sears reported on plans for the North American Wheat Workers Workshop,
 sponsored by the NWIC.  The workshop is scheduled for March 7-9, 1994 in
 Kansas City.  Programs and registration forms were distributed in October
 and the speakers list is nearly complete.  
 
 CROP ADVISORY COMMITTEE REPORT
 
      Cox suggested that a report from the Wheat CAC was unnecessary, as all
 the NWIC members also attended the CAC meeting.  The CAC minutes are
 presented in their entirety in the Annual Wheat Newsletter, following those
 from the NWIC. 
 
 WHEAT NEWSLETTER
 
      The following reports are included by J.S. Quick, Editor, and I.
 Edwards, Treasurer, of the Annual Wheat Newsletter. Cost of preparation and
 publication continue to be a problem relative to supporting revenue.   
 
                         ANNUAL WHEAT NEWSLETTER
 
  1993 Annual Report to NWIC, J.S. Quick, Editor
      The editing and publishing of Volume 39 of the Annual Wheat Newsletter
 (AWN) followed the format of previous newsletters and was the third volume
 directly printed in reduced font size entirely from computer files.  There
 were 460 copies printed and each copy had 434 pages.  Ten copies of Volume
 39 and about 15 of Volume 35 are still available.  A summary of information
 about each volume printed since 1954 (Volume 1) was published in the AWN,
 Volume 32 (1986).  The number of pages has increased by 240 since 1980, the
 number of contributions has increased considerably, and the cost of
 publication increased significantly in 1992 and 1993.  Due to rising costs,
 an effort was made to reduce the number of copies printed by encouraging
 multiple use.  Cost of production was reduced from about $4500 in 1987 to
 about $3900 in 1988, increased to $5416 in 1989, decreased to $4690 in 1991
 due to limited distribution, and increased to $7317 in 1993 due to increased
 pages per volume (including 44 pages of history of USDA research on wheat
 and rye, 1863 to 1972).  Cost per copy is about $16.00.
 
      In addition to the total cost of production, Colorado State University
 Agronomy Department has contributed part of my time, computer facilities,
 and some occasional letter typing.  An Agronomy Department secretary,
 Carolyn Schultz, has done an excellent job of manuscript preparation since
 1983.
 
      All AWN address lists are computerized for mailing and sorting.  We are
 requesting all workers provide their manuscripts on computer disks if
 possible.  All text will be entered into computer files and laser printed
 with reduced font size to save space.  Manuscripts can also be provided
 through the BITNET system.  About 300 requests for manuscripts and financial
 assistance are sent to U.S., Australian, and Canadian wheat workers each
 January.  The requests for manuscripts and financial contributions from
 other foreign scientists are included as an insert in the Newsletter mailing
 in June.  Additionally, regional manuscript and financial solicitation and
 coordination are done by scientists in other countries.  Since 1983, 34
 scientists have been recognized for their contributions to wheat
 improvement.
 
      The cost of producing Volume 40 will probably be similar to that for
 Volume 39.  I believe it is now feasible and financially necessary to
 consider AWN distribution by diskette to all locations.  One copy would go
 to each location, and it would be included in a folder with photo pages and
 a table of contents.  Volumes 37, 38 and 39 have been included in the USDA-
 ARS Wheat Database.  Suggestions from the NWIC would be appreciated.  Ian
 Edwards, AWN treasurer, has done an excellent job of securing cooperative
 and institutional financial contributions allowing us to maintain a sound
 financial position.
 
               ANNUAL WHEAT NEWSLETTER TREASURER'S REPORT
 
                       1992 Annual Report to NWIC
                         I.B. Edwards, Treasurer
 
      ITEM                        DEBIT          CREDIT            BALANCE
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1.  Balance reported
      June 1, 1992 AWN                                            $5258.25
 
  2.  Mailing request letter      43.84                            5214.41
 
  3.  Envelopes                   11.00                            5203.41
 
  4.  Photocopy charges           12.00                            5191.41
 
  5.  Mailing, Vol. 38, 
      July 1992                 1025.70                            4165.71
 
  6.  Printing and binding      5474.62                           <1308.91>
 
  7.  Typing and editing,        750.00                           <2058.91>
      Vol. 38 (Carolyn Schultz)
 
  8.  Misc. bank charges           5.00                           <2063.91>
 
  9.  New contributions 
      (since June 1)                              790.00          <1273.91>
  
 10. Interest on checking         44.18                           <1229.73>
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Comments:
 
      1.  The total cost of Volume 39 was $7,317.16.  This costs divided by
 460 copies printed is about $15.91/copy.  Volume 39 is 92 pages longer than
 Volume 38 (435 vs 343).  The total printed pages of Volume 39 was 27 percent
 greater than that of Volume 38, and the total cost was 15% higher.  Volume
 38 was printed entirely from computer files.
 
      2.  Current funding balance, at the present time, is $<1,229.73>
 compared with $<506.75> a year ago.  It must be noted that there is still an
 outstanding balance owing for production costs in the amount of $1267.16. 
 In the past four years, contributions have not matched the rising costs, and
 this is an area of concern.
 
      3.  Although corporate contributions have increased in recent years,
 this past year showed a decline.  A number of institutions and companies
 require an invoice in order to make payments.  We are encouraging them to
 notify your Treasurer as to the amount they wish to donate, and we will
 gladly furnish an invoice.  Private contributions remain our major source of
 revenue.  We will need very strong appeal in 1994 to keep the Annual Wheat
 Newsletter solvent.
 
      Quick proposed to begin AWN distribution on disk, with accompanying
 folder, table of contents, and hard copies of photos and figures. 
 Distribution of 1 disk copy and folder per location was suggested, with one
 individual per site responsible for local copying and distribution.  Cost of
 producing the newsletter would then be expected to drop to about $2,000 from
 the current $7,000 for hardcopies.  Distribution by disk appears the only
 means to regain financial solvency for the AWN.
 
      Two motions were put forward by Zemetra: 1) Use computer diskette for
 primary distribution of the AWN.  Motion unanimously approved.  2) Send
 diskette and folder to one person per location, then site copy and print. 
 Motion was defeated; 10 against, 4 in favor.  Concern was expressed over
 ability to generate funds unless each individual received some type of copy
 in hand.  Others expressed desire for hard copy, if it could be made
 available.  Bruns moved that AWN diskette and folder be sent to everyone on
 mailing list; and an option to purchase a hard copy be made available, at a
 fixed cost per copy, and with a specific deadline for ordering hard copies. 
 The motion passed unanimously.
 
      Quick indicated that, after 12 years of service to the AWN, Volume 40
 would be his last as AWN editor.  Edwards also indicated his intent to
 relinquish his position as Treasurer after Volume 40.  Sears will notify
 people of opportunity to take over AWN positions, then NWIC will consider
 options in 1994.  A resolution of thanks to Quick and Edwards for their
 dedicated service will be developed.  
 
 LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE REPORT
 
      Sears reported on the 1993 NWIC legislative visits.  The legislative
 teams visited eight Senate offices and 12 House offices.  Although the NWIC
 Plant Pathology Initiative was not successful, the visits were considered to
 have a cumulative positive effect, both in Congress and with ARS
 administrators.  The visits enhanced recognition of the NWIC and had impact
 in terms of presence, resulting in subsequent calls and questions from
 legislative aids.  Sears indicated the need for more homework prior to
 visit, more follow-up, and support from NAWG.  He noted the addition of
 Bruce Lans, Nebraska Wheat Board Chair, to the team was a significant
 benefit.  Future visits need grower support and representation from target
 states.  Van Sanford suggested that the NWIC needs to rethink strategies and
 develop corporate partners, such as millers and bakers, in legislative
 efforts.  We may also need to collaborate with oat or barley workers in
 legislative agendas.
 
 USDA-ARS RESEARCH UPDATE
 
      Busch reported that the USDA is currently undergoing an in-depth
 reorganization, called for by Vice President Gore and Secretary Espy.  The
 proposal includes combining ARS, CSRS, Extension Service, and the National
 Ag Library into a single agency: Agricultural Research and Education Service
 (ARES).  The goal is reducing administrative costs and enhancing efficiency
 in the USDA.  ARS administrators appear positive about the reorganization as
 it allows an opportunity for change.  The FY94 ARS budget has been
 tentatively approved by Congress, with additional funds over what was
 requested by ARS inserted by the House and Senate.  The Office of Management
 and Budget cut $26 million from the ARS budget ($18 million in positions and
 funds, 8 million in buildings and maintenance) in November, but this was
 later restored in its entirety by the House.  Final disposition is unclear
 at this time.
      
      Funding levels for the ARS Plant Science Unit at Manhattan remain
 critical.  The unit, comprised of Stan Cox, Jim Hatchett, and Merle
 Eversmeyer, began the fiscal year $15,000 over budget.  Approximately
 $500,000 new federal money has been targeted for the Grain Marketing
 Research Lab at Manhattan.  The funds were among those removed from the ARS
 budget by OMB, but were subsequently restored.  If approved, some of these
 funds may be directed to support the Manhattan Plant Science Unit and the
 ARS wheat projects in Nebraska.
 
      Kolb provided an update on the three new ARS wheat positions at Purdue
 (Dr. Chuck Murphy provided additional clarification in December).  Joe
 Anderson, ARS, Bozeman, MT, has transferred to Lafayette and is now in the
 Barley Yellow Dwarf, Molecular Biology position.  Anderson was formerly
 working on molecular genetics and biochemistry of barley seed development. 
 The remaining positions, Molecular Plant Pathologist with focus on fungal
 diseases and Molecular Geneticist working on Hessian Fly, have been
 advertised and closed and should be filled early in 1994. 
 
       Van Sanford discussed the continuing need for Pathology support
 position in the southeast.  The position was part of the 1992 NWIC
 legislative agenda.  It was targeted for Arkansas as a good site for
 screening and with potential for  political support from Senator Bumpers. 
 The Oat Workers have proposed a position at Raliegh, NC to work half time on
 Crown Rust, which is currently written in language of the ARS budget, but
 with no supporting dollars.  Van Sanford proposed that the NWIC work with
 the Oat Workers to establish a Small Grains Pathology position at Raliegh
 that can allocate some time to wheat efforts.  This was identified as a high
 priority need during the 1992 ARS Grain Crops review.
 
      Zemetra reported that efforts to develop a dwarf bunt (TCK) position in
 Montana have failed.  Some funds were initially allocated for dwarf bunt
 work, but were insufficient to fill a position.  He also indicated that a
 special CSRS grant on TCK has been redirected to support the Portland Grain
 Marketing Center.  Concerns were expressed over lack of information
 available on US and Canadian TCK research projects and lack of a focused
 project.  
 
      Chuck Murphy provided additional comments on the Montana ARS positions
 after the meeting.   The Cereal Crop Improvement Research Unit at Bozeman
 had 3 SY's prior to retirement of Al Sharen and transfer of Joe Anderson.  
 Victor Rayboy, Cereal Molecular Geneticist, was left as the sole SY in the
 Unit.  Rayboy's position has now become secured by tranferring the position
 into the Bozeman Range Science Unit for administrative purposes, while
 providing technical supervision through the Aberdeen Small Grains Research
 Unit.
 
      Morris reported on status of the ARS unit at Pullman, WA which is
 composed of four subunits; physiology, quality, pathology, and genetics. 
 Morris has the only fully funded project in the research unit.  Bob Allan is
 nearing retirement and is stepping down as Research Leader (RL).  Kay
 Walker-Simmons will assume the RL position.  There is concern over possible
 loss of club wheat research in the Northwest and desire to refill Allan's
 position with a club wheat/quantitative genetics position.  However, chances
 of refilling the position are not promising at this time.  Rollie Line also
 indicated that he could retire at any time and that current funding levels
 were likely insufficient to refill his position. 
 
      Busch and McVey expressed concerns over status of ARS positions at the
 Cereal Rust Laboratory in St. Paul.  Alan Roelfs will retire in the near
 future.  Roelfs' CRIS project has already been eliminated and position will
 likely be lost.  The position may be included as a priority in the Oat
 Workers legislative initiatives.  Support from CIMMYT and Canadian
 researchers could also be generated.
 
 STATUS OF ARS WHEAT QUALITY RESEARCH
 
      Peterson reported that ARS held a meeting in Fargo, ND in August to
 discuss and develop national research priorities for wheat quality research
 efforts.  Input from the meeting, provided by federal and state scientists
 and representatives from the milling and baking industry, will be used to
 develop a National Research Initiative for wheat quality research.  The long
 term goal is to develop more collaborative research efforts among
 researchers and emphasize research objectives with potential market impact.
 
      Morris discussed need to deal with hard white wheat quality issues and
 develop specific, common, quality goals for U.S. breeding projects.  A
 upcoming meeting of the CSRS WRCC81 regional committee on 'Improving end-use
 quality in small grains' will provide a forum to discuss regional hard white
 development issues. The meeting is scheduled for January 6 and 7, 1994 in
 Portland, Oregon.  Morris also indicated that the western region was not
 interested, at this time, in joining the national Wheat Quality Council
 organization.  
 
 UPDATE ON WHEAT HARDNESS AND CLASSIFICATION
 
      Sears reported that the Wheat Classification Working Group is expected
 to hold a meeting this winter.  They will review hardness data from the 1992
 and '93 crop years obtained with the Single Kernel Hardness (SKH) tester. 
 Implementation of the new SKH tester for grain classification is still
 targeted for 1995 or 1996.
 
 WHEAT TEST WEIGHT ISSUES
 
      Van Sanford questioned whether NWIC could lead a working group on test
 weight, now that FGIS indicated it was unable to take leadership in such an
 effort.  Applications of the SKH tester would be the initial focus for the
 group.  Edwards was concerned that test weight might not be a viable issue
 at this time, without either implementation of the SKH tester or NAWG
 support for this as a marketing issue.  However, potential may still exist
 to form a task force.  There is strong support in ARS quality labs to
 develop methodology and data to supplant test weight as an indicator of
 milling yield.  Bruns suggested an opportunity to tie the issue into the
 next FGIS wheat grain grading review process, which takes place every five
 years.  However, the next review, scheduled in four years, will likely be
 consumed with implementation of the SKH tester.  It was suggested that the
 eastern section of the Wheat Quality Council might also provide a leadership
 role.    
 
      Kolb moved that Van Sanford be named as the official NWIC
 representative on wheat test weight issues, and that he make appropriate
 contacts and pursue development of a working group.  Bruns provided second
 and motion was unanimously approved.
 
 PLANT VARIETY PROTECTION (PVP)
 
      Sears discussed the status of legislation to amend PVP laws to meet the
 UPOV '91 treaty.  Legislation has been introduced in the Senate (S.1406) by
 Kerrey (NE) and House (H.R.2927) by de la Garza (TX).  Senate cosponsors
 currently include Daschle (SD), Kassebaum (KS), Exon (NE), and Pressler
 (SD).  A bill was introduced to committee on August 6 and subcommittee
 hearings were held on September 20.  The NWIC provided written testimony
 supporting the legislation to Sen. Kerrey, and the 1992 NWIC resolution on
 PVP was recorded as written testimony in Congress.  Marsha Stanton, ASA
 Congressional Fellow located in Senator Kerrey's office, has been working on
 the bill, which is expected to receive markup in December and action
 sometime after January 1.  At this time, there has been little overall
 Congressional concern over changes proposed for PVP.  
 
      Concern was expressed by Bruns and others regarding a recent decision
 by ARS that seed of PVP'd varieties not be distributed from the ARS National
 Germplasm Collections.  The decision was related to language in the PVP
 research exemption that fails to specifically state what agencies can
 distribute such seed.  Clarification regarding the status of PVP germplasm
 appears needed.  This may also need to be considered in developing the new
 PVP legislation.
 
      Edwards indicated that the version of UPOV that member nations will be
 asked to ratify in 1994 includes a clause prohibiting any off farm seed
 sales.  Even with changes proposed in current PVP legislation, it is
 doubtful that the U.S. will be in full compliance with the treaty.
 
 REPORT FROM ASTA SUBCOMMITTEE ON ESSENTIALLY DERIVED CONCEPTS
 
      Edwards gave an update on ASTA efforts to develop definitions and
 concepts for essentially derived materials.  The key issue is the 'doctrine
 of dependency', which applies to PVP'd materials only.  If a line is
 considered 'essentially derived' from a PVP variety, then there is a legal
 issue of dependency in the marketplace.  Questions remain as to what is
 considered 'essentially derived'; based on breeding methods, thresholds for
 genetic distance, and scientific methods of measurement.  There is general
 agreement that if two lines have less than 75% of segregating traits in
 common then they are not essentially derived; if greater than 95% in common
 they are essentially derived.  Question is in the middle ground.  To date,
 at least 1 backcross and 75% or more of identifiable traits in common, or 2
 backcrosses regardless of number of common identifiable traits, would be
 considered essentially derived.  Again, there is a question as to minimum
 number of traits to be measured, and which technologies would be accepted. 
 Application of essentially derived concepts to PVP laws would likely require
 some type of grandfather clause.  Ultimately, these concepts will be
 described by case law history and definitions will need to be updated on a
 regular basis.
 
 DNA FINGERPRINTS AS PVP DESCRIPTORS
 
      P. Murphy and Kolb brought up potential use of DNA technologies as PVP
 descriptors, to get away from more tedious and less useful measures of
 varietal differences.  It was recognized that some morphological markers
 will be needed to facilitate the seed certification process.  Edwards
 indicated that the PVP office is currently unable to handle this type of
 data and information.  However, there is increasing interest, especially in
 private companies, in use of DNA technologies for varietal protection.   
 
 INTERNATIONAL GERMPLASM EXCHANGE SUBCOMMITTEE REPORT
 
      Peterson presented results of a national survey conducted by the
 International Germplasm Exchange Subcommittee.  The survey was intended to
 identify countries/programs which should be priorities for international
 exchange efforts and determine current level of exchange activities and
 factors that limit access to international germplasm.  A total of 50 U.S.
 wheat breeders and geneticists responded.  Survey results indicated that a
 large number of germplasm lines were imported each year by U.S. breeders. 
 However, when considered on a per program basis, most programs obtained
 relatively few new lines each year, generally from 1 or 2 sources.  Personal
 contacts were the primary means of accessing international germplasm,
 followed by international nurseries.  Countries or programs which were
 identified as high priority for exchange efforts included: 1) Former Soviet
 Union; 2) CIMMYT/Mexico; 3) China; and 4) Eastern European countries.  The
 majority of respondents indicated a willingness to provide imported
 germplasm to either the National Small Grains Collection or directly to
 other breeding programs on request; assuming that permission of the
 originating program could be obtained prior to secondary distribution.  All
 indicated willingness to participate if some type of reciprocal
 international germplasm exchange program could be established.  There were
 five recurring themes in suggestions to improve international exchange: 1)
 need for national coordination and support; 2) need for central location for
 increase and distribution; 3) need for either a nationally funded or
 contractual quarantine growout system; 4) need for support of international
 nurseries; and 5) need to reduce and simplify APHIS quarantine restrictions. 
 
 
      It was recognized that, realistically, there are no funds currently
 available for a national coordinating position, for a centralized quarantine
 growout system, or for supporting international nurseries.  Also, there is
 little expected change, near term, in APHIS regulations.  Chances of
 obtaining new funds for international germplasm exchange efforts were
 considered nonexistent.  However, the general willingness of breeders to
 exchange germplasm they have imported (once approval of originating program
 is obtained), may provide an opportunity to increase overall germplasm
 availability.  
 
      The Subcommittee proposed that USDA-ARS develop a program for breeders
 to submit international germplasm as a temporary introductions to the
 National Small Grains Collection, and then NSGC provide for small scale
 distribution of seed.  Individual breeders would be responsible for
 importation of seed and quarantine increase.  It would also be their
 responsibility to obtain written permission from the originating programs to
 allow NSGC to distribute the germplasm.  Once increased, seed of each line
 (approximately 500 grams) would be provided to the NSGC, with copy of
 permission to distribute.  The NSGC would assign a temporary introduction
 number (i.e. TI# series to differentiate from PI) to each line and
 distribute 10 gram samples, on request, for up to 3 years or until the seed
 supply is exhausted.  After 3 years, remaining seed would be discarded and
 the introduction would be unavailable.  The NSGC would need to provide an
 annual newsletter, or list of available entries, for distribution to U.S.
 breeding programs (Regional Secretaries could help with distribution).  NSCG
 would also need to provide formal guidelines and appropriate information
 that could be used to obtain written permission from originating
 institutions.  The NWIC Germplasm Subcommittee and CAC could help to
 organize breeders to obtain germplasm from key target countries/programs. 
 The Subcommittee recognized that some funds may be needed for seed increase
 of specific international nurseries, or small collections, to facilitate
 entry into the program. 
 
      Based on general approval and concensus of the Committee, NWIC will
 send letter to Shands endorsing the proposal, with draft prepared by the
 Subcommittee.
 
 UPDATING THE WHEAT WORKERS CODE OF ETHICS
 
      Kolb expressed concern that the current Wheat Workers Code of Ethics
 fails to address impact of new technologies.  Language should be included to
 prohibit production of somoclones, transgenic plants by recombinant DNA
 techniques, and induction of mutations without permission of the originator. 
 A committee of Kolb, Cox, and Edwards was assigned to develop specific
 language for consideration.  The revision was later tabled for future
 consideration.  It was generally agreed upon that language and concepts in
 the Code of Ethics should match those used for definitions of essentially
 derived materials in PVP, which have not yet been agreed upon.  The NWIC
 will reconsider revision in 1994.
 
 GERMPLASM DISTRIBUTION BY NPGS
 
      Cox brought forward a letter from the Crop Advisory Committee to Henry
 Shands, regarding germplasm distribution policies of the National Plant
 Germplasm System.  The Crop Science Society of America (CSSA) Board of
 Directors has requested that USDA-ARS change its policy of free distribution
 of germplasm in NPGS collections to allow for deposition and storage of
 germplasm with restricted distribution.  The CAC letter opposes any
 restriction on distribution of germplasm deposited in the NPGS that may be
 established by private firms or public institutions wishing to deposit
 materials.  Cox proposed developing a joint letter to Shands from the NWIC
 and CAC.  Bruns indicated a need to broaden awareness regarding the NWIC
 position on NPGS distribution policies and suggested sending an appropriate
 resolution to experiment station directors, ASA executive committee, and ARS
 administrators.  A motion was approved to develop a resolution supporting
 free exchange of germplasm in the NPGS, similar to the letter developed by
 the CAC.  Cox and Bruns later presented the resolution to the NWIC, which
 was unanimously approved as written.  
 
 STATUS OF CIMMYT GERMPLASM EXCHANGE AND SEED HEALTH EFFORTS
 
      CIMMYT will use Mexicali as a primary site for seed increase prior to
 distribution of international nurseries in 1994.  The Mexicali nursery will
 be located near the California border in a Karnal Bunt (KB) free area.  Few
 international wheat nurseries were distributed in 1993 due to presence of KB
 at the Hermosillo seed increase site.  
 
      Larry Butler provided additional background on the CIMMYT Seed Health
 Unit and related KB work, including a tour of seed treatment equipment and
 inspection methods.  Samples of seed lots used for international shipments
 are extensively screened for presence of KB spores using washing and
 filtration techniques and microscopic evaluation.  CIMMYT is using a sodium
 hypochlorite bath for all wheat seed prior to packaging and distribution to
 eliminate potential KB spores on seed surfaces.  In addition to a standing
 bath, nicknamed the 'killer jacuzzi', CIMMYT has recently developed a
 mechanized system for seed treatment.  Seed is also treated with Vitavax 300
 and chlorothalonil prior to distribution.  However, a guarantee of 0 spores
 is unrealistic and a rational limit still needs to be established.  CIMMYT
 continues to work with APHIS as new seed health and KB screening procedures
 are developed. 
 
 STATUS OF CIMMYT PLANT PATHOLOGY EFFORTS
 
      Gene Saari provided an update on activities in the CIMMYT Crop
 Protection Unit, which currently has seven staff members.  Improving
 resistance to the three rusts remain the #1 priority in pathology efforts,
 although stem rust is more on a maintenance status.  Other priorities
 include Septoria tritici, Septoria nodorum, KB, bunts and loose smut. 
 Second generation problems, related to cropping systems and residue
 management, are receiving increased attention.  These include tan spot,
 Helmenthosporium sativum, and BYDV; root rots, scab and mildew also are
 important, but fewer funds are available for these diseases.  Paraguay had
 been a focus for scab screening, but support has been reduced.  Minor
 element deficiencies and predisposition to disease also receive some effort. 
 Global monitoring and surveillance continues as a priority.  Concern exists
 over durability and diversity of resistances in light of sustainable
 agriculture issues and practices.  
 
 CIMMYT DATABASE DEVELOPMENT
 
      Paul Fox and Bent Skovmand gave an impressive demonstration of the
 CIMMYT Wheat Database.  The database provides an extensive pedigree
 management and information system, cross referencing variety names and
 designations, varietal performance information, and agronomic descriptions. 
 Also underway are efforts to combine data files from long-term International
 Nursery results for analyses.  However, reductions in CIMMYT funding have
 severely affected database development efforts.  It was anticipated that
 Paul Fox would not be retained unless additional outside funds could be
 identified.  Canada, Australia, and U.S. agencies have each been contacted
 about contributing funds, and each has expressed interest.  Busch moved that
 the NWIC send a letter to Henry Shands expressing our support for the CIMMYT
 database effort and encouraging ARS to provide support as possible.  Motion
 passed unanimously.
 
 UPDATE ON GENE MAPPING AND WHEAT TRANSFORMATION EFFORTS
 
      Olin Anderson reported on funding and genome mapping efforts of ITMI. 
 An ARS competitive grant and an ARS/DOE/NSF coordination grant were received
 last year.  There is increasing evidence of similarity in genome
 organization across grass species, suggesting the possibility to use all
 grasses as a genetic unit in gene isolation.  Anderson also reported on
 progress in ARS wheat transformation efforts.  Transformation has now been
 confirmed as stable through five generations of reproduction.  Using a gene
 gun, they have inserted a herbicide resistance gene in the variety Bobwhite. 
 Multiple transformation events have been obtained, at the rate of 1 per 500
 embryos.  Other laboratories are using similar approaches and have either
 achieved transformation, or are very close.  
 
 THE 1993 SCAB EPIDEMIC
 
      Busch gave an update on scab (Fusarium head blight) disease losses in
 1993.  In Minnesota, average yield was reduced by 30%, with an estimated
 $400 million loss to producers.  Approximately 300,000 acres were destroyed
 or burned prior to harvest.  In the Great Plains region, there was an
 estimated $1 billion loss.  In contrast, there is one position dedicated to
 scab research, in Minnesota, with total investment of $90,000 per year. 
 Prior to 1993, it was anticipated that this position would be lost. 
 Vomitoxin levels over 30 ppm were found in 1993, and less than 50% of the
 Minnesota crop met the 2 ppm maximum acceptable level for human consumption. 
 After milling, 1/2 of initial grain vomitoxin levels have been found in
 straight grade flour and three times the initial levels in bran. 
 
      Busch discussed the scab screening and inoculation techniques developed
 in Minnesota.  There is no known genetic source of resistance to scab,
 however a range in tolerance has been identified.  Hundreds of Chinese
 lines, reported to possess tolerance, have been screened.  Two varieties,
 Sumai #3 and Fan #1, were identified with less susceptibility than any other
 germplasm.  Sumai tolerance appears more of a qualitative than quantitative
 trait.  However, associated agronomic characteristics and poor baking
 quality of the Chinese wheats will make their use difficult.
 
      Kolb indicated that scab was a severe problem in the SRW wheat region
 in 1990 and '91.  Increasing incidence appears related to minimum till and
 eco-fallow cropping trends.  Gene Milas, Arkansas, has formed an ad hoc
 committee for evaluation of germplasm.  Greg Shaner is trying to develop a
 North Central Region Committee for coordinating scab research, but the
 committee has no funding.     
 
      Busch stressed the need to upgrade scab research as a national
 priority.  A long-term, focused effort on methodology, screening, and basic
 research will be required to reduce scab incidence.  Impact of the '93
 epidemic provides an opportunity to rally support in the wheat industry,
 collect information on disease losses, and develop a legislative initiative
 for new funding.  Support of the Wheat Quality Council, milling and baking
 industry, and NAWG will be critical.  Morris suggested exploiting food
 safety issues to help garner support.  However, care must be taken that the
 publicity does not adversely affecting grain marketing.  Goal may be to
 obtain ARS monies and support similar to that obtained for the Russian Wheat
 Aphid work.  The scab issue was moved forward as a key item in the
 legislative agenda.
 
 NEW RESEARCH ON BIRD CHERRY-OAT APHID LOSSES
 
      Porter discussed new research evidence that non-viruliferous Bird
 Cherry-Oat Aphids were just as damaging as the Russian Wheat Aphid and
 Greenbug.  As little as 10 aphids/plant can cause a 50% yield reduction. 
 The damage is chronic, with little symptom expression.  Control with
 chemical pesticides is currently the only option.  A symposium on the aphid
 will be held at the national entomology meetings in December, 1993. 
 Research from Hungary suggested that some level of genetic tolerance may be
 available, with yield losses of 30% expressed in tolerant lines compared to
 60% in susceptible.  The tolerance is not genetically related to other aphid
 resistances. 
 
      Busch indicated that previous threshold levels recommended for chemical
 control were not adequate.  In 1992, Minnesota had a severe aphid influx. 
 Untreated plots averaged 31.8 bu/a compared with 50 bu/a for treated.  Busch
 estimated that 1.7 million acres could have been economically sprayed that
 year.  The concern is potential for major insecticide applications over wide
 acreages.  New threshold levels for treatment are 1 aphid/stem on 85/100
 stems.   Kolb questioned the role of BYDV in yield losses as BYDV infections
 may show little visual symptomology.  Porter indicated that several tests
 documenting yield loss have used certified non-viruliferous aphids.  Leath
 indicated a new seed treatment, documented and used in Europe, may provide
 short-term control, but it is very expensive.  Some resistance also may be
 available in SRW wheats due to long-term natural selection under aphid
 infestations.
 
 SUPPORT FOR CSRS WHEAT RESEARCH 
 
      Bruns brought forward communication with Stephen Baenziger, Nebraska,
 requesting the NWIC increase its efforts to promote increased CSRS/Hatch
 funding for wheat and wheat pathology.  Worrall also expressed concern that
 the NWIC each year focuses on ARS programs and need to increase ARS funding,
 while numerous CSRS wheat research problems are not addressed.  However,
 lack of mechanisms to increase specific CSRS funding for wheat are a primary
 problem.  Baenziger suggested pursuing a combined ARS/CSRS funding program,
 similar to the STEEP II program in the Pacific Northwest, with competitive
 funding and peer review.  Targeted CSRS special grants might be pursued with
 appropriate congressional support.  However, CSRS special grants are
 considered as 'pork barrel' and difficult to obtain in todays political
 climate.  They are also renewed annually and require substantial political
 investment to maintain.  An alternative proposed would be to develop a
 permanent pool of ARS funds and use ARS as a granting agency for
 collaborative/competitive ARS and CSRS projects.  This has been done
 effectively for the oat germplasm enhancement program.  Merging of ARS and
 CSRS into a single USDA agency may provide additional and more effective
 mechanisms in the near future.  
 
      Committee members agreed that the NWIC needs to more actively pursue
 means to enhance CSRS wheat funding.  A motion was approved that established
 a subcommittee comprised of Worrall and Van Sanford to study CSRS funding
 options and report to the NWIC next year.  The committee will also be in
 communication with Stephen Baenziger regarding options and directions. 
 
 NAWG ISSUES
 
      Zemetra indicated that a $1.1 million dollar National Research
 Initiative on jointed goatgrass control has recently been obtained with NAWG
 support.  The program is targeted for western and plains states.  Goals and
 objectives are unclear and there is no proposal draft available at this
 time.  Contact person is Jim Zuiches, Washington State University.
 
      Zemetra brought forward a resolution from the Idaho Wheat Commission
 for input from the NWIC.  The resolution has been circulated to state wheat
 commissions and grower associations and is expected to be considered by
 NAWG.  It recommends that the American Association of Seed Certification
 Agencies require milling and baking quality information, based on nine
 location/year of testing, be provided and made available as a matter of
 public record prior to inclusion of a new or existing wheat variety in a
 certified seed program.  It was noted that this was, in essence, similar to
 initial proposals in the Grain Quality Incentives Act developed by Senator
 Daschle.  That bill currently requires that quality data be provided on
 state variety trials, an requirement which is largely not met at this time. 
 Bruns explained the role of the AOSCA Small Grains Variety Review Board,
 which requires data only when needed to substantiate claims made on a
 variety.  Edwards noted the resolution was interesting in light of lack of
 interest of western states in joining the National Wheat Quality Council
 organization, which could provide quality information and uniform testing
 procedures.  A straw poll was conducted to determine support for the Idaho
 resolution.  No support was indicated.  Sears will respond to the Idaho
 Wheat Commission, and NAWG as appropriate, indicating lack of support for
 the resolution.  Background information also will be provided, based on
 testimony developed by Fred Cholick for congressional hearings on the Grain
 Quality Incentives Act.
 
 REGIONAL ITEMS AND UPDATES
 
      Peterson reported on status of the USDA-ARS wheat virology research in
 Lincoln.  Two ARS scientists, Roy French and W. Langenberg, currently work
 on molecular genetics of wheat streak mosaic, soilborne wheat mosaic, and
 BYDV.  Langenberg is expected to retire in the near future.  Without
 additional funds, his position will not be replaced.  Local ARS and UN-L
 administrators hope to refill Langenberg's position, but state and national
 support will be needed to obtain additional funds.  An
 epidemiologist/molecular geneticist is desired with primary research
 emphasis on wheat streak mosaic virus.  Consideration as a possible
 legislative agenda item was proposed.
 
      Kolb indicated that there is continuing interest and need for the
 International Septoria Screening Nursery, which was discontinued upon
 retirement of Al Sharen.  Basic need is to identify a coordinator.  Leath
 indicated that he was willing, if support (i.e. 1/2 technician position)
 could be found.  After consideration of possible actions, it was decided
 that the issue would be brought up informally, as a point of information,
 with C. Murphy.  
 
      Personnel changes and pending retirements from each region were
 discussed.  Zemetra indicated that, in addition to changes in the Montana
 ARS positions, the Aberdeen ARS wheat germplasm/physiology position of S.
 Ramagopal has been transferred to Beltsville, along with supporting funds. 
 Washington State University is anticipating the retirement of Clarence
 Peterson and Cal Konzak in the next year, and Bob Allan in 2 to 3 years. 
 Filling of the O.A. Vogel endowed chair position at WSU is currently on
 hold.  Van Sanford indicated that John Roberts, Pathologist at Griffin GA,
 is nearing retirement.  Gordon Kimber, cytogeneticist at Columbia, MO, will
 retire in May of 1994.  Bruns reported that Merle Eversmeyer, ARS
 Pathologist and Research Leader at Manhattan, KS could retire at anytime. 
 Ed Smith, Oklahoma State University wheat breeder, may retire in the next
 few years.  Busch indicated that two thirds of the ARS Cereal Rust
 Laboratory researchers could retire within the next three years; Allan
 Roelfs will retire shortly.  Several retirements are anticipated in the ARS
 unit at Fargo, including Norm Williams, Cytogeneticist and Research Leader;
 Jim Miller, Pathologist; and Leonard Joppa, Geneticist.  Retirement of S.S.
 Maan, Fargo, also is eminent.
 
 MISSION STATEMENT FOR THE NWIC
 
      Sears and Peterson proposed a mission statement to clarify goals and
 function of the NWIC.  The statement is to be used in correspondence with
 legislators, industry, and press, to explain the role of the NWIC as a
 standing expert Committee.  After discussion and consideration of
 appropriate language, Worrall moved for acceptance.  The revised mission
 statement was unanimously approved.  It is included with the 1993
 resolutions and letters.
 
 1994 LEGISLATIVE AGENDA
 
      Sears lead discussion on plans for the NWIC legislative initiative and
 Congressional visit, scheduled for late March.  Membership of the
 Legislative subcommittee was discussed.  It was emphasized that the NWIC
 legislative team should be expanded outside of NWIC members; include NAWG
 representatives, growers from key states, and representatives from the
 milling and baking industry.  The Wheat Quality Council Board of Directors
 should be approached for representation.  Glenn Weaver, ConAgra, is
 currently Chair of the Board.  
 
      The 1992-93 Legislative Initiative included requests of support for
 five ARS positions/units: Plant Science Unit, Manhattan; Plant
 Pathology/Germplasm position in Southeast; Wheat Pathology, Pullman; Cereal
 Rust Lab, St. Paul; and Smut position, Bozeman.  Sears recommended that the
 1993-94 initiative focus on a single, high priority item, such as the
 Manhattan Research Unit, then present others as informational items.  Van
 Sanford concurred that primary focus should be the ARS Manhattan unit; with
 additional funds, their research efforts could be expanded to include work
 on all wheat classes.  He also recommended supporting the Oat Workers
 initiative for a pathology position at Raleigh, NC.  Busch reminded the
 Committee that growers lost $1 billion to disease in 1993, which could be
 powerful focus for this years lobbying efforts, especially for scab
 research.  Morris suggested that food safety and security could also be an
 effective focus.  
 
      P. Murphy suggested that the Oat Workers Strategic Plan could be an
 effective concept and model for the NWIC.  It was agreed that a strategic
 plan for pathology could provide an effective background for the legislative
 initiative.  Target of a long-term strategic plan would then be diseases,
 rather than people or programs.  Specific annual legislative initiatives
 would then focus on individual disease impact and losses, and take advantage
 of opportunities for Congressional support.
 
      Sears proposed the NWIC organize a subcommittee to develop a long-term
 strategic plan for wheat research needs, with focus on pathology issues. 
 However, due to the short time frame for planning, this years initiative
 would combine current regional pathology issues into a package with a single
 item as high priority focus.  Bruns indicated that last years initiative
 would be an effective base, with slight modifications in language and focus. 
 
 
      It was agreed that Sears, as NWIC Chair, would head the Legislative
 Subcommittee, enlisting aid from NWIC members and others as needed.  Sears
 also will contact C. Murphy and W. Martinez for advice and direction on
 strategies and funding targets.  Regional Chairs will provide a list of
 regional disease priorities to Sears by December 15.  Sears will then work
 with NWIC members to develop appropriate documents and a legislative
 information packet during December and January.  The information packet will
 be provided to key congressional staff, ARS administrators, NAWG, and
 industry groups such as the Wheat Quality Council.  The Manhattan Plant
 Science Unit will remain the primary focus for the funding initiative and
 the other key pathology positions will be included as appropriate.  Regional
 Chairs will serve as members of a Strategic Planning Subcommittee for the
 NWIC.  During the next year, the Subcommittee will develop list of regional
 and national wheat research priorities to be presented and considered at the
 1994 NWIC meeting. 
 
 NWIC INTERACTIONS WITH PRESS
 
      Sears reported that a news article, loosely based on a draft developed
 by several NWIC members in February, was released through the AP wire
 service in May.  The article expressed NWIC concerns over reduced funding
 for pathology research in light of increasing disease losses.  The article
 was published in several national newspapers.  Sears received several calls
 and favorable comments on the article and he believed it was beneficial in
 increasing visibility of the NWIC.  It was suggested that copies of the
 legislative information packet be provided to key members of the
 agricultural press to increase awareness of our national research concerns. 
 This would serve to increase recognition of the NWIC as an expert committee,
 and show willingness to provide testimony regarding national wheat issues.  
 
 MISC. RESOLUTIONS AND LETTERS
 
      Sears proposed that two resolutions be developed, acknowledging 12
 years of dedicated service by Jim Quick and Ian Edwards in publication and
 distribution of the Annual Wheat Newsletter.  Busch moved that appropriate
 resolutions be drafted, expressing the appreciation of the world wheat
 community.  Motion was approved and Peterson will write resolutions. 
 Drafting of resolution expressing appreciation to CIMMYT personnel for
 serving as excellent hosts of the 1993 NWIC meeting also was approved.
 
 NEXT MEETING
 
      Sears proposed that the next NWIC meeting be held on November 4 and 5,
 1994 at, or near, Beltsville, MD.  Peterson and Sears will identify an
 appropriate location and facility.  The 1994 CAC meeting will then be held
 on the evening of November 3, prior to the NWIC meeting.  Motion was
 approved.  The meeting was then adjourned by Sears.  
 
 RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE NATIONAL WHEAT IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE
 NOVEMBER 19-20, 1993, EL BATAN, MEXICO
 
 SUBJECT: MISSION OF THE NATIONAL WHEAT IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE
 
      The National Wheat Improvement Committee (NWIC) is a non-profit,
 independent organization representing public and private wheat researchers. 
 It is composed of scientists which represent each of the four major U.S.
 wheat growing regions.  The NWIC addresses issues that have direct, or
 indirect, effect on U.S. wheat; including areas of research, production,
 marketing, and end-use.  The Committee provides information and counsel to
 Congressional leaders and U.S. agricultural policymakers, with the long-term
 goal of improving wheat production and marketing opportunities.  The NWIC is
 an expert committee and is willing to provide either written or verbal
 testimony regarding wheat research issues in the United States.  The NWIC
 meets annually.  Minutes of Committee meetings, resolutions, and letters are
 published each year in the Annual Wheat Newsletter.
 
 
 SUBJECT: GERMPLASM EXCHANGE POLICY OF THE NATIONAL PLANT GERMPLASM SYSTEM
 TO: Shands; Plowman; Eberhart; Exp. station directors; CSSA Executive
 Committee
 
 WHEREAS, the Crop Science Society of America (CSSA) Board of Directors has
 requested that USDA-ARS change its policy of free distribution of germplasm
 in National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collections to allow for
 deposition and storage of germplasm with restricted distribution, and
 
 WHEREAS, the National Wheat Improvement Committee (NWIC) has consistently
 supported free exchange of germplasm as the cornerstone of wheat
 improvement, and
 
 WHEREAS, the National Plant Germplasm System is a critical source of genetic
 material and an integral part of free germplasm exchange in the United
 States and the world, and
 
 WHEREAS, the NWIC strongly supports the current USDA policy of unrestricted,
 free distribution of germplasm from the NPGS to continue the legacy of wheat
 improvement, and
 
 WHEREAS, the NWIC recognizes that extreme political, economic, and
 environmental pressures may necessitate the acceptance by NPGS of certain
 critical international collections with restrictive distribution (a
 compromise to ensure the protection of genetic diversity of world stocks
 that should not be allowed to affect our domestic germplasm exchange
 policies), 
 
 THEREFORE, be it resolved that the National Wheat Improvement Committee
 strongly opposes restriction on the distribution of germplasm deposited with
 the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System; international collections accepted
 under crisis situations would be the sole exception.  If a policy of
 restricted germplasm distribution were accepted, the USDA-ARS would, in
 effect, be endorsing a policy of germplasm commercialization.  This implied
 endorsement would undermine a long-standing USDA-ARS commitment to the world
 wheat community of free germplasm exchange and would irreparably damage
 wheat improvement efforts. 
 
 SUBJECT: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF HOSTS
 
 WHEREAS, CIMMYT has served as an excellent host of the 1993 National Wheat
 Improvement Committee and Wheat Crop Advisory Committee, and
 
 WHEREAS, our hosts provided superior meeting facilities and have expended
 much time and effort to ensure that the meetings were successful, and
 
 WHEREAS, our hosts provided NWIC members with an impressive tour of current
 CIMMYT research efforts and facilities,  
 
 THEREFORE, be it resolved that the members of the NWIC and WCAC sincerely
 thank our hosts from CIMMYT: Dr. Roger Rowe, Deputy Director General for
 Research; Dr. Tony Fischer, Director of the Wheat Research Program; Dr. Bent
 Skovmand, Head, Wheat Genetic Resources; and Linda Ainsworth, Head, Visitor
 and Conference Services.  Appreciation also goes out to Larry Butler, Paul
 Fox, Gene Saari, George Varughese, and Diego Gonzalez de Leon for their
 presentations and participation in the meeting.
 
 
 
 SUBJECT: RECOGNITION OF DR. JIM QUICK'S CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANNUAL WHEAT
 NEWSLETTER
 
 WHEREAS, Dr. Jim Quick has provided twelve years of dedicated and able
 service to the world wheat research community through his position as Editor
 of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, and
 
 WHEREAS, the Annual Wheat Newsletter has provided a unique and extremely
 valuable resource for international wheat researchers, and
 
 WHEREAS, he has expended much time and effort in editing, publication, and
 distribution of the Newsletter, 
 
 THEREFORE, be it resolved that members of the NWIC express their collective
 appreciation to Dr. Quick for his distinguished service and contributions to
 the International and National Wheat Improvement efforts.
 
 SUBJECT: RECOGNITION OF DR. IAN EDWARDS'S CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANNUAL WHEAT
 NEWSLETTER
 
 WHEREAS, Dr. Ian Edwards has provided twelve years of dedicated and able
 service to the world wheat research community through his position as
 Treasurer of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, and
 
 WHEREAS, the Annual Wheat Newsletter has provided a unique and extremely
 valuable resource for international wheat researchers, and
 
 WHEREAS, he has expended much time and effort in raising funds and handling
 accounts to provide for publication and distribution of the Newsletter,
 
 THEREFORE, be it resolved that members of the NWIC express their collective
 appreciation to Dr. Edwards for his distinguished service and contributions
 to the International and National Wheat Improvement efforts.
 
 
 -------------------------
             LETTERS OF THE NATIONAL WHEAT IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE, 
              APPROVED NOVEMBER 19-20, 1993, EL BATAN, MEXICO
 
 February 18, 1994
 
 Dr. Henry L. Shands
 Genetic Resources
 USDA-ARS, NPS,GR
 Bldg 005, BARC-West
 Beltsville, MD  20705
 
 Dear Dr. Shands,
 
 I'm writing to report on the NWIC's impression of the CIMMYT germplasm and
 database program being developed by Dr. Paul Fox and Dr. Bent Skovmand.  The
 entire committee was very favorably impressed, and we would make the
 recommendation that the USDA contribute to funding the database until it can
 be completed in the next year or two.
 
 
 We feel as a group of wheat researchers, that the database could very easily
 be utilized by other self-pollinated crops.  In fact, we understand that
 IRRI is presently examining the database for 
 
 utilization within their system.  We also feel that this database could be
 easily incorporated for use with inbred lines in either corn or sorghum.
 
 In summary, the NWIC would encourage USDA to support the funding of the
 CIMMYT database program until it can be finished.  Thank you for allowing us
 to comment on this critical issue involving wheat.
 
 Sincerely,  R.G. Sears, Chair
 
 
 -------------------------
                MEMBERS OF NATIONAL WHEAT IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE
                                 November 1993
 
 Dr. R.G. Sears, Chair
 Dept. of Agronomy
 Kansas State University 
 Manhattan, KS 66506
 (913) 532-7245
 FAX: (913)-532-6094
 
 Dr. C.J. Peterson, Secretary
 USDA-ARS, Dept. of Agronomy
 University of Nebraska
 Lincoln, NE  68583
 (402) 472-5191
 FAX: (402) 437-5254
 
 Eastern Wheat Region
 
 Dr. Fred Kolb, Chair
 Dept. of Agronomy
 Univ. of Illinois
 Urbana, IL  61801
 (217) 244-6148
 FAX: (217) 333-9817
 
 Dr. H.E.Bockelman, Secretary
 USDA-ARS, 1691 So. 2700 W.
 P.O. Box 307
 Aberdeen, ID  83210
 (208) 397-4162
 FAX: (208) 397-4165
 
 Dr. Paul Murphy
 Dept. of Crop Science
 North Carolina State Univ.
 Raleigh, NC  27607
 (919) 515-3281
 FAX: (919) 515-5657
 
 Dr. D. Van Sanford
 Dept. of Agronomy
 University of Kentucky
 Lexington, KY  40506
 (606) 257-5811
 FAX: (606) 258-5842
 
 National Assoc. of Wheat
 Growers
 
 Ellen Ferguson
 Director, NAWG Foundation415
 Second St. NE Suite 300
 Washington, DC  20002
 (202) 547-7800
 FAX: (202) 546-2638
 
 Great Plains Spring Wheat
 Region
 
 Dr. Gary Hareland, Chair
 USDA-ARS, Northern Crop
 Science Lab
 P.O. Box 5677--Univ. Sta.
 Fargo, ND  58105
 (701) 237-7728
 FAX: (701) 237-7713
 
 Dr. R.H. Busch, Secretary
 USDA-ARS, 411 Borlaug Hall
 University of Minnesota
 St. Paul, MN  55108
 (612) 625-1975
 FAX: (612) 625-1268
 
 Dr. Leonard Joppa
 USDA-ARS, Northern Crop
 Science Lab
 1307 N 18th St
 P.O. Box 5677--Univ. Sta.
 Fargo, ND  58105
 (701) 239-1339
 FAX: (701) 237-7713
 
 Dr. R. Frohberg
 Dept. of Crop and Weed
 Science
 North Dakota State University
 Fargo, ND  58105
 (701) 237-7971
 FAX: (701) 237-7973
 
 Great Plains Winter Wheat
 Region
 
 R. Bruns, Chair
 Agripro Bioscience, Inc.
 806 N. Second St., P.O. Box 30
 Berthoud, CO  80513
 (303) 532-3721
 
 Dr. T.S. Cox, Secretary
 USDA-ARS
 Throckmorton Hall, Rm.
  421Kansas State University
 Manhattan, KS  66506
 (913) 532-7260
 FAX:(913) 532-5692
 
 Dr. W.D. Worrall
 Texas A&M, P.O. Box 1658
 Vernon, TX  76384
 (817) 552-9941
 FAX: (817) 553-4657
 
 Dr. David Porter
 USDA-ARS, 1301 N. Western St.
 Stillwater, OK  74075
 (405) 624-4212
 FAX: (405) 372-1398
 
 Western Wheat Region
 
 Dr. R.S. Zemetra, Chair
 Dept. of Plant, Soil & Ent. Sci.
 University of Idaho
 Moscow, ID  83843
 (208) 885-7810
 FAX: (208) 885-7760
 
 Dr. R.F. Line, Secretary
 USDA-ARS, 361 Johnson Hall
 Washington State University
 Pullman, WA  99164
 (509) 335-3755
 FAX: (509) 335-7674
 
 Dr. David Hole
 Dept. of Plant and Soil Sci.
 Utah State Univ.
 Logan, UT  84321
 (801) 750-2235
 FAX: (801) 750-3376
 
 Dr. Craig Morris
 USDA Western Wheat Quality lab
 E-202 FSHN Fac. East
 Washington State Univ.
 Pullman, WA  99164-6394
 (509) 335-4062
 FAX: (509) 335-8573
 
 
 -------------------------
 WHEAT WORKERS CODE OF ETHICS
 
      "This seed is being distributed in accordance with the `Wheat Workers
      Code of Ethics for Distribution of Germplasm' developed by the National
      Wheat Improvement Committee 10/27/76.  Acceptance of this seed
      constitutes Agreement."
 
      1.   The originating breeder, station or company has certain rights to
           the unreleased material.  These rights are not waived with the
           distribution of seeds or plant material but remain with the
           originator for disposal at this initiative.
 
      2.   The recipient of unreleased seeds or plant material shall make no
           secondary distributions of the germplasm without the permission
           of the owner/breeder.
 
      3.   The owner/breeder in distributing unreleased seeds or other
           propagating material, grants permission for use (1) in tests
           under the recipient's control, (2) as a parent for making crosses
           from which selections will be made, and (3) for induction of
           mutations. All other uses, such as testing in regional nurseries,
           increase and release as a cultivar, selection from the stock, use
           as parents in commercial F(1) hybrids or synthetic or multiline
           cultivars, require the written approval of the owner/breeder.
 
      4.   Plant materials of this nature entered in crop cultivar trials
           shall not be used for seed increase.  Reasonable precautions to
           insure retention or recovery of plant materials at harvest shall
           be taken.
 
      5.   The distributor of wheat germplasm stocks may impose additional
           restrictions on use or may waiver any of the above.
                                
 -------------------------
      PROGRESS ON GRAIN GENES, THE TRITICEAE GENOME DATABASE
 
      David E. Matthews and Olin D. Anderson
 
      A genetic database for Triticeae, oats, and sugarcane is being
 assembled as part of the United States Department of Agriculture, National
 Agricultural Library's Plant Genome Program, directed by Jerome P. Miksche. 
 The project includes the creation of a comprehensive database at the
 National Agricultural Library incorporating data from all plant species. 
 The data are available for public access and distribution, and cooperation
 with the international research community is encouraged.  Additional support
 for the Triticeae database is provided by ITMI, the International Triticeae
 Mapping Initiative, through a grant from the USDA/DOE/NSF Joint Program on
 Collaborative Research in Plant Biology.
 
      The Triticeae database project, "GrainGenes," is coordinated by Olin
 Anderson (USDA, Albany, CA).  The master database is currently running at
 Cornell University (David Matthews and Mark Sorrells) and is accessible via
 Internet.  The main efforts in this program are to establish the hardware
 and software systems to construct and maintain a database, and coordinate
 the loading of all available and useful data.  Kinds of information being
 loaded include:
 
      genetic and cytogenetic maps,
      genomic probes, nucleotide sequences,
      genes, alleles and gene products,
      associated phenotypes, quantitative traits and QTLs,
      genotypes and pedigrees of cultivars, genetic stocks, and other
           germplasms,
      pathologies and the corresponding pathogens, insects, and abiotic
           stresses,
      a taxonomy of the Triticeae and Avena,
      addresses and research interests of colleagues,
      relevant bibliographic citations.
 
 The retrievable information includes images (photographs and drawings) as
 well as text and numeric data.
 
 DATA COORDINATORS
 
      Needless to say, compiling and curating all this information is a very
 large project.  We have identified specific areas that require data assembly
 and organization, and have formed a committee of coordinators.  As is
 inherent in such databases many areas are overlapping and will require input
 from several areas of expertise.  As the need becomes apparent,
 'subcommittees' will form around broad topics.  The following individuals
 have agreed to serve as the coordination committee for the wheat portion of
 the database.
 
 Database coord.,         Olin Anderson, USDA, ARS, WRRC, 800 Buchanan, 
 probe repository         Albany, CA 94710, Tel: 510-559-5773  FAX: 510-
                          559-5777
                          Email:oanderson@wheat.usda.gov
 
 Cytogenetics,            Bikram Gill, Department of Plant Pathology,
 stocks, mapping          Kansas State University, Throckmorton Hall,
                          Manhattan, KS 66506 Tel: 913-532-6176 FAX: 913-
                          532-5692
                          Email:raupp@matt.ksu.edu
 
 Proteins, gel            Bob Graybosch, USDA, ARS, Department of Agronomy,
                          322 Keim patterns, wheat quality Hall, University
                          of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE
                          Tel: 402-472-1563 FAX: 402-437-5234,
                          Email:agro100@unlvm.unl.edu
 
 Genetic stocks           Perry Gustafson, USDA, ARS, Department of
                          Agronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO
                          65211 Tel: 314-882-7318   FAX: 314-875-5359,
                          Email:agro1375@mizzou1.missouri.edu
 
 Genetics,                Gary Hart, Department of Soil & Crop Sciences,
 nomenclature             Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843,
                          Tel: 409-845-8293 FAX: 409-845-0456,
                          Email:ghart@zeus.tamu.edu
 
 Germplasm,               Ken Kephart, 214 Waters Hall, University of
 pathology (temp.),       Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211. Tel: 314-882-2001  
 traits                   FAX: 314-884-4317
                          Email:kephart@teosinte.agron.missouri.edu
 
 Data entry,              David Matthews, Dept. of Plant Breeding & 
 coord., maint.,          Biometry, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, Tel:
 database design          607-255-9951 FAX: 607-255-6683, 
                          Email: matthews@greengenes.cit.cornell.edu
 
 Taxonomy                 Pat McGuire, Genetic Resources Conservation
                          Program, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616, Tel: 916-757-
                          8923 FAX: 916-757-8755, 
                          Email:grcp@ucdavis.edu
 
 Data entry,              Mark Sorrells, Dept. of Plant Breeding &
 coordination             Biometry, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, Tel:
                          607-255-1665, FAX: 607-255-6683,
                          Email:mark-sorrells@qmrelay.mail.cornell.edu
 
       Anyone with interests in participating in database design, data
 contributions, data assembly in any of these or other specific areas should
 contact the appropriate coordinator or Olin Anderson.
 
 GRAINGENES RELEASE 1.3
 
      The first demonstration of a functional prototype of the database was
 in September 1992, at the ITMI Third Public Workshop in Mexico.  The current
 version of GrainGenes is 1.3, released 12 Jan 1994.  An overview of its
 contents is as follows.
 
           Data class          Number of records
           -------------       -----------------
           Map                    11  Wheat, T. tauschii, barley, diploid
                                      oat, sugarcane
           Linkage-Group         120
           Locus                1500
           Probe                2000
           Polymorphism           80  With images of autoradiograms
           Sequence              100  End sequences of probes  
           Gene                  560
           Allele                550
           Germplasm           11000  Wheat, rye, triticale
           Species               370  Including plants, pathogens and insects
           Trait-Scores        14000  24th International Spring Wheat Yield
                                      Nursery
           QTL                     4
           Pathology             380  With images of symptoms
           Image                 150
           Colleague             900
           Paper                1300
 
 Additional data are being added on a continuing basis.  New data in this
 release since the previous version include:
 
      -    Genes, alleles and stocks, part of the "Catalogue of Gene Symbols
           for Wheat," from Gary Hart
      -    Wheat chromosome group 2 and 3 maps of Devos et al.
      -    Updated Triticum tauschii map, from Bikram Gill
      -    Barley maps
           -    IGRI x FRANKA, from Andreas Graner
           -    VADA x H. spontaneum, from Andreas Graner
           -    Proctor x Nudinka, from Mark Sorrells
      -    Summary of the rice/maize/wheat comparative map of Ahn et al.
      -    CIMMYT list of wheat cultivar abbreviations, from Bent Skovmand
      -    Trait evaluation data, CIMMYT's 24th International Spring Wheat
           Yield Nursery, from Paul Fox
      -    QTL study of wheat sprouting, from Jim Anderson
      -    Pathologies (diseases, insects, abiotic injuries) of wheat,
           barley and oats,from Ken Kephart
      -    Polymorphisms of BCD and CDO probes on barley, rice, oat, wheat
           and sugarcane, from Mark Sorrells
      -    Address information for additional colleagues, from the Oat
           Newsletter mailing list
 
 By the time you read this report there will be more data added.
 
 
 USER INTERFACES TO GRAINGENES AND ASSOCIATED DATASETS
 
      The database is currently available in three formats: ACEDB, Gopher,
 and World Wide Web (WWW).  The ACEDB interface supports more powerful query
 strategies and provides interactive graphical displays of the genetic maps. 
 On the other hand, for many people the Gopher and WWW formats are easier to
 access, as well as easier to use.
 
      In addition, the Gopher and WWW formats include not only all the data
 described above (the core GrainGenes dataset) but also an equally large
 amount of information that is in free text format or in structures other
 than that of ACEDB.  These additional datasets are searchable online, and
 some are also available for downloading in their entirety.  They include
 
      Annual Wheat Newsletter, volumes 37 and 39 (38 and 40 to come)
      Catalogue of Gene Symbols for Wheat, 1988 and 1993
      Commercial Wheat Cultivars of the US, an electronic monograph by Ken
           Kephart
      HMW-glutenin subunit data for 1500 wheat cultivars, from Bob Graybosch
      Wheat quality evaluations, from Bob Graybosch
      CIMMYT list of abbreviations for 8700 wheat cultivars, from Bent
           Skovmand
 
 The Gopher/WWW datasets are also updated more frequently than the official
 releases of the ACEDB version of the database.  The following data have been
 added to the Gopher server in the six weeks since the current (1.3) release
 of GrainGenes.
 
      GrainGenes database
      -    Wheat chromosome arm map, from Mark Sorrells
           Chromosome and chromosome-arm locations of homologies to 210 BCD,
           CDO, and WG probes, with the sizes of the 800 mapped restriction
           fragments.
      - 120 species of Triticeae and Avena, and all their synonyms, from Ken
           Kephart and Gordon Kimber 
      - Germplasm records for the 500 wheat cultivars that have been
           evaluated in the 1st through 27th CIMMYT International Spring Wheat
           Yield Nurseries, from Bent Skovmand
      
      Images from the GrainGenes database
      - 450 new pathology-related images, from Ken Kephart
 
      NABGMP Steptoe X Morex dataset
       - Barley quantitative trait mapping dataset, from Pat Hayes 8 traits     
           x
           16 environments x 150 doubled haploids, with QTL analysis.
           Grains files to browse
      - "Barley IGRI x FRANKA mapping data", from Andreas Graner
           Segregation data, including substantially more markers than are on
           the 1991 published map
 
 ACCESS METHODS
 
      For sites that are connected to the Internet, the Gopher and WWW
 formats of GrainGenes are the easiest to access, requiring only
 
      -    a direct network connection from your personal computer to the
           Internet  (no password needed),
                     or
      -    a modem connection to a Unix or other Internet host running Gopher
           or WWW software.
 
      The ACEDB format of GrainGenes provides its graphical, mouse-based user
 interface via the "X11" network protocol.  ACEDB access requires
 
      -    a Unix machine running the ACEDB software,
                     or
      -    a direct network connection (as opposed to a modem connection) to
           such a machine and an account to use it, and X11 software for your
           personal computer.
 
 Gopher
 
      For enhanced reliability, identical copies of the GrainGenes Gopher
 server are maintained at two independent sites, one at Cornell University,
 Ithaca, NY, and the other at the National Agricultural Library, Beltsville,
 MD.  If one is unavailable, due to unforeseen but over the longer term
 inevitable circumstances, simply switch to the other one:
 
      host greengenes.cit.cornell.edu, port 70
      host probe.nalusda.gov, port 7002
 
      The NAL has also established a Gopher server that allows searching a
 merged database of all the USDA-supported plant genome databases:
 GrainGenes, AAtDB (Arabidopsis), Mace (maize), Soybase, and TreeGenes.  This
 Gopher server is listed in the GrainGenes Gopher menu "Other plant genome
 Gophers", or it can be accessed directly at host probe.nalusda.gov, port 70.
 
 WWW
 
      The World Wide Web is a kind of super-Gopher system, with all the
 features of the Gopher plus many more.  For those who have direct access
 (TCP or SLIP) to the Internet, WWW can be accessed  using the "Mosaic"
 software which can be obtained by anonymous ftp from ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu. 
 Those who have dialup access to a Unix host can use the Unix WWW client
 program "Lynx".
 
      Access to GrainGenes via the World Wide Web is available from the
 Agricultural Genome World Wide Web Server, located at the NAL.  The address
 (URL) for this server is
 
       http://probe.nalusda.gov:8000/index.html
 
      From the wheat standpoint, the uniquely useful service offered here is
 a hypertext version of the GrainGenes dataset, located at URL:
 
      http://probe.nalusda.gov:8000/acedbs/acedbs/index.html
 
 In addition, the full GrainGenes Gopher server, including all the Gopher
 datasets described above, can be accessed via WWW using URL:
 
      gopher://greengenes.cit.cornell.edu/1
 
 ACEDB
      Copies of the ACEDB version of GrainGenes, for running on a Unix host,
 can be obtained from the NAL's anonymous ftp server, probe.nalusda.gov. 
 Copies are currently running at eleven distributed sites:
 
      USDA Western Regional Research Laboratory, Albany, CA (Olin Anderson)
      INRA, Clermont, France (Philippe Leroy)
      Australian National Genetic Information Service, Sydney (Alex Reisner)
      Montana State University (Tom Blake)
      Station d'amelioration des plantes, Gembloux, Belgium (Jean Jacquemin)
      Weizman Institute, Israel (Jaime Prilusky)
      Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Houston (Leland Ellis)
      Texas A&M University (Gary Hart)
      Academia Sinica, Beijing (Lihuang Zhu)
      Scottish Crop Research Institute, Dundee (Scott Chasalow)
      CIMMYT, Mexico (David Hoisington)
 
      Users who have no Unix machine but do have direct network access
 (TCP/IP or SLIP) and X11 software for their personal computer may request a
 GrainGenes ACEDB account from the authors.
 
 HELPLINE
 
      The NAL has set up a helpline for assistance in accessing and using the
 plant genome databases.  Help is available either by electronic mail to
 pgenome@nalusda.gov, or by telephone at 301-504-6613.  GrainGenes-specific
 questions should be directed to the authors, at the addresses mentioned
 above.
 
 LONG-TERM CONSIDERATONS
 
      Although the USDA is supporting the initial stages of database
 development, the success of this program will depend greatly on the
 cooperation and participation of laboratories  throughout the research
 community world-wide.  We are particularly interested in cooperating with
 members of international community who are recognized, officially or
 unofficially, as curators of data.  The USDA will concentrate on hardware,
 software, assembly of combined databases, database access, and will only
 perform minor curatorial functions; each plant community will be called on
 to organize and update the data for its own plant system.
 
      All laboratories possessing relevant data are urged to deposit their
 data with the database.  Any laboratory interested in accessing the
 databases or running the databases locally can contact Olin Anderson, Susan
 Altenbach, or David Matthews.  Users are reminded that this is a developing
 database effort, therefore gaps in data should be expected.  However, all
 users are encouraged to make both suggestions on improvements and new
 sources of data.
 
 -------------------------
  II. CONTRIBUTIONS
      PRIVATE COMPANIES
 
 
      AGRIPRO BIOSCIENCES INC.
 
      Joe A. Smith,  Blake Cooper, Barb Cook, Jerry Betz
 
      We have an ongoing wheat development program with the United Grain
 Growers, Inc.  From this program, we have achieved registration of our first
 CWRS cultivar in Canada.  It has been named Invader and was tested as BW158
 in official registration Co-ops over the past three seasons.  It averaged 4%
 and 7% above the commercial checks Katepwa and Columbus, respectively in the
 black soil zones.  Invader has late maturity similar to Columbus and
 improved leaf rust resistance compared to the checks.  It will be marketed
 exclusively by the United Growers, Inc. in Canada.
 
      The 1993 season was too cool and too wet for good wheat development in
 our primary breeding area, the Red River Valley.  A heavy fusarium infection
 reduced yields far below what were anticipated.  Some differences were
 noticed between cultivars.  Generally taller and earlier cultivars held up
 better.  Plots were discarded at our Casselton site due to flooding damage
 and fusarium.
 
      In our U.S. program, we will be releasing a new semidwarf durum
 cultivar to be named Voss.  It has been tested as D87-1534 in 1993 North
 Dakota State tests and the 1992 Regional test.  This cultivar has exhibited
 higher yield and test weight than currently grown semidwarfs.
 
      Dr. Blake Cooper joined the project in early summer.  Blake will be in
 charge of the U.S. program.
 
 -------------------------
      AGRIPRO BIOSCIENCES INC.
 
      John M. Moffatt, Steve L. Askelson, Jerry D. Brick,  Scott A. Seifert,
 Paul T. "Tom" Griess
 
      The 1992/93 crop year was a banner year for foliar disease development. 
 Leaf rust, septoria glume blotch, tan spot and scab were found in varying
 degrees in all of our core nursery sites from north central Oklahoma to
 south central Nebraska.  Leaf rust and septoria were also problems in our
 irrigated nurseries along the Ogallala aquifer.  Abnormally high rain-fall
 during June delayed harvest, flooded nurseries and resulted in the loss of
 most of our core locations.  Although foliar diseases caused reductions in
 both test weight and yield in the west, we were able to harvest seven
 irrigated nurseries with trial means averaging from 66 bu/a at Goodland, KS
 to 125 bu/a at Berthoud.
 
       AgriPro Brand Varieties "Ogallala" and "Ponderosa", were released to
 our associate system in 1993 and will be available to the farmer in the fall
 of 1994.
 
      Ogallala (TX81V6187/Abilene) was formerly tested as WI89-055.  Ogallala
 has better leaf rust resistance than either parent, has high test weight
 patterns and excellent straw strength for irrigated production.  Ogallala is
 heterogeneous for 1A/1R and has a moderately resistant field reaction to
 wheat streak mosaic virus.  Ogallala is susceptible to both soil borne and
 spindle streak mosaic virus and is being positioned as a western wheat.
 
      Ponderosa (W81-133/Thunderbird) was formerly tested as W87-017-44. 
 Ponderosa is a daylength sensitive semidwarf similar to Tomahawk in plant-
 type.  Ponderosa has good protection to prevalent leaf rust races and
 powdery mildew and is resistant to the soilborne and spindle streak mosaic
 viruses.  Ponderosa is adapted to both the core and the aquifer.  Ponderosa
 has excellent milling and baking properties.
 
 -------------------------
      AGRIPRO BIOSCIENCES INC.
      Jim Reeder, Bobby Talley
 
      Almost 1000 hard red winter wheat hybrids were made in 1993 at
 Berthoud, Colorado and Hereford, Texas.  Hybridizing agent technology was
 used to produce these hybrids.  The 500 combinations that produced the most
 hybrid seed will be yield tested throughout the Great Plains in 1994. 
 Performance of previously made hybrids was encouraging with a significant
 number exceeding our yield goal.  Yield stability of hybrids over locations
 and over years continues to be high.
 
      Approximately 650 hard red spring wheat hybrids were made at Berthoud,
 Colorado and Casselton, North Dakota.  Over 300 of these will be yield
 tested in the Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota.  Heterosis
 observed in previously made hybrids in this region was again high.
 
      Bobby Talley joined the hybrid development project on February 1, 1994
 after spending five years on the hard red winter wheat project on a part-
 time basis while going to school.
 
 -------------------------
      AGRIPRO BIOSCIENCES INC.
      Koy E. Miskin, Curtis Beazer, Eugene Glover, Dayna Scruggs. 
 
      In contrast to 1992, this year soft wheat research had a crop.  In
 1992, the entire breeding nursery at Brookston was dead.  Fortunately, we
 had a good year in 1993.  Stem rust was very severe (very unusual)
 eliminating a great deal of material from the program.  We had not had good
 selection pressure for stem rust for many years.  Leaf rust and the septoria
 diseases were also quite serious this year and it is believed we made good 
 progress in selection for improved disease resistance.
 
      We conducted a seed treatment study involving Vitavax 200, Baytan,
 Dividend and Gaucho (a seed treatment insecticide) and three varieties,
 Twain,  Pontiac and Sawyer.  These were planted in single rep trials at four
 locations, Brookston, IN, Carmi, IL, St. Jacobs, IL, and Delphos, OH. 
 Fungicides alone showed no advantage.  However, when combined with Gaucho
 yields increased an average of seven bu/A.  This was not too surprising as
 there was a high population of aphids last fall.  Aphids transmit BYDV. 
 None of the chemicals had any effect on height or maturity.
 
      Agripro Pontiac is the name given to experimental line 88M-3143 (ABI
 88-3143 in the UESWN).  Agripro Pontiac has very good Rhizoctonia resistance
 and performs very well in harsh environments.  It has a good disease
 resistance package and acceptable milling and baking quality.  Test weight
 is 1.5 lbs/bu higher than Cardinal and has a very low preharvest sprouting
 response.  Agripro Pontiac carries the H5 Hessian fly gene.  It will replace
 Agripro Lincoln and will be available to farmers in the fall of 1994. 
 
      Three hundred forty-three hybrids were tested at eight locations.  Late
 spring freezes caused considerable sterility and hybrid performance was down
 from expected.  Late spring freeze seems to be one environmental condition
 that hybrids do not withstand better than pureline varieties.  Probably
 because they begin growing more vigorously earlier than the varieties and
 are therefore more vulnerable to the frost.
 
      The Shell Oil decision to sell AgriPro resulted in considerable down
 sizing of both northern and mid southern hybrid wheat research. 
 Unfortunately, Dr. Greg Holland, and one technician left AgriPro.  Dr.
 Holland is now with Asgrow Seed Co. as a corn breeder in Iowa.  We certainly
 wish him well.
 
 -------------------------
         AGRIPRO BIOSCIENCES INC.
         J. Barton Fogleman, C. Keith Taylor.
 
      Much of the mid south wheat environment was cool and damp making the
 season about two weeks later than normal.  Leaf rust and stem rust were very
 severe and some lines with LR9 and LR24 showed considerable susceptibility. 
 This may be the result of a sudden race change or a temperature sensitivity
 response.
 
      Hybrid wheat performance was again exceptional.  Twenty-one percent of
 our new hybrids met or exceeded our goal of eight bushel per acre above the
 average of three best check varieties.  The checks were the Coker 9877,
 Wakefield and the new Agripro Hickory.
 
      Our research on wheat in rotation with rice was presented at the 1993
 Midsouth Association of Wheat Scientists in Memphis.  The purpose of this
 study was to examine the yield and agronomic responses of several commercial
 SRWW cultivars when grown in rotation with rice.  Paired yield trials were
 grown at Fisher, AR and at Cleveland, MS.  These two-replication yield
 trials were planted in silty-loam soil in rotation with rice and in rotation
 with soybeans at each location.  Responses of SRWW cultivars in rotation
 with rice showed the following average effects when compared with
 corresponding SRWW cultivars in rotation with soybeans: Grain yields were
 reduced 16.5 bu/ac; Heading dates were delayed 2.8 days; Plant heights were
 reduced 2.5 inches, Test weights were essentially unaffected (increased 0.3
 lbs/bu).  Five commercial cultivars had yields that were not significantly
 different from the highest yielding cultivar (Lsd. 10) in each of the rice
 rotation trials:  AgriPro Hickory; Freedom; AgriPro Sawyer; NK Coker 9543
 and AgriPro Mallard.
 
      ABI experimental line 88D-1903 has been named Agripro Hickory.  It is
 best adapted to the midsouth, coastal plains and southern Ohio Valley.  It
 has demonstrated very high yield, medium early maturity, and moderate levels
 of resistance to nearly all major wheat diseases in these areas including
 Xanthomonas.  It performs very well behind rice and carries the H6 gene for
 Hessian fly resistance. Agripro Hickory has excellent milling and baking
 properties and its test weight is two pounds heavier than FL 302.
 
 -------------------------
 CARGILL ARGENTINA HYBRID WHEAT PROGRAM
 
      N. Machado, P. Paulucci, H. Martinuzzi
 
      Normal weather conditions were present at planting time.  Long maturity
 and intermediate cultivarewere planted in June and short maturity were
 planted in July.
 
      After planting, a long drought period affected the production level
 depending on the area and the plot qualityincluding rotation and cultural
 practices applied.  In someareas, there were no rains for 140 days. Just
 before flowering it started to rain, and diseases were favored by humidand
 warm conditions.  Tillering was delayed but compensated for some of the
 yield potential. Different genotypes reacted differently.  The final result
 was a general reduction in yield with a severe
 Fusarium (FHB) damage in the Northern areas that affected seriously the
 farmer economy due to discounts in prices when referred to hectoliter weight
 and FHB.  The seed produced in areas with high infections will be a poor
 quality seed and many preventions will have to be taken.
 
      Yield trials.  Some trials were affected due to irregular germination
 and consequently bad stand.  Other were partially flooded at heading time
 with plant losses.  In spite of the highf variation, the recorded data
 related to yields and grain quality is very valuable considering the
 Fusarium head blight infection.  We have selected a group of 10 advanced
 experimental hybrids with acceptable performance under the described
 conditions.
 
      Experimental hybrids.  The seed set was acceptable but the plants could
 not get their normal development, so the hybrid seed production was less
 than expected.  Nicking was not affected by environmental conditions.  
 Ninety experimental hybrids were obtained for testing during 1994.  A new
 hybrid was released for 1993 season named TRIGOMAX 206, making a total of
 seven commercial hybrids.  This new release is an intermediate maturity
 hybrid but flexible for its planting time, competing well with short
 maturity hybrids when planted in July.  We think this trait must be present
 in any intermediate maturity hybrid to avoid complications when the weather
 conditions are not good enough in June. At the time this report is
 submitted, negotiations are being under way for the sale of all the wheat
 operation. Cargill Argentina has decided to interrupt the wheat business
 including production and research.  The germplasm developed during 25 years
 produced very well adapted hybrids and valuable knowledge was obtained to be
 effective for profitable commercial production.  We hope to have the chance
 to continue with the production of better spring CMS hybrids for our country
 and other areas.
  
 -------------------------
 CARGILL HYBRID SEEDS, Fort Collins, Colorado 
 
      Sid Perry, Sally Clayshulte, Jill Handwerk, Dana Shellberg
 
      1992-93 Season. F1 hybrids, F2s and inbred lines were evaluated at 2
 locations.  Four locations were discarded due to the persistent wet weather
 at harvest. The same conditions provided excellent selection for leaf rust,
 stem rust, leaf blotch and powdery mildew.
 
      F1 Performance.  Mean yield over all locations in central Kansas was
 37.9 bu/A.  Twenty-four percent of the hybrids tested were economically and
 agronomically acceptable. Best average performance in central Kansas was
 118% of Karl.
 
      F2 Performance.  Mean yield over all locations in central Kansas was
 41.7 bu/A.  Fifteen percent of the F2s tested were economically and
 agronomically acceptable.  Best average performance in central Kansas was
 125% of Karl.
 
      Inbred Performance.  Mean yield over all locations in central Kansas
 was 35 bu/A.  Twenty-one percent were selected for retesting.   Best average
 performance in central Kansas was 107% of Karl. 
 
      Acquisitions. Cargill has merged the research operations at Ft.
 Collins, Colorado, with Goertzen Seed Research of Haven, Kansas.  The
 specialty grain and identity preserved focus of Goertzen Seed Research will
 diversify the existing Cargill research program, and complement various
 divisional needs within Cargill.  Cargill has acquired Goertzen Seed
 Research of Haven, Kansas.  Under Cargill ownership, Goertzen Seed Research
 will continue its research and breeding operations to develop specialty
 grain.  Goertzen Seed Researh will become part of Cargill's efforts to apply
 its diverse skills to the changing, more demanding needs of the marketplace.
 Goertzens will continue research into wheat and other cereals with end user
 characteristics increasingly desired by millers and other grain users. 
 Kenneth and Betty Goertzen, the previous owners of the  company, will remain
 as consultants.  Roy Lanning and Kevin Goertzen will continue as employees
 with Goertzen Seed Research.  The Goertzens hope to bring many of their long
 term breeding projects to fruition in the next few years.  Dr. Sid Perry
 will be in charge of Goertzen Seed Research activities.
 
 -------------------------
 CARGILL, AUSTRALIA
 
      Richard Daniel, David Donaldson, Lyn Hockings, Garry Lane, Michael
 Materne, Michael Nowland, Chris Tyson, Jane & Peter Wilson - Tamworth,
 N.S.W., Australia.
 
      Cargill Seeds, based in Tamworth N.S.W., is currently selling two
 hybrids, Meteor and Pulsar.  These hybrids are recommended in the northern
 half of N.S.W. and Queensland.  Sowing takes place  from April until the end
 of July depending mainly on moisture availability.
 
      To cope with this range in sowing times, farmers use varieties with
 different maturities.  This ensures that flowering does not occur too early,
 with risk of frost damage to the developing inflorescence, or too late, when
 moisture stress and high temperatures during grain fill reduce yield.
 
      For some time Cargill Seeds has been aware that our current hybrids,
 which both fit into an early sowing time slot, left us vulnerable to low
 seed sales if rain did not fall for sowing in late April to mid-May.  This
 fact was reinforced in 1993 when much of Queensland received no sowing rain
 and sowing rains in northern N.S.W. did not occur until late May.  This
 meant that the area which accounted for 60% of our seed sales in 1992 only
 accounted for 40% of sales in 1993.
 
      To combat this problem our breeders have been working to produce
 hybrids whose ideal sowing time is from late May until July.  Below are
 Trial Results of our best quick maturing hybrids compared to the highest
 yielding quick maturing inbred variety - Hartog.
 
 Table 1:  Mean yield of advanced Hybrids vs Hartog in Northern N.S.W.  1992-
 93
 
 
        1992 (6)           1993 (9)        1992-93 (15)     Flowering 
                                                            relative to 
        t/ha   % Htg       t/ha    % Htg   t/ha   % Htg     Hartog
                                                              (days)
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 CH34   5.628  118          5.215    118    5.380   118       +2
 CH30   5.349  113          5.396    122    5.377   118       -7
 CH31   5.469  115          5.067    114    5.228   115       -3
 HARTOG 4.749  100          4.436    100    4.561   100        0
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      CH30 and CH31 are undergoing final quality testing in May 1994 and will
 hopefully be approved for release in October.
 
      Although much emphasis has been placed on increasing the maturity range
 of our hybrids we are also developing higher yielding, disease resistant
 hybrids of the same maturity as Meteor and Pulsar.
 
 Table 2, below, compares our current hybrids with our best experimental line
 and Miskle, the highest yielding inbred variety of the same maturity. (1992-
 93)
 
 
 Table 2 : Mid-season hybrids vs Miskle in Northern N.S.W. (1992-93)   
 
           1992 (6)           1993(9)             1992-93 (15)
        
           t/ha    % Mkl      t/ha      % Mkl     t/ha      % Mkl
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 CH27      5.250     108       5.007     122       5.104     116
 PULSAR    4.872     100       4.817     118       4.839     110
 METEOR    4.754      98       4.648     113       4.690     107
 MISKLE    4.852     100       4.097     100       4.399     100
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
           (*) (  ) = No. sites
 
      We are hopeful that CH27 will be approved for release in October and
 that it will replace both Meteor and Pulsar.  The encouraging results
 obtained over the past two seasons suggest that hybrids consistently
 performing 15% more than the better varieties of similar maturity can be
 developed, and could form the basis of a viable hybrid wheat seed industry. 
 This is particularly relevant to Australian timopheevi hybrid growing areas,
 where we have relatively low seeding rates (30-40 kg/ha), high yields (3-6
 t/ha dryland) and high hybrid seed production yields (up to 6 t/ha
 irrigated).
 
      Unfortunately most currently available F1 hybrids produced using the
 timopheevi sterility restoration system have decreased spike fertility at
 higher latitudes and hence reduced yield advantages compared to the better
 varieties.  Different hybridisation systems, such as chemical hybridising
 agents, may be an advantage for higher latitudes in Australia.
 
 -------------------------
 HYBRITECH SEED INTERNATIONAL, INC.
 
      John Erickson, Steve Kuhr, Karolyn Ely, Dennis Delaney, Bud Hardesty,
      Jerry Wilson-Wichita, KS; Gordon Cisar - Lafayette, IN; Hal Lewis -
      Corvallis, OR; Dudley Leaphart - Billings, MT.
 
      Hybrid Development.  We have been testing HRW hybrids developed with
 CHA technology in USDA regional nurseries for a couple of years.  Several
 new hybrids have been entered into state trials for 1994 evaluation.  
 
      Hybrid performance in the 1993 SRPN regional nursery was excellent,
 with ranks of 1,3,4,6, and 9 out of 45 wheats tested.  Three of the top four
 wheats in the 1992 SRPN trials also were our hybrids.  A soft white winter
 hybrid was the top entry in the 1992 Western Uniform Regional test conducted
 in the Pacific Northwest.
 
      HRW Wheat.  1993 was not a good year for field research. Only six of 23
 test sites produced excellent yield data.  Another four sites were average
 and the remainder were suspect in one manner or another.  Heavy rains after
 planting in the fall of 1992 caused crusting and poor seedling emergence in
 nursery sites at Wichita and Medicine Lodge in Kansas, and at Dumas, Texas. 
 Hail destroyed the nursery sites at Blackwell, Oklahoma and Hugoton, Kansas
 while causing a 20% loss at Alliance, Nebraska.  Continuous rainfall
 prevented harvest at Linn, KS; Salina, KS; Hoxie, KS; and Hastings, NE. 
 Combines at WaKeeney, KS at times had to be pushed by hand to get through
 the mud.
 
 
      We finished reroofing and siding of the greenhouses at the Wichita
 farm.  The new plastic has allowed our plants to grow more quickly, and to
 mature on time.  The old discolored plastic seemed to delay plant maturity
 and tiller development.  We added a badly needed plot planter and two Hege
 combines to our machinery list in 1993.  One of the combines went to the
 Billings, MT research station while the other stayed at Wichita.
 
      HRW Male Project.  Eleven new restorer lines were planted in crossing
 blocks as males at Wichita, KS in the fall of 1993.  At Billings, MT three
 new restorers were chosen as crossing block males.  These lines have been
 tested for line performance as well as for combining ability.  Using the
 Genesis hybridizing agent, male lines in early stages of development have
 been sterilized and used as females in hybrid combination with several
  testers .  Since seed quantities in the early stages of male development
 are limited, this has allowed us to evaluate the potential combining ability
 of the lines before putting them into large crossing blocks.
 
      The performance of Genesis in our research crossing blocks continues to
 be favorable.  Hybrid seed yield levels at the Mt. Hope, KS station over the
 last three years have consistently exceeded 80% of their respective
 pollinators.
 
      Female yield potential and compatible nicks are two of the most
 important factors in a commercial hybrid production field.  We use a visual
 score (1-9) to record nicks in our crossing blocks.  With 1 as the most
 desirable nick, each succeeding number represents about one day more (or
 less) in flowering date of the females vs the males.  The following table
 represents more than 3000 data points from our 1993 Mt. Hope and Wichita
 crossing blocks.
 
                   Nick             Hybrid Seed Yield
                   Score              (% of male)
               ------------------------------------
                    1                     100
                    2                      92
                    3                      72
                    4                      66
                    5                      50
 
      HRW Female Project.  In our southern region (south of I-70), we had
 breeding nurseries at Mt. Hope, KS and Hugoton, KS.  Good notes were
 obtained for leaf rust and powdery mildew at Mt. Hope, however the nursery
 at Hugoton was lost to hail.  North of I-70 Nebraska (central region), we
 had breeding nurseries at both Hastings and Grant, NE.  Good leaf rust and
 stem rust notes were collected at Hastings in 1993, however continuous rains
 during harvest were a problem.  Yields at the irrigated site near Grant, NE
 were quite good and differences among the lines were detected. Breeding
 efforts for our northern region are headquartered in Billings, MT.  Grain
 yields 
 were very good at several of the Montana selection and testing sites in
 1993.  From the three testing regions, 87 new females were advanced to
 crossing blocks from the southern, 98 from the central, and 120 from the
 northern.
 
      A number of our lines were screened for stem rust at the University of
 Nebraska in 1993.  An excellent infection of the disease occurred, and
 meaningful notes were obtained.  We have initiated an in-house seedling stem
 rust screen to test our lines and early generation materials as well.
 
      SRW Wheat Project.  Wheat research remains focused on delivering a
 commercially viable soft wheat hybrid into the U.S. marketplace within the
 next several years.
 
      After a complete loss of our nursery the previous year (1992), we
 recovered nicely in 1993 with the production of 2400 experimental hybrids
 using  Genesis  CHA technology.  Average hybrid seed yield on all
 combinations was 29.3 bu/A.  An array of our better females had seed yields
 in excess of 40 bu/A.  This yield (29.3 bu/A) was very near our long-term
 average hybrid seed yield of 28.1 bu/A.
 
      Average best-parent heterosis for 148 hybrids having P(1), P(2) and the
 F(1) in the 1993 trials was 108%, which slightly exceeds our long term
 average of 105%.  In our germplasm the standard deviation of this
 distribution is around 9 to 10%.
 
      HybriTech has released a new pureline soft red winter wheat variety
 under the name of  Spencer ,  Spencer was tested in the Uniform Eastern Soft
 Red Winter Wheat Nursery as  LB63 .  Spencer has a robust plant phenotype
 with a large stem and a blocky, awned spike.  Test weight is excellent,
 being superior to most commercially available cultivars.  Maturity is equal
 to Cardinal, and plant height is three to four inches shorter than Cardinal. 
 Spencer is resistant to leaf rust, stem rust, and powdery mildew.  Tolerance
 to the leaf blight complex of Septoria and tan spot is good, as is tolerance
 to wheat spindle-streak and wheat soil-borne mosaic virus.
 
      Spring Wheat Project.  The spring project was reestablished in 1992
 with Billings, MT being our main breeding and testing location.  The 1993
 Billings nursery had very good infections of leaf rust and stem rust, which
 helped in the selection work of the early generation lines.  The late
 planted nurseries were hit hard by wheat streak mosaic virus.
 
      The hybrids that were tested showed very good tolerance to the leaf and
 stem rusts.  The yields of the initial hybrids were encouraging as they out-
 yielded the checks and the parents of the hybrids.
 
      Approximately 200 HRS hybrids were produced in 1993 using the Genesis
 compound.  Excellent sterility was obtained on all of the females.
 
      Quality Lab.  Quality testing for the 1992 crop was completed with just
 under 10,000 samples tested.  It appears that the number of samples from the
 1993 crop will be down considerably, with only 7500-8000 samples submitted
 so far.  With the  93 crop, we received samples from our new Hard Red Spring
 Wheat program for the first time.
 
      A quality summary for each of our Quantum hybrids was prepared and
 distributed to marketing and management.  These summaries will be updated
 yearly.
 
      We have ordered electrophoresis equipment and are setting up to run
 SDS-PAGE gels to assist the breeding program.
 
      One of our staff members, Sharon Pudden, was elected Chairman of the
 local Section of the AACC (American Assoc. of Cereal Chemists).
 
 -------------------------
 HYBRITECH SEED INTERNATIONAL, INC.
 
      Dennis Dunphy, Sam Wallace, Richard Evans - Lafayette, IN; Kent Baker,
      Kevin Jackson - Perryton, TX; Sally Metz - St. Louis, MO
 
      Performance of Genesis in 1993.  Genesis hybridizing agent was used to
 produce seed of experimental hybrids in a wide range of environments in the
 U.S. in 1993.  Excellent male sterility was obtained in all regions.  Seed
 yields of long term check lines averaged 65% of the untreated check in the
 SRW region, and 83% for the SRW and HRW regions, respectively.
 
      Commercialization.  Monsanto expects to receive an Experimental Use
 Permit for Genesis for the 1994 season, which will allow pre-commercial seed
 production of SRW and HRW hybrids for this year.  We plan to have limited
 amounts of seed of several high yielding hybrids available for on-farm
 testing for the fall of 1994.
 
 -------------------------
 HYBRINOVA, Hybrid Wheat Research
 
      Alain Gervais 
 
      Since last year Annual Wheat Newsletter, there has been no change in
 the organization of HYBRINOVA.  Development of our Chemical Hybridizing
 Agent program has been crowned with success.  Our product has been granted a
 "Provisional Authorization for Sale" and consequently we are now authorized
 to use it on a large scale  for the production of hybrid wheat seeds in
 France.  Hybrid wheat breeding program went on as scheduled.  The overall
 news are centered around the different parts of our project and are
 described below.
 
 -------------------------
 HYBRINOVA, Hybrid Wheat Research
 
      Northern Breeding Station
 
      Stephen D. Sunderwirth (Fax: 33-44-41-95-34)
 
      1992-1993 Season:  Low rainfall during autumn favored sowing of the
 nurseries and trial fields.  A mild and dry winter prevented early disease
 development and frost damage.  Favorable weather in spring allowed for good
 application of our CHA on all the wheat crossing blocs.  Summer storms and
 warm temperatures caused heavy lodging in the nursery and trials fields. 
 Leaf rust (Puccinia recondita), powdery mildew (Erysphe graminis) and
 Septoria nodorum  developed rapidly on susceptible cultivars, thus creating
 favorable conditions for breeding in the nursery.  Harvest was delayed for
 one week on account of heavy rainfall at maturity.  Sprouting occured in the
 more susceptible and early maturing lines.  Yields of 7,5 tons/ha were
 significantly lower than those of the past three years for this region of
 France.
 
      Varietal Development:  Two hybrid winter wheats were accepted into the
 second year of registration: OSHE54.22 AND OSHE534.22.  These hybrids
 yielded respectively 109,9% and 110,9% of the official check Mesnil with C1
 and B2 quality.  Both hybrids are shorter than Sideral, have similar
 standing power and have good levels of resistance to powdery mildew and leaf
 rust.
 
      A third hybrid wheat, HA280.68 went into first year of registration in
 1993.  This hybrid combines a good quality with interesting levels of
 resistance to leaf rust, strip rust, powdery mildew, Septoria nodorum and
 Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides.
 
      Development in Northern Europe:  Numerous contacts have been
 established with other breeding firms in England, Germany, Belgium, Holland
 and Austria.  Several hybrids are being tested for adaptation to each
 country.  The more advanced hybrids are in seventeen locations.
 
 -------------------------
 HYBRINOVA, Hybrid Wheat Research
 
      Southern Breeding Station
 
      Christian Quandalle (Fax: 33-62-28-82-11)
 
      Three hybrid wheats went into first year of registration for Southern
 France.  They proved a very good hardiness in 1993 results, under leaf rust
 pressure, Fusarium, and bad planting conditions and dry winter.
 
      Other hybrids are in being bred for southern Europe.  Each year we
 expand our trial fields and  network with new countries.
 
      Tissue culture laboratory produced,in 1993, about 12,000 dihaploid
 plants by androgenesis (10,000 wheat - 2,000 barley), directly used in our
 breeding program.
 
 -------------------------
 HYBRINOVA, Hybrid Wheat Research
 
      Central Station: Seed Producion and Agronomy
 
      Laurent Batreau (Fax: 33-37-99-93-04)
 
      Saint Germain Station's team: (Beauce region):  In 1993, we  have
 developed two new activities with one person in charged of the parental
 lines increase and another that follows the off-site hybrid pilot
 productions program.  The on-site team has remained the same.
 
      Hybrid production:  Last year our program, which included 20 outsite
 hybrid pilot productions  (from 0,2 to 1 ha), was set up to test feasibility
 and field technics.
 
      Results of our two "top" hybrids were very encouraging.  Subsequently
 we are planning to increase the number of sites for 1994.  Our hybrids,
 entering into French registration, have been used for these out-site
 experiments.
 
      On-site, we also test the productivity of many new hybrids originating
 from northern and southern breeding programs.
 
      A new step in hybrid wheat program is being reached with the first
 hybrid registration scheduled for september of 1994.  We are now focusing
 our efforts in developing knowledge on cross fertility and field production
 technics.
 
 -------------------------
 NORTHRUP KING COMPANY
 
      June Hancock and Craig Allen 
 
      Production Season:  A cool, wet spring in the Mid-South region delayed
 our maturities by approximately 1.5 to 2 weeks.  This delay fostered ideal
 conditions for a stem rust outbreak much more severe than our typical
 infestations.  In early April, leaf rust was observed on Coker wheats in
 Louisiana that normally are very resistant.  Coker 9877 was completely
 overcome by leaf rust.  Coker 9024 and Coker 9766 also expressed moderate
 susceptibility to this new race which moved throughout the Mid-South.
 
      New Release:  Coker 9474 (tested as L880437) was released to TGN (Two
 Great Names) seed growers/dealers in the fall of 1993.  Certified seed will
 be available in the fall of 1994.  The variety which has an excellent test
 weight and disease package will be positioned for the Northern Mid-South and
 the Southern Cornbelt.
 
      Staff:  Dr. Fred Collins announced his retirement effective December
 31, 1992.  His expertise in wheat breeding and management have been greatly
 missed.  He has made significant contributions to our program and we wish
 him success in his future endeavors.
 
 -------------------------
 PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC
 
      Ian B. Edwards
 
      Wheat research operations remain focused on the Soft Red Winter and
 Soft White Winter wheat classes in North America, while in Europe varietal
 development is aimed at the following market classes:
 
      1.   Soft Red Winter: France, U.K., Germany, Belgium, Austria/Central 
           Europe.
      2.   Hard Red Winter: France, Spain, Italy, Austria/Central Europe.
      3.   Hard Red Spring: Spain, Portugal, Greece.
      4.   Hard White Spring: Spain.     
      5.   Durum: Italy, Spain, Greece, France.
 
      In addition, research and product development operations are underway
 in the Middle East/North Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia.
 
      Two years ago, Pioneer ceased using chemical hybridizing agents as a
 delivery system for hybrid wheat development in Europe, and we have changed
 to a proprietary genetic system for the following reasons:
 
        * Higher production efficiency (higher and more consistent seed set)
        * Pure seed production
        * Lower production costs
        * No regulatory concerns
 
      Field testing of the new system commenced in 1993-94.  Previous
 research has already identified superior hybrid combinations and the primary
 focus at this time is on inbred development and improved production
 efficiency.  Matching of parents with complementary and favorable HMW
 glutenin subunit combinations has enabled us to produce hybrids with
 breadmaking quality superior to that of either parent.
 
      Varietal Releases:
 
      1.    U.S.A.:  Soft Red Winter Wheat: 2552 is a U.S. corn belt variety
           with with exceptional fungal leaf blight and powdery mildew
           resistances.  2684 is an early-maturing variety for the south
           with very high yield potential and tolerance to Hessian fly.
 
      2.   Spain:  Moro is a spring wheat with excellent yield potential,
           high drought tolerance, and good overall disease resistance. 
 
      3.   Portugal:  Milfo is a medium-early spring wheat with high yield
           potential, strong straw and powdery mildew tolerance.  Mercero is
           a spring wheat of excellent yield potential, resistant to lodging
           and  leaf blight, and of medium baking quality.
 
      Staff: Steven Bentley will join Guy Dorlencourt and the staff of
 Pioneer Genetique as wheat breeder at Frouville, France, commencing in April
 1994.
 
 -------------------------
 PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC
 
      Gregory C. Marshall, William J. Laskar and  Kyle J. Lively, Windfall,IN
 
      The 1992-93 Season.  The fall of 1992 wheat planting season was
 somewhat challenging due to late corn and soybean harvest and subsequent wet
 weather.  Despite a late start, all our testing locations were planted
 within the optimum time period.  Favorable weather following planting
 resulted in generally good emergence and early growth.  Mild winter
 temperatures, combined with the absence of drastic temperature swings, kept
 winter damage to a minimum.  As the wheat began to break dormancy, many
 fields began showing the yellowing symptoms associated with soil borne
 viruses and/or Barley Yellow Dwarf Mosaic Virus (BYDV). Warm weather brought
 recovery from all but the most severe soil borne virus symptoms, but the
 BYDV persisted and reached epidemic levels in many areas such as the
 southern corn belt.
 
      Growing conditions were favorable through flowering, and it appeared
 the crop in many areas possessed a high yield potential.  However, several
 days of abnormal heat during grainfill shortened the growing season and,
 more than any other factor, significantly reduced yields especially in the
 central and northern portions of our testing area.  Leaf rust, stem rust,
 the usual mix of fungal leaf blight pathogens, and head scab were present
 but usually not above an economic threshold.  Timely harvest was hampered by
 periodic showers, but all yield tests were eventually harvested before the
 loss of grain quality.
 
      Varietal Development.  We planted twelve yield test sites throughout
 the northern corn belt in the fall of 1992.  One was discarded due to a
 combination of herbicide carryover damage and heaving.  A late spring freeze
 caused significant early season lodging at our Ft. Branch, IN, location.  As
 a result, only selected tests were harvested from that site.  This was the
 second year in the past four that we have experienced a damaging spring
 freeze in this area.  Our yield tests at Windfall were affected by severe
 Soil Borne Mosaic Virus infection.  We believe we have seen an increase in
 the soil borne viruses in fields that have been in a continuous
 wheat/soybean rotation for a number of years.  We are taking steps to rotate
 into "new" fields for our Windfall nurseries.
 
      Our two breeding nurseries remain located at Windfall and Ft. Branch,
 IN.  Lodging due to the spring freeze hindered selection somewhat in the F4
 and F5 bulk plots at Ft. Branch.  Moderate levels of leaf blight, leaf rust,
 scab, and virus combined to provide severe selection pressure in the headrow
 nursery.  Conditions at Windfall were similar with the complex of viruses
 and heat induced pre-senescence making selection particularly challenging. 
 In spite of the various problems, we managed to keep and advance a near
 normal percentage from each generation of breeding material.
 
      Germination Study to Detect Level of Harvest Dormancy.  In 1992 we
 initiated a germination test to observe the level of harvest dormancy
 present among released varieties and our advanced breeding lines.  Results
 from the 1992 experiment were promising, but incessant rainfall at harvest
 cut the experiment short.  The experiment was repeated in 1992-93 and
 successfully completed.  Several random heads were harvested from headrows
 at approximately physiologic maturity.  The heads were allowed to dry at
 room temperature and then stored in a freezer (to preserve the amount of
 dormancy present) until they could be hand-threshed.  Once threshed, two
 replications of 50 random kernels for each entry were placed in petri dishes
 with 5 ml of distilled water added.  These were kept in the dark and at room
 temperature.  The percentage of germinated kernels (radicle and rootlets
 visible) was recorded after four and seven days.  The results of our
 commercial test, presented below, illustrates that quite a range of harvest
 dormancy exists among this small number of released cultivars.  The data
 generally agrees with the amount of preharvest sprouting we observed in the
 field in 1992.
 
 
                  1993 Germination Test Results
                     (percent germinated)
      
      Cultivar          4 Days          7 Days
   ----------------------------------------------------
      Caldwell          30.6             71.4
      Cardinal          78.9             92.4
      Clark             26.3             41.8
      Freedom           11.1             50.0
      Howell             1.0              9.0
      Madison            5.0              8.0
      Wakefield          2.0              9.1
      2510              11.1             48.5
      2545              25.6             58.3
      2548               4.0             21.0
      2552              11.0             49.0
      2555              28.1             63.9
      2571              10.1             23.7
   ----------------------------------------------------
 
      New Releases.  In August of 1993, we released 2552, a soft red winter
 wheat variety which will be sold commercially in the fall of 1994.  2552 is
 an awned, medium-maturing variety with excellent yield potential and
 outstanding test weight.  It also has very good resistance to the soil borne
 viruses and is resistant to powdery mildew in the corn belt.  2552's
 exceptional leaf blight tolerance adds to its strong defensive package which
 gives it a greater yield advantage in high disease years.  In addition, 2552
 seemed to thrive in the heat shortened season of 1993.  In over years data
 across all testing locations, 2552 holds a 3 bushel/acre yield advantage
 over 2548.
 
 -------------------------
 PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC
 
      St. Matthews, South Carolina,  Benjamin E. Edge and Phil Shields
 
      The 1992-93 Season.  Heavy rains in the southeastern US caused much
 wheat to be planted past the optimum planting date and in less than ideal
 conditions.  Emergence was slow in the cool, compacted, and waterlogged
 soils, and severe erosion occurred in some areas.  The winter was mild, but
 rainfall was excessive, so many fields showed symptoms of nitrogen stress
 early.  Aphids had little cold weather to inhibit their activity, and as a
 result, barley yellow dwarf virus caused considerable yield reductions. 
 Hessian fly infestations were light for the second year in a row.  Increased
 use of insecticides and resistant varieties may have had an effect.   Head
 scab was present again in the mid South, but not as severe as in some recent
 years.  Also, there was more powdery mildew, leaf rust, and stem rust than
 usual in the mid South.
 
      In April, the rains stopped, and it turned hot and dry in the
 Southeast.  Yields were limited by the combination of severe waterlogging
 early, followed by severe drought stress.  The long cool spring probably
 kept yields from being reduced more.  Early varieties that filled out before
 the moisture became limiting were favored somewhat.
 
      Varietal Development.  We planted breeding nurseries in Statesboro, GA,
 and St. Matthews, SC.  Excessive erosion hindered headrow selection at St.
 Matthews. It also ruined some of our yield tests at Statesboro.  Leaf rust
 and leaf blights were present in the selection nurseries in moderate to
 severe amounts, but powdery mildew infection was light.  We planted twelve
 yield test locations along the US East Coast.  We also had four locations in
 the Mid South that were maintained by our agronomists.  We lost a couple of
 locations due to uneven fertility or drought conditions.  Yields on the
 remaining locations were average to slightly above average.
 
      New Releases.  We released a new variety, 2684, in August of 1993.  It
 is a soft red winter variety with very early maturity, 7-9 days earlier than
 Pioneer 2548. In four years of yield testing, 2684 has a 10.4 bu/ac yield
 advantage over 2548 in the Southeast. The area of adaptation for 2684 is the
 eastern US soft wheat growing area south of the Ohio River.  Pioneer variety
 2684 is awned, it has good straw strength, and it has very high test weight. 
 It has good levels of resistance to leaf rust, powdery mildew, soil borne
 mosaic virus, and spindle streak mosaic. It has excellent tolerance to most
 of the leaf blight diseases that occur in the Southeast.  In the field, 2684
 has shown tolerance to Hessian fly.  Pioneer 2684 has acceptable soft wheat
 milling and baking quality.
 
      Miscellaneous Items.  We constructed a front-mounted hydraulic-powered
 fertilizer spreader for our tractor, for topdressing our nurseries and yield
 plots.  A nice feature is that it has infinitely variable rate adjustment. 
 We added winches to our primary trailer for ease of loading and safety
 reasons.  We also developed some computer programs to aid in preparation of
 our nursery books.
 
 -------------------------
 PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC
 
      Frouville, France
 
      Guy Dorlencourt, Robert Marchand and Quitterie Vanderpol
 
      The 1992-93 Season.  The main nurseries and test locations were planted
 late due to continual rains at the normal planting time, with the final
 planting being completed on December 15th.  Fortunately, the winter was mild
 and dry, followed by a cool, wet spring with good conditions for regrowth
 and tillering.  Leaf rust (Puccinia recondita) appeared as early as March,
 and a strong spring infection of Septoria tritici caused leaf firing and
 reduced yields in susceptible varieties. The latter is uncommon in central
 France. Leaf rust continued to develop strongly during the season and
 susceptible checks such as Soissons and Thesee had their yields reduced by
 as much as 50% in untreated plots. Good rains at the end of May and during
 June helped ensure good average yields in France, but harvest conditions
 were very poor, particularly in the north where some high-yielding varieties
 were badly affected by sprouting in the heads.
 
      Varietal Development:  Four new varieties were entered into first-year
 registration trials in France in 1992-93 and three of these passed into
 second-year registration for 1993-94.  Both 2282 and 2254 (tested in the
 north) had a yield advantage of 4% over the official checks, while 2256
 (tested in the south) out-yielded the official check cultivars by 19%. 2256
 has entered the northern trials in 1993-94 and has also entered official
 registration trials in the U.K. and Belgium.  Two new varieties have entered
 registration for 1993-94 - 2268 is a very early, excellent baking wheat with
 good overall disease resistance, while 2246 is a medium-early, good baking
 wheat with excellent overall disease resistance.
 
      Other Items.  The Frouville station is now supplying seed and
 observation nurseries for a number of other countries in Europe.  The
 quality laboratory is also routinely handling thousands of SDS sedimentation
 tests, protein, milling, and mixograph evaluations.  The laboratory at
 Aussonne, France, analyzes several thousand lines per year for HMW glutenin
 subunit composition.  Commencing in 1994, a new European laboratory located
 in Buxtehude, Germany, will provide additional quality support for our
 different programs.  In our greenhouse operations three generations per year
 of single seed descent are routinely accomplished.  Extra greenhouse space
 is being made available to accommodate the increased hybrid wheat effort.
 
 -------------------------
 PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC
 
           Sevilla, Spain
 
      Jose-Maria Urbano, Maximiliano Hidalgo, and Manuel Peinada
 
      The 1992-93 Season.  Relatively good rains occurred in the fall of 1992
 but by early spring conditions were extremely dry in both Spain and
 Portugal.  The drought caused severe damage to spring wheat grown under dry
 land conditions following the main planting season of November and December. 
 In Spain we lost 50% of the dry land trials and losses in Portugal were
 100%.  In general, the irrigated trials gave good results.  Winter wheat
 planted in the coldest regions of Spain fared better during the drought,
 since the crop had lower water demands in early spring, and the rains that
 occurred in April and May resulted in excellent yields.
 
      Spring Wheat and Durum Wheat Breeding.  Results of the dry land trials
 were seriously confounded by drought. Early-maturing lines had their growth
 cycle further shortened by drought and late spring frosts caused injury to
 some lines.  Results were more consistent from the irrigated trials. 
 Septoria spp and leaf rust (Puccinia recondita) appeared too late for
 satisfactory screening but good infections of powdery mildew (Erysiphe
 graminis) were obtained.  Stripe rust (P. striiformis), which can cause
 severe attacks in certain seasons, came too late for any significant
 screening.  Overall, 4500 yield test plots of spring wheat and durum wheat
 were grown.  The second breeding cycle was planted in July at our summer
 location and was harvested by the end of October.  We had a very good crop,
 and heavy leaf rust infection allowed us to discard the most susceptible
 lines.
 
      Winter Wheat Breeding.  Winter wheat testing in northern Spain is
 linked with our southern France program, and 1100 yield test plots were
 grown at locations in northern Spain.  Excellent yields were obtained in
 1993, and good infections of leaf rust and powdery mildew occurred at Burgos
 and Navarra.  The third location, Jaca, has good yields but lower disease
 pressure.
 
      Varietal Development.  Spring Wheat:  Our new release, Estero, again
 showed an overall yield advantage of 19% over Yecora Rojo (40.2 versus 33.8
 quintals/hectare) while at the same time maintaining a quality level
 slightly superior to Yecora Rojo (Alveograph W-value around 400).
      
           -    Mulero and Mercero performed at the same level as the checks
                (Anza  and Cartaya) in 1993.
           -    Caro was our top yielder overall, with a 20% yield advantage     
                over Anza and Cartaya.
           -    Moro confirmed its top yield potential in the Official
                Registration  trials, with a 14% advantage over the official
                checks. (This resulted in it receiving provisional 
                registration).
           -    Torero, a full dwarf variety (height: 69cm) for the irrigation 
                areas again consistently out-yielded the check cultivars.
 
           Durum Wheat:  Although drought and late frosts affected the yield
 data, our first Pioneer durum wheat significantly out-yielded the checks.   -
 Elio, Rocio, Dedalo and Mambo were submitted for first-year  registration in
 1993-94. Elio and Rocio have excellent gluten strength, with Alveograph
 W-values of 370 and 300, respectively.
 
           Winter Wheat:  2268 and 2282, two winter wheats from our breeding
 program in France, were submitted for registration following excellent
 yields in northern Spain.
 
 -------------------------
 PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC
 
           Sissa (nr Parma)
 
           Mauro Tanzi
 
           Durum Wheat:  Four experiments were grown during 1992-93, testing a
 diverse germplasm base against the official check varieties.  The elite
 (preregistration) test was grown at three locations in northern Italy, and
 at three sites in south-central Italy.  Complete quality tests were
 conducted on the top lines while new lines were screened for SDS
 sedimentation values.  The quality collaboration has been with the main
 pasta manufacturers (Barilla and Agnesi) and also with the Instituto
 Sperimentale per la Cerealicoltura (a public institute working on cereals). 
 The quality traits evaluated were:
 
           Protein content                         Alveograph (W, P/L)
           Gluten content                          Semolina color
           Gluten quality                          Semolina ash content
           SDS sedimentation value                 Overall technological value
           Gliadin and glutenin electrophoresis
 
           Six new varieties with significant yield advantages over the
 official check cultivars plus high protein contents and semolina color entered
 first-year registration in 1993-94. They are: Vero, Tempo, Colorado Bracco,
 Olimpo, Preco.
 
           Bread Wheat:  A large experiment was grown at three locations in
 northern Italy. Six varieties have been advanced to preregistration trials
 in 1993-94.  The bread wheat program is being expanded and is linked with
 our operations in southern France and northern Spain.
 
 -------------------------
 PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC
 
           Northampton, England
 
           Paul Wilson and Ian Edwards
 
           The 1992-93 Growing Season.  After a bad start when fall plantings
 were delayed by wet weather, growing conditions improved and remained
 favorable for most of the season.  An unusually mild winter was followed with
 little frost after March but sufficient rain in April and May to keep crops
 growing.  The year's main pest scare was the orange wheat blossom midge,
 which reappeared after an absence of nearly 10 years.  Damage was, however,
 much less than expected.  Harvest conditions were generally good during the
 second half of August and the first week of September.
 
           Varietal Development.  1992-93 was our third season of varietal
 development work in the U.K. Screening nurseries, preliminary and
 preregistration trials were grown at three locations, and the work has been
 well-integrated with the main breeding station in France. Our leading elite
 line, Victo, entered first-year National List trials in 1993-94 and is also
 being evaluated by the British Society of Plant Breeders at 9 normal input
 and 6 low input sites around the U.K.  Victo is also being compared at
 normal and late sowing times at a further 6 sites covering a range of soil
 types. It is a quality wheat, 6 cm shorter than Beaver and 13 days earlier
 at flowering.
 
 -------------------------
 PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC
 
           Buxtehude, Germany
 
           Heidemarie Schoenwalder and Ian Edwards
 
           Varietal Development.  The main selection nursery was grown at
 Wulfshagen in northern Germany and the southern observation nursery was
 grown at Neuenstein-Kirchensall. The elite (preregistration) trial was grown
 at three locations and an additional test was included in eastern Germany.
 Comparisons of high versus low management inputs (2 reps. of each) showed
 significant differences among the cultivars in the response to fungicide
 treatments. Seed purification is underway on the leading varieties.
 
 -------------------------
 PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC
 
           Parndorf, Austria
 
           Guenther Reichenberger
 
           The 1992-93 growing season:  Relatively dry conditions during
 planting were followed by a cool, rainy period.  Germination was slow and
 poor, mainly at locations in western Austria.  Temperatures in December and
 January were above average, but heavy snowfall occurred in mid February and
 remained until mid March, even in eastern Austria.  Lower stands were
 encountered and five weeks of above average temperatures from mid March
 until early May caused slight water stress.  Heavy rains and cool
 temperatures in July delayed harvest at our Pioneer test locations.  Yields
 were average to above average in western Austria, but average to below
 average in eastern Austria.  The quality of bread wheat followed the
 downward trend of the past years, partly due to reduced inputs and partly
 due to sprouting, which was noticeable after prolonged rain in western
 Austria.  Hagberg Falling Numbers of sprout susceptible varieties were as
 low as 62 (Hubertus), while Apollo (248) and Ikarus (224) performed better. 
 General disease pressure was especially high in western Austria, with
 Septoria and Fusarium being significant.
 
           Varietal Development.  The Austrian wheat growing region is
 traditionally divided into the so-called milling/feed wheat region of
 northwestern Austria, and the more arid quality wheat region of eastern
 Austria.  Testing was conducted at two locations in each region, with
 replicated elite and preliminary trials at all locations, plus a screening
 nursery in eastern Austria.  In the eastern quality wheat region four
 varieties in the elite test out-yielded the official checks, while in the
 western region seven lines out-yielded the checks.
 
           Our first variety, PVM0008 completed registration, two others (2258
 and 2259) have entered second year registration in 1993-94, and a further
 three (2246,2256 and 2282) have entered first-year registration.  In general
 these varieties are shorter than the Austrian check cultivars, with better
 lodging resistance and good disease tolerance.
 
           Wheat Quality.  The question of baking quality criteria, growing
 regions and bread wheat contracts are currently undergoing revision in
 Austria. As the country moves closer to entry into the EEC further changes
 may be expected, and it is likely that quality will come more into line with
 existing EEC criteria.
 
 -------------------------
 TRIGEN SEED SERVICES
 
           Robert W. Romig, Bloomington, MN
 
           TriGen Seed Services was founded in 1993 as a sole proprietor
 enterprise focusing initially on providing successors to the Northrup King
 Co. developed dual purpose hard red winter varieties 812, 814, and 822. 
 Subsequently, the mission was expanded to include the opportunistic
 development of hard common wheats for markets other than the Southern
 Plains.  To these ends, we made a series of hard red wheat crosses, of
 spring x winter, winter x winter and spring x spring combinations.  The
 first crossing cycle was conducted in Chile during May to November at the
 Catholic University agronomy farm, just south of Santiago. 
 
           The F1 seed from these crosses, certain F2 populations, and other
 materials were planted in a winter nursery near Yuma, AZ.  In addition, a
 germ plasm collection, spring x winter F2's, and segregating materials from
 spring x winter wheat crosses were planted at Victoria, TX for observation
 and selection in this initial target environment.
 
           The operational strategy is to shuttle segregating materials derived
 from winter wheats between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres so as to
 obtain two generations per year in the field and to optimize the selection
 for winter types.  In some cases, the initial stages of selected winter
 wheat increases will likewise be shuttled between hemispheres to compress
 the development time of seed production.  
 
           Wheats with spring growth habit from spring x winter crosses   will
 be sorted out in the U.S. by alternating generations between Minnesota and
 Arizona.  Selection for spring types from these crosses also will be
 conducted in the Southern Hemisphere to supplement that made in the U.S. 
 Current plans call for the Southern Hemisphere nursery to be grown this year
 in Argentina.  
 
 
           The present breeding strategy is to make combinations that could
 provide useful heterosis or that should provide complementary traits with
 adaptation to target hard common wheat markets. The 1994 crossing cycle will
 be conducted again in Chile. 
 
 -------------------------
 TRIO RESEARCH INC.
 
           James A. Wilson-Wichita, KS
 
           Three winter wheat cultivars were released in 1993. Two of the
 cultivars, T814 and T408, are soft red wheats, while the other, T67, is a
 hard red wheat. All three cultivars are being released and utilized under
 contract terms with seedsmen and farmer-growers.
 
           814 has been evaluated across the eastern soft red winter wheat
 region of the U.S. It appears to be best adapted to the north central and
 northeast areas of the SRW region. 11 is a short semidwarf with outstanding
 straw and high yield potential. It is generally resistant to mildew and soil
 borne viruses. It is susceptible to Hessian fly. rhough resistant to some
 races of leaf and stem rust, it has shown susceptible reactions in recent
 years.
 
           T408 is similar to Caldwell in regard to disease and insect
 resistance, but it is 1 and 1/2 to 2 days earlier than Caldwell and 5 cm
 shorter. It is generally superior to Caldwell in leaf rust reaction and yield.
 It will be distributed in areas where Caldwell has been grown.
 
           Evaluation of T67 across the southern Great Plains region reveal
 that it is limited in adaptation to the eastern half of Kansas. The area of
 its adaptation is restricted due to genetic limitations in drought tolerance,
 winter hardiness and shattering resistance. It is a tall, awned, semidwarf
 with strong straw, medium early maturity and relatively high yield. It has a
 broad level of resistance or tolerance to the diseases and viruses found in
 Kansas. It is heterogeneous in reaction to the GP race of Hessian fly and
 susceptible to greenbugs.
 
 -------------------------
 ITEMS FROM ARGENTINA
 
           Institute of Biological Resources, CIRN- INTA Castelar
 
           G.E. Tranquilli and E.Y. Suarez.
 
           Host and Pathogen Allelic Dosage Effects on Specific Host - Pathogen
 Interaction.  Previously (A W N, 1992) we reported changes in host -
 pathogen interaction at seedling stage, by increasing allelic dosage for a
 "resistant" gene in Sinvalocho MA. Here we give a further insight of the
 interaction expression when host allelic dosage are increased from 0 to 4
 and in different combinations (Table 1).
 
 Table 1. Dosage allelic effects on specific host - pathogen
 interactions.
 
                       Genotype       Pathogen          Genotypes
                                      Clone 20       Clone 66  New Clone
 Line or cross                        PoPo           Popo      Popo
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Chinese Spring (CS)   A1 A1          1                1       1
 
 Sinvalocho Nulli 6B    -   -         1                1       1
 
 Sinval. Mono 6B       Ao -           0                1       1
 
 CS  x  Sinval.        A1 Ao          0                1       1
 
 CS Tetra 6B x Sinval. A1 A1 Ao       0                1       1
 
 Sinvalocho (eupl.)    Ao Ao          0                0       1
 
 CS x Sinval.Tet. 6    A1 Ao Ao       0                0       1
 
 CS Tet. 6B x 
 Sinval Tet.6B         A1A1 AoAo      0                0       1
 
 Sinval. Trisomic 6B   AoAoAo         0                0       X- X+
 
 Sinval. Tetra 6B      AoAoAoAo       0                0       0
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
 -------------------------
 E. Y. Suarez, L. Bullrich and G. E. Tranquilli
 
 
           Rye Introgression into Argentinian Wheat Cultivar: Developing of
 Isogenic Lines to Evaluate Its Effects. Rye-wheat translocation 1Rs/1Bl has
 been employed since  '70s in wheat breeding programs provided that the rye
 segment carries genes for resistance to wheat pathogens, such as mildew and
 rusts. In some cases, rye introgression was also associated with better
 yields.
 
           The major disadvantage of this introgression is the detrimental
 effect that it has on the bread making quality, producing a "sticky dough",
 unsuitable to make bread.
 
           In Argentina the first cultivars with the 1Rs/1Bl translocation were
 released in 1986 by INTA, and they have shown resistance to a wide spectrum
 of leaf rusts.
 
           Twenty families of isogenic lines for the translocation have just
 been developed in order to evaluate the influence on agronomical features of
 the 1R segment in different backgrounds.
 
           Families were derived from a triple cross: (Chinese Spring x
 Sinvalocho MA) x Don Ernesto INTA. Sinvalocho MA and Don Ernesto INTA are
 Argentinian cultivars; the later carries the 1Rs/1Bl translocation.
 
           During six generations heterozygous individuals were cytologically
 selects (chromosome 1R doesn't express its satellite in a wheat background)
 and selfed. Homozygous lines were obtained from each family at the last
 generation.
 
           It was observed that the background could affect the 1Rs/1Bl
 chromosome transmission, since the homozygous translocated genotype frequency
 fluctuated between families since 7.5% up to 34.3%. It could be another
 disadvantage of this kind of materials, when included in breeding programs,
 because as the translocation is favorably selected, the background will
 remarkably reduce its variability.
 
 
 -------------------------
 S. M. Lewis and E. Y. Suarez.
 
           Meiotic Behavior of Monosomics and Monotelosomics in Wheat: The
 existence of monosomics in the hexaploid wheat have facilitated the
 construction of many substitution lines allowing the gene mapping and the
 introgression of interesting agronomic characteristics.
 
           The transmission of deficient female gametes (n-1) from a monosomic
 (2n-1) in wheat is in average 75% (Sears, 1954).
 
           The mitotic analysis of different substitution lines of chromosomes
 6B,5D and 1D of 'Sinvalocho' in 'Chinese Spring' showed that for chromosome 6B
 the female transmission of the monosomic vs. monotelosomic was not
 significative different although it was observed a relative  higher
 frequency of 6BS transmission (Table 1.a). For 5D chromosome the
 transmission of the whole chromosome in the monosomics was significatively
 lower than the telocentric chromosome (5DS) in the monotelosomics (Table
 1.b). These observations show that the transmission of either the complete
 chromosome or one arm seems not to depend on the size of the chromosome.
 However the literature suggest that short chromosomes have more tendency to
 be lost even in disomic individuals. 
 
           Aneuploidy transmission was significatively different between the
 chromosomes 6B and 1D (Table 1.e), and 6B and 5D (Tables 1.c and 1.d),
 meanwhile there were not significative differences between chromosomes 5D
 and 1D (Table 1.f).
 
           The knowledge derived from these analyses allow to plan the
 cytogenetics studies taking into account the frequencies of aneuploidy in
 wheat. Also the particular behavior among chromosomes or between whole
 chromosome and chromosome arm suggest the presence of genetic information
 related to meiotic behavior just as the case of 5D vs. 5DS. Results suggest
 the existence of specific genetic information in the 5DL which would
 decrease the transmission frequency with respect to the normal one.
 
              Table 1.  Aneuploidy female gamete transmission
 
  a) 6B CHROMOSOME                          b) 5D CHROMOSOME
                      n=20     n=21                           n=20   n=21
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------          
           Lines                                  Lines
 
     Monotelosomics     54      50            Monotelosomics   109    59
 
        Monosomics     116      69              Monosomics      47     4
 
  chi-sq = 4.4912*                                chi-sq =16.2344**
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------  
 
 
  c) 6B vs. 5D                               d) 6B vs. 5D
                       n=20     n=21                        n=20    n=21
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------          
   6B monotelosomics     54      50          6B monosomics   116      69
 
   5D monotelosomics    109      59          5D monosomics    47       4
 
  chi-sq = 4.4912*                                chi-sq = 16.2344**
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------  
 
 
   e) 6B vs. 1D                                 f) 5D vs. 1D
                       n=20     n=21                          n=20   n=21
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------   
 
   6B monotelosomics     54      50          5D monotelosomics 109    59
 
   1D monotelosomics     60      21          1D monotelosomics  60    21
 
  chi-sq = 9.4474**                               chi-sq = 2.1181 ns
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------  
 
 
  a) 6B CHROMOSOME                               B) CHROMOSOME
                       n=20     n=21                           n=    n=21
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------   
         Lines                                      Lines
 
    Monotelosomics       54       50          Monotelosomics   109     59
       
        Monosomics      116       69              Monosomics    47      4
 
  chi-sq = 4.4912*                                 chi-sq = 16.2344**
 
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------  
 
 
 -------------------------
           S. M. Lewis and E. Y. Suarez
 
           Recombinant Substitution Lines in Wheat:  We havdeveloped the
 recombinant substitution lines of the 6B, 5D and 1D chromosomes of
 'Sinvalocho' / 'Chinese Spring' in a 'Chinese Spring' background. These
 lines are very useful to analyze the direct and pleiotropic gene effects for
 agronomical characters in different environments. These chromosomes carry
 important genetic information related to leaf rust , aminopeptidases,
 response to vernalization, glutenins, plant height, awns, fertility, ear
 emergence, etc.
 
           The material has been developed to monosomic recombinat stage.
 Molecular characterization is in progress. After disomic extraction,
 agronomical characterization will be performed.
 
 -------------------------
           Cathedra of Genetics, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Buenos
           Aires. 
           Avenida San Martin 4453 - CP 1417, Buenos Aires
 
           M. L. Appendino and N. Fatta.
 
           Unexpected photoperiodic response in Argentinian wheats.  Six
 Argentinian wheat cultivars of actual diffusion and Sonora 64, all of them
 known to be insensitive to vernalization, were subjected to short (SD) and
 long (LD) day treatments, 8 and 24 hours, respectively., from sowing until
 heading.
 
           Taking into account ear - emergence time differences between short
 and long day treatments for Sonora 64, an index ,  
           
           I (Son. 64) = SD -  LD (CV  X)     
                         SD - LD (Son.64)
 
 was calculated, where (CV  X) means any of the  Argenti-
 nian cultivars. Sonora 64 was chosen as control because it has been reported
 as being one of the less sensitive cultivars to day length.
 
           Table shows the results so obtained.
 
             Cultivar               Index                  Group
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
           Sonora 64                1                      A
           San Agustin INTA         1.04                   A
           Buck Manantial           3.64                   B
           Thomas Aconcagua         3.45                   B
           Cooperacion Cabildo      3.35                   B
           Buck Napuca              7.94                   C
           Chaqueno INTA            8.29                   C
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
           Three groups were clearly differentiated. Amongst  those cultivars
 showing day length response, two groups (B and C) differing in about 50 days
 in short day treatment, were observed. This behavior was unexpected, since
 these cultivars growing at field conditions have shown similar ear -
 emergence time, even after Autumn or Spring sowing (Experiments carried out
 at 34  south latitude).
 
           This unequal behavior between the groups B and C suggests different
 genetic bases for this character that is expressed in extreme environmental
 conditions like in this experiment. Whether these bases affect grain
 production is not known.
 
           Ortiz, JP; Reggiardo, MI; Altabe, S; Cervigni, GD; Spitteler, MA and
 Vallejos,  RH. Centro de Estudios Fotosinteticos y Bioquimicos, CEFOBI
 (CONICET - F.M. Lillo, Universidad Nacional de Rosario) Suipacha 531, 2000
 Rosario - Argentina. 
 
           Transgenic wheat: Rapid and efficient method for stable
 transformation.  Since the first transgenic tobacco plants were obtained using 
 the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system many other important species have been
 transformed. However, monocots, including the major cereals crops were no
 amenable to Agrobacterium manipulation. Particularly, cereals have been very
 recalcitrant to genetic manipulation in vitro. Only after the development of
 direct methods for plant transformation, the stable transformation of rice
 and maize was informed. Wheat transformation has been achieved recently in
 several laboratories including our own. 
 
 
           In this work we describe a rapid and efficient method to obtain
 fertile stable transgenic wheat plants, employing a gun powder device built in 
 our laboratory following the Sanford concept.
 
           Immature embryos of spring wheat were used to obtain embryogenic
 calli.  Calli were bombarded with microparticles coated with one of five 
 plasmid constructions. We have used as selectable marker either bar or hpt 
 genes, which confers resistance against the herbicide glufosinate and the
 antibiotic hygromycin respectively. Also we employed the reporter uidA gene
 that encodes for the B-glucuronidase enzyme. Bombarded calli were cultured
 in the dark on selective pressure. After a short period of selection, calli
 were transferred to regeneration medium with a photoperiod of 14 h (10
 W.m2). Resistant plants were rusticated in a Percival growth chamber.
 Screening to detect Ro transgenic plants were made by PCR assay. Results
 were confirmed by slot and southern blots of genomic DNA.
 
           Transgenic plants were recovered in about 30 weeks. About a 37% of
 them were fertile and produced seeds. In some cases, embryo rescue of 
 transgenic plants was carried out to accelerate the next generation while
 others seeds were allowed to mature.
 
           In 5 experiments where the bar gene was used as a selectable marker,
 we have obtained 27 Ro transgenic plants with an efficiency of 0.5 - 2.6 % of
 plant per calli bombarded. But when we used the hpt gene, we obtained 12 Ro
 transgenic plants with an efficiency as high as 4.7%. Slots and southern
 blot assays of genomic DNA confirmed the presence of the heterologous gene
 in the wheat genome.
 
           Further evidence of transgenesis was obtained applying the herbicide
 glufosinate (0.005%) to the R1 generation. Control wheat plants were
 affected while transgenic ones were not. Most of these experiments were
 carried out using a commercial cultivar as source of explants, but a
 commercial hybrid was also employed with similar results. Thus, the
 transformation method is not genotype dependent. With this procedure, wheat
 can be rapid and efficiently transformed. Moreover transgenic plants could
 be obtained from many independent transformations events. Thus, it is
 suitable for studying  gene expression and regulation in monocots, as well
 as to introduce in wheat genes of agronomic interest. 
 
 -------------------------
           Cervigni, GD; Ortiz, JP; Altabe, S and Vallejos RH.
 
           Early segregation analysis of the heterologous  bar gene in
 transgenic wheat
 
           Transgenic fertile Ro wheat plants were allowed to selfpolinize and
 their R1 progeny was obtained either by embryo rescue or by normal seed
 maturity. Seed set in transgenic Ro plant was frequently low probably due to
 the diminished vigor of the in vitro plants. Seeds were germinated in a
 Petri dish and plantlets were grown in a Percival growth chamber under a 16
 h photoperiod, a light intensity of 260 uEm2s-1 and at day/night temperature
 of 22 degC and 19 degC respectively, with a constant 65% relative humidity.
 The morphology, vigor and seed production of R1 plant were quite normal.
 
           DNA was extracted from small pieces of leaf tissue to an early
 detection of transgenic R1 plants. PCR amplifications of the heterologous
 bar gene were performed with two or three DNA extractions to avoid eventual
 inhibitors or contaminations. PCR assay showed the presence of the transgene
 in the progeny. Several of these results were confirmed by southern blot of
 genomic DNA. The proportions of transgenic R1 plants in four families
 studied were: 9/14; 6/8; 4/4 and 7/9 respectively adding up to 26/35, which
 correspond to the segregation expected and suggests a single or linked
 insertion site for the bar gene. 
 
           To detect in vivo resistance, R1 plants were exposed to 0.005% of
 commercial herbicide glufocinate (Basta). Serious damage was observed in
 control plants while transgenic plants were not affected. These results were
 later confirmed by enzymatic activity of the bar gene showing unequivocally
 the heterologous gene expression.
 
           Presently we are carrying out the molecular analysis of the R2 
 generation in order to evaluate the stability of the bar gene  and analyze
 its segregation 
 
 -------------------------
           College of Agriculture, Cordoba National University, Cordoba.
 
           D. Avalos, A. Ordonez and N. La Porta.
 
           Population Fluctuation of the Aphids on Wheat. Preliminary results
 1993.  Aphids play a very significant role amongst pests afecting wheat
 crops. Within the scope of the Agroecosistems Interdisciplinary Proyect a
 survey was carried out in experimental plots of wheat in Cordoba
 (Argentina). The following results were obtained: Rhopalosiphum padi (L.),
 R. maidis (Fitch) and Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) were found on seedlings.
 Metopolophium dirodum (Walker) was found upon tasseling plants. Sitobion sp.
 was present after flowering.  Singnificant levels of parasitism by
 Hymenoptera of the genus of Aphidius and Diaeretiella were observed during
 the whole study.
 
 -------------------------
           M. Cerana, S.Gil  and A.L. Pascualides
 
           Epidermical studies in commercial and experimental bread wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.) lines.      A survey was made using the epidermis of
 the flag leaf-blade from  four bread  wheat lines (Triticum aestivum L.).
 Two are commercials (Las Rosas INTA and PROINTA Oasis) and the other ones
 are experimentals. The varieties were sown at two different row distances
 (15 and 30 cm). Temporary slices of the abaxial and the adaxial leaf
 epidermis were made to characterize them and to calculate the Stomatal
 Frequency (SF) and the Stomatal Index (SI). The analysis showed the
 following characteristics: the adaxial epidermis presented elongated long
 cells, with slightly undulating horizontal anticlinal walls, small prickles
 and bulliform cells between the stomatal files, while in the abaxial
 epidermis only  the elongated long cells with moderately undulating to
 omega-shaped horizontal anticlinal  walls were observed.  They were more
 constant in shape but their length is variable. There were stomata and
 silico-suberose couples in both faces. The subsidiary cell shape of the
 stomata were rounded with flattened tops, and the silica bodies were
 crescent-shaped. On the other hand, the SF and the SI showed the following
 tendencies: the adaxial face has more SF than the abaxial face, and in the
 first one, the plants growing in rows separated by 30 cm had more SF. The
 inverse occurred in the abaxial face. The main difference in SF is related
 to row distance was observed in the experimental lines. The SI was
 relatively constant for row spacings but a slight ascendent tendency at the
 wider are in the adaxial face was noted. The inverse occurred in the abaxial
 one. The next stage will be to correlate the obtained result with the grain
 yield in the field.
 
 -------------------------
           Zaninetti, M.R. and D. Igarzabal.
  
           Preliminary results 1993. The functions describing the response on
 the crop yield according to different weed densities have been broadly 
 studied. Nevertheless, there is little documentation about the effect of the 
 crop on the weeds;  this could be one of the focus point to perssue new 
 strategiesto integrated weed management programs in this crop.  This study 
 analizes the response of some reproductive and morfological characters of the 
 Wedeliaglauca in competition with wheat. We worked with an experimental line: 
 T14 (long cycle) grown at 15 and 30 cm between rows and  with 2 commercial
 cultivars, Prointa Oasis-Oa (short cycle) and Las Rosas INTA (long cycle) 
 evaluated at 15 cm rows appart. The materials were grown at seeding rate of
 150 seeds per square meter.  Two random samplins were done.  One in the milk
 stage (Zadok 70) and the other before  harvesting. In the first sampling we
 observed: number of stems/sm and number of branching of the W. glauca  stem
 along the first 5 cm of the stem per square meter . For both characters it
 is evident the depressing effect of the wheat crop on the weed. The results
 show that the T14 produced a major decrease in the number of stems, not
 significantly affecting the number of branches. The data showed that T14
 line had more effect on this character than the other wheat cultivars. The
 growing at different distances betweem rows for T14 did not showed a
 significant influence on none of the Wedelia's characters. In the second
 sampling, we measured the total number of capitula/m2 , number of closed
 capitula, number of open capitula and number of ripe capitula/m2 .The wheat
 crop produced a significant decrease on these four characters. For T14 line,
 the distance between rows affected only the total number of capitula. The
 data obtained suggest that during the competition process between wheat and
 W. glauca, the later is affected on its morfological structure, its capacity
 to produce inflorescence and showed a delay in the flowering stage.  This
 first approach is a contribution to the integrated management of the W.
 glauca, hopping to develop in a near future other researchs directed to
 study the competition below  the soil.
 
 -------------------------
           Rollan A.A., Buteler N.A. and Bachmeier O.A.
 
           Wheat cultivar, planting density, and soil fertility. A study was
 conducted to determine the evolution of soil fertility testing two cultivars
 of wheat cultivated, at two plant arrangements. The cultivars tested were
 "Las Rosas INTA" and "Pro INTA Oasis", planted at interline distances of 15
 and 30cm. The soil properties evaluated were organic matter, pH, mineral
 nitrogen (NO3-N), phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. The initial values
 detected (on samples from 0-25 depth) in the Typic haplustoll used in  this
 experience were: organic matter = 21.4 g/Kg; pH= 6.9 ; NO3-N= 5mg/Kg;
 P=35mg/Kg.; Kexch = 2.1 cmol/Kg. Neither phosphorus nor exchangeable
 potassium varied along the growing season. On the other hand, NO3-N shows
 only significant diminution in the Las Rosas INTA plots at the flowering
 stage of soil sampling.
 
 -------------------------
           Barchuk A.; Alessandria E.; Zamar J. and Luque S.
 
           The weeds community structure in wheat crops. The crop spatial
 arrangement and the biological cycle influence affect its competition
 ability and differentially affect weeds community. In the presentessay were
 considered two commercial varieties, one of short and the other of long
 cycle, and two experimental lines, with the same characteristics. The lines
 were sown  at two row spacing, 15 and 30 cm. of row separations. Contiguous
 surfaces, whithout crop and with the same characteris tillage were
 considered control. The weeds community was embossed on october 6th with
 quadrats; the communities were ordered through multivariate analysis and was
 made curves of range-abundance.
 
           The preliminary results showed: a- A total of 20 weeds species
 recorded, that included 4 Brasicaceae, 4 Aseraceae, and 3 perennial Poaceae. 
 b- The control (without crop) had greater specific richness (18 species). In
 all cases the dominant was Descurainia argentina with relative cover between
 60 and 70%. c- The weeds community cover was significantly different between
 the witness (37,71%) and the crops at 30 cm. (5.85%) and at 15 cm (2.83%).
 d- If we consider the absolute cover per species the weed community of the
 control was discriminated clearly from treatment with crop and between this,
 the crop at 15 cm was the most different.  e- The configuration of relative
 cover was similar for the three treatments.       
 
 -------------------------
           R.M.Roldan, F. Salvagiotti, D. Opovin, G. Manera, and R. Maich.
 
           Visual and Indirect Selection for Yield in Wheat. Selection Criteria
 x Year of Testing Interactions. Our  objective was to study the response to
 visual and indirect  selection for grain yield ( GY) using the biological
 yield (BY), harvest index (HY) and earweight (PSP) as selection criteria.
 During 1990 a random sample of 800 S1 plants was characterized through BY,
 HY and PSP. From each selection criteria two groups (superior and inferior)
 of fifteen S1 plants each one were constituted. Simultaneously, the best
 fifteen were selected according to the phenotypic  value. The 105 derived
 line were evaluated in three (1991) and two (1992) sowing dates. For GY, not
 significant difference between groups within each selection criteria were
 observed; however, group x year interactions for PSP and HY selection
 criteria were significants. The response to indirect selection for grain
 yield, when measured under variable environmental conditions, affected the
 reationship between GY and PSP or HY.
 
 -------------------------
           N.Contin, W. Londero, A.Ordonez, and R. Maich.
 
           Indirect Selection for Grain Yield Using One or Several Characters
 Simultaneously in Wheat. The grain yield potential could be increased
 selecting simultaneously for several characters. The objective of this study
 was to compare the efficiency of the indirect selection for grain yield
 utilizing one or several traits. During 1991 a long cycle segregating
 population of wheat was cultivated under three  dates and three densities of
 seeding, and two spatial arragements. From each experimentals unit two
 plants were selected for each one of following selection criteria:
 phenotypic, biological yield, earweight, harvest index and an index
 contituted by the later three characters. The progenies were evaluated in
 two sowing dates during 1992. For grain yield not significant differences
 between means corresponding to the selections criteria used were observed.
 In the other hand, for densities and spatial arrangements significant
 differences were found. Indirect selection for grain yield using more than
 one character simultaneously did not improved the efficiency of selection
 when compared with the visual selection or one character founded on.
 
 -------------------------
           C. Ferraris, B. Pantano, C. Principi, and R. Maich.
 
           Manipulating the Environment in Wheat Breeding. To determine the
 effect of selection environment on the genetic progress under marginal 
 conditionsof evaluation (Center Semiarid Region of Argentina), during 1990 
 six segregating populations of wheat with different biological cycles were
 cultivated in three locations (L) (Ferreyra, Marcos Juarez and Casilda) and 
 three sowing dates (SD) per site. From each experimental unit two plants
 were selected, wich progenies were tested in three (1991) and two (1992)
 dates of seeding in Ferreyra. For grain yield not significant differences
 were found between L or SD; but, significant L x SD existed.  In the
 marginal environmental conditions of selection the genetic progress was
 higher when the visual selection was accomplished in the later sowing date
 (July),while for the optimal ones (Marcos Juarez and Casilda) the derived
 lines selected in May (the earlier sowing date) performed better.
 
 -------------------------
           F. Bidinost, B. Ferro, G. Alemano, N. Guzman, and R. Maich. 
 
           The Effect of Density and Spatial Arrangement on the Efficiency of
 Visual Plant Selection in Wheat.  Among Factors Interactions.  The objective
 of this study was to determine the effect of plant density- D (25, 50 and
 100 seeds/ m2) and planting arrangement- S (equidistant: 10 x 10, 15 x 15
 and 20 x 20 cm; and rows: 5 x 20, 20 x 20 and 10 x 40 cm within and between
 rows respectively) on response to selection in three segregating populations
 of wheat with different biological cycles -C (early-, intermediate- and
 long-maturing crosses) and cultivate in three locations- L (Ferreyra, Marcos
 Juarez y and Casilda). Two S1 plants from each experimental units were
 selected, wich S1- derived lines were tested at Ferreyra for grain yield in
 three and two sowing dates during two years-Y(1991 and 1992 respectively).
 Taking account that the thrird degree interactions were significant,
 comparison between means were made according (CxL) x (DxS) and (LxY) x (DxS)
 graphics, wich reflected the distinct efficiency of densities used during
 visual plant selection on the genetic gaine according to the environmental
 condition under it was measured.
 
 -------------------------
           D. Bonelli, C. Olmos, M. Bianchi and R. Maich.
 
           Grid Selection in Wheat. The Effect of the Environmental Condition
 of Evaluation on the Genetic Gaine. To determine the effect of the micro-
 environmental variations on the efficiency of phenotypic selection, during
 1989 a bulk of F3 seeds constituted by 40 crosses was cultivated on a area
 of 900 m2 devided into 80 grids. A plant was selected from each grid. During
 three years, 1990 (annual rainfall: 696 mm), 1991 (annual rainfall: 806 mm)
 and 1992 (annual rainfall: 1357 mm) (historical mean: 791 mm), in two
 contrasting environmental conditions per year, two groups (superior and
 inferior) of 13 F3 derived lines each one were tested. The classification of
 the lines were performed on the baises of the agronomical characteristic of
 the grids from wich they derived. Grain yield (GY), biological yield (BY)
 and harvest index (HI) were recorded for each plot.  Not significant
 differences among groups were found for none character measured.  The
 environmental variation (years) caused a significant increase in the  source
 of variation due to years, wich may over-ride the advantage of
 characterizing the field after gridding.
 
 -------------------------
           M.Bianchi
 
           Preliminary Studies of the Screening Effect under Laboratory
 Controlated Conditions on the Field Response in  Wheat  Drought tolerance is
 an important feature in wheat breeding. Several constraints may delay the
 genetic progress, namely annual climate variations. This finding has led to
 use controled or semi controled environmental conditions and to select those
 seedlings with higher vigor within segregating populations. In 1991 wheat
 seed from three segregating populations were sown in lab, under different
 osmolites (polietilenglicol and manitol), and those seedlings wich grew
 earlier were selected. They were trasplanted in the greenhouse so as to
 harvest their seeds. In 1992 their progenies were sown in the field and the
 biological yield, grain yield and harvest index were assessed. Data were
 variance analized but no  significant differences were detected between
 treatments. Based on this result, it may be reported that the trait
 (seedling vigor) evaluated under polietilenglicol and manitol osmolite
 effects was of relatively little importance on the field response of the
 derived lines when cultivated under the semiarid environmental conditions of
 the Center Argentina.
 
 -------------------------
           Dubois M.E., Gaido Z.A., Manera G.A.
 
           Response to selection for proteins in early generations selection on
 yield in wheat. There is a preoccupation in the world in obtaining high
 protein contents and high yield in wheat. There are bibliographical
 documents that show that in a breeding programme in wheat, it is possible to
 select for yield and protein content simultaneously. The objetive of this
 work was to study the effect of early generation selection for total grain
 protein percentage on grain yield in wheat apt for the semiarid region in
 the center of Argentina (31* 12' latitude S, 64* 11' longitude W). One
 hundred F2:3 lines of wheat in three enviromental conditions were sowed, and
 a disruptive selection for high and low protein percentage was done, with a
 selection pressure of 15%. On the F2:4 lines evaluated, four characters
 associated to yield were measured. The groups selected for high and low
 protein percentage differed significatively. For the two proteic classes
 established, not significant influence on the gran yield characters studied
 were observed, supporting the hypothesis which says that there isn't an
 association between protein contents and grain yield in wheat cultivars apt
 for the semiarid region.
 
 -------------------------
           Maich R. and Bianchi M.
 
           Improvement of Cereal Crop Grain Yield in Semiarid  environments.
 Agricultural vs. Breeding "in  loco" Impact. To promove the socioeconomical
 development of the center semiarid region of Argentina is necessary to test
 different agricultural and genetics strategies and to establish priorites
 between them. During 1993 at Ferreyra (Cordoba) five experimental lines and
 two commercial varieties were evaluated. Two sowing dates were used (May and
 June). The experimental units (3.300m2) were constituted by 72 rows (15 cm
 appart) and 36 rows (30 cm appart). In both cases 150 seeds/m2 were used,
 nearly 50kg/ha. Grain yield (qq/ha) was determinated. The individual
 testment means were analized in a three factor experiment. The interaction
 involving genotypes, sowing dates and spatial arrangements were used as an
 error term. Significant difference between sowing dates (June better than
 May) and between spatial arrangements (15cm better than 30cm) were found,
 but not among genotypes. In the socioeconomical developing context of the
 unfavorable environment (semiarid region), admitting that the priority
 should be given to the agricultural practices rather than to the plant
 breeding "in loco", greater emphasis on genetics stress resistance are
 required to make yield improvement in this sense evident.
 
 -------------------------
           Conles M. and Salvadores M.C.
 
           Presence of Plant Diseases in the Semiarid Region of Argentina. This
 study analizes and compares the presence of diseases in wheat crop
 cultivated in the Center Semiarid Region of Argentina.In 1993, we studied 5
 experimental lines (T5, T7, T14, T24 and T38) and 3 commercial cultivars
 (Las Rosas INTA, Klein Cartucho and Prointa Oasis), sown in May and June.
 Various random samples were taken: during the emergence, tillering,
 flowering, grain filling period and maturity. For T14 experimental line,
 were faund, not significant number of plants with symptoms of
 Helmintosporium sp. In the commercial cultivar, Prointa Oasis, we observed
 not significant presence of Ustilago nuda. The environmental conditions of
 1993, normal for the region, did not promove the presence of diseases.
 Howeverlooking for in the future to develop through our plant breeding
 programme similar experimental lines to T14 type, is necessary to take
 account these pleriminary results abaut Helmintosporium sesibility.
 
 -------------------------
            Barrientos, M.
 
            Rent increase for double cropping associated with wheat. In
 semi arid regions wheat crop can be an important link of the rotation chain.
 Besides diversification autputs, its inclusion allows an adequate control of
 pests and it may become an important contribution to the improvement of soil
 structure with its subsecuent economic profits (e.g. to diminish pesticides
 costs, fertilizers, etc.). Although it  is necessary to do a fallow allowing
 water accumulation (summer and autumn rains), from an economic point of
 view, it is not advisable to assing a plot of land exclusively to this
 single crup throughout the whole year. Experimental results showed that
 delaying seedtime has not had negative impact on the final yield (19.4 qq
 for 15/16 May sowing vs. 21.4 qq when sowing 19/20 June). This fact allows
 us to conclude that from January to May we could sow another crop which,
 with the sole condition of not significantly affecting water storage within
 the soil (e.g. fallow by overgrazing for rainwater accumulation in subsoil),
 would allow us to notably increase land rent.
 
 -------------------------
            Catedra de Cereales. Facultad de Agronomia. Universidad de
 Buenos Aires, Instituto de Recursos Biologicos-CIRN and Instituto de
 Biologia Molecular-CICV. INTA-Castelar.
 
            Sergio E. Feingold,  H. Esteban Hopp and Enrique Y. Suarez
 
            Breadmaking quality in Argentinean wheats: Its relationship
 with HMW glutenin subunits and other grain protein fractions.  The following
 abstract represents the tesis work presented by the former author at the
 Escuela de Posgrado de la Facultad de Agronomia (UBA) in partial fulfillment
 of his M. Sc. degree in Plant Production.
 
            Breadmaking quality variation is related to differences in
 protein content and protein type.  Among storage proteins, it has been
 reported that variation in the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunit
 composition can explain about 50% of breadmaking quality in European and
 North-american varieties.
 In Argentina, breeding started early in this century, and traditional old
 wheat varieties were well known for their ability to raise breadmaking
 properties of poor quality flours after mixing.
 
            Analysis of nine representative argentinean wheat varieties
 (ranging from 1912 to 1984) showed no relationship between protein
 concentration and breadmaking quality estimated by the SDS sedimentation
 test. HMW glutenin subunit composition (and its calculated Glu-1 quality
 score) was in agreement with SDS sedimentation volumes in six varieties.
 However, high sedimentation volumes were found in low Glu-1 scored genotypes
 and viceversa. Thus, the Glu-1 quality score cannot be used alone to predict
 breadmaking quality in this type of materials.  Klein 32 showed a good
 quality despite having the same HMW glutenin subunits than Chinese Spring, a
 poor baking quality genotype. Genetic analysis performed using the F1
 monosomic reciprocal method showed that the higher SDS sedimentation values
 of Klein 32 flour were associated to the presence of 1B and 1D chromosomes
 and not to the homeologous group 6 chromosomes. Therefore, low molecular
 weight glutenin and/or g and w gliadin composition can be responsible of the
 observed variation in breadmaking quality, and are being furtherly
 investigated to associate particular subunits of these protein fractions
 with this trait.
 
 -------------------------
            Genetics Institute, INTA, 1712 Castelar, BS. As.
 
            A. Acevedo
 
            Isolation of a gibberellic acid sensitive mutant in the wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Leones INTA.  A mutagenic treatment was
 performed in the Argentine bread wheat cultivar Leones INTA, which carries a
 gene for semidwarfism (Rht2).  Seeds were soaked overnight in ethylmethane
 sulphonate (EMS, 2%) solution and planted in the field.  Four spikes/M1
 plant were individually harvested. Next M(2) seeds were planted, and tall
 and short M(2) plants corresponding to 39 independent spikes were selected,
 and their M(3) progenies cytologically analyzed.  Aneuploidy explained the
 tall phenotypes observed in 35 out of the 39 segregating spikes.  
 Electrophoretic analyses performed in the 4 euploid M(3) progenies revealed
 that only one progeny had the patterns of several isozymes and storage
 proteins (gliadins and glutenins) identical to Leones INTA.  To further
 examine this progeny, hydroponic tests (1x10-(5) gibberellic acid) and
 seedling height measurements were determined.  A 1:2:1
 (Rht2/Rht2:Rht2/rht2:rht2/rht2) segregation ratio was demonstrated, which
 correlated precisely with the adult M(2) height phenotypes observed. Taken
 together, these data indicate that an homocygous (rht2/rht2) gibberellic
 acid sensitive mutant has been isolated in the wheat cultivar Leones INTA.
 
            Sedimentation test: a useful tool to evaluate nutritional and
 bread-making quality in wheat progenies.  The Triticum aestivum L. wheat
 mutant Gama 1R (high lysine content, low sedimentation value) was crossed
 with its motherline Sinvalocho M. A. (low lysine content, high sedimentation
 value).  The material was genealogically conducted and the linear
 correlation coefficient calculated in F(3) progenies between these genetic
 traits was r=0.45** (N=61).  Based exclusively upon sedimentation values,
 disruptive selection was applied in F(3) progenies using a 18% selection
 intensity.  Two distinct groups composed of several selected lines each were
 evaluated separately.  In F(7) seeds the following nutritional and bread-
 making quality tests were determined: protein and lysine  content, humid and
 dry gluten, flour and seed humidity, 1000 seed weight, sedimentation test,
 water absorption, Chopin's alveogram, and loaf volume.  Data analyses
 demonstrated that associations among these genetic traits were statistically
 significant, and that sedimentation value was positively correlated with
 each tested trait, whereas lysine content was negatively correlated.  These
 results underscore the utility of the sedimentation test to indirectly
 characterize wheat genotypes with good nutritional balance and bread-making
 quality.
 
 -------------------------
                      ITEMS FROM AUSTRALIA
 
 QUEENSLAND
 
      QWRI Toowoomba
 
           Paul Brennan, Phillip Banks, John Sheppard, Peter Keys, Lloyd
           Mason, Martin Fiske, Peter Agius, Jamie Ross
 
      Wheat Breeding.  Wheat breeding activities for the north east wheat
 growing region of Australia are, in the near future, to be the
 responsibility of a closely coordinated program involving the wheat breeding
 groups at the Plant Breeding Institute, Narrabri (NSW) and the Queensland
 Wheat Research Institute.  The combined group will endeavour to produce high
 yielding better quality varieties with resistance/tolerance to as many of
 the following diseases as possible:  stem, leaf and stripe (yellow) rust,
 flag smut, yellow (tan) spot, root lesion nematode, crown rot and common
 root rot.  Emphasis will also be directed towards the incorporation of
 Russian wheat resistance into a number of varieties although this pest is
 not, as far as we are aware, in Australia.
 
      Seasonal Conditions.  The drought conditions that prevailed in northern
 Australia in 1991 and 1992 continued and intensified in Queensland in 1993. 
 The estimated production for 1993 was 400 000 tons which is 1 million tons
 less than average.  This drought is thought to result from the El Nino
 effect due to an abnormal pattern of surface water temperatures in the
 southern Pacific Ocean.  The most common period of the year for these
 patterns to revert to normal is March/May.
 While Queensland experienced severe drought in 1993, northern NSW
 experienced an exceptionally good year with about 37 cm of growing season
 rainfall in many places.
 
      Varieties Released.   Three varieties were released from the QWRI
 program but seed of only two of these will be made available to growers in
 1994.  The third, Tasman, was found at the last moment to have lower water
 absorption than required on the export market.  However, there are strong
 indication that some domestic flour millers may wish to source substantial
 quantities of this variety.
 
      The general features of these varieties are:
 
 Pelsart (Potam 70/4*Cook;  QT4639)
 
      The primary reason for release is its high level of tolerance to the
 root lesion nematode which was obtained from Potam 70.
 
      Pelsart has resistance to stem, leaf and stripe rust, flag smut, crown
 rot and common root rot.  It has excellent milling quality and its yield is
 about the average of the current commercial varieties of similar maturity .
 
 Rowan (QT2338/4*Hartog;  QT4636)
 
      This variety was bred by removing the awns (beards) from Hartog.  The
 purpose in this was to improve the animal utilisation of failed crops in a
 region where growers take more risk with frost than is normal in Queensland.
 
      Other effects of the awn removal breeding are:
 
      - higher yield
      - later maturity
      - low, but useful level of yellow spot resistance.
 
 Tasman (Torres Gaboto/Siete Cerros Bluebird CIANO;  QT4546)
 
      This is a high yielding quick maturing variety with high dough
 extensibility, good flour yield and colour and lower farinograph water
 absorption.  It also has a high level of tolerance to the root lesion
 nematode though not as good as Pelsart.  It was seen as a competitor to
 Hartog for main season plantings.  However, seed will not be released to
 growers until the requirements for this variety by the domestic milling
 industry are clarified.
 
      Breeding Activities.   The drought conditions prevailing in 1993
 severely restricted pre-release evaluation particularly in central
 Queensland where one trial only was obtained after supplementary irrigation. 
 Almost a full program of Preliminary Yield Evaluation Trials (F(4)/F(5)
 level) and Strain Trials (F(6)\F(7)) were obtained largely through the
 application of supplementary irrigation.  Consequently, there will be only
 minimal dislocation to our breeding program.
 
      The particular features of the 1993 season were:
 
      - the development of approximately 200 Janz/Cunningham backcross
      derivatives with apparent weathering resistance derived from Transvaal.
 
      - the high yields of a number of backcross derived lines with yellow
      spot resistance.
 
      - a number of promising common root rot resistant lines have reached
      later generations.
 
      Staff.  Dr Phillip Banks is spending 3 months at INRA, France, where he
 will be working with French scientists on the exploitation of inter-specific
 translocations for barley yellow dwarf resistance he developed.
 
      Ms Meryl Fordyce has joined the program to work on the transfer of
 genes for stem rust resistance from Thinopyron sp to wheat.
 
      Visiting Scientists.  The following have or are spending time at QWRI
 to work in the wheat breeding program:
 
      - Mr Kenji Yagasaki (Japan)
      - Mr Ma Wujun (China)
      - Mr Jan Mulder (Netherlands)
      - Ms Elka Krammer (Germany)
  
 Research Activities
 
      Wheat/Rye Translocations
      Meryl Fordyce, Phillip Banks, Paul Brennan
 
      Ms Fordyce identified a number of lines containing SR31 on IRS but
 lacking the Sec 1 locus.  The population she worked on was derived by
 pollinating Oxley with pollen from an Oxley backcross derivative containing
 IBL/IRS which had been irradiated with gama rays.
 
      These lines will be assessed for surface dough stickiness.  The work
 constituted Ms Fordyce's undergraduate project.
 
      Genotype x Environmental Interactions
      Ian Delacy, Mark Cooper, John Sheppard, David Butler, Paul Brennan
 
      Funding has been obtained for a project headed by Mr Ian Delacy and Dr
 Mark Cooper of the University of Queensland with Dr Frank Ellison of Sydney
 University and Mr David Butler (DPI Toowoomba).  This project aims to
 examine the ge interactions for the whole north east wheat growing region
 with a view to rationalising wheat varietal evaluation in Queensland.
 
      Molecular and Other Markers for Weathering Resistance
      Wendy Lawson, Ma Wujun, Ian Godwin, Mark Cooper, Paul Brennan
 
      The objective of this study is to locate molecular and/or other markers
 for the two genes for weathering resistance.  This is being accomplished
 using random inbred lines derived by single seed descent to develop a low
 and a high weathering resistant bulk and examining these for polymorphisms. 
 Ms Lawson had identified a RAPD marker closely linked to one gene at the
 termination of the funding.  Mr Ma Wujun has assumed responsibility for this
 project.
 
      Transfer Of An alpha-amylase Inhibitor Gene From Barley To Wheat
      Ian Haak, Paul Brennan, Gay Mckinnon and Robert Henry
 
      One of the main results of rain on harvest ready grain is the
 degredation of the endosperm starch by alpha-amylase.  The barley asi gene
 produces a protein which is capable of inhibiting wheat alpha-amylase. 
 Transfer of this gene to wheat was accomplished using tissue culture. 
 Crosses were made between the addition line CS+2H and the cultivar Hartog. 
 Immature embryos were used as the explant source.  Regenerated plants were
 selfed and the R1 progeny were screened for the presence of several PCR
 markers.  The PCR markers utilised were the gene itself, several annomyous
 markers and two repeat sequence markers.  The screening results from several
 families indicated that they had retained the asi gene but were missing some
 of the other markers.  One of these families has been studied in more
 detail.  Plants in this family carried a normal compliment of 42 chromosomes
 and backcrossing to Hartog revealed that the translocation was transmitted
 through pollen.  The rate of transmission through pollen is currently being
 determined.  Further investigations will examine other families to determine
 how useful these translocations will be in a practical breeding situation. 
 
 -------------------------
      Markers For Wheat Quality Attributes.
      S J Kammholz, P S Brennan, P M Banks, D J Martin,  M W Sutherland, R
      Ramage, R Marshke and D Butler
 
      The aim of the project is to identify easily selectable markers for
 genes controlling several wheat quality attributes including flour yield,
 flour colour, dough extensibility and dough development time.  It is
 intended that inbred lines will be rapidly developed which can be evaluated
 for the target attribute and then used in a bulked segregant analysis.  At
 present, doubled haploid lines are being developed through wheat x maize
 crosses followed by colchicine-induced chromosome doubling.  Wheat plants
 are being emasculated just prior to anthesis and the heads covered with
 glassine crossing bags.  Wheat heads are pollinated 4 - 5 days after
 emasculation.  One day after pollination a dilute solution of 2,4-
 dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid is injected into the last internode and onto
 each floret.  Embryos are rescued within 21 days post-pollination and grown
 "in vitro".  Fertilisation (embryo production) rates range from 0 - 70% with
 the mean level of fertilisation being around 40% in winter and dropping off
 to less than 20% in summer.  Over one thousand haploid plants have been
 produced at QWRI in the 9 months since this stage of the project was
 initiated.  Colchicine-induced chromosome doubling is currently being
 undertaken and many doubled haploid lines have been produced.  Colchicine
 rates of 0.05 - 0.1% are used in conjunction with 2 - 4% dimethylsulfoxide
 (DMSO).  Chromosome doubling rates to date are low and indicate the need for
 further investigations.
 
      Raechelle Ramage from the University of Southern Queensland has been
 using SDS-PAGE to separate reduced, whole-protein extracts from the seed of
 cultivars selected for high or low performance with respect to the quality
 attributes;  flour yield, whiteness index, short dough development time and
 dough extensibility.  The technique has proved to be quick and reliable and
 will be employed by Steven Kammholz.  Our aim is to identify protein markers
 tightly linked to the above mentioned quality characters.  The usefulness of
 these protein markers will be compared with molecular markers developed by
 PCR/RFLP.
 
 -------------------------
      Crown Rot Research in Queensland
      G. B. Wildermuth, R. B. McNamara and T. M. Sparks
 
      Although the area planted to wheat in Queensland was lower than average
 in 1993, crown rot (CR) still affected many crops particularly in the
 southern part of the wheat area.  Judges in the RAS Wheat Crop Competition
 (Inglewood Society) indicated that CR was widespread in crops that they
 judged, particularly in crops near the Queensland-New South Wales border. 
 As in previous years, reports have shown that CR is occurring in wheat crops
 as early as the fourth crop after clearing.
 
      A new cultivar, Pelsart, was released from the Queensland Wheat
 Breeding Program in 1993.  This cultivar has a degree of partial resistance
 to crown rot.  Amongst 16 cultivars recommended for growth in Queensland,
 there are now three with partial resistance to this disease.  Those with
 this form of resistance are all quick maturing cultivars.  Cultivars with
 resistance to the disease particularly in mid or long season cultivars are
 needed.  Currently, seven cultivars/lines with partial resistance to the
 disease have been identified.  In collaboration with Dr P Brennan,
 resistance is being incorporated into the cultivars, Vasco, Hartog,
 Cunningham and Batavia.
 
      Twenty two cultivars and advanced lines from the Queensland and
 University of Sydney Wheat Breeding Programs were tested for susceptibility
 to crown rot in a field test.  One cultivar and one line showed levels of
 partial resistance to the disease.
 
      Durum cultivars have been found to be very susceptible to crown rot. 
 Losses of up to 51% have been found in naturally infected plants.  A search
 for sources of resistance to crown rot in durum cultivars will be initiated
 in the next 12 months.
 
      Common Root Rot.  In spite of the dry winter during 1993, the level of
 common root rot was high and more severe than in the previous two years. 
 Amongst the 16 cultivars recommended for growth in Queensland, six have
 partial resistance to this disease.  The backcross program to incorporate
 resistance into adapted cultivars is continuing with some advanced lines
 being currently tested in yield trials.
 
 -------------------------
 NEW SOUTH WALES
 
      Agricultural Research Centre, Tamworth
 
      R.A. Hare
 
      Durum Wheat.  The 1993 Australian durum wheat harvest realised 150,000
 tonnes, a new record.  Excellent growing conditions in northern New South
 Wales, and an average season in South Australia gave farmers yields well
 above average.  Commercial dryland yields in the range of 5 to 6 tonnes per
 hectare were not unusual.  There was a complete turn around in the domestic
 supply situation, from a shortage of millable grain in 1993 and the
 importation of 10,000 tonnes, to a substantial surplus to domestic needs in
 1994.  This surplus will be exported onto a world market where prices are
 rather high, due to poor harvests in the northern hemisphere.  Despite the
 increased yields, grain quality was generally good, although grain protein
 levels were down by about 0.5 to 1.0%.
 
      While most durum wheat is still produced in northern New South Wales
 and South Australia, more growers are trialling durum wheat in Queensland,
 Central/Southern NSW, Victoria and Western Australia.
 
      Growers are keen to diversify from mainstream cereal production to
 niche grain types.
 
      Durum Cultivar Improvement.  A new high quality cultivar "Wollaroi" was
 released on 20th October 1993 at the Agricultural Research Centre, Tamworth. 
 Wollaroi is a bearded, free-threshing, short to medium statured durum wheat
 of early maturity.  It displays adequate resistance to Australian field
 pathotypes of stem rust, leaf rust, stripe rust, yellow leaf spot, stinking
 bunt, flag smut, septoria leaf blotch, black point and root lesion nematode
 but is susceptible to crown rot.  Wollaroi has consistently produced grain
 with at least 0.5% more protein than the check cultivars, Kamilaroi and
 Yallaroi, without significant loss of grain yield.  Dough strength (strong)
 is equivalent to Yallaroi, and combined with the increased protein results
 in reduced loss of solids during pasta cooking.  Semolina colour is
 excellent with increased yellow pigment levels over the checks.
 
 -------------------------
      The University of Sydney, Plant Breeding Institute
 
      K. Adhikari, J. Bell, A.M.Bennet, L.W. Burgess, G.N. Brown, C.Zhao, H-S
      Hwang, S.Johnston, R.A. McIntosh, D.R. Marshall, J.D. Oates, R.F. Park,
      J.E. Roake, P.J. Sharp, F.Stoddard, D.The, M.Turner, C.R.Wellings,
      Department of Crop Sciences, Sydney and PBI Cobbitty, NSW
 
      National Wheat Rust Control Program 
 
      Pathogenicity Surveys:  A threatened stem rust epidemic following high
 levels of inoculum increase on self-sown cereals during an unusually wet
 harvest and summer of 1992/93 in South Australia did not eventuate.  An
 active public awareness campaign and a dry period, which delayed planting of
 the 1993 crop, led to an increase in the use of rust resistant cultivars and
 fungicide seed dressings to reduce early infections.  Continued drought
 conditions in Queensland meant few leaf and stem rust samples from our
 normally most rust-prone environment.
 
      Leaf rust was widespread in western and southern regions, but was not
 as severe as in 1993. Pathotype 122-1,2,3,(6),(7),11, an Lr2a-virulent
 mutant of the previous dominant pathotype 104-2,3,(6),(7),11, increased in
 frequency in South Australia despite the absence of Lr2a in the host
 population.
 
      Although widespread, stripe rust became damaging only in a small area
 of South Australia.  It continues to be absent in Western Australia.  A
 project investigating an apparent increase in the occurrence of stripe rust
 on barley grass, (Hordeum leporinum and H. glaucum) has established that
 pathogenic variation occurs on this species complex.  Increased virulence on
 barley grass may account for the preferential survival of pathotypes with
 the lowest range of virulence on wheat.  The most frequent isolates from
 wheat and barley grass were pathotyped as 104 E137 A+ and 104 E137 A- on the
 wheat differential set.
 
      Host Genetics and Cytogenetics:  A non-designated gene for stem rust
 resistance in Norin 40 is closely linked (but not allelic) with the Sr5
 locus.  A gene (SrX) for stem rust resistance present in chromosome 1D from
 T. tauschii, but having the same specificity as Sr21 in chromosome 2A of T.
 monococcum, is located proximal to Sr33.  The gene order is Lr21-Gli-Sr33-
 SrX-centromere-Glu-D1.  A leaf rust resistance gene in the Japanese rye
 derivative, ST-1, was located in chromosome 2A.  According to Kansas State
 University workers, the Lr24 Sr24 genes, that we previously reported in
 Amigo, are located in the chromosome 1BS satellite.  A number of cultivars
 and experimental recombinant individuals with Lr13 and Lr23 in coupling were
 shown to carry Ne2m suggesting that Ne2m and Lr23 are on opposite sides of
 Lr13 in chromosome 2BS, or that Ne2m is much closer to Lr13 than is Lr23.
 
      A monosomic series in a selection of Australian cv Avocet is nearing
 completion.  This series is being developed for genetic and cytogenetic
 studies of APR to stripe rust.  The Avocet selection is very susceptible to
 Australian isolates of P. striiformis. We hope this series will be useful
 for international work and in this respect, Dr.R.P. Singh has reported that
 it is very susceptible in Mexico.  Single gene segregation for APR in a Joss
 Cambier/Avocet cross has validated the genotype Yr11Yr11 for Joss Cambier -
 the gene is not located to a chromosome.  Seedling genes for stripe rust
 resistance were tentatively located in chromosome 1B (derivative of durum
 K733) and chromosome 2B (Ciano 79 - the Selkirk gene which occurs at
 moderate frequency in CIMMYT wheat populations).
 
      Germplasm Screening and Enhancement:  Good epidemics at our two
 Cobbitty sites infected with different pathotypes of the three rusts enabled
 screening of more than 30,000 breeders' lines.  Two further VPM1
 derivatives, Sunvale (a Cook derivative) and Trident (a Spear derivative)
 were selected by breeders from backcross populations developed by the
 enhancement program.
 
      
      Tan (yellow) Spot Program.  Tan spot was widespread in central and
 northern NSW due to favourable seasonal conditions in 1993.  Approximately
 40 isolates were collected for pathogenicity tests. Field screening
 activities were enhanced by the establishment of a tan spot disease nursery
 remote from rust screening areas.  Breeding lines were identified with
 adequate levels of tan spot resistance and these were retained for further
 selection at Narrabri.  Greenhouse screening continues to be based on
 pathogen response and the correlated effects of toxins derived from culture
 filtrates.
 
      Biotechnology Laboratory.  Progress has been made in the 1-D
 electrophoretic separation of wheat "waxy" proteins.  The so-called waxy
 proteins or granule-bound starch synthases of wheat are associated with
 amylose level in wheat starch, as in other cereals.  Workers in Japan have
 been able to separate one of the three homoeo-proteins from the other two by
 1-D SDS/PAGE, and can separate all three of the proteins by the use of 2-D
 SDS/IEF electrophoresis of starch granule proteins.  They also showed that
 these three proteins are encoded by genes on chromosome arms 7AS, 4AS, and
 7DS.
 
      We have developed a modified 1-D SDS/PAGE system which clearly
 separates these three homoeo-proteins.  The system relies on using thin gels
 as well as changes to the concentration of acrylamide, and to the pH of both
 the gel and running buffers, followed by silver staining of the gel.  This
 more rapid procedure (compared to a 2-D gel method) is enabling wheat
 germplasm to be screened for null variants, as well as variants with low
 expression levels of the waxy proteins.  Preliminary results suggest, as the
 Japanese workers found, that null alleles of the loci located on chromosomes
 7A and 4A are relatively common, while nulls at the 7D locus are extremely
 rare.
 
 -------------------------
      I.A.Watson Wheat Research Institute, Narrabri, NSW, F.W.Ellison,
      D.J.Mares, S.G.Moore, K.Mrva, L.O'Brien, R.M.Trethowan
 
      Wheat Improvement Program.  Two new prime hard quality wheat varieties
 were released for commercial production. Sunmist, a mid-season maturing
 cultivar, has improved stem and stripe rust resistance compared with Miskle,
 the cultivar it is intended to replace.  Sunstate, a main season maturing
 cultivar, represents a significant improvement over Hartog, the cultivar it
 is designed to replace, due to  improved milling quality and extensibility,
 and shorter bakery development time.  Sunstate has been protected by Plant
 Variety Rights because its adaptation and quality attributes could suit
 spring wheat production zones of other wheat growing countries.  It is
 currently being evaluated in Spain under a reciprocal agreement.
 
      This past year has seen the joint release of a stem, leaf and stripe
 rust resistant feed grade wheat with the NSW Department of Agriculture. 
 Warbler is a high yielding cultivar which gives growers a new option in
 wheat production.  A new prime hard quality rust resistant wheat with good
 field tolerance to root lesion nematode was named Sunvale.  Three advanced
 lines, SUN224A, SUN190A and SUN234A were approved for release by the Uniform
 Quality Testing Committee.
 
      Late Maturity alpha-amylase (LMA) in Wheat:  Some wheat cultivars
 develop unacceptably high levels of alpha-amylase in the grains during the
 later stages of ripening in the absence of rain or preharvest sprouting. 
 Initial work focussed on two cultivars, Spica and Lerma 52, which
 consistently produce high alpha-amylase grain (falling number 180-280 sec)
 in a wide range of environmental conditions.  In these cultivars the enzyme
 activity is highest in grains near the centre of the spike and in the 1st
 and 2nd grains in each spikelet.  Within grains the activity was distributed
 evenly in proximal and distal portions and appeared to have originated from
 the aleurone.  In contrast to germinated grains, where the activation
 stimulus is produced by the embryo, there was no marked gradient of
 activity. This suggests that the LMA response involves a general activation
 of the aleurone system or a specific activation of the alpha-amylase genes
 in the aleurone tissue.  Analysis of populations derived from test crosses
 between these high amylase lines and Chinese Spring, a low amylase genotype,
 provided clear evidence that LMA is controlled by a single gene which is
 inherited in a recessive manner.  Thus in segregating populations there were
 25% of lines homozygous for high alpha-amylase, 25% homozygous for a low
 alpha-amylase and 50% of lines which were heterozygous but had a low amylase
 phenotype.  Lines in the latter group were LMA carriers, but were
 indistinguishable from the low amylase homozygotes on the basis of alpha-
 amylase phenotype.
 
      Other genotypes which consistently produce LMA include Reeves (WA) and
 Veery #1, #5 and #7. The phenomenon appears to be relatively widespread in
 breeding programs in southern Australia, Mexico and northern Japan.  In
 addition, a number of genotypes have now been identified which exhibit LMA
 on an irregular and unpredictable basis.  These include the advanced
 breeding lines BD159 (Victoria) and W1113 (WA) and the Septoria resistant
 stock Cleo/Inia.  In these genotypes the LMA appears to be triggered by a
 period of low temperature, possibly in association with high humidity,
 during the early to mid-stage of grain development.  The response can be
 duplicated in cultivars such as BD159 and Cleo/Inia by transferring plants
 from the field to a cool greenhouse (e.g. 10deg night to 20degC day)
 approximately 10 days after flowering.  The specific environmental
 conditions required and the location of the sensitive phase in grain
 development has not been established.
 
 -------------------------
      CSIRO Grain Quality Research Laboratory,(formerly Wheat Research Unit),
      Division of Plant Industry, North Ryde (Sydney)
 
      C. W. Wrigley
 
      A fuller account of our research activities and a list of publications
 is provided in our Annual Report, available on request.  During 1993, two of
 the staff at Sydney (Dr J. Skerritt and Ms A. Hill) transferred to the
 Canberra laboratories of our CSIRO division.  Dr F. MacRitchie was awarded
 the F. B. Gutherie Medal of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute s Cereal
 Chemistry Division.
 
      Better testing of wheat quality.  Australia has always confined
 commercial production to white-grained wheats.  With the limited release of
 some red-grained varieties of wheat for commercial cultivation, there is the
 urgent need for efficient procedures to distinguish red- from white-grained
 varieties.  We have developed visual and instrumental procedures for this
 purpose, including a viewing box that accentuates colour differences.  This
 viewing system is being used by several breeders to assist in the
 segregation of red from white progeny.
 
      Grain hardness is a major distinguishing factor determining quality
 type.  We have been studying the biochemical basis of grain hardness,
 focusing on a "grain softness protein" of Mr 15,000 as a possible means of
 chemically detecting and genetically manipulating grain hardness.
 
      In practice, Australian wheat is segregated according to quality type
 on the basis of variety.  Our ability to identify varietal efficiently is
 thus  important and it has been the focus of study using electrophoretic
 methods and HPLC.  The full range of methods of identification of food
 grains is being described in a book which has just been edited for the
 American Association of Cereal Chemists.
 
      The level of treatment of grain with chemical protectants has become a
 very important factor in grain marketing.  To simplify the task of
 monitoring residue levels in grain, we have developed a series of test kits,
 based on the use of antibodies, to provide efficient analysis of multiple
 samples in the laboratory or rapid (15 minutes) detection in the field. 
 These studies have involved the development of new chemical procedures for
 coupling the pesticide to proteins to produce a satisfactory immunogen and
 careful monitoring of the specificity of the antibodies.  Most of the
 initial work has centred on wheat grain and derived products, but it has
 also included other grain species, including aspects specific to barley. 
 Many of the grain-protectant test kits developed are now being manufactured
 and marketed by the Millipore Corporation.  More recently, we have been
 asked to extend this research to include the development of similar testing
 methods suited to the requirements of the cotton and irrigation industries.
 
      Dough quality in wheat.  Dough properties are the main factor
 distinguishing wheat from all other grains in its utilisation potential and
 in its market value.  The small-scale series of direct-drive Mixographs
 developed in our division has proved valuable for analysing dough properties
 for small samples of flour or wheatmeal in breeding programs and in research
 applications.  The two-gram version has been manufactured for sale by the
 holder of the Mixograph trade mark, TMCO-National Manufacturing (Lincoln,
 Nebraska, USA).This equipment has permitted direct observation of the
 effects of isolated gluten polypeptides, providing evidence that is largely
 confirmatory of previous and current observations based on correlative
 studies  Our biochemical and genetic studies have concentrated on the gluten
 polypeptides (both high- and low- molecular-weight classes) in bread wheats
 and durums, and the manner of their aggregation to form the gluten matrix. 
 Study of interaction with lipids has also been necessary to understand the
 functionality of gluten proteins.  The use of antibody probes has provided
 information about the amino-acid sequences most likely to modify dough
 strength (resistance to extension).  The results of those studies are
 providing the basis of a model of how the various components of dough
 interact, leading in turn to an understanding of deficiencies in dough
 properties for wheat genotypes containing the addition of rye chromatin. 
 
      Biochemical testing for dough properties.  The emerging picture of how
 the components of dough interact provides a sound basis for devising more
 reliable tests for dough properties, or at least for understanding their
 potential limitations.  For example, a direct testing system has now been
 devised to identify the presence of genes for the high-molecular-weight
 subunits of glutenin, even using DNA from a sample of wheat leaf.  Antibody-
 based testing has been applied to the evaluation of dough strength in
 breeding lines and to the identification of specific chromosome
 substitutions.  More conventional electrophoretic and chromatographic
 methods also have a place in the research or breeding evaluation of dough
 properties and a computer program (Gene Jar) has been developed to provide
 access to gluten-protein-allele information.
 
      In parallel with our analysis of the genetic determinants of dough
 properties, we have obtained evidence about how genetic potential is
 modified by growth environment during grain filling, particularly by heat
 stress, carbon dioxide supply and sulfur deficiency.
 
 -------------------------
                      ITEMS FROM AUSTRIA
 
      Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Agricultural University
      Vienna
 
      H. Grausgruber, H. Burstmayr, M. Lemmens, and P. Ruckenbauer
 
      Investigations on head blight (Fusarium spp.) of wheat. Head blight
 (scab) caused by Fusarium spp. (FHB) is a wheat disease of increasing
 importance In Austria the most common pathogens causing FHB are F.
 graminearum and F. culmorum. The presence of mycotoxins in diseased kernels
 is of considerable concern in wheat growing areas, and their occurrence in
 food and feed was found to be associated with chronic or accute
 mycotoxicoses in man and livestock. Research activities on FHB carried out
 at our institute focus on the following topics:
 
 1) A reliable artificial inoculation method is a prerequisite for FHB
 investigations. Experiments to optimize inoculation methods are being
 carried out, their objective is the reduction of the genotype by environment
 interaction.  
 
 2)  Currently the introduction of resistant varieties seems to be the most
 promising way to control FHB. A resistance breeding program in cooperation
 with commercial breeders started in 1991. FHB resistance of current wheat
 lines was investigated. Although a considerable variability in
 susceptibility was detected, no highly resistant genotypes were found.
 Highly resistant genotypes were collected from all over the world. Their
 resistance was tested and confirmed under Austrian conditions. Crosses
 between agronomically well adapted Austrian and resistant genotypes were
 carried out. The progenies of these crosses are further examined and put at
 the breeders disposal.
 
 3) A winter wheat nursery of 25 genotypes has been investigated during three
 years in cooperation with four European research institutes (INRA Rennes,
 France; LSA Hohenheim, Germany; CRI Szeged, Hungary; CPRO-DLO Wageningen,
 The Netherlands) at six different locations all over Europe. The genotypes
 were artificially inoculated with several isolates of F. graminearum, F.
 culmorum and F. nivalis. The results prove the horizontal non-species
 specific character of resistance to FHB in wheat.
 
 4) Studies on the genetics of FHB resistance are carried out with the
 backcross reciprocal monosomic analysis. In addition existing substitution
 lines (susceptible acceptor and resistant donor) which were obtained from T.
 Worland (IPSR Norwich) are investigated. Another approach is the analysis of
 double haploids (anther culture) resulting from crosses between susceptible
 and highly resistant genotypes.
 
 5) Currently a simple laboratory test based on Fusarium toxin containing
 media is being developed to predict FHB resistance on the seedling level.
 Correlation coefficients between data of this test and visual scoring data
 of the field experiments range from 0.6 to 0.7.
 
                         Publications.
 
 Lemmens, M., Burstmayr, H. and Ruckenbauer, P. (1993) Variation in Fusarium
 head blight susceptibility of international and Austrian wheat breeding
 material. Die Bodenkultur 44, 65-78.
 
 Van Eeuwijk, F.A., Mesterhazy, A., Kling, C.I., Ruckenbauer, P., Saur, L.,
 Burstmayr, H., Lemmens, M., Keizer, L.C.P., Maurin, N. and Snijders, C.H.A.
 1994. Assessing non-specificity of resistance of wheat to head blight caused
 by inoculation with European strains of Fusarium culmorum, F. graminearum
 and F. nivale, using a multiplicative model for interaction. Plant Breeding,
 submitted.
 
 Lemmens, M., Reisinger, A., Burstmayr, H. and Ruckenbauer, P. 1994. Breeding
 for head blight (Fusarium spp.) in wheat: development of a mycotoxin-based
 selection method of seedlings. In Acta Horticultura (ISHS) 355, 223-232,
 Eds: Van Bockstaele, E. and Heursel, J. .
 
 -------------------------
      S. Groger, H. Bistrich, T. Lelley
 
      Breeding for bread making quality of wheat using protein
 electrophoresis.  After establishing a protein electrophoresis unit in our
 institute and introducing the techniques of SDS-PAGE and APAGE, we started
 to investigate the Hungarian and Austrian wheat material - at present in the
 official trials in both countries - for their HMW-glutenin subunit
 genotypes. The investigation revealed a relative frequent occurrence of the
 1BL/1RS translocation (approx. 15% in the Austrian and >50% in the Hungarian
 material). The Austrian cultivar "Ferdinand" turned out to be a complete
 1B/1R substitution with the HMW glutenin subunit composition of Glu-A1: 1,
 Sec-3, Glu-D1: 5+10. This variety is considered as one of high bread making
 quality. Some of the lines showed heterogeneity for both the HMW glutenin
 subunit composition and for the presence of the  translocation. These lines
 were subdivided into the different components, they will be compared as pure
 lines for their bread making quality and for other characteristics. After
 determining SDS sedimentation values and total protein content of the
 genotypes, the effect of HMW subunits and that of the 1BL/1RS translocation
 on bread making quality in the Austrian and Hungarian material will be
 estimated.
 
      Crosses were made between genotypes of Austrian and Hungarian origin
 with the intention to combine HMW subunits giving the highest possible score
 value according to Payne et al. (1987 J.Sci.Food Agric. 40, 51-65). DH and
 SSD techniques are being applied to obtain pure lines in the fastest
 possible way. Conventional handling of the progeny will be made by co-
 operating breeding stations in Austria and in Hungary. Some crosses were
 done between sublines of cultivars heterogeneous for the 1BL/1RS
 translocation to study the effect of the translocation on quantitative
 traits especially on yield and adaptation.
 
      APAGE is applied to determine the gliadin genotype of the above
 described material. Moreover, we established the technique of extracting all
 non glutenin proteins from the extraction sample by 70% ethanol and DMSO
 (Gupta and Shepherd 1990 Theor Appl Genet  80, 65-74) to investigate the
 effect of LMW glutenin subunits on bread making quality. This technique will
 be used especially in cases where cultivars having identical HMW glutenin
 subunit composition differ in their bread making quality.
  
      We applied to the Austrian Science Foundation (FWF) for financial
 support of a co-operative project on the effect of storage proteins on bread
 making quality. In this co-operation the Austrian Research Institute of the
 Food Industry in Vienna is going to investigate the quantitative aspects of
 the different protein fractions including differences of x and y subunits of
 HMW alleles using HPLC technique as well as different physical properties of
 the dough of genetically specified material. A further co-operator in this
 project is the private plant breeding station "Edelhof" (Zwettel) which is
 mainly responsible for the field testing of the material.
 
 -------------------------
                      ITEMS FROM BRAZIL
 
      Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo
 
      C.N.A. de Sousa, E.P. Gomes, J.C.S. Moreira, J.F. Philipovsky, L. de
      J.A. Del Duca, and P.L. Scheeren
 
                 Wheat breeding in Passo Fundo, Brazil
 
      Resistance to scab.  This disease is important in wheat areas in
 Southern Brazil. Over the last 10 years a severe incidence of scab in the
 spike was observed in the experimental field in five years. Japanese and
 Chinese cultivars remain as the best sources of resistance to this disease.
 However, due to the poor adaptation of this material under Brazilian
 environment, the progress in incorporating the resistance using such sources
 is reduced. The lines PF 859114 (CNT 10//LD*3/Nyu Bay), PF 88455
 (Encruzilhada/PF 79768//PF 80284), Encruzilhada and Toropi from Brazil
 besides the lines from Japan (GW 2 and GW 3) and China (Ning 8331 and Wuhan
 3) have been used as the main sources for scab resistance.
 
      Resistance to soil borne mosaic virus. In spit of a severe incidence of
 the virus in the experimental area in five out of the last 10 years,
 breeding for soil borne mosaic virus (SBMV) resistance is not an easy task
 because of the lack of uniformity of the SBMV incidence in the experimental
 area and the consequent escapes. Evaluations of the behavior of wheat
 cultivars to SBMV were made. EMBRAPA 15, EMBRAPA 16, RS 8-Westphalen, and
 TRIGO BR 32 are the resistant cultivars on recommendation in the state of
 Rio Grande do Sul now. These cultivars and the lines PF 84316 (PF 7650/NS
 18-78//CNT 8/PF 7577), PF 8545 (PF 6632/2*IAS 58), PF 85489 (LD*6/KVZ //
 LD*6/AGENT /3/LD*6 /KVZ//LD*6/WTP), and PF 9052 (PF 8237//LAP 689/3*CNT 10)
 were used as the main Brazilian sources of resistance to SBMV in the
 crossing block in 1993.
 
      Survey for leaf tip necrosis. The old Brazilian cultivar Frontana
 presents a leaf tip necrosis associated with the gene Lr 34 for resistance
 to leaf rust, according R.P. Singh (Crop Sci 32:874-878, 1992). A survey was
 made to detect this necrosis in the entries of the crossing block in 1993.
 This leaf tip necrosis was found in several Brazilian entries such as: BH
 1146 and descendants (PF 84198, PF 88106, PF 89316, PF 92348, and TRIGO BR
 25), IAC 5-Maringa and descendants (OCEPAR 10-Gara, OCEPAR 11-Juriti, PF
 889300, PF 89326, PF 89327, PF 92349, and TRIGO BR 35), Jacui and
 descendants (PF 92326, and RS 8-Westphalen), and TRIGO BR 23 and descendants
 (PF 91605, PF 9210, PF 9219, PF 9224, PF 9234, PF 9241, and PF 9253).
 
      Release of EMBRAPA 24. This wheat cultivar was selected from the cross
 Sel Tifton 72-59/PF 79763/3/Nobeoka Bozu/3*Londrina//B 7908 made in 1982,
 bulked as a line (PF 87128) in 1987 and released for cultivation in the
 state of Rio Grande do Sul in 1993. It is tall but a lodging resistant
 cultivar. EMBRAPA 24 is resistant to all races of Puccinia recondita and
 Puccinia graminis tritici found in Brazil. This cultivar is resistant to
 Stagonospora nodorum and tolerant to aluminum toxicity.
 
      Personnel involved in the wheat breeding program in 1993. Ariano M.
 Prestes (Septoria resistance and interspecific hybridization), Aroldo G.
 Linhares (Seed multiplication and germplasm bank), Cantidio N.A. de Sousa
 (Breeding), Edar P. Gomes (Breeding), Eliana M. Guarienti (Industrial
 quality), Gabriela E.L. Tonet (Aphid resistance), Joao C.S. Moreira
 (Breeding-yield trials), Joao F. Philipovsky (Breeding), Joao F. Sartori
 (Stem rust resistance), Jorge L. Nedel (Seed multiplication and germplasm
 bank), Leo de J.A. Del Duca (Breeding), Maria I.B. de M. Fernandes
 (Cytogenetics and biotechnology), Milton C. Medeiros (Leaf rust resistance),
 Pedro L. Scheeren (Breeding, leader), Sergio D. dos A. e Silva
 (Breeding-biotechology), and Walesca I. Linhares (Powdery mildew
 resistance).
 
 -------------------------
       W.I. Linhares
 
      Resistance to powdery mildew and physiological specialization
 
      Powdery mildew has occurred in most years over the last decade in
 southern Brazilian wheat growing areas. The disease becomes established in
 winter and develops early in spring, persisting into the grain filling
 period and sometimes up to nearly the end of the season.
 
      Forty-one isolates of the pathogen were collected in 1989 and 37 in
 1990 from different climatic regions in Brazil. These isolates were
 inoculated  on isogenic lines, on some cultivars having single genes or
 combinations of powdery mildew resistant genes (Pm1 through Pm8), on several
 lines from Dr. James Mac Key's collection. Only 0.5 % of isolates had
 virulence on Pm2 gene, and 4.0 % on Pm2 + Mld gene combination; no virulence
 was identified on Pm6, on Pm4a + ... (Khapli), and on isogenic lines
 IGV(1)-455 (CI 10904/7*Prins) and IGV(1)-461 (CI 13399/7*Prins) from Dr. Mac
 Key, which have unidentified resistance genes.
 
      Obviously the powdery mildew population, in Brazil, is complex and has
 an unlimited capacity to overcome single gene sources of resistance. Many
 commercial Brazilian cultivars possess a good level of resistance. The newly
 released cultivars EMBRAPA 15 and EMBRAPA 16 were resistant up to 1991.
 Since 1992, they changed their reactions under greenhouse conditions, when
 tested for a mixture of inoculum, showing a moderately susceptible reaction.
 These cultivars were considered moderately susceptible, showing a new
 alteration on the powdery mildew population, in evaluations carried on CNPT
 experimental fields, in 1993.
 
      It is interesting that Pm6, Pm4a, the combination's Pm2 + Pm 6 and Pm2
 + Mld are being incorporated in CNPT breeding lines, sometimes combined with
 overcome genes like Pm 8, Pm 3 (alleles), etc. These lines have been widely
 and successfully tested for at least five years.
 
 -------------------------
      J.C.S. Moreira and C.N.A.  de Sousa  
 
      1993 Wheat Cultivar Yield Trials in Passo Fundo, Brazil
      
      About 480 wheat genotypes were tested in 18  yield trials in the
 National Research Center for Wheat of EMBRAPA in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do
 Sul, Brazil, during 1993. The process for releasing a new cultivar in Rio
 Grande do Sul, the Southern State in Brazil, was described in the 1986
 Annual Wheat Newsletter, 32:38-39.
 
      The climatic conditions during the wheat cycle in Passo Fundo (June to
 November) were not good for wheat. Drought occurred from tillering to stem
 extension while excess rainfall occurred at ripening stage. The plant had a
 poor growth and the yield was less than in 1992. The excess of rain induced
 sprouting. The main diseases were leaf rust, powdery mildew, soilborne
 mosaic virus, and septoria/helminthosporium complex in the leaves.
 
      The trials were carried out in a rotation area (2 years without wheat)
 and the fertilizer application was 12,5 kg/ha N, 63 kg/ha P2O5, 50 kg/ha K2O
 and 45 kg/ha N as top-dressing. No fungicide was use in most trials.
 
      The checks used in 1993 were BR 23, BR 35 and EMBRAPA 16. BR 23
 continues to be the main cultivar in Rio Grande do Sul occupying about
 290,000 ha ( 50 %) of the wheat growing area in this State in 1993.
 
      No entries exceeded the yield of the three local cheks in the 29th
 International Spring Wheat Yield Nursery and in the 14th Elite Selection
 Wheat Yield Trial received from CIMMYT.
 
      Cultivars having outstand yield   in trials carried out in Passo Fundo
 - RS are shown below.
 
           CULTIVAR       CROSS                                        YIELD
                                                                      (kg/ha)
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------     1. Cultivar state trial and south Brazilian trial.
 
           PF 886         ENC/PF 79768//PF 80284                       2718
           PF 88566       AMIGO/JACUI//PF 7673/CDA                     2702
           CEP 24-INDUSTRIAL   BR 3/CEP 7887//CEP 7775/CEP 11          2502
           EMBRAPA 15         CNT 10/BR 5//PF 75172/SEL TIFTON 72-59   2417
           EMBRAPA 16 (check)  HLN/CNT 7//AMIGO/CNT 7                  3037
 
      2. Regional yield trial
 
           PF 86242       HLN/CNT 7//AMIGO/CNT 7                       3119
           CEP 90191      SPN/NAC//CEP 8386/3/CEP 19                   2792
           PF 904         BR 35/PF 84386//AMIGO/BR 14                  2778
           EMBRAPA 16 (check)  HLN/CNT 7//AMIGO/CNT 7                  3063
 
      3. Multilocated preliminar trials (five locals with lines in 2nd year    
         of test). Data from Passo Fundo.
 
           1st M.P.T.
 
           PF 9192        CNT 10*5/ST 1/3/CNT 
                          10*6//LD*3/HST 13471/4/                      3162
           PF 85906
           PF 9157        BR 35/PF 85946/3/PF 772003*2/PF 813//        2975
           PF 83899
           PF 9122        PF 82341/BR 15//BR 35/PF 839197              2893
           EMBRAPA 16 
           (check)        HLN/CNT 7//AMIGO/CNT 7                       3142
 
           2nd M.P.T.
 
           PF 9190   
           PF 772003*2/
           PF 813//PF 813/4/ENC/
           PF 79768//  2895
           PF 80284/3/PF  84482                                
           EMBRAPA 16     HLN/CNT 7//AMIGO/CNT 7                       2928
           (check)
 
      4. Preliminary trials (1st year trial). 
 
           Wheat genotypes out of 264 lines yielded more than 3000 kg/ha.
 
           PF 917    BR 8/BR 25//CEP 11/BR 14/4/CNT 10*5/ST 1/3/       3810
                     CNT 10*6//I    AS 54-21*2/CI 1                    4123
           PF 9160   PF 82252/BR 35//IA 7998/PF 8550                   3298
           PF 9162   BR 8/BR 25//CEP 11/BR 14/4/CNT 10*5/ST 1/3/       3819
           CNT 10*6//I    AS 54-21*2/CI 1                              4123
           PF 918    PF 83743/PF 8545                                  3854
           PF 91113  BR 8/BR 25//CEP 11/BR 14/4/CNT 10*5/ST 1/3/       3698
           CNT 10*6//I    AS 54-21*2/CI 1                              4123
           PF 91114  COKER 762/CEP 82114//BR 14                        3158
           PF 91216  PF 84409/PF 84172                                 3317
           PF 91220  PF 839102/3/BR 35*2//BR 14*2/LARGO                3055
           PF 926    OASIS/BR 5//BR 5/COKER 762                        3246
           EMBRAPA 16     HLN/CNT 7//AMIGO/CNT 7                       3046 to 
                                                                       3874
           (check)
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 -------------------------
      Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trego/EMBRADA, Passo Fundo
 
 
      L.J.A. Del Duca, R.S. Fontaneli, J.F. Philipovsky
 
      Response of wheat and other Small Grains to Plant Clipping.  The need
 for crop rotation and to fatten cattle necessitates integration of these
 activities with agriculture, which results in better land use by the farmer. 
 In the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do sul
 wheat fits well in a double-crop system with soybeans and corn.  To prevent
 soil and nutrient losses after soybean and corn harvest and to allow
 substantial quantity of forage production during a critical period of the
 year, wheat must be sown in April/May.  It would appear that wheat and other
 small grains having a long vegetative period would produce greater
 quantities of forage.  To test this hypothesis a clipping trial was carried
 out at Passo Fundo comprising four wheat cultivars and lines having longer
 vegatative period, two wheat checks adapted to grain production, and
 cultivars of two common oats and one Avena strigosa, one barley, one rye and
 one triticale.  The trial was sown on May 3, 1993, using a split-plot
 design.  
 
      Effects of both early and late clippings, compared to the corresponding
 checks without clippings considering dry matter and grain yield are shown
 below.
 
                               Dry Matter (kg/ha)
 Cultivars and lines     One clipping(1)  Two clippings(2)   Unclipped
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
  Common oats -             1566            2066                 1327
  UPF 14 - UPF 15           1514            2805                  973
         
  Avena strigosa            1808            2765                  127
 
  Rye - BR 1                2297            2856                 1991
 
  Barley - MN 599           1726            2389                  935
 
  Triticale - BR 4          1519            2502                 2030
 
  Wheat                     1068            2354                 3073
         1PF 41004          1050            2572                 2359   
         1PF 55204          1339            2512                 2473  
                            1227            2572                 2794   
                            1441            2258                 1703  
                            1452            2477                 2724   
 
 Means                      1501            2511                 1876 
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
                             Grain Yield
                              (kg/ha)
 Cultivars and lines      One clipping(1)           Two clippings(2)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
  Common oats -                  924                        553
  UPF 14 - UPF 15               2082                        359
 
  Avena strigosa                 651                        379
 
  Rye - BR 1                     843                        562
 
  Barley - MN 599                688                        221
 
  Triticale - BR 4              2030                        173
 
  Wheat                          2230                       592
        1PF 41004                2276                       230
        1PF 55204                2194                        77
                                 2450                       442
                                  791                        97
                                 2170                        92
 
 Means                           1544                       315
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 July 16, 1993(2) July 16 and August 13, 1993
 
      Breeding Activities aiming at Wheat for Double Purpose Use.  In an
 attempt to select wheat cultivars adapted to both grazing and grain
 production, collections, larger plots, and segregating populations were sown
 on May 21, 1993, at Passo Fundo.  The 253 collectins were grown in double
 2.5 m rows and the 27 and 71 segregating populations in 7 row, 5 m plots
 (lines and cultivars).  all plots were evaluated under a grazing condition
 of one day of grazing under a high stock rate.
 
      The plots with uniform genotypes included preferentially winter and
 facultative wheats from a number of countries or Brazilian cultivars with
 intermediate or late types.  General adaptation was observed and the grain
 yield as a response measure to the technology used was evaluated.  The best
 plants in the segregating populations were selected for resistance to
 prevailing diseases and for agronomic type.  Cultivars, lines, and selected
 plants will be further evaluated through the sedimentation test considering
 actual quality requirements established by the industrial sector.
 
 Outstanding cultivars and lines (Plots having 7 rows of 5 m) after grazing
 
 Cultivars/lines   Grain yield   Cultivars/lines    Grain yield
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
   C 80.33            1367         C 97.33             1056
   PF 87451           1411         PF 89244            1069
   IPF 55204          1429         C 762               1387
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
 
   Outstanding cultivars and lines (Plots having 2 rows of 2,5 m) 
    after grazing
 
           Cultivars/lines          Grain yield
                                    (kg/ha)  
  ---------------------------------------------------
           ABE                      2010  
           C 747                    1380  
           C 762                    2340  
           C 80.33                  1980  
           C 97.33                  1350  
           D. QUEEN                 1350  
           IPF 60686                1820 
           OASIS                    1110  
           PF 87451                 1640  
           PF 87452                 1480  
           PF 90132                 1130  
           STACY                    1120  
           VOGEL/5 ANDERSON         1170  
           GA 80599-5-1-4           1200  
           GA 84134-1-7-1           1150  
           GA 831270-10-4-2-5       1820  
           GA 841465-2-1-1-3        1190  
           GA 841465-2-1-1-4        1690  
           IPF 55204                1180  
  --------------------------------------------------
 
 
 -------------------------
 L.J.A. Del Duca, O. Rodrigues, G.R. Cunha
 
      Wheat Yield Trials in Anticipated (Early) and Normal Dates of Sowing. 
 A list of wheat lines and cultivars having outstanding performance under
 early sowing at Passo Fundo was previously detailed in Annual Wheat
 Newsletter 39:102-103.  Considering their good yielding performance, some of
 these cultivars with longer vegetative period and some new introductions (27
 genotypes) were tested in a randomized block design at Passo Fundo during
 1993 in both anticipated (May 3) and normal date of sowing (June 15).  Wheat
 checks, BR 23, BR 35, and EMBRAPA 16, used for normal sowing trials were
 included.
 
      Outstanding lines and cultivars in two dates of sowing,compared with
 the best check (EMBRAPA 16), are detailed below.  Superior performance of
 the 30 genotypes in the anticipated sowing is clearly shown by their yield
 means as compared with normal period of sowing means.
 
 
 Line/                                      Yield          % EMB 16
 Cultivar        Cross                     (kg/ha)         (check)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 IPF 37379                                   3544            94
 IPF 41004                                   3944           105
 IPF 55204     FL 301/C 762                  3826           101
 PF 86245      HLN/CNT 7/AMIGO/CNT 7         3778           100
 PF 86247      HLN/CNT 7/AMIGO/CNT 7         3526            93
               CNT 10*5/ST 1/3/CNT           
 PF 87410      10*6/LD*3/HST                 3418            91
 PF 87451      C 762/BR 14                   3763           100
               CNT 10*5/ST 1/3/CNT
 PF 89422      10*6//IAS 54-21*2 Cl 14123    3970           105
               CC/ALD SIB/3/IAS 54-
 BR 23         20/COP//CNT 8                 2670            71
               IAS 5*2/3/CNT 7*3/LD//IAC
 BR 35         5/HADDEN                      2744            73
               HLN/CNT 7//AMIGO/
 EMB 16        CNT 7                         3774           100
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Means of the 30 genotypes tested            3020
 
 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Early sowing (May 3)                  Normal sowing (June 15)
 Height      Flowering      Yield      %EMB 16  Height     Flowering
  (cm)                     (kg/ha)    (check)   (cm)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 70           Sept 8       1611                  57 65     Oct 5
 85           Sept 8       2789                  98 75     Oct 5
 70           Aug 30       1898                  67 60     Oct 5
 95           Aug 24       1708                  60 80     Sept 18
 95           Aug 26       1694                  59 85     Sept 20
 75           Aug 23       2406                  84 80     Sept 19
 75           Aug 30       2972                 104 65     Sept 21
 85           Aug 29       2676                  94 85     Sept 27
 90           Aug 22       1861                  65 80     Sept 19
 95           Aug 20       1922                  67 85     Sept 14
 95           Aug 24       2848                 100 80     Sept 20
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Mean                        1869
 
 
 -------------------------
      EMBRAPA/CPAO - Dourados
 
      A.C.P. Goulart; F. de A. Paiva and P.J.M. Andrade
 
      Chemical control of brown spot (Helminthosporium sativum) in wheat,
      1992
                                       
      The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of several fungici-
 des in the control of wheat brown spot, their effect on yield, kernel
 weight, test wt. and on incidence of Helminthosporium sativum on the harvest
 seeds. The experiment was carried out  under  field  conditions,  during
 1992, at Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Oeste (CPAO) using the cultivar
 IAPAR 6-Tapejara.  Wheat was sown in 11-row plots (2.2 x 7.0 m)  as a
 randomized complete block with ten treatments replicated four times on April
 28.   Fungicides were applied with  CO(2) - pressurized sprayer with rate of
 low adjusted to 240 1/ha.  Two applications were applied, once at the growth
 stage 54 and the second at sage 68 (Zadock's scale).  The field was
 fertilized with 300 kg/ha of 4-30-10 (N-P-K) applied at planting.
 
      The treatments were   (g a.i./ha): mancozeb (2,000); propiconazole
 (125); tebuconazole (187.5); flutriafol (94 and 125); cyproconazole (20 and
 30); prochloraz (450);  cyproconazole +  prochloraz (30 + 360) and untreated
 control.
 
      Best control of brown spot  was  tebuconazole and propiconazole, with
 control efficiency of 95 and 90%, respectively, compared to untreated
 control.   Flutriafol   (94 and 125 g a.i./ha) and prochloraz and
 cyproconazole + prochloraz gave 80 to 85% control. Mancozeb showed 71%
 effective control.  The  least efficient  chemical was  cyproconazole, each
 dose giving 43% control.  
 
      Best yields were obtained with tebuconazole and propiconazole, with
 increases of 43.6 and 35.4%, respectively, over the untreated control.  Test
 and kernel weight were increased by all chesmicals, however,  best results
 were obtained with  tebuconazole,  propiconazole,  prochloraz, 
 cyproconazole + prochloraz and flutriafol. The  incidence of H. sativum on
 harvested seeds was significantly reduced with tebuconazole and
 propiconazole as the best treatments.
 
      The objective of this experiment was to select fungicides for
 controllingling of stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and  leaf 
 rust (P. recondita f. sp. tritici), their effects on yield, kernel and test
 weight.  The experiment was conducted under field conditions at
 CPAO/EMBRAPA.   Wheat, cv. IAPAR 6-Tapejara was sown May 19 in 11-row plots
 (2.2 x 7.0 m) arranged in a randomized complete block with ten treatments
 and four replications. Fertilization consisted of 300 kg/ha of 4-30-10
 (N-P-K) applied at planting. Applications of fungicides were applied with
 CO(2) pressurized sprayer (rate of flow - 240 1/ha).   Sprays were applied
 at Zadoks's growth stage and  at stage 68.  Plots were harvested on Sept.
 15. Treatments included were (g a.i./ha): mancozeb 2,000; propiconazole 125;
 tebuconazole 187.5; flutriafol 94 and 125; cyproconazole 20 and 30;
 prochloraz 450; cyproconazole + prochloraz 30 + 360 and control.
 
      Stem and leaf rusts were better controlled with tebuconazole, propico-
 nazole and cyproconazole (30 g a.i./ha), which averaged 96.7% effective
 control of both diseases. Flutriafol  (in both  doses), cyproconazole (20 g
 a.i./ha) and cyproconazole + prochloraz, controlled these diseases from 86
 to 92%. Mancozeb and prochloraz were the least efficient treatments, less
 than 70% of control.  All treatments  resulted in yield increases over the
 untreated control with best results obtained with tebuconazole (increase of
 110.6%), propiconazole (110.1%) and cyproconazole (109.6).  Improved test
 and kernel weights were obtained with all chemical  treatments.  
 
      Fungi incidence in wheat seeds produced in Mato Grosso do Sul State.  
 The objective  was to determine the fungi associated with  wheat seeds
 produced in Mato Grosso do Sul State during 1992.  From the 9 countries of
 Ponta Pora, Dourados, Rio  Brilhante, Aral Moreira, Itapora, Maracaju,
 Fatima do Sul Amambai e Caarapo a total of 637 seed samples from 16
 cultivars were analyzed in the Plant Patholoby Lab at EMBRAPA.   Seed health
 was determined using the blotter test, without pre-treatment. Two hundred
 seeds/sample were placed into gerboxes containing three layers of filter
 paper previously sterilized and soaked in 0.02% 2,4-D solution and incubated 
 for 7 days at 22-24C  in cycles of 12 hours darkness and 12 hours light
 (day and NUV lights). Each seed was examined under a stereoscopic microscope 
 and  the incidence of each fungus was recorded.
 
      Twenty-six genera of fungi were detected. The most prevalent, detected
 in 100% of the analysed samples, was Helminthosporium sativum, followed by
 Aspergillus sp. (96.5%), Alternaria tenuis (93.9%), Penicillium spp.
 (66.4%), Fusarium spp. (56.4%), Cladosporium sp. (52.4%),  Phoma  sp.
 (47.8%), Rhizopus stolonifer (39.6%), Curvularia lunata (36.4%), Nigrospora
 oryzae (33.7%) and Epicoccum sp. (31.4%). Pyricularia oryzae was observed in
 16.6% of the samples, at relatively low levels.   Storage  fungi
 (Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp.) were registered at relatively high
 levels. Helminthosporium tritici-repentis, was observed in 8.8% of samples
 and Helminthosporium avenae, at a frequency of 24.1%,  were detected by the
 first time in wheat  seeds  produced  in  Mato Grosso do Sul State. The
 results showed that  H. sativum was the most important pathogen associated
 with wheat seeds produced in Mato Grosso do Sul State,  with  an average
 incidence of 13.7 %.  Frequency data from this experiment are shown below:
 
 Fungi                                             Frequency 
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
 Helminthosporium sativum                          100.0
 Aspergillus spp.                                   96.5
 Alternaria tenuis                                  93.9
 Penicillium spp.                                   66.4     
 Fusarium spp.                                      56.4
 Cladosporium sp.                                   52.4
 Phoma sp.                                          47.8
 Rhizopus stolonifer                                39.6
 Curvularia lunata                                  39.4
 Nigrospora oryzae                                  33.7
 Epicoccum sp.                                      31.4
 Helminthosporium avenae                            24.1
 Mucor sp.                                          20.2
 Pyricularia oryzae                                 16.6
 Helminthosporium tritici-repentis                   8.8
 Chaetomium sp.                                      6.6
 Streptomyces sp.                                    4.0
 Pithomyces sp.                                      3.3
 Colletotrichum sp.                                  2.8
 Monilia sp.                                         1.5
 Paecilomyces sp.                                    0.7
 Rhizoctonia solani                                  0.4
 Ulocladium sp.                                      0.2
 Stemphylium sp.                                     0.07
 Pestalotia sp.                                      0.07
 Trichoderma sp.                                     0.07
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Wheat seed chemical treatment for controlling of Pyricularia oryzae and
 Helmlnthosporium sativum, 1992. The effect of fungicides on the control of
 Pyricularia oryzae and Helminthosporium sativum, associated to wheat seeds
 was compared in trials carried out in the laboratory (blotter) and in the
 field, using seeds of the wheat cultivar "Anahuac" with 16.5% and 24.0% of
 natural contamination with H. sativum and P. oryzae, respectively. Seed
 treatments were applied just prior to planting by shaking seeds and
 chemicals in erlenmeyers. In laboratory experiments, ten replications of 20
 seeds/treatment were placed into  gerboxes (20 seeds/gerbox) and maintained
 for 7 days at 22-24C in cycles of 12 hours darkness and 12 hours light (day
 and NUV lights). Each seed was evaluated and the incidence of both pathogens
 was recorded. In the field, plots were sowed on May 9 using a randomized
 complete block design  consisting of 19 treatments and four replications.
 Plots were Plots were six rows x 1.5 m with a row spacing of 0.2 m and
 fertilized with 240 kg/ha of 4-30-10 (N-P-K) at planting. Field emergence
 percentage and disease were recorded 1 week after planting. The evaluated
 fungicides and doses are in Table 1 below:
 
      All chemical treatments reduced the incidence of both pathogens in lab
 (blotter) test. H. sativum was erradicated when the seeds were treated with
 iprodione + thiram, iprodione 25% + tebuconazole 2.5%, iminoctadine and te-
 buconazole 150 FS + iprodione 50%. Guazatine, flutriafol 10.0 and triadime-
 nol + iprodione presented good control of this pathogen, followed by
 prochloraz, NF 128, NF 114 and difenoconazole. The least efficient
 treatments were thiram and tebuconazole. In the field, iprodione + thiram,
 iprodione 25% + tebuconazole 2.5%, guazatine, iminoctadine, tebuconazole 150
 FS + iprodione 50% and triadimenol + iprodione were the best in controlling
 the transmission of H. sativum. The most efficient control of P. oryzae in
 the seeds  was obtained with tebuconazole 150 FS + iprodione 50% and
 iminoctadine, which presented the same levels of control, followed by
 iprodione 25% + tebuconazole 2.5%, iprodione + thiram and prochloraz. Good
 control of this  pathogen was obtained with carboxin + thiram PM, NF 128,
 iprodione and  triadimenol + iprodione. The least efficient treatments were
 flutriafol 7.5,  difenoconazole, triadimenol, thiram and tebuconazole.
 Transmission of P. oryzae by  wheat seeds was detected in the field. Passage
 of this pathogen from infected seed to seedling was best controlled by
 carboxin + thiram PM, iprodione + thiram, iprodione 25% + tebuconazole 2.5%,
 prochloraz, iminoctadine and tebuconazole 150 FS + iprodione 50%.
 Significant differences in emergence due to fungicide treatments were
 observed. In spite of increased stand, no significant yield differences were
 observed among treatments.
 
      Fungicide                                   Dose
                                          (g a.i./100 kg of seeds)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Carboxin + thiram PM                         94 + 94
      Carbo~in + thiram SC                         50 + 50
      Iprodione + thiram                           50 + 150
      Iprodione 25 % + tebuconazole 2.5%           50 + 5
      Flutriafol                                   7.5
      Flutriafol                                   10.0
      Guazatine                                    75
      Prorhloraz                                   50
      NF 128 (triflumizole + methyl thiophanate)   30 + 90
      NF 114 (triflumizole)                        45
      Iminoctadine                                 62.5
      Difenoconazole                               30
      Triadimenol                                  40
      Thiram                                       210
      Tebuconazole                                 5
      Tebuconazole 150 FS + iprodione 50%          5 + 30
      /Iprodione                                   50
      Triadimenol + iprodione                      30 + 30
      Testemunha                                   -
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Losses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by Pyricularia grisea. 
 Losses in wheat yield due to infection by Pyricularia grisea regardless of
 the effect of other diseases, under natural conditions and without fungicide
 spraying, were determined during the 1988, 1989, 1990 and 1991 growing
 seasons for the cv. Anahuac. Commercial fields and experimental plots at Rio
 Brilhante, Dourados and Itapora counties were used.  The  losses  were
 determined using the following formulas:
 
           GWHS 
      PY = ---- x NTS          PY = Potential yield
           NHS                 GWHS = Grain weight of health spikes/m2
                               NHS = number of health spikes/mZ
                               NTS = total number of spikes/m7
      AY = GWHS + GWIS         AY = Actual yield
                               GWHS = Grain weight of health spikes/m2
                               GWIS = Grain weight of infected spikes/m
      L = PY - AY              L = losses
                               PY = Potential yield
                               AY = Actual yield
 
      In 1988 and 1989, at Rio Brilhante, the yield losses were 10.5%  of the
 estimated yield. An average of 48%  white  spikes  was  observed.   In 1990,
 at Dourados, the losses were greater than those recorded in 1988  and  1989,
 reaching 40% of the estimated yield,  with  93%  average incidence  of white
 spikes.  In the same year at Itapora,  losses  reached  32% with 86% of
 white heads. The losses in the next year  (1991),  at  Itapora, were 53% of
 the estimated yield with 86%  infected spikes.  In  the  four years, the
 spike weight loss caused by early infection  was  greater  (53%) than late
 infection (30%), regardless of  the locality. It was observed  that grains
 below the infection point in the rachis were larger  than  normal ones, thus
 compensating in some extent the presence of empty spikelets.   Because white
 spikes were more visible, the disease incidence may have been overestimated.
 
                           %  of          
                           infected             Loss               
      County       Year    spike            Kg/ha      %
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 Rio Brilhante(1)  1988      51             274       11
 Rio Brilhante(2)  1989      45             270       10
 Dourados(3)       199O      93             892       40
 Itapora(4)        1990      86             1,034     32
 Itapora(4)        1991      86             1,842     53
  -------------------------------------------------------------------  
 (1)Average of 2 replications.
 (2)Average of 3 replications.
 (3)Average of 6 replications.
 (4)Average of 5 replications.
 
 
                                Grain weight/spike (g)
 
                                      Early        Late
 County            Year     Healthy   infection    infection
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 Rio Brilhante(1)  1988     0.77       0.56        0.66
 Rio Brilhante(2)  1989     0.96       0.50        0.78
 Dourados(3)       1990     0.77       0.31        0.55
 Itapora           1990     1.30       0.53        0.81
 Itapora           1991     1.26       0.33        0.60
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
                   Losses in relation to 
 County            healthy spikes (%)
 
                   Early                   Late     
                   infection               infection
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 Rio Brilhante(1)     27                  14
 Rio Brilhante(2)     47                  18
 Dourados(3)          59                  27
 Itapora              60                  39
 Itapora              73                  52
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 (1) Average of 2 replications.
 (2) Average of 3 replications.
 (3) Average of 6 replications.
 (4) Average of 5 replication.
 
 
 
 -------------------------            
                     ITEMS FROM CANADA
 
 Statistics Canada's November estimate of 1993 wheat production on the
 prairies:
 
 
                        Hectares Seeded    Metric Tonnes Produced
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 Manitoba     - common        2,023,400       3,576,100
              - durum            46,500          92,500
              - winter            6,100           6,800
 
 Saskatchewan - common        6,353,700      12,668,800
              - durum         1,214,100       2,721,600
              - winter           18,200          35,400
 
 Alberta      - common        2,751,900       7,212,100
              - durum           202,300         544,300
              - winter           36,400          81,600
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 Note:  The Prairie Wheat Variety Survey is no longer available from the three
 Prairie Wheat Pools.
 
 
 ------------------------- 
 MANITOBA
 
      Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Winnipeg Research Centre.
 
      J. Gilbert and A. Tekauz
 
      Effects of Fusarium Head Blight (SCAB) on Seed Quality and of Seed
      Treatment on Wheat Germination, Vigor, and Emergence: 
 
      Producers in the Red River Valley north and south of Winnipeg
 experienced the worst epidemic of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on record in
 1993.  Glume blotch, caused by Septoria nodorum, was also severe.  The
 combination of the two diseases resulted in 7% of the Manitoba crop being
 graded sample account tombstone, and 36% being graded feed.  Producers are
 now faced with difficult decisions and need to know what effects the disease
 will have on a subsequent crop if 1993 seed from FHB-affected fields is sown
 in 1994.
 
      Methods:    Cleaned and uncleaned fractions of two samples of five
 varieties of wheat, Glenlea, Katepwa, Roblin, Sceptre, and AC Taber, were
 evaluated.  Seed treatments included dressings of Vitaflo 280 (carbathiin
 and thiram) and Vitavax S (carbathiin) applied to cleaned seed for
 germination and emergence tests.  In addition Vitaflo 280 was applied to
 uncleaned seed for germination trials.  Cleaned 1992 seed free of tombstone
 kernels was used as a check.  Cleaned and uncleaned seed was sent to the
 Canadian Grain Commission (CGC) for grading and tombstone analysis.  Seed
 was germinated in warm temperatures (20/15C), subjected  to a cold-germ
 vigor test at 5C, and tested for emergence from soil.  Fusarium species
 were identified from the seed.
 
      Results and Comments:    Cleaning did not improve the grades assigned
 by CGC, or the percent tombstone kernels in the Sceptre and AC Taber
 samples.  Cleaning reduced levels of tombstone and raised grades of Glenlea
 from CW Feed to #1 CW Extra Strong.  Cleaning did not change grades of
 Katepwa samples, but significantly improved grades of Roblin.  Little
 difference in germination and emergence was observed between uncleaned and
 cleaned samples; disease reduced these to an average of 65% and 39%,
 respectively.  Vitavax S was less effective than Vitaflo 280.  Vitaflo 280
 improved germination at warm temperatures and enhanced emergence of
 seedlings in soil, especially in Glenlea, Katepwa, and Roblin.  Glenlea and
 Katepwa also responded positively to Vitaflo 280 in the cold germ-vigor
 test.  In this test germination in untreated Roblin was higher than in the
 warm test suggesting that inhibition of the Fusarium fungus at cold
 temperatures permitted higher germination.  However, seed treatment improved
 germination in only one of the Roblin samples. Seed treatment did not
 improve germination in AC Taber.  The improvement in germination of Sceptre
 was not relevant as the seed was of extremely poor quality.
 
      Fusarium species:   Fusarium graminearum was the principal species
 isolated from the seed, followed by F. avenaceum.  These were also the
 predominant species isolated in the 1993 survey of 129 Manitoba wheat fields
 for FHB incidence and severity.
 
      Summary:  On the basis of these tests, Manitoba producers would be
 advised to treat 1993 seed to be used for field planting in 1994,
 particularly if this was grown in the Red River Valley.  Of the products
 registered and tested, Vitaflo 280 gave the best response.  Maneb DB-Green
 L, and Dithane M45 may be useful, but tests have not been completed.  
 
 -------------------------
      P.L. Dyck
 
      Genetics of Resistance to Leaf Rust and Stem Rust on Wheat:  The
 genetics of leaf rust and stem rust resistance has been studied in a number
 of wheat cultivars.  The results are listed here in table form and may be
 useful to plant breeders who have or are currently using some of these
 cultivars in their program.  Some of the cultivars have been studied by
 others.  No attempt is made here to review the literature.
 
      The rust resistant accessions were crossed and backcrossed with
 Thatcher, susceptible to leaf rust, and/or RL6071, susceptible to stem rust. 
 The backcross F(2) families were tested with selected rust races.  Resistant
 plants from families that segregated in a 1-gene ratio were grown to
 maturity and progeny tested with a group of rust races.  Their reaction was
 compared to that of lines with known single genes for resistance.  Genes
 identified in this way are listed in the column "infection type".  In other
 cases, the resistant selections were crossed with known single gene lines
 and F(2) populations were tested with the rust fungus.  If no segregation
 was observed, the lines had the same gene and the genotype is listed in the
 column "genetic study".  APR in the column "infection type" means that the
 cultivar had a gene for adult-plant leaf rust resistance that was not
 identified, while LrIT 1+ indicates the presence of an unidentified seedling
 effective leaf rust resistance gene for a 1+ infection type.  The cultivars
 listed may have additional genes for rust resistance.
 
                 PROBABLE GENOTYPE FOR RESISTANCE TO LEAF RUST
                          AND STEM RUST IN A GROUP OF
                       WHEAT CULTIVARS OF DIVERSE ORIGIN
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------  
                            Possible 
 Cultivars                  Origin
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 00914 Pin 39                China              
 00234 Da Bai mang           China              
 00613 Ma zha du             China              
 Argentine 48                Argentina
 PATO Argentine              Argentina
 BT 2288                     Tunisia
 Ke-chun 17                  China
 Cooperation 2               China                          
 VT 1551                     France            
 VT 2064                     France             
 VT 1595                     France
 VT 2222                     France                        
 NEAC 78-4708
 NEAC 120                                       
 Bezostaja 1                 USSR               
 Long Miai 10                China              
 Ke Feng No. 2               China                    
 Ke Han No. 7                China              
 Ke Han No. 8                China          
 82 PC Hari0779                                      
 Betta                       Argentina           
 Karee                       South Africa                   
 Wilge                       South Africa
 12th IBWSN459                                  
 Jiong Hong 3.2              China               
 Zhong 7605R                 China                   
 Zhong 7606W                 China                              
 Zhong 7725                  China                    
 F60049                                               
 F60125                                                   
 Renshou Wu                  China              
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
                 PROBABLE GENOTYPE FOR RESISTANCE TO LEAF RUST
                          AND STEM RUST IN A GROUP OF
                       WHEAT CULTIVARS OF DIVERSE ORIGIN
 
               Rust Resistance Genotype                                   
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------  
 Cultivars                Genetic Studies             Infection Type
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 00914 Pin 39                Lr33                     APR
 00234 Da Bai mang           Lr33                     APR
 00613 Ma zha du             Lr33                     Lr34
 Argentine 48                                         Lr11, Lr34
 PATO Argentine                                       Lr3bg, Lr34
 BT 2288                                              Lr34
 Ke-chun 17                                           Lr34
 Cooperation 2               Lr1, Lr3bg, Lr33         Lr34
 VT 1551                     Lr1                      Lr34
 VT 2064                     Lr16                     APR
 VT 1595                                              LrIt 1+, APR
 VT 2222                     Lr37/Sr38, Sr30
 NEAC 78-4708                                         Sr8a, Sr30
 NEAC 120                    Lr33           
 Bezostaja 1                 Lr34                     Lr3, APR
 Long Miai 10                Lr16                     LrB(?)
 Ke Feng No. 2               Lr33, Lr34               Lr16
 Ke Han No. 7                Lr16                     Lr34
 Ke Han No. 8                                         Lr33, Lr34
 82 PC Hari0779              Lr26/Sr31                Sr8a
 Betta                       Lr3bg                    Lr11
 Karee                       Lr3bg, Lr24/Sr24         Sr8A, lr11
 Wilge                                                Sr8a, Lr11, Lr24/Sr24
 12th IBWSN459               Lr16                     Sr9e, Sr11, Sr36, LrIt 1+
 Jiong Hong 3.2              Lr3bg                    Lr34
 Zhong 7605R                 Lr26/Sr31
 Zhong 7606W                 Lr3, Lr16, Lr26/ 
                             Sr31
 Zhong 7725                  Lr26, Sr31               Sr5
 F60049                      Lr26, Sr31
 F60125                      Lr1, Lr26/Sr31           Sr6, Sr8a, Lr11
 Renshou Wu                  Lr33                     Lr34
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 ------------------------- 
      J.A. Kolmer
 
      Wheat Leaf Rust in Canada in 1993:  Wheat leaf rust was first detected
 in 1993 during the second week of June, in winter wheat plots at Portage MB. 
 However, the lack of southerly winds in June and July reduced the initial
 amount of inoculum and slowed the general rate of leaf rust increase. By the
 first week of July, leaf rust was present only in trace amounts at scattered
 locations throughout southern Manitoba.  Leaf rust levels were very low in
 fields of the resistant cultivars Roblin, Columbus, Pasqua, and Grandin. 
 The severity of leaf rust infection on susceptible cultivars was
 significantly lower in eastern Saskatchewan. Only trace levels of rust could
 be found north of Regina.  Losses due to leaf rust were not expected in
 1993.
 
      Physiologic Specialization of Puccinia recondita on Wheat in Canada in
 1993:
 
 Table 1.  Frequency (%) of the most common virulence phenotypes as
 identified on the Prt(1) differentials.
 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
 Phenotype       Quebec%          Ontario%        Man./Sask%
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
 FBM-B             12.9            1.5            0
 KBG-14a,10         0              0              5
 MBG-14a,10        19.4           15.4            3.7
 MBR-14a,10         0              1.5           18.6
 MFB-14a,10         0              0              7.5
 MFB-14a,10         0              4.6           18.6
 NBB-B,18,10        0              0              0
 PBD-14,10          0              0              0
 PBL-B,10          45.2           55.4            0
 TBG-14a,10         0              0             11.8
 TDG-14a,10         3.2            0             12.4
 
 Total number of
 isolates          31             65            161
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
 
  -----------------------------------------------
 Phenotype        Alberta%        Brit. Col%
  -----------------------------------------------
 FBM-B              0              0
 KBG-14a,10        10.7            0
 MBG-14a,10        10.7            0
 MBR-14a,10         0              0
 MFB-14a,10         7.1            0
 NBB-B,18,10        0              0
 NBB-B,18,10       10.7           20
 PBD-14,10          0             60
 PBL-B,10           0              0
 TBG-14a,10        32.1            0
 TDG-14a,10        10.7            0
 
 Total number of
 isolates          28              5
  -----------------------------------------------
 
 
 Table 2.  Frequency (%) of isolates of Puccinia recondita virulent to Thatcher
 isogenic lines with leaf rust resistance genes in 1993
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
 Gene              Quebec%        Ontario%      Man/Sask%
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
 Lr1                87.7           98.5          92.5
 Lr2a               16.1            0            41
 Lr2c               77.4           70.8          41.6
 Lr3               100            100           100
 Lr9                 0              3.1           0.6
 Lr16                0              0             0
 Lr24               19.4            7.7          54.7
 Lr26                6.5            4.6          34.2
 Lr3ka              61.3           73.8          44.7
 Lr11               25.8           23.1          60.2
 Lr17                0              0             0
 Lr30               16.1           13.8          41
 LrB                61.3           69.2           1.9
 Lr14a              54.8           32.3          99.4
 Lr18               16.1            4.6           0
 Lr10               96.8           96.9          99.4
  --------------------------------------------------------------
  --------------------------------------------------------
 Gene              Alberta%       Brit Col%
  -------------------------------------------------------
  Lr1              85.7           100
  Lr2a             64.3             0
  Lr2c             78.6            80
  Lr3              85.7            80
  Lr9               0               0
  Lr16              0               0
  Lr24             32.1             0
  Lr26             10.7             0
  Lr3ka             0               0
  Lr11             67.9             0
  Lr17              0              60
  Lr30              0               0
  LrB              14.3            40
  Lr14a            85.7            80
  Lr18             10.7            40
  Lr10             100            100
  --------------------------------------------------------
 
                         Reference
 
 Long, D.L. and Kolmer, J.A. 1989. A North American system of nomenclature
 for Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici.   Phytopathology 79:525-529. 
 
 ------------------------- 
      J.A. Kolmer and J.Q. Liu*
 
      *Present address, Dept. of Plant Pathology and Physiology, Clemson
      Univ., Clemson SC, USA.
 
      Association Between Virulence and Molecular Phenotypes in Puccinia
 recondita  f.sp. tritici in Canada:
 
      Materials and Methods:  DNA from 44 single pustule isolates of P.
 recondita collected from in 1992 in Canada, was extracted and subjected to 
 random amplification  using the polymerase chain reaction.  Arbitrary
 decamer primers were obtained from the University of British Columbia.  Nine
 primers were chosen for repeatability of polymorphism from approximately 100
 primers screened.  Urediniospores from each of the isolates were also tested
 on Prt(1) differential sets to determine the virulence phenotypes.
 
      Results and Discussion:  RAPD markers separated the molecular
 phenotypes into two distinct clusters of virulence phenotypes.  The largest
 cluster had 36 isolates, with 18 different virulence phenotypes.  The
 average molecular difference between isolates within this cluster was 2.4. 
 Virulence phenotypes in the largest cluster were all virulent or avirulent
 to both resistance genes Lr2a and Lr2c.  These virulence phenotypes are
 found predominately in the prairie region (Manitoba and Saskatchewan) of
 Canada.  A second cluster of six isolates, with three different virulence
 phenotypes was found using the RAPD markers.  The average molecular
 difference between isolates in the second cluster was 2.0.  Virulence
 phenotypes in the second cluster are all avirulent to resistance gene Lr2a
 and virulent to Lr2c.  These virulence phenotypes are found only in eastern
 Canada (Ontario and Quebec), and are predominately collected from winter
 wheat. Isolates in the two RAPD clusters differed by an average of 6.4
 molecular differences.  An isolate of Race 9 (Prt phenotype SBB), which was
 collected in 1954, had a distinct RAPD phenotype and did not fit into either
 of the two clusters.  Race 9 was a common phenotype in both the east and
 prairie populations in the 1930's, prior to the introduction of resistance
 genes in wheats grown in the prairie region.  A second isolate, virulence
 phenotype PBD, also had a unique RAPD phenotype, and did not fit into either
 of the two clusters.  This phenotype is regularly collected from British
 Columbia.  These preliminary results indicate that there are currently two
 distinct groups of P. recondita on hexaploid wheat in Canada.  Two different
 introductions of P. recondita may have occurred in North American.  An
 alternative hypothesis is that  differential host selection between the east
 and prairie populations since 1937 may have separated the isolates from one
 large RAPD cluster into the two distinct clusters observed in the current
 population.  We are currently testing an additional 20 isolates collected in
 1993 for RAPD phenotype.
 
                         Reference
 
 Long, D.L. and Kolmer, J.A. 1989. A North American system of nomenclature
 for Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici.   Phytopathology 79:525-529.  
 
 ------------------------- 
      O.M. Lukow and R.I.H. McKenzie
 
      Quality and Yield of 1BL/1RS Wheat-rye Translocation Lines:  Near-
 isogenic wheat lines derived from Veery 3 and Ata 81 were developed to test
 the effect of genetic background on breadmaking quality of lines, with and
 without the 1BL/1RS translocation.  Regardless of their HMW glutenin subunit
 composition, there were significant differences between the 1BL/1RS
 translocation and the control lines in dough extensibility and SDS-
 sedimentation volume.  All translocation lines were less extensible and had
 lower SDS-sedimentation volume than the controls.  Poorer dough properties
 of the 1BL/1RS lines did not necessarily translate into lower loaf volumes. 
 Not all lines containing the 1BL/1RS translocation were characterized by
 sticky doughs. Genetic background significantly affected 1BL/1RS quality.
 
      In field evaluation trials conducted at 2 sites for three years, there
 appeared to be no consistent difference in yield between lines with or
 without the 1BL/1RS translocation. 
 
 -------------------------
 J. Procunier, F. Townley-Smith, E. Czarnecki, S. Prashar, M. Gray, W. Kim
 and P. Dyck
 
      PCR-based DNA Markers for Leaf Rust Resistance Genes:  Successful wheat
 production in the rust area of Western Canada continues to depend on the use
 of rust resistant cultivars.  Cultivars with specific combinations of adult
 and seedling leaf rust resistance genes (Puccinia recondita) have a greater
 durability of resistance.  PCR-based markers allow the pyramiding of these
 genes into wheat cultivars.  Pairs of near isogenic lines (NILs) have been
 used to identify the markers.  By combining the random amplified polymorphic
 DNA (RAPD) technique with the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)
 method of fragment separation, two putative markers for Lr 22a, 25 and 29
 and single markers for Lr21 and Lr34 have been identified.F2 populations
 segregating for the Lr29 gene showed that both markers are tightly linked to
 the resistance gene (no recombinants/50 F2 plants).  Linkage analysis is
 currently being completed for the other Lr genes.  For applications
 requiring high throughput (breeding programs), high level of
 accuracy/reliability and universal use, the RAPD/DGGE markers are being
 converted to SCARS (sequence characterized amplified region).  By cloning
 and sequencing these markers, wheat specific designer primers are being
 constructed for their use in diagnostic testing.  
 
 ------------------------ 
      Taing Aung and E.R. Kerber
      
      Incorporation of Leaf Rust Resistance from Wild Tetraploid into
 Cultivated Hexaploid Wheat:  Due to the continual evolution of new virulent
 leaf rust races identification of new sources of resistance and to transfer
 these genes into common wheat has become a necessity for wheat breeding
 programs in north America.  This would significantly increase the diversity
 of genetic resistance in common wheat germplasm.  There is a growing
 evidence that leaf rust resistance genes (Lr21, Lr22, Lr32 for example)
 extracted from wild diploid species of wheat Aegilops squarrasa (= Triticum
 tauschii) are now being in use in several advanced breeding lines in Canada.
 
 
      A tetraploid genotype, Ae. triuncialis (= T. triunciale), 2n=28 with
 its genome designated as CU is highly resistant to leaf rust tested under
 field conditions.  This genotype was hybridized to the common wheat cultivar
 Marquis as pistillate parent.  Seven F1 plants were generated through embryo
 rescue procedures and were treated with colchicine to produced amphiploids. 
 Only one amphiploid (2n=70 chromosomes) plant was established and was
 partially female fertile.  Backcrossing this plant to Marquis as pollen
 parent resulted 14 shrivelled seeds which later give rise to 3 plants that
 were partially self fertile and produced a few selfed seeds.  Resistant
 plants were identified from this selfed progeny and were used as pollen
 parents to backcross to Marquis.  A total of nine lines, backcross three
 times to the common wheat, were isolated for their resistant reaction to
 leaf rust.  From these lines two homozygous and one heterozygous resistant
 lines were selected for their acceptable agronomic characters, fertility and
 high resistance reaction (0,;,1 ) to leaf rust.  One homozygous line has
 2n=44 chromosomes, the second line has 2n=42 chromosomes and the
 heterozygous line has 2n=43 chromosomes and it segregated 3R:1S ratio. 
 These results indicated that a new source of resistance has been
 incorporated or transferred into cultivar Marquis genetic background.  As
 far as we know there is no previous report regarding the transfer of rust
 resistance genes from CU genome of Ae. triuncialis into common wheat. 
 Additional backcrosses are being made to the cultivar Marquis.  A genotype
 of Marquis with this new source of resistance incorporated into its genetic
 background would increase the diversity of genetic resistance in the common
 wheat germplasm.
 
 ------------------------- 
 PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
 
      Agriculture and Agri-Fooc Canada, Charlottetown Research Centre.
 
      H.W. Johnston and H.G. Nass
 
      Disease Resistance Levels Required for Registration of new Wheat
 Cultivars in Atlantic Canada:   In several of the last few years, Fusarium
 head blight (FHB) has been quite destructive, not only in Atlantic Canada,
 but in other areas of Canada as well.  Hence, registration of new wheat
 cultivars will require data showing that the level of resistance to FHB
 meets certain criteria.   In Atlantic Canada, multiple year data based on
 percentage of spikelets and heads displaying symptoms of Fusarium infection
 plus the Index [(% infected spikelets x % infected heads)/100], must show
 that candidate lines have greater resistance to FHB than the worst of three
 disease check cultivars for spring wheat (Algot, Belvedere and Max) and of
 two check cultivars for winter wheat (Borden and Ruby).
 
      Cultivar Registration and Recommendation Tests:  It is imperative that
 cereal cultivar testing be conducted more efficiently than in the past,
 because of a reduced level of funding for both Recommendation and
 Registration Tests.  Beginning with the 1994 growing season, Recommendation
 and Registration Tests will be combined into one test.  Thus, all
 recommended cultivars will be included in the Registration Test.  In the
 past, Recommendation Tests had several levels of management, but only one
 level of management will be applied in the combined test.  Other recent
 changes to this test are that no fungicide seed treatment will be used, and
 no foliar fungicides nor growth regulators will be part of the management
 protocol so that negative traits of a cultivar can be assessed.
 
 --------------------------
 SASKATCHEWAN
 
      R. M. De Pauw, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Station, Swift
 Current
 
      New cultivar.  AC Eatonia (=BW642), hard red spring, has higher grain
 yield potential, more resistance to the wheatstem sawfly and better
 resistance to common root rot than Leader.  AC Eatonia has the potential to
 replace the majority of other solid stemmed cultivars. The rights for
 promotion, multiplication and distribution have been awarded to Proven
 Seeds, UGG. 
 
 ------------------------- 
      M.R. Fernandez*, J.M. Clarke and R.M. DePauw
 
      Variation in the response of leaves at different growth stages and
 kernels of durum wheat genotypes to Pyrenophora tritici-repentis.  Fourteen
 durum wheat genotypes were evaluated for reaction of leaves at different
 growth stages, and kernels, to Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (causal agent of
 tan spot and red smudge in wheat) under controlled conditions.  Percent leaf
 area with tan spot symptoms at the seedling stage was not correlated with
 that on the flag leaf, or with field leaf spot ratings.  Field leaf spot
 ratings were correlated with both percent leaf area with symptoms and lesion
 length on the flag leaf of artificially-inoculated plants.  Percent
 incidence of red smudge in kernels of artificially-inoculated plants was not
 correlated, or was negatively correlated, with tan spot reaction at the
 seedling or adult stages, and field leaf spot ratings.  Different resistance
 mechanisms to P. tritici-repentis seem to be operating in different organs
 of the plant, and resistance to tan spot observed at the adult stage was not
 expressed at the seedling stage. (Manuscript to appear in Plant Disease).
 
 -------------------------
       M.R. Fernandez*, J.M. Clarke, R.M. DePauw and R.B. Irvine
 
      Leaf spots in wheat in southern Saskatchewan in 1993.    Severity and
 fungal composition of leaf spots were analyzed in 6 durum and 7 common wheat
 cultivars (2 CWRS, 3 CPS and 2 CWSWS) at Swift Current and Outlook, in
 southern Saskatchewan.  Leaf spot ratings in 1993 were similar for the durum
 and common wheat cultivars but higher at Outlook than at Swift Current. 
 Compared to previous years, leaf spot severity in the common wheat cultivars
 was higher than in 1991 or 1992 at Swift Current, and higher than in 1992 at
 Outlook.  For the durum wheat cultivars, the severity of leaf spots at
 Outlook was higher than in 1992.
 
      In 1993, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis was isolated at a lower frequency
 (about 45%) and Septoria nodorum at a higher frequency (about 48%) from leaf
 spot lesions than in the two previous years (average of about 63% for P.
 tritici-repentis and 26% for S. nodorum for 1991 and 1992).  S. tritici was
 also more frequent in 1993 than in previous years, particularly in the CWRS
 wheat cultivars (<5% in 1991-1992, 26% in 1993).
 
      Black point and red smudge in durum and common wheat cultivars in
 southern Saskatchewan in 1993.  Black point was observed at lower levels in
 1993 than in 1992 at Swift Current, Sask.  The incidence of this kernel
 discoloration was higher in the durum (mean of 16%) than in the common wheat
 cultivars (mean of 5%).  The incidence of red smudge was in turn higher than
 in 1992, and higher for the common wheat (mean of 8.4%) than for the durum
 wheat cultivars (mean of 4.1%).  Among the wheat classes, red smudge in the
 CWRS, CPS and CWAD was similar (4.1 to 7.5%) but lower than in the CWSWS
 wheat cultivars (13.6%).
 
                         Publications
 
 Bailey, K.L., Duczek, L.J., Jones-Flory, L., Kutcher, R., Fernandez, M.R.,
 Hughes, G.R., Kaminski, D., Kirkham, C., Mortensen, K., Boyetchko, S.,
 Burnett, P. and D. Orr, 1994.
 
 Saskatchewan/Central Alberta Wheat Disease Survey, 1993. Can. Plant Dis.
 Surv. (in press).
 
 Clarke, J.M. and DePauw, R.M.  1993.  Residue production of semidwarf and
 conventional wheat genotypes.  Can. J. Plant Sci. 73:769-776.
 
 Clarke, J.M., Howes, N.K., McLeod, J.G. and DePauw, R.M. 1993. Selection for
 gluten strength in the F(2) of three durum crosses.  Crop Sci. 33:956-958.
 
 Clarke, J.M. and McCaig, T.N.  1993.  Breeding for efficient root systems. 
 In Plant Breeding - Principles and Prospects., M.D. Hayward, N.O. Bosemark,
 and I. Romagosa (eds), Chapman Hall (pub), Chapter 28, 485-499.
 
 Clarke, J.M., T.N.McCaig and R.M. DePauw.  1993.  Relationship of
 glaucousness and epicuticular wax quantity in wheat.  Can. J. Plant Sci.
 73:961-967.
 
 Clarke, J.M., McCaig, T.N. and DePauw, R.M. 1994. Inheritance of
 glaucousness and epicuticular wax in durum wheat. Crop Sci. 34:(in press).
 
 Clarke, P., J. B. Thomas, R.M. DePauw. 1993.  Bluesky red spring wheat. Can.
 J. Plant Sci. 73:(in press).
 
 Clarke, P., R.M. DePauw, and J. B. Thomas. 1993.  Wildcat red spring wheat.
 Can. J. Plant Sci. 73:(in press).
 
 DePauw, R.M., Knox, R.E., Morrison, R.J., McCaig, T.N., Clarke, J.M. and
 McLeod, J.M. 1994. Registration of 'AC Taber' hard red spring wheat.  Crop
 Sci. 34: (in press).
 
 Fenn, D., Lukow,O.M., Bushuk, W. and DePauw,R.M. 1994. Milling and baking
 quality of 1BL/1RS translocation wheats. I. genotype and environment
 effects.  Cereal Chemistry 71: (in press).
 
 Fernandez, M.R., Clarke, J.M., DePauw, R.M., Irvine, R.B., McLeod, J.G.,
 1993. Evaluation of durum wheat for resistance to tan spot and pink smudge,
 pp.28-32. In: Proceedings of the Second International Tan Spot Workshop.
 (Francl, L.J., Krupinsky, J.M., McMullen, M.P. eds.) NDSU, Fargo, ND, 142
 pp.
 
 Fernandez, M.R., J.M. Clarke and R.M. DePauw, 1994. Response of durum wheat
 kernels and leaves at different growth stages to Pyrenphora tritici-
 repentis. Plant Dis. (in press).
 
 Fernandez, M.R. J.M. Clarke, R.M. DePauw, R.B. Irvine, and R.E. Knox, 1994.
 Black point and red smudge in irrigated durum wheat in southern Saskatchewan
 in 1990-1992.  Can. J. Plant Pathol. (in press).
 
 Kruger, J.E., Hatcher, D.W., and DePauw, R.M. 1993. A whole seed assay for
 polyphenol oxidase in Canada Prairie Spring wheats and its usefulness as a
 measure of noodle darkening.  Cereal Chem. (in press).
 
 McCaig, T.N., R.M. DePauw, and P.C. Williams. 1993. Assessing seed coat
 colour in a wheat breeding program with an NIR/VIS instrument. Can. J. Plant
 Sci. 73:535-539.
 
 McCaig, T.N., and Morgan, J.A.  1993.  Root and shoot dry matter
 partitioning in near-isogenic wheat lines differing in height.  Can. J.
 Plant Sci. 73:  679-689.
 
 Morgan, J.A., LeCain, D.R., McCaig, T.N. and Quick, J.S.  1993.
 Transpiration efficiency, water relations and carbon isotope discrimination
 in winter wheat.  Crop Sci. 33:  178-186.
 
 -------------------------
                        ITEMS FROM CHINA
 
      Wheat Breeding Institute, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 
 
      Zhao-Su Wu, Shi-Rong Yu, Xi-Zhong Wei, You-Jia Shen, Guo-Liang Jiang,
      Ji-Min Wu, Yong Xu, Zhao-Xia Chen, Shi-Jia  Liu
 
      Studies on the development of scab-resistant gene pool in wheat III. 
 Exploration of the establishment of base populations and their recurrent
 selection.  Three base populations were established with different male-
 sterile gene Tal, and different selection procedures and intensities were
 adopted in their recurrent selection programs, respectively.  For the long-
 term gene pool GPO and the short-term gene pool GPIII, the same base
 population was developed according to Wu et al.'s scheme, and for the male-
 sterile plants, phenotypic mass spike selection was conducted with 15-20%
 and about 5% selection intensities respectively.  For the short-term gene
 pool PI, superior male-sterile plants were selected from the F1 hybrid
 populations of 10 desirable combinations and seeds of the selected plants
 were bulked in a proper ratio to establish the base population.  For the
 short-term gene pool GPII, individual plant selection was conducted for 2-3
 cycles for male-sterile plants from the F1 hybrids and progeny populations
 of 28 desirable combinations and the seeds from selected plants were bulked
 in a proper ratio to form the base population.  With the male-sterile plants
 during recurrent selection of PI and GPII, phenotypic mass plant selection
 was carried out for agronomic characters such as plant height and yield
 components as well as scab resistance with about 5% selection intensity. 
 GPO, PI, GPII and GPIII, grown in a 3-replicate randomized layout were
 studied in Nanjing during two crop seasons 1989 - 1991.  Of these different
 recurrent selection populations, mean resistance to scab was higher in GPIII
 and lower in GPII.  The average or percentage of diseased seeds of superior
 plants in GPIII was small, while the resistance of their progenies was
 similar to those of the other three populations.  The 3 short-term gene
 pools were significantly better than GPO in most agronomic characters.  Mean
 plant height in PI, GPII and GPIII was 12.2, 11.4, and 6.7 cm shorter, and
 grain weight per spike and kernel weight were 9.79 - 17.20% and 2.76 - 9.91%
 heavier than those of GPO, respectively.  More total and seeded spikelets
 and grains per spike were observed in the short-term gene pools.  For the
 superior plants extracted from the short-term gene pools, the average plant
 height was 7 - 10 cm shorter, grains per plant and spike were 40 - 70 and 2
 - 6 more, and weight of grains per plant and spike was 1.5 - 4.5 and 0.2 -
 0.55 g higher than those from the long-term gene pool respectively. 
 Relatively great genetic variabilities existed and were maintained during
 recurrent selection with all of these populations, which meant that
 effective selection could be carried on in the further development of the
 gene pools.
 
      Studies on utilization of wheat biblends in piebald saline-alkali soil. 
 The experiments were conducted at Tianwangtang Village (heavy saline-
 alkaline soil) and Huimin Agricultural Institute (light saline-alkali soil),
 Shandong Province, during 1989 - 1991. Twelve biblends were formed in
 incomplete dialleles from 3 slat-enduring and 4 non-salt enduring wheat
 pureline cultivars.  Correlate analysis of yield and its related characters
 showed that the main factor affecting wheat yield was ear number, which was
 determined by established seedling number.  So established seedling number
 was much more important to wheat yield on heavy saline-alkali soil.  The
 average yield in wheat biblends increased by 351 g kg/hm(2) (9.1%) compared
 with that in pure stands and the difference was significant.  So the
 application of biblends was an efficient way to increase wheat yield on
 piebald saline-alkali soil.
 
      Development and study on new maintenance line sources of 5 male sterile
 types with easily restoring performance in common wheat.  The alloplasmic
 wheat varieties Chris with 10 different Aegilops cytoplasms were used as the
 cytoplasm donors.  A whole series of 1B/1R translocations lines, such as
 77(2) and others, and both progeny plants or lines of reciprocal cross with
 same sterile nucleus gene but different cytoplasms served as nucleus donors. 
 Under 5 sterile cytoplasm backgrounds the new maintenance lines with much
 easy restoring performance were bred by crossing, repeated substitution
 backcrossing and sterile coverting.  The results from test cross and
 fertility analysis indicated that: 1) the restoring degree in F1 between the
 new sterile lines and some varieties or lines exceeded 90%. 2) the male
 sterile line with Ae. kotschyi, Ae. variabilis and Ae. bicornis sterile
 cytoplasms, namely their 1B/1R sterile lines, is the sterile induced by
 interaction between 1Rs fragments and the 4 cytoplasms because of fertility
 gene deficiency. 3) no haploid plant was found in the sterile and F1 with
 Ae. uniaristata cytoplasm.  Haploidy induced by 1B/1R sterile lines with Ae.
 ventricosa, Ae. kotschyi, Ae. variabilis and Ae. bicornis cytoplasms is a
 side effect caused by sterility induced by special interaction of 1B/1R
 translocation chromosome and the 4 cytoplasms above.  But their sterile
 lines without haploids bred by new maintenance lines showed that the haploid
 plants may disappear with different nucleus genetic background of sterile
 line.  In addition, the 5 sterile lines above not only possess widely easy
 restorer performance, but also caused certain interaction relationships.  It
 supplied a favorable condition to simplify the procedure for producing
 hybrid seed.
 
      Comprehensive selection in white wheat resources for pre-harvest
 sprouting under different selection intensities.  A total of 399 resources
 were researched about duration of growth period (A), grain number per car
 (B), grain weight (C), scab (D), powdery mildew (E), seed coat color (F),
 preharvest sprouting (G), and plant height (H).  Genetic parameters were
 estimated and the theoretical rates of the resources which accorded with the
 criteria in their eight characters were estimated by using approximate
 calculation of multiple normal distribution.  Computer selection results
 showed that one resource accorded with the experiential criterion from 218
 in 1991 and five and one accorded with the experiential criterion and the +
 Os criterion from 369 in 1992 respectively.  The 20074//03256(4)/ Tom Thumb
 strain bred by Beijing Agricultural University was good in eight characters
 during two years.  About 350-400 resources were needed as basic population
 to be selected under the + Os criterion and 250-300 as well under the
 experimental criterion.
 
      Study on germination characters of wheat seed with different coat
 color.  Three wheat cultivars with different seed coat color were studies
 researching germination characters.  Germination percentage and index of
 cultivars with red seed coat were lower than those of Siyang 936 with white
 seed coat.  There was no difference among cultivars in seed absorption rate
 of water.  Respiratory rate, electric conductivity and alpha-amylase
 activity decreased as color level increased. Eight bands were found in every
 cultivar and an additional band (No. 9) in Yangmai 5 in the amylase
 isoenzyme chart.  GA(3) resulted in increasing germination index and length
 of sheath and seedlings of Ppzise and Yangmai 5.
 
                         Publications
 
 Jiang, Guo-Liang and Zhao-Su Wu.  1993.  Studies on the development of scab
 resistant gene pool in wheat III.  Exploration of the establishment of base
 populations and their recurrent selection.  Acta Agronomica Sinica,
 19(5):441-452.
 
 Jiang, G. L., Z. S. Wu and D. C. Huang.  1993.  Phenotypic recurrent
 selection for resistance to scab in wheat.  Proc. 8th Intern. Wheat Genetics
 Symp. Beijing, China.  In Press.
 
 Jiang, Guo-Liang.  1993.  Review on application of recurrent selection to
 improvement of self-pollinated crops.  Chinese Agricultural Science
 Bulletin, 9(2):6-10.
 
 Jiang, Guo-Liang, Zhao-Su Wu and Zhao-Xia Chen.  1993.  A new scab-resistant
 wheat germplasm Changjiang 8809. J. of Nanjing Agricultural University,
 16(4):28.
 
 Cai, Qing-Sheng and Zhao-Su Wu.  1993.  The relations of dry matter
 accumulation of grain growth stages to grain weight in wheat.  J. of Nanjing
 Agricultural University, 16(1):27-32.
 
 Yang, Zhu-Ping, Zhao-Su Wu and Shi-Rong Yu.  1993.  Effects of phenotypic
 selection for agronomic traits on population improvement by using a wheat
 gene pool of scab resistance.  J. of Nanjing Agricultural University.
 16(2):18-22.
 
 Wei, Xi-Zhong, Ji-Min Wu and Yong Xu.  1993.  Comprehensive selection in
 white wheat resources for pre-harvest sprouting under different selection
 intensities.  J. of Nanjing Agricultural University, 16(4):23-28.
 Ma, Chuan-Xi and Zhao-Su Wu.  1993.  Effect of variation of protein
 fractions and HMW glutenin subunits on SDS sedimentation volume in wheat
 varieties.  Acta Agronomica Sinica, 19(6):562-566.
 
 Fu, Zhao-Lin, Shi-Rong Yu and Zhao-Su Wu.  1993.  Studies on utilization of
 wheat biblends in piebald saline-alkali soil.  J. of Nanjing Agricultural
 University, 16(2):7-11.
 
 Zhang, Gai-Sheng, Zhao-Su Wu, Shi-Yong Yu and Hai-Lu Cao.  1993. 
 Development and study on new maintenance line sources of 5 male sterile
 types with easily restoring performance in common wheat.  Acta Agriculturae
 Boreali-Occidentalis Sinica 2(3):19-24.
 
 Yu, Shi-Rong.  1993.  World wheat production and scientific research in
 early 90s.  World Agriculture, (8):19-20.
 
 -------------------------
      Crop Breeding and Culture Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture
      Sciences (CAAS), Beijing
 
      Zhong-hu He and Zhen-hua Du
 
      General.  Under the leadership of the Ministry of Agriculture, Crop
 Breeding and Culture Institute serves as coordinator of national wheat
 breeding program which includes wheat improvement sections of Academy of
 Agricultural Sciences at Provincial level and some agricultural institutes
 at prefectural level, Agricultural University or College, and the relevant
 institutes of Chinese Academy of Sciences.  It also coordinates the
 cooperative shuttle breeding project between CIMMYT and China. At present,
 breeders mostly work on winter wheat, durum wheat (spring and winter)
 improvement also receives certain attention.  Supported programs such as
 wide cross and germplasm enhancement as well as anther culture are closely
 linked with breeding program.
 
      Major events.  The Eighth International Wheat Genetics Symposium was
 held in Beijing in July of 1993 and several papers were presented by our
 staff.  Four senior scientists of CASS also served on the local organization
 committee.  About 70 persons from throughout China attended the First
 National Wheat Breeding and Genetics Conference for Young Scientists in
 November of 1993.  A review of the National Wheat Breeding Program by the
 Ministry of Agriculture and the National Science Committee concluded it was
 in good shape.
 
      New Cultivar.  An introduction form ICARDA performed very well in North
 China Winter Wheat Region. Maya"s"/ON//II60-147/3/Bb/4/Chat"S" was
 introduced and evaluated by the team led by Professor Z. H. Du.   It ranked
 the first and second in the National Yield Trials in 1991-1992 and 1992-93,
 with averages of 6013.5 and 5592.0 kg/ha, respectively.  It outyielded the
 check Fengkang 8 significantly in both seasons by 3.4%in first season and
 4.2% in second season.  The highest yield reached 7200 t/ha.  Based on data
 from Dr. B. Q. Sun of Beijing Agricultural University, it showed good
 resistance to powdery mildew and yellow rust in Beijing.  It also performed
 well in Hebei and Shanxi Province, with good lodging and stress (drought)
 resistance.  Compared with other Chinese winter wheat cultivars, it has more
 grains per spike and higher test weight, is early-medium in maturity and has
 good quality, but has lower grain wt.  It could be released in Beijing and
 Hebei in 1994.
 
 -------------------------
      Dry Farming Institute, Hebei Academy of Agricultural Sciences
 
      F. W. Zhao, H. M. Li, Z. Y. Liu, Y. Z. Shen, F. C. Liu, Z. Q. Li
 
                         Hybrid Wheat Breeding
 
      CHA research.  Two new HCAs Ek and Es, patent No. 92CN103773, have been
 successfuly developed and utilized in wheat heterosis research.  Seven years
 results have shown that sterility and seed set of female plants treated with
 both CHAs were over 95% and 80%, respectively.  
 
      Hybrid seed production.  Hybrid seed production area was 233 ha this
 year.  The female yield was 4.21 t/ha and 250 tons of hybrids were produced
 by CHA which will be planted next season.
 
      Hybrid demonstration.  Hybrid wheat demonstrations of 467 ha were
 planted/harvested this year covering 9 states in China.  Although this was a
 bad season for wheat yield because of drought, hybrids gave satisfactory
 results.  Hybrid vigor, was measured at 15-20% over the checks.  Huayou 6, a
 new hybrid planted in Zhongtong village in Xinle county by senior
 agronomists organized by Hebei Agricultural Bureau, yielded 8.4 t/ha on 7.6
 ha which was the best yield for such a large area in Hebei province.
 
      Photo-thermo-sensitive male sterile line research.  Two experiments
 were done on line 91-1, a photo-thermo-sensitive male sterile/fertile line
 arising from previous research.
 
      1.   Line 91-1 is a thermal insensitive genotype.  
      2.   Its restoring spectrum is wide, from 8 crosses all gave 85% or
           more seeset from bagged main stem heads.
 
      In seed increases line 91-1 plants were half sterile/fertile from
 planting made on October 12 last year.  The sterile/fertile complex of 91-1
 should be further studied in order to utilize this genotype in hybrid wheat
 research.  About 155 crosses were made by hand this year to identify the
 restoring capacity for hybrid combinations of 91-1.
 
 -------------------------
      H. M. Li, F. W. Zhao, Z. Z. Bai, C. S. Guo, L. Z. Sun, H. W. Li
 
      Superhigh Yield Breeding 
 
      Breeding objective.  To develop new genotypes with a yield potential of
 7.5-9 t/ha for irrigated land in Huanghuai winter wheat valley.  The indices
 for this kind of genotype are: 50-60 grains/spike; 38 g kernel wt density of
 5,250,000 spikes/ha; semi-winter habit with good disease resistance and
 acceptable quality.
 
      Natural resource.  Huanghuai winter wheat valley is a major wheat
 production region covering more than 1/3 of the wheat growing area in China. 
 Natural resources are most adequate for wheat production including: 120-130
 kcal annual solar radiation, annual temperature summation of 4,500 - 5,000 
 degC  and a annual daily average temperature of 12.5 degC.  Breeding
 progress in recent years was mostly in promoting improved wheat yield.  But
 to improve yield further, new approaches and new genotypes with high yield
 potential must be adopted.  Much effort has been expended on superhigh yield
 breeding to develop high yielding cultivarws uisng various approaches.
 
      Breeding progress.  Much germplasm has been used in superhigh breeding
 and progress has been slow.  Particularly, large spikes are always
 associated with poor and shrivelled seed and later heading date than for
 middle-size spike genotypes preventing release of such types for commercial
 production.  To attempt a solution to this problem mutation breeding was
 established using CO(60).
 
      Characteristics of HS 888, successful mutant from this research, is
 shown below.
 
           Plant     Spike     Spikelet     Grain     Kernel              
 Geno-    height     length    # /Spike    #//Spike    wt       Winter
 type      (cm)      (cm)                            (g)        habit
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------                       
 HS 888    79.8      19.2      25        58         38    half winter
      
 Jimai     78.4       7.5      17        35         36    half winter
 26 (CK)                                                               
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      From this it can be seen that HS 888 has agronomic characteristics that
 met the breeding objective.  It is very useful material for superhigh yield
 breeding.
 
                         Publications
 
 Zhao, F. W., Li, H. W., and Zuen. E. Z.  1993.  The Male Sterility in Wheat
 Induced by New Gametocides--EK and ES.  Acta Agricultural Boreali-Sinica. 
 8. 16-20.
 
 Zhao, F. W., Li, H. W. and Zuen. E. Z.  1993.  Preliminary Research on a
 Photo-Thermo-Sensitive Male Sterile Line, 91-1.  Seeds. 5. 16-17.
 
 -------------------------
                      ITEMS FROM CROATIA
 
      Tomasovic S., Javor P.
 
      Achievements in Recent Wheat Breeding in the Institute for Breeding and
      Production of Field Crops -Zagreb
 
      In order to maintain high yield stability Zg-wheat cultivar, breeding
 is conducted via several programs against main fungal diseases under
 conditions of Croatis Diseases include: powdery mildew, Septoria spp.,
 Fusarium spp. and stem and leaf rusts.  As the result of long term breeding
 work in Zagreb Institute, 49 cultivars of winter wheat are registered. 
 Their common characteristics are high yielding capacity, considerably above
 10, and very good adaptability and yielding stability.  In 1993, registered
 wheat varieties are: RINA, DARKA, TINA, OLGA, SANDRA, RUGVICA and SUTLA. 
 Average data from Zagreb trials in 1991-1993 are given below.  New varieties
 distinguish themselves from the previous cultivars by their better baking
 quality.  We should point out that water absorption capacity in every
 mentioned cultivar is more or less on the same levels as it used to be in
 high quality wheats.
 
 
                             Relative      1000
                Grain        yield to      kernel     Plant
                Yield        Sana =        weight     height
 Variety        kg/ha        100%          (g)        (cm)
  --------------------------------------------------------------
 1. Rina         88,58        99,62       43,5        75
 2. Darka        97,40       109,42       47,0        73
 3. Tina         88,64       111,77       46,5        72
 4. Olga         85,96       109,11       49,5        82
 5. Sandr       105,86        47,0        84           0
    83,40
 6. Rugvica      97,76       106,63       46,5        79 
 7. Sutla        87,98       95,95        43,5        80
  --------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
             Vegetation                    Leaf       Septoria  Fusarium  Sedi-
 Lodging     period (days     Powdery      rust       spp       spp       mentn.
             from 1,          mildew      (Cobb       (leaf     (0-5)     Value
   %         January)         (0-9)        scale)     (0-9)               (ml.)
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  0           133              0-1          OR          1         0        31
  0           135              1-2          OR          2         0        29
  0           135               2           Tr          2         0        34
  0           137              3-4          OR         2-3        0        42
  0           137               OR           3          0         0        41
 
  0           138               4           Tr          2         0        20
  0           134              4-5          OR         2-3        0        35
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
 -------------------------
      Bogdan Koric, Zagreb
 
      Achievements in Breeding Wheat for Resistance to Diseases in Croatia. 
 In Croatia, breeding for resistance to diseases has produced satisfactory
 results.  Exceptional results were achieved by breeding for resistance to
 stem rust like the cultivar Zlatna dolina (Golden Valley) and Sanja.  On the
 other hand many cultivars with adequate resistance to powdery mildew were
 developed largely due to a good choice in using sources of resistance from
 TP 114 1965 A, CI 12632 and CI 14123 which have effective resistance genes
 Pm2, Pm4 and Pm6.  Unfortunately, with the passing time, these genes became
 ineffective.  Today effective resistance genes are Pm4b, Pm9 and Pm2 + M1d. 
 
 
      Poor results have been obtained on the problems of wheat diseases
 septoria nodorum blotch and Fusarium spp.  Phytopathological investigations
 were conducted to determine possibilities of using the seedling stage in the
 screening process in breeding for resistance to fungus Leptosphaeria nodorum
 and to determine its effects on yield, kernel weight, sanitary condition of
 seed and effectiveness of chemical control.
 
                         Publications
 
 Koric, B.  1992.  Scientific investigations of the most important wheat
 diseases in Croatia.  Sjemenarstvo, 9(4-5), 269-277.  
 
 Koric, B.  1993.  Important of septoria nodorum blotch and its chemical
 control in seed production of winter wheat.  Poljoprivredne aktualnosti,
 29(1-2), 193-202.
 
 Koric, B.  1993.  Effectiveness of Pm resistance genes to Erysiphe graminis
 DC f.sp. tritici March.  In Croatia in the period from 1968 to 1991. 
 Agronomski glasnik, 55(4-5), 305-314.
 
 Koric, B.  1993.  Effectiveness of fungicides in protection of wheat attack
 with septoria nodorum blotch.  Sjemenarstvo, 19(1-2), 25-32.  
 
 Koric, B.  1993.  Effect of Septoria nodorum blotch on yield and size of
 processed wheat seed.  WIS, No. 76:32-34.
 
 Koric, B.  1992.  Wheat breeding for resistance to Lepthosphaeria nodorum
 the cause of septoria nodorum blotch in Croatia.  Book of abstracts of
 Symposium on durability of disease resistance.
 
 Koric, B.  1993.  Investigation into correlative relation of resistance of
 wheat stage to Leptosphaeria nodorum in seedling and in adult.  Agronomski
 glasnik, 55(1-2), 55-61.
 
 Koric, B.  1992.  Testing fungicide effectiveness for control of powdery
 mildew in wheat.  Sjemenarstvo, 9 (2-3) 111-114.
 
 -------------------------
                 ITEMS FROM THE CZECH REPUBLIC
 
      P. Martinek, Z. Nesvadba, J. Mikulcova, Cereal Research Institute,
      Havlickova
 
      Possibilities in using wheat resources with non-standard spike
      morphotypes forincreasing the yield potential.
 
      A collection of wheat gene resources with a changed spike morphotype is
 maintained at the Cereal Research Institute (CRI) in Kromeriz. These are
 mainly hexaploid wheat forms of Triticum aestivum L. which are enriched with
 genes from other wheat species. The genes belong namely to the SFG (spike
 fertility genes) group. Depending on the morphological spike structure the
 donors are classified into several groups as follows: VSS (vertical sessile
 spikelets), TSS (tetrastichon sessile spikelets), forms in which branching
 spikes occur - TFS (transitional forms
 spikelets), and IRS (indeterminare rachilla spikelets), NS (normal
 spikelets), forms with screwedness of spike rachis, large glumes and others.
 Considering another method of classification they are divided into
 multispikelet, multigrain and heavy grain. The most perspective forms have
 markedly increased spike productivity and spike rachis length above 15 cm.
 The research at the CRI is aimed at: a) completing the collection with new
 resources, b) genetic analyses, c) testing gene
 resources for resistance to environmental stress factors, d) developing new
 resources with improved grain quality and other properties. Some of the
 resources are important with regard to their spike sink capacity which is
 directly controlled by genes of high effects with remarkable phenotypic
 expression. We suppose these resources could be utilized particularly for
 increasing spike productivity, harvest index and aboveground plant biomass
 weight. We are interested in expanding cooperation with foreign workplaces
 particularly in the field of research and
 exchange of seed samples and other enriching our collection. We would like
 to join international research projects in this field.
 
      Figure 1:  Spike morphological structure of selected gene resources
 
 
                            Photo not included
 
 
 Spike morphological structure of selected gene resources
 
      A - NS gigas
      B - VSS gigas
      C - TSS
      D - TFS gigas
      E - larger glumes
      F - spike screwedness - Scr 1 (screwed spike)
      G - standard spike size (Hana cultivar)
 
 -------------------------
      Bartos P., Stuchlikova E., Hanusova R.
 
      Genes for resistance to rusts and powdery mildew in Czech and Slovak
 wheat cultivars     (Novel list of registered cultivars -l993) 
      
 Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague - Ruzyne
 Cultivar  Regis.    Sr        Lr        Yr        Pm              
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
 Winter wheats:         
                                            
 Agra      1985      31,+      3,26      9         2,6,8,inh.      
 Blava     1992      +         3,+       +        
 Danubia   1984      31        26,+      9         5,8             
 Hana      1985      29        3         2                     
 Ilona     1989      11                  5               
 Iris      1983      31,11,+   26        9         5,8             
 Kosutka   1981      +         +         +                         
 Livia     1991      31        26        9         8              
 Regina    1982                1,2,HeIV            5              
 Samanta   1993      ++        3                             
 Selekta   1985      31        26        9,+       4b,8            
 Senta     1991      31        3,26      9         8              
 Sida      1993      31        26        9         4b,8            
 Simona    1991      Zdar                          2,4b       
 Sofia     1990      31        3,26      9         2,4b,8         
 Sparta    1988      31        3,26      9         2,4b,8          
 Torysa    1992      29        M.Marks.            2,6            
 Vega      1992                3
 Viginta   1984      5,+,+     3         2,3a,4a                  
 Vlada     1990      +         +         +
 Zdar      1983      Zdar                3a,4a,CaV 4b,5
 
 Durum wheats:                                                   
 
 Gandur (SW) 1983    +         +         
 Soldur (WW) 1989              +         +
 Spring Wheats
 Jara      1975      Zdar                          M1k
 Linda     1992      +
 Maja      1990      +         +
 Sandra    1984      +         +                   5,M1k
 Saxana    1990      +
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Author appologizes for misprints caused by computer transcription in a
 similar table published in the last volume of the Annual Wheat Newsletter.
 
 ------------------------- 
      Photoperiodic sensitivity of the wheat cultivars 
 
      Kosner J.
 
      Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague - Ruzyne
 
      In the years 1991 and 1992 photoperiodic sensitivity of cultivars of a
 Czech and Slovak wheat assortment and relation between the photoperiodic
 sensitivity and the total basic earliness were studied ( Kosner, Bromova,
 1993).
 
      As the results showed the relation between the photoperiodic
 sensitivity and the total basic earliness a similar experiment was made with
 the varieties of the world assortment of different geographical origin in
 1993. There were tested winter and spring wheat in this experiment as well
 as before. The total basic earliness was derived from the number of days
 from emergence to heading under natural daylength (more than 14 hrs light
 period). Photoperiodic sensitivity was derived from the number of days from
 emergence to heading under the short - 10 hrs day. Dependence of the total
 basic earliness on the sensitivity to the photoperiod was evaluated by means
 of correlation coefficient and regression analysis.
 
      All used materials of spring and winter character were vernalized for 8
 weeks at +1 to +3 C, planted on 20th April (at the geographic latitude of
 the experiment day longer than 14 hrs starts by that date) on a plot
 undarkened and darkened by an automatic device. The 10-hours light period
 was from 8 till 18 o'clock. The period from planting vernalized plants to
 heading was surveyed.
 
      The control varieties were SONORA 64-insensitive to photoperiod with
 the dominant alleles Ppd1 and Ppd2 and ZDAR-sensitive to photoperiod in all
 these experiments.
 
      The results in 1993 showed the strong dependence as in previous years.
 Correlation coefficient,showing the dependence of basic earliness on a
 prolongation of the period from planting vernalized plants to heading under
 the short-light day, was 0.645 among the varieties of all the assortment (
 it consisted of winter and spring wheat). The influence of Vrn genes (the
 reaction of vernalization) was discovered by the fact that the spring wheats
 with dominant Vrn alleles were commonly earlier in the case of the same or
 similar sensitivity as the winter wheats. Therefore correlation coefficients
 for only the winter wheat (0.929) and only the spring wheat (0.794) were
 higher. The influence of the geographical origin was exhibited mainly by the
 photoperiodic insensitivity in the case of the wheat from Mexico.
 
                         Reference:
 
 Kosner, J.-Bromova,  P:Photoperiodic sensitivity of cultivars of the
 Czechoslovak wheat assortment. Ann. Wheat Newsletter, Colorado St. Univ.,
 39, 1993: 142-143.
                 
 Results of experiments 1993:
 
                     Number of days till heading
 Cultivar                 long day       Short day      prolongation
                (basic earliness)                  (photoper.sensit.)
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Sonora      s  MEX  45,86+-1,78         55,60 +-7,25        9,74
 Barant 83   s MEX   43,39+-1,23         67,00 +-3,83        23,61
 Druzina     s SUN   46,50+-1,41         70,50 +-4,87        24,00
 Abano       w  ITA  48,00+-4,26         80,36 +-3,64        32,36
 Miron. 28   w SUN   43,00+-1,00         84,67 +-5,62        41,67
 Pitonina    w YUG   47,33+-1,70         91,40 +-20,24       44,07
 Hanno       s  DEU  53,17+-1,22         140,19 +-7,06       87,02
 Zdar        w  CSK  67,50+-1,85         157,00 +-4,76       89,50
 Ventura     s  FRA  50,86+-1,25         140,73 +-10,6       89,87
 Dagon       s  SWE  51,80+-1,17         143,75 +-8,20       91,95
 Veronese     s ITA  49,80+-1,11         142,00 +-7,09       92,20
 Salut       w  SWE  71,92+-1,63         166,45 +-0,98       94,53
 Tombola     w NLD   67,60+-2,50         163,40 +-4,36       95,80
 Apollo      w  DEU  62,73+-3,09         164,63 +-4,42       101,90
 Henika      s  POL  48,47+-1,55         155,87 +-2,01       107,40
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 w = winter wheat, s = spring wheat
 
 -------------------------
       Structure of wheat genetic resources collection in RICP Prague and
 newly released cultivars
 
      Stehno Z., Vlasak M., Faberova, I., Research Institute of Crop
 Production, Prague - Ruzyne
 
      Gathering, evaluation and utilization of original wheat land races, old
 cultivars, advanced lines, restricted and released cultivars has in Czech
 Republic (in former Czechoslovakia) long - term tradition. Since the
 beginning of the century till now 5 046 winter accessions and 3 972 spring
 ones have been gathered, evaluated and documented.
 
 Table. 1 Portion of wheat species in the winter and spring subcollections
 
                Number of samples                  Number of samples
 Species        winter   spring     Species        winter  spring
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 T. monococcum    10        18      T. araraticum     3          
 T. boeoticum     10         1      T. militinae               1
 T. sinskajae                1      T.  timopheevii   1        4
 T. dicoccoides              7      T. spelta        28       15
 T. dicoccon       6        86      T. macha          2        2
 T. karamyschevii  2                T. compactum     17       27
 T. turgidum      24        27      T. aestivum    4838     3008
 T. carthlicum              13      T. vavilovii      2
 T. ispahanicum              1      T. sphaerococcum 11
 T. polonicum               16      T. petropavlovskyi        11
 T. durum        101       723      T. fungicidum              4
 T. aethiopicum              2      T. timonovum      1
 T. turanicum      2         2      T. timococcum              1
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Table  2.   Portion of the most frequent varieties of T. aestivum
 
      Variety        winter              spring
                       %                    %
  ----------------------------------------------------
      lutescens       55,8                27.7
      aestivum        23,3                31,8
      milturum         5,9                 4,2
      ferrugineum      4,4                11,3
      others          10,6                25,0
  ----------------------------------------------------
 
      Every season newly obtained genetic resources including newly released
 Czech cultivars are included into the collection.
 
 New cultivars released in 1993
 
      'Samanta' (Hana/Viginta) was bred out at the Breeding Station Stupice
 SELGEN a.s. Praha. The cultivar of winter habit is mid-early ripening,
 having semi-awned, pyramidal, lax spike. Plant height reaches 100 cm on the
 average. The 1000 kernel weight is medium (43 g on the average) and baking
 quality is good. "Samanta" has good resistance to leaf rust and middle level
 of tolerance to powdery mildew, septoria, stem rust and stripe rust. Good
 winterhardeness, lodging resistance, and sprouting tolerance.
 
      'Sida' winter wheat bred out at the Breeding Station Stupice SELGEN
 a.s. Praha as a result of crossing ST-39-76/Alcedo// ST-104-78, where
 ST-39-76 = Weihenstephan 378-132b/Maris Hunstman and ST-104-78 =
 Kavkaz/Diplomat. The late ripening cultivar has white, semi-awned,
 cylindrical, semi-dense spike. Red caryopsis has elongated shape and 1000
 kernel weight reaches average value 48 g. Baking quality is lower (5 - 6).
 Resistances to powdery mildew, septoria, leaf rust, stem rust and stripe
 rust are good. Winterhardeness and lodging resistances are good, but
 sprouting tolerance is middle.
 
 ------------------------- 
      Vacke J., Sip V., Skorpik M., Research Institute of Crop Production,
 Prague - Ruzyne
 
      Results of Spring Wheat Testing for Resistance to Barley Yellow Dwarf
 Virus.
 
      The degree of resistance (susceptibility) to Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus
 (BYDV) was examined in field trials with 5 Czech registered spring wheat
 varieties, 48 advanced breeding lines from the Breeding Stations - SELGEN -
 Stupice (ST) and Uhretice (UH), and 22 sources of resistance from the world
 collection. Experimental plants (both infected - I and noninfected - control
 plants - C.) were grown on two-row small plots 1 meter long, with three
 replicates. The genotypes tested were infected with PAV isolate of BYDV at
 the stage of 2 to 3 leaves by means of Rhopalosiphum padi aphids obtained
 from greenhouse rearing. Visual evaluation of the symptomatic reaction of
 infected plants was performed at the time of full flower of particular
 experimental materials using the system developed by Schaller and Qualset
 (1980). After the harvest, yield characters were determined and the
 susceptibility index according to Comeau and St-Pierre (1982) calculated.
 
      The results obtained in the testing have shown that all the Czech
 registered spring wheat varieties and most advanced breeding lines were
 moderately to highly susceptible to BYDV. Their susceptible response to the
 virus infection is illustrated by mean percentages of the reduction in yield
 components which showed the highest values in case of grain yield per ear
 and per area, and somewhat lower values in case of biomass yield (Table 1).
 The relatively highest genotypic difference manifested itself in grain
 weight per ear (r = 0.828; MS(A)/MS(e) = 15.41) which, with respect to a
 significant positive correlation with grain yield per area unit, can serve
 as an indicator of resistance to the virus. The remaining characters (plant
 height, 1000 - grain weight, and harvest index) showed lower mean reduction.
 
 Table 1. Average percent reduction (100 - I/C . 100) of plant height and
 yield characters in the Czech spring wheat varieties and breeding lines.
 
           Character               1992        1993
                                 n = 23        n = 30
      ------------------------------------------------------
           Plant height            13.11        6.98
           1000-grain weight       15.57       16.46
           Grain weight/ear        49.10       43.46
           Grain yield/ha          53.26       44.66
           Biomass yield/ha        47.19       37.22
           Harvest index           12.03       11.98
      ------------------------------------------------------
 
      Among the Czech advanced breeding lines, the lines ST 36 - 91, ST 94 -
 91, ST 125 - 91, UH 126, UH 7005, and UH 7035 showed moderate resistance to
 BYDV (Table 2). A major part of materials from the world collection have
 shown susceptible to moderately resistant reaction to BYDV infection in our
 field trials. An outstanding degree of resistance to the virus was recorded
 in the Brazilian variety Maringa (Frontana/Kenya 58//Ponta Grossa 1) and in
 its near isogenic lines for Rht genes. These materials showed a low symptom
 score a low value of the susceptibility index, and their yield components
 were not reduced. However, the parental variety Frontana with the Bdv 1
 resistance gene did not show, to our surprise, a higher resistance level. Of
 the CIMMYT nursery VEE "S"/TRAP 1 appeared to be the most resistant material
 in our 2-year trials. The Rht 1,2 and 1+2 lines of the Maringa variety were
 included in hybridization programmes aimed at improving BYDV resistance of
 Czech wheat varieties.
 
 Table 2. Characters indicating resistance level to BYDV in the selected
 Czech breeding lines and sources of resistence in 1993. (Czech variety Jara
 represents a susceptible check).
                                                                              
           Grain     Grain Biomass   Harvest     Symptom  Susceptibity
           weight/   yield yield     index       score*   index
           ear (g)   (t/ha)(t/ha)
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Jara      0.66   2.55  7.75         0.329     7.5       4.62
 ST 36-91  94     4.08 10.41         0.392     5.3       2.51
 ST 94-91  0.98   4.35 10.41         0.418     6.5       2.25
 ST 125-91 1.06   4.85 11.28         0.430     5.6       1.61
 UH 126    1.16   4.00  9.48         0.422     6.5       2.48
 UH 7005   1.04   4.23 10.63         0.398     5.6       2.39
 UH 7035   1.26   4.48 10.72         0.418     6.0       2.07
 Frontana  0.80   3.21 10.42         0.308     5.0       3.92
 Marin(MG) 1.22   4.45 11.83         0.376     3.5       2.10
 MG Rht 1  1.31   4.82 11.67         0.413     3.5       1.47
 MG Rht 2  1.14   4.89 11.73         0.417     3.5       1.38
 MG Rht1+2 1.00   4.57 10.36         0.441     3.0       1.33
 MG Rht 3  1.05   3.93  8.87         0.443     3.0       1.80
 VEE "S"/  1.51   5.17 11.70         0.442     4.0       1.0
   TRAP1
 
 CIMMYT
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *) Scale: 0-fully resistant, 9-fully susceptible
 
                         Publications
 
 Comeau, A., C.A. and St-Pierre. 1992. Trials on the resistance of  cereals
 to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). Report no. 4.  Research Station,
 Agriculture Canada, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada.
 
 Schaller, C.W., and C.O. Qualset. 1980. Breeding for resistance    to the
 barley yellow dwarf virus. In: Proc., Third International  Wheat Conference,
 Madrid, Spain. University of Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station
 publication  MP41.  Pp. 528 541.
 
 ------------------------- 
                      ITEMS FROM ESTONIA  
 
      Institute of Experimental Biology of the Estonian Academy of Sciences,
 Department of Plant Genetics, Tallinn/Harku.
 
      O.Priilinn*, H.Peusha, K.Jarve, L.Timofeyeva, E.Tsimbalova, T.Enno.
 
      Use of alien genetic variation for wheat improvement. 
 
      Major genes for resistance to the wheat powdery mildew pathogen,
 Erysiphe graminis f.sp. tritici, were analysed in 48 breeding lines
 developed from wide crosses between commercial Russian cultivars andrelated
 Triticeae species - Triticum timopheevii, T.militinae, T.dicoccum and
 Ae.speltoides. Cultivars and advanced breeding lines were screened for their
 reaction to a set of differential mildew isolates, which had specific
 interaction for each host line. The near-isogenic lines of cultivar
 Chancellor with known mildew resistance genes and line TP114, twice
 backcrossed to cultivar Starke, possessing the resistance gene Pm6, were
 kindly provided by Dr. R.A.McIntosh, Australia. The remaining differential
 cultivars were obtained from the germplasm collection of Institut fur
 Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuchtung, Weihenstephan, Germany.
 
      Among the eight Russian wheat cultivars and breeding lines tested three
 (Mironovskaya 808, Novosibirskaya 67, Saratovskaya 29) showed
 susceptibility-response to all 11 isolates. The cultivars Kutulukskaya and
 Zolotistaya appeared to have resistance gene pm5.
 
      The derivatives of T.timopheevii and T.militinae showed a pattern,
 that was very similar to that of the phenotypes, which contained resis-tance
 genes Pm6 and Pm2+Pm4+Pm6. Among these derivatives, the line CMT34 showed
 resistance to all of the differential mildew isolates. From the derivatives
 of T.dicoccum and Ae.speltoides, two lines exhibited the reaction pattern of
 genes Pm2+Pm9 (Peusha et al., in press). This work has been supported by
 Volkswagen-Stiftung, Hannover, Germany.
 
      In order to increase the genetic variation in respect of disease
 resistance in wheat wide hybridization was carried out using different
 Triticea species. Genes conferring leaf rust resistance have been trans-
 ferred to common wheat line 146-155 from T.timopheevii by conventional
 crossing and backcrossing. It was ascertained that the rust resistant
 derivative, designated as 146-155-T, was protected against leaf rust
 pathogen by genes, which differed from effective Lr genes for this type of
 resistance and were not identical to known effective genes for resis-tance
 of the isogenic set of cultivar Thatcher (Enno, Peusha, 1992; Peusha, Enno,
 1992). 
 
      Based on a C-banded chromosome analysis chromosomal substitutions and
 rearrangements in the introgressive hybrid karyotypes were identi-fied. It
 was determined that number of substitutions per genome in hybrid lines
 varied from one to three. All five resistant lines under study possessed
 6B(6G) chromosome substitution. These results allow us to conclude that
 resistance to pathogen is conditioned by the presence of 6G chromosome (or
 its segment) of T. timopheevii in common wheat genome (Badaeva et al.,
 1993).
 
      Biotinylated total genomic DNA of T.timopheevii was used as a probe in
 DNA hybridization experiments to detect T. timopheevii chromosomes or
 chromosome segments in spread chromosome preparations from root tips of
 hybrid plants (146-155-T). Unlabelled genomic DNA from the other hybrid
 parent (146-155) was added as a blocking. A T. timopheevii DNA trans-
 location in the disease-resistant hybrid 146-155-T has been located.
 
      A multicopy DNA marker specific to the T.timopheevii genome or, even
 more, specific to the chromosome segment trasferred to the disease-resistant
 hybrids from T. timopheevii could be used in dot-blotting and would ease the
 laborous and time-consuming analysis of hybrid plants. Using the above-
 discribed hybridization system and PFGE-separated restriction fragments of
 HMW DNA from  146-155-T hybrid we intend to separate T.timopheevii genome
 specific DNA fragments. The cloned fragments will be probed by in situ
 hybridization to T.timopheevii and 146-155-T root tip metaphase chromosomes.
 
 
                         PUBLICATIONS
 
 Enno,T., H.Peusha. 1992. Introgression of genes for rust resistance from
 T.timopheevii to common wheat. Vortrage fur Pflanzenzuchtung, 24: 197-199.
 
 Peusha,H., T.Enno. 1992. Genetical analysis of leaf rust resistance in
 introgressive wheat lines. Proceed. Estonian Acad. Sci., Biology, 41, N3:
 141-148.
 
 Badaeva,E.D., N.S.Badaev, H.O.Peusha, T.M.Enno. 1993. Transfer of leaf rust
 resistance from T. timopheevii to common wheat. Proceed. of the 2nd
 Symposium "Trends in Plant Biotechnology", Russia, Moscow-Puschino: 426. 
 
 Peusha,H., U.Stephan, S.L.K.Hsam, F.G.Felsenstein, T.Enno, F.J.Zeller.
 Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in common wheat (Triticum
 aestivum L.). IY Breeding lines derived from wide crosses between Russian
 cultivars T.timopheevii Zhuk., T.militinae Zhuk. et Migush., T.dicoccum
 (Schrank.) Schuebl. and Aegilops speltoides Tausch. Genetika, Moscow: In
 press.
   
 -------------------------
      Institute of Experimental Biology of the Estonian Academy of Sciences,
 Department of Plant Genetics, Tallinn/Harku
 
      M. Tohvar
 
      Breeding for high-yielding and -quality wheat.  Correlations between
 agronomic and quality data.  In wheat breeding programs major emphasis is
 usually given to factors that affect grain yield.  High yield potential
 connected with good grain and flour quality play a significant role in
 development of new cultivars.  Wheat yield is a complex trait because of the
 number of genetic factors that take place in its formation.  A total of 24
 spring and winter wheat cultivars and mutant lines were tested for agronomic
 data.  Special attention were given to the most important traits which play
 a decisive role in formation of yield:  kernel weight, number of grains per
 spike, number of productive stems and kernel mass per spike and plant. 
 Investigations were performed during the period 1989-1992.  Plant yield and
 its structural elements were dependant on growing conditions.  The different
 growing conditions in 1989 and 1990 resulted in great variations of yield
 and quality data.  Therefore, while developing cultivars it is important to
 pay attention not only to high yield but to good adaptability as well.
 
      Highly significant positive correlations were observed between yield
 and productive stems (r=+0.764) and yield and mass of grains per plant
 (r=+0.936).  Significant negative correlations were found between mass of
 1000 grains and number of grains per ear (r=0.539) and number of productive
 stems (r=-0.494).  These experiments showed that higher yielding potential
 would be achieved on the basis of number of productive stems and mass of
 grains per plant.  Certain genotypes of spring wheats were determined to
 have more advantageous gene background for obtaining high yields.  For
 example, mutant line A-57 induced form cultivar `Arkas' had better yield and
 adaptability than other experimental lines.
 
      Grain quality was estimated in 78 experimental lines.  The best mutant
 lines of common spring wheat from our collection were compared with
 cultivars `Arkas', `Satu', `Dacke', `Heta', and other Finnish and Swedish
 cultivars.  Protein content, gluten quantity, dry gluten, gluten index and
 vitreousness of these lines were estimated in 1990-1992.  Genetical factors
 determine protein content and breadmaking quality, but the expression of
 these factors are affected by environmental growing conditions.  Thus, the
 average data of protein content in 1990-1992 differed significantly.  The
 summer of 1992 was hot and dry causing an approximately 2%  rise in protein
 content compared with 1990 and 1991.  ON the whole, the grain protein
 content varied form 9 to 15% for spring wheat lines.  A significant negative
 correlation was obtained between yield and grain protein content (r=-0.61). 
 Quality  tests showed a great variation among growing location for gluten
 quantity and quality, e.g., mutant line A-57 had gluten content 33-39%
 depending on location.  Many lines belonged to quality class I(II)
 determined by their protein content (13,0-13.5%) and quality (gluten content
 more than 23%).
 
      A significant positive correlation was found between grain protein
 content and gluten quantity (r=+0.653).  Negative correlations were
 estimated between grain protein content and gluten index (r=-0.338) and
 gluten quantity and gluten index (r=-0.549).  Vitreousness was positively
 and significantly correlated with grain protein content (r=+0.305), gluten
 content (4=+0.368) and dry gluten (r=+0.352) and negatively with gluten
 index (r=-0.147).
 
                         Publication
 
 Tohver, M.  1994.  Analysis of productivity and quality in chemically
 induced wheat mutant lines.  Journal of Agricultural Science (Estonia).  (in
 press).
 
 -------------------------
                      ITEMS FROM GERMANY 
 
      Institut fur Pflanzenpathologie und Pflanzenschutz der Universitat,
 Grisebachstr
 
      J. von Kietzell and K. Rudolph
 
      Occurrence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens on Cereals in
 Germany 
 
      The incitant of basal glume rot of cereals, Pseudomonas syringae pv.
 atrofaciens (Psa), has repeatedly been detected in several parts of Germany
 since 1986.
 
      After monitoring the widespread occurrence of Psa on leaves and glumes
 of wheat and barley in different regions of Germany in 1992 (Annual Wheat
 News Letter 39), we studied the epiphytic phase of the pathogen in 1993. For
 isolation of bacteria we first tested a soaking method. Leaves and glumes
 were soaked in an aqueous solution containing 0.85 % of NaCl and 0.01 % of
 Tween 20 and stirred continuously at 4 degC Almost the entire population of
 pseudomonads and contaminants were found in the solution after soaking at
 least 8-10 h. To avoid this time consuming procedure, samples were homoge-
 nized instead, and then plated onto agar plates with semiselective medium
 KBC containing 0.5 % of boric acid. Psa was identified by colony morphology,
 fluorescence on King s medium B, hypersensitive reaction on tobacco and a
 specific pathogenicity test on wheat seedlings.
 
      Ten samples each of symptom-free wheat and barley were collected in
 three regions of Germany. Two leaves and glumes of each sample were
 examined. In these experiments, the pathogen was found in 10 % of the wheat
 samples from Aurich, in 30 % from Gottingen, and in 48 % from Braunschweig.
 Furthermore, the pathogen was found in 35 % of the barley samples from
 Aurich, in 58 % from Gottingen and in 63 % from Braunschweig. The number of
 samples with Psa in a region was positively correlated with the number of
 Psa in each sample from this region. The highest number of Psa per sample
 was more than 10exp7 cfu/barley glume. It thus became very obvious that the
 widespread epiphytic occurrence of Psa on symptom-less wheat and barley
 plants can easily lead to erroneous diagnosis of the disease when necrotic
 symptoms of plant disease are present.
 
      The incidence of the pathogen was further studied by analyzing seed
 samples of wheat, barley, rye, and oats from different regions in Germany.
 The samples were stirred in soaking soluion for 10 h, diluted threefold,
 plated on modified KBC and identified as described above. In these
 experiments the pathogen was identified in 35 of 37 barley samples, in 42 of
 54 wheat samples, and in 1 of 18 rye samples. Sixteen 16 oat and 7 triticale
 samples were pathogen-free.
 
      Unexpectedly, the pathogen could not be differentiated from strains of
 Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae isolated from bush bean or lilac. Both
 pathogens caused typical symptoms on bean leaves and heads of wheat. They
 also showed the same metabolic pattern in the BIOLOG-test.
 Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata, the incitant of bacterial leaf blight of
 sugar beet, also caused typical symptoms of basal glume rot on wheat ears.
 On the other hand, Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens did not cause
 typical symptoms on sugar beet.
 
      Epidemiological experiments are planned with spontaneous mutants of Psa
 resistant to Rifampicin and Streptomycin. In preliminary experiments in a
 growth chamber we detected the mutants on the first leaf of wheat, barley,
 rye and oats after vacuuminfiltration of the seeds. Field experiments will
 follow in 1994. 
 
 Publications
 
 Toben, H.M., A. Mavridis and K. Rudolph, 1989: Basal glume rot (Pseudomonas
 syringae pv. atrofaciens) on wheat and barley in FRG and resistance sreening
 of wheat. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 19, 119-125.
 
 Toben, H.M., A. Mavridis and K. Rudolph, 1991: Zum Vorkommen der basalen
 Spelzenfaule an Weizen und Gerste, hervorgerufen durch Pseudomonas syringae
 pv. atrofaciens, in Deutschland. J. Plant Diseases and Protection, 98, 225-
 235.
 
 Von Kietzell, J.M. and K. Rudolph, 1991: Variation in virulence of different
 isolates of Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens causing basal glume rot of
 cereals. Proc. of the 4th International Working Group on Pseudomonas
 syringae Pathovars, 117-123.
 
 Von Kietzell, J.M., B. Baharuddin, H.M. Toben and K. Rudolph, 1994: Identi-
 fication and characterization of plant pathogenic pseudomonads with Biolog
 Microplates and Microlog: Proc. of the 8th International Conference on Plant
 Pathogenic Bacteria, in press.
 
 ------------------------- 
      R. Schlegel, U. Vahl* and G. Muller*,  Institute  of  Plant Genetics
      and Crop Plant  Research,  Gatersleben,  *Project Group Biotechnique,
      Bernburg-Strenzfeld, Germany
 
      Current  list of wheats with rye introgressions  of  homoeologous
 group.    After  the  first  reports on  spontaneous  wheat-rye  chromosome
 substitutions 5R(5A) by Katterman (1937), O'Mara (1946) and Riley and 
 Chapman (1958), during the past three decades  particularly, 1R(1B)
 substitutions and 1RS.1BL translocations were described in  more  than  200 
 cultivars  of wheat  from  all  over  the  world  (Bluthner  and  Mettin 
 1973; Mettin et al.  1973;  Zeller  1972;  Zeller  1973;  Zeller and
 Fischbeck 1971). Their  most  important   phenotypic deviation from common
 wheat cultivars is the so-called  wheat-rye resistance, i. e. the presence
 of wide-range resistance  to  races  of powdery mildew and rusts (Bartos 
 and  Bares  1971; Zeller 1973), which is linked with decreased breadmaking 
 quality (Zeller  et  al. 1982), good ecological  adaptability  and  yield
 performance (Rajaram et al. 1983; Schlegel and Meinel 1994). The  origin of
 the alien chromosome was intensively discussed  by genetic  and  historical
 reasons. It turned out  that   basically four  sources   exist - two in
 Germany, one in the USA and one  in Japan. The variety 'Salmon' (1RS.1BL) is
 a representative of  the latter  (Tsunewaki 1964) and the variety 'Amigo'
 (1RS.1DL)  is  a representative of the penultimate group (Beronsky et  al. 
 1991; the  et  al. 1992), while almost ll remaining cultivars  can  be
 traced  back to one or to the other German origin 
 (Zeller  1973; Bluthner and Mettin 1977).
 
      There  was  no doubt so far that the Japanese  and  the  American
 derivatives differ from one another and from the German  sources.  Although 
 on  two  places of Germany  -  Salzmunde  near  Halle/S (breeder:  Riebesel) 
 and  Weihenstephan near  Munich  (breeder: Kattermann)  - wheat-rye crosses
 were already carried  out since the  twenties  and thirties and independent 
 pedigrees  could  be fragmentally  reconstructed  by the few  reports  left 
 (Bluthner 1992),  some authors presumed only one German source (Lein  1975; 
 Moonen and Zeven 1984).  For  breeding  programmes  additional 
 recombination  within  the translocated  1RS  arm  of rye and between  the 
 different  wheat genetic backgrounds is wished (Muller et al. 1991a; Lutz et 
 al. 1992). In order to prevent miscrossings and to review the  wheat-rye 
 introgressions  a  list of the of various 1RS  sources  was compiled
 including some passport data:
 
 Table  1.      A compiled list of wheats carrying homoeologous group 1 wheat-
                rye translocations/substitutions
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Cultivar              Ori-    Karyo-     Pedigree(1)        Reference
                       gin     type             
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Abele                  ?     1RS.1BL     ?                  69
 Abritus                ?     1RS.1BL?    ?                  94
 Advokat                DEU   1RS.1BL     xSt.14/48 WS(2)    103
 Agra                   CSK   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            24,96
 Alba                   POL   1RS.1BL?    xWeique             50
 Albrecht               DEU   1RS.1BL     xDisponent         3,9,66
 Almus                  DDR   1RS.1BL     ?                  8,44,58,94
 Alondra 'S'            MEX   1RS.1BL     xWeique Redmace    73
 Amadeus                AUT   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            9
 Amandus                DEU   1RS.1BL     xPerseus           78,103
 Ambassador             GBR   1RS.1BL     xForester          9,69
 Amigo                  USA   1RS.1AL     xInsave rye        60,83,103
 Amika                  CSK   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            52,80,104
 Anza deriv.            USA   1R(1D)      xtriticale         16
 Apatinka               YUG   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            40
 Apollo                 DEU   1RS.1BL     xClement           35,50,78,62
 Arber                  DEU   1RS.1BL     xKronjuwel         3,9,33
 Avrora                 USS   1RS.1BL     xNeuzucht          59,57,100
 Bagula                 MEX   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            98
 Balkan                 YUG   1RS.1BL     xSkorospelka 35    40,72,77
 Baron                  ?     1RS.1BL     ?                  69
 Batten                 NZL   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            31,33
 Beaver                 GBR   1RS.1BL     xMildress          34
 Benno                  DEU   1RS.1BL     xZorba             13,27,103
 Beogradjanka           YUG   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            40
 Besostaya 2            USS   1RS.1BL     xNeuzucht          13,58,79
 Bobwhite 'S'           MEX   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            46,73
 Bovictus               DEU   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            84
 Branka                 CSK   1RS.1BL     xSt.378/57 WS      12,37,51
 Burgas 2               BGR   1R(1B)      xNeuzucht          13,20,59
 Cando deriv.           DEU   1RS.1BL     xVeery'S'          29
 Capriccio              ?     1RS.1BL     ?                  35
 Carolus                DEU   1RS.1BL     xPerseus           4,53
 Cebeco 180             NDL   1RS.1BL     ?                  94
 Cebeco 97              NDL   1RS.1BL     ?                  8,32
 Century                USA   1RS.1BL     xAmigo             32,49,89,96
 Chakwal 86             PAK   1RS.1BL     vVeery deriv.      39
 Chat 'S'               MEX   1RS.1BL     xVeery deriv.      39
 Chieftain              ?     1RS.1BL     ?                  69
 Chinese Spring deriv.  AUS   1R(1B)      xImperial rye      32
 Chinese Spring deriv.  AUS   1R(1D)      xImperial rye      87
 Chinese Spring deriv.  AUS   1RS.1BL     xImperial rye      32
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
 
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Cultivar              Ori-    Karyo-      Pedigree(1)        Reference
                       gin     type             
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Chinese Spring deriv.  AUS   1RS.1DL     xImperial rye      43,87,88,96
 Clement                NDL   1RS.1BL     xSt.47/51 RS(3)    71,73,98
 Cordillera             PRY   1RS.1BL     xVeery 3 sel.      71,73,98
 Corinthian             ?     1RS.1BL     ?                  69
 Csongor                HUN   1RS.1BL     xPredgornaya 2     9
 Custom                 GBR   1RS.1BL     xSt.465/62 WS      34
 Damier                 FRA   1RS.1BL     xClement           9
 Danumbia               CSK   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            11,12,81
 Dauntless              GBR   1BR.1BL     xMMG435/46/3       9
 Delta                  POL   1RS.1BL     ?                  50
 Disponent              DEU   1RS.1BL     xBenno             8,67,78,103
 Donata                 NDL   1RS.1BL     ?                  90,103
 Donjon                 NDL   1RS.1BL?    xClement           62
 Donskaya polukarlikov  USS   1RS.1BL     xSvereodonskaya    9
 Dozent                 DEU   1RS.1BL     xPerseus           78,103
 Druzba 1               USS   1RS.1BL     xWinnetou          9
 Dukat                  YUG   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            40,41
 Est-Mottin 72          ITA   1RS.1BL     ?                  9
 Fatima                 HUN   1RS.1BL?    ?                  101
 Feldkrone              DEU   1RS.1BL     xZorba             27,100,103
 Feldman                DEU   1RS.1BL     ?                  9
 Florida                DEU   1RS.1BL     xDisponent         9,26,28
 Fundulea 29            ROM   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            9
 Fundulea 4             ROM   1RS.1BL     ?                  50,107
 Gabo deriv.            AUS   1RS.1BL     xImperial rye      33,43,88
 Gabo deriv.            AUS   1RS.1BL     xImperial rye      33,43,96
 Gamtoos                ZAF   1RS.1BL     xVeery 3 sel.      71,74,77,98
 Genero F81             MEX   1RS.1BL     xVeery 3 sel.      70,71,74,98
 GK Bence               HUN   1RS.1BL?    ?                  101
 GK Sagvari             HUN   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            101
 GK Sagvari             HUN   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            9
 GK Szemes              HUN   1RS.1BL     ?                  101
 GK Tiborc              HUN   1RS.1BL     ?                  101
 GK Zombor              HUN   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            54,62,96
 Glennson M81           MEX   1RS.1BL     vVeery 1 sel.      71,72,73,98
 Gorbi                  DEU   1RS.1BL     ?                  108
 Gtz                    DEU   1RS.1BL     xBenno             28,78,103
 GR 876                 USA   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            15
 Granada                DEU   1RS.1BL     xZorba             35,78,94
 Granka                 YUG   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            40
 Grebe                  AUS   1RS.1BL     xSkorospelka 35    2,47
 Hamlet                 DEU   1RS.1BL     xSorba             27,100103
 Hammer                 NDL   1RS.1BL     xline 2019 WB(4)   9.69
 Harts                  ZAF   1RS.1BL     ?                  65
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Cultivar              Ori-    Karyo-      Pedigree(1)        Reference
                       gin     type             
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Haven                  GBR   1RS.1BL     xMildress          34,108
 Hedgehog               GBR   1RS.1BL     ?                  9
 Heinrich               DEU   1RS.1BL     xArkos 3           28,78,103
 Helios                 DEU   1RS.1BL     xPerseus           78,103
 Herzog                 DEU   1RS.1BL     xKronjuwel         3,32,64
 Holdfast deriv.        AUS   1R(1B)      xKing II rye       32
 Hope deriv.            AUS   1RS.1AL     xImperial rye      32,88
 Hornet                 GBR   1RS.1BL     ?                  34,96
 Hyderabad 88           PAK   1RS.1BL     xVeery deriv.      39
 Ikarus                 DEU   1RS.1BL     St.623/65 WS       37,96,62
 Iris                   CSK   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            11,24,51,96
 Isidor                 DEU   1RS.1BL     xPerseus           78,103
 Iskra                  YUG   1RS.1BL     xSkorospelka 35    40
 Istra                  CSK   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            12,52,77
 Jan. 7770-4            ?     1RS.1BL     ?                  9
 Jedina                 YUG   1RS.1BL     xMacvanka 2        40
 Jing-Dan 106           ?     1RS.1BL     ?                  9
 Jugoslavija            YUG   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            40,77,72
 Kaloian                BGR   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            9
 Kauz                   MEX   1RS.1BL?    xKavkaz            98
 Kavkaz                 USS   1RS.1BL     xNeuzucht          13,57,100
 Kea 'S'                MEX   1RS.1BL     xVeery deriv.      39
 Khyber 87              PAK   1RS.1BL     xVeery deriv.      39
 Knirps                 DEU   1RS.1BL     ?                  3,9,96
 Koda                   POL   1RS.1BL     xNaczeiha          9
 Kohinoor               PAK   1RS.1BL     xVeery deriv.      39
 Kolubara               YUG   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            9
 Kosava                 YUG   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            9
 Kotovcanka             USS   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            9
 Kozara                 YUG   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            33,40,72
 Kristall               DEU   1RS.1BL     xCapriccio         35,78
 Kronjuwel              DEU   1RS.1BL     xSt.465/52 WS      28,78,103
 Lanca                  POL   1RS.1BL     xNaczeija          9,109
 Lesapi                 ZWE   1RS.1BL     xVeery 'S' sel.    71,73,74,98
 Licanka                YUG   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            32,40,72
 Lima 1                 PRT   1RS.1BL     xVeery 3 sel.      71,73,74,98
 Linos                  DEU   1RS.1BL     xZorba             27,100,103
 Lira 'S'               MEX   1RS.1BL     xVeery deriv.      39
 Livia                  CSK   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            9
 Loeri                  ZMB   1RS.1BL     xVeery 5 sel.      71,73,74,98
 Lovrin 10              ROM   1RS.1BL     xNeuzucht          13,20
 Lovrin 12              ROM   1RS.1BL     xNeuzucht          20
 Lovrin 13              ROM   1R(1B)?     xNeuzucht          13,20,23,32
 Lovrin 14              ROM   1RS.1BL?    ?                  77,94
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------                       
 
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Cultivar              Ori-    Karyo-      Pedigree(1)        Reference
                       gin     type             
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Macvanka 1             YUG   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            40
 Macvanka 2             YUG   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            32,40,72
 Magister               NDL   1RS.1BL     ?                  9
 Mamut                  POL   1RS.1BL?    ?                  8,77
 Marabu                 DNK   1RS.1BL     ?                  107
 Marina                 CRO   1RS.1BL?    ?                  101
 Merkur                 DEU   1RS.1BL     xtriticale         8,78,103
 Mildress               NDL   1RS.1BL     xR47/51 RS         59,75,103
 Millaleau Inia         CHL   1RS.1BL     vVeery 3 sel.      71,73,74,98
 Mironovskaya 10        USS11R(1B)        xwheat-rye48/49    8,58,59,80
 Mironovskaya nizkoroz. USS   1RS.1BL     xMironovskaya 10   9
 Mv 14                  HUN   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            6,50,110
 Mv 15                  HUN   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            50,61,101
 Mv 16                  HUN   1RS.1BL?    xKavkaz            101
 Mv 17                  HUN   1RS.1BL?    ?                  101
 Mv 20                  HUN   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            7
 Mv 21...86             HUN   1RS.1BL     ?                  101
 Naczeija               BGR   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            9
 Nautica                NDL   1RS.1BL     xMildress          75,90,104
 Neuzucht               DDR   1R(1B)      xSt.14/44 SM5      33,48,99
 Niklas                 DEU   1RS.1BL     xGtz              35,78
 Novosadska 100         YUG   1RS.1BL?    ?                  40,72,97
 Novosadska Brkulja     YUG   1RS.1BL     Skorospelka 35     40
 Odesskaya 66           USS   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            77,94
 Odilo                  DEU   1RS.1BL     xZorba             27,100,103
 OH 416                 USA   1RS.1AL     xAmigo             15
 Olymp                  DEU   1RS.1BL     xGtz              9,28,96
 Orlando                DDR   1R(1B)      xSt.26/47 SM       13,57,79
 Pakistan 81            PAK   1RS.1BL     xVeer 5'S' sel.    71,73,74,98
 Palur                  DDR   1RS.1BL     xAlmus             62,95,96
 Partizanka nisa        YUG   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            9
 Parula                 MEX   1RS.1BL     xVeery 6 sel.      71,73,74,98
 Peresvet               USS   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            9
 Perseus                DEU   1RS.1BL     xZorba             27,100,103
 Pirsabak               PAK   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            9
 Pirsabak 85            PAK   1RS.1BL     xVeery deriv.      39
 Pitoma                 YUG   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            40,41
 PKB Krupna             YUG   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            40
 Pobeda                 YUG   1RS.1BL     xBalkan            9
 Poleskaya 71           USS   1RS.1BL?    xBesostaya 2       8
 Pomoravka              YUG   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            40
 Posavka 1              YUG   1RS.1BL     xSkorospelka 35    32,40,72
 Posavka 2              YUG   1RS.1BL     xSkorospelka 35    32,40
 Predgornaya 2          USS   1RS.1BL     xErythrospermum    13,58,77
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
 
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Cultivar              Ori-    Karyo-      Pedigree(1)        Reference
                       gin     type             
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Punjab 85              PAK   1RS.1BL     xVeery deriv.      39
 Punjnab 88             PAK   1RS.1BL     xVeery deriv.      39
 R 47/51 RS             DEU   1R(1B)      xPetkus rye        59,90,100
 Rawal 87               PAK   1RS.1BL     xVeery deriv.      39
 Requiem                BGR   1RS.1BL     xSkorospelka 35    9
 Ricardo                NDL   1RS.1BL?    xSt.358/48 WS      90,103
 Roseana                ?     1RS.1BL     ?                  9
 Rotor                  DEU   1RS.1BL     ?                  103
 Roxana                 CSK   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            11,12,24,81
 Sabina                 CSK   1RS.1BL     xSt.378/57 WS      11,12,81
 Saladin                DDR   1R(1B)      xSt.26/47 SM       32,57,77,94
 Salmayo                ?     1RS.1BL     ?                  9
 Salmon                 JPN   1RS.1BL     xtriticale         27,93,100
 Salzmnder Bartweizen   DEU   1R(1B)      xPetkus rye        13,14,94,99
 Sarhad 83              PAK   1RS.1BL     xBobwhrite 'S'     38
 Sel. 73/36/9-1         CHN   1RS.1BL     xLovrin 10         5
 Sel. 79/4045           CHN   1RS.1BL     xLovrin 13         23
 Sel. 84059-4-2         CHN   1RS.1BL     ?                  106
 Selekta                CSK   1RS.1BL     xSt.378/57 WS      12,51,80,81
 Sensor                 DEU   1RS.1BL     ?                  35,78,103
 Senta                  CSK   1RS.1BL     xBenno             9
 Seri 82                MEX   1RS.1BL     xVeery5'S' sel.    70,71,73,74
 Seric                  ZMB   1RS.1BL     xVeery 4 sel.      71,74,77,98
 Shtorm                 USS   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            9
 Sida                   CSK   1RS.1BL     ?                  9
 Siouxland              USA   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            30,49,63,85
 Siroka                 YUG   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            40
 Skopjanka              YUG   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            40,62
 Skorospelka 35         USS   1RS.1BL     xErythrospermum    13,32,58
 Sloboda                YUG   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            40
 Sofia                  CSK   1RS.1BL     xSt.378/57 WS      9
 Solaris                CSK   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            12,52,103
 Sparta                 CSK   1RS.1BL     xSt.378/57 WS      12,51
 Stejpner               SWE   1RS.1BL     ?                  9,64,69,96
 Stetson                GBR   1RS.1BL     xBenno             9,69
 Stuart                 ?     1RS.1BL     ?                  69
 Sunbird 'S'            MEX   1RS.1BL     xVeery deriv.      25,33,39
 Sutjeska               YUG   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            40,72,77
 Sutlej 88              PAK   1RS.1BL     xVeery deriv.      39
 TAM 107                USA   1RS.1AL     ?                  32
 TAM 200                USA   1RS.1AL     ?                  32,50
 Tara                   GBR   1RS.1BL     xClement           34
 Tjelvar                SWE   1RS.1BL     ?                  9
 Toronto                DEU   1RS.1BL     ?                  4,9,111
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
 
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Cultivar              Ori-    Karyo-      Pedigree(1)        Reference
                       gin     type             
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Transilvaniya 1        ROM   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            9
 Turda 81               ROM   1RS.1BL     xSkorospelka 35    50
 Urban                  DEU   1RS.1BL     xZorba             27,100
 Ures T81               MEX   1RS.1BL     xVeery 2 sel.      71,74,77,98
 Veery 'S'              MEX   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            56,73,77
 Veery 10               MEX   1RS.1BL     xVeery 'S' sel.    71,73,98
 Viri                   TZA   1RS.1BL     xVeery 5 sel.      71,73,77,98
 Voyage                 FRA   1RS.1BL     ?                  101
 Warigal deriv.         AUS   1RS.1DL     xImperial rye      33,43,96
 Weihenst. St. 1007/53  DEU   1R(1B)      xPetkus 4x rye     100
 Weique 'Substitution'  DEU   1R(1B)      ?                  10,27,59,82
 Weique 'Zchter'        DEU   1RS.1BL     ?                  27,77,100
 Wembley                GBR   1RS.1BL     ?                  32
 Weneda                 POL   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            9
 Wentzel                DEU   1R(1B)      xSt.?? SM          77,100
 Winnetou               DDR   1R(1B)      xSB6               59
 Winnetou               DDR   1RS.1BL     xSB                13,20,91,94
 Xanthos                DEU   1RS.1BL?    ?                  4,9
 Zelengora              YUG   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            32,40,72
 Zemunka 1              YUG   1RS.1BL     xAvrora            40
 Zorba                  DEU   1R(1B)      xtriticale         13,27,100
 Zvezda                 YUG   1RS.1BL     xKavkaz            40,72
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 (1) probable donor of the rye chromosome/arm
 (2) WS = Weihenstephan
 (3) RS = Riebesel
 (4) WB = Weibull
 (5) SM = Salzmnder Bartweizen
 (7) cultivar Granda syn. to Sensor
 
 
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 Smith EL, Sharma RC, Merkle OG, Sebesta EE, Buron JA, Webster JA,   Hunger 
 RM,  Abbott  DC,  Carver  BF,  Morgan   GH   (1989) .  Registration of
 Century wheat. Crop Sci 29: 1093.
 
 Stubbs  RW (1979) Yellow rust in Europe. Ann  Rep  Res  Inst Plant Prot,
 Wageningen (Netherlands): 24-25.
 
 Stuchlikova E, Sasek A, Bartos P, Slovencikova V (1984) Study of  resistance
 of the 'Winnetou' winter wheat cultivar to  yellow rust  with the use of
 gliadin block Gld 1B3. Genet A  Slecht  20:141-147.
 
 The TT, Gupta RB, Dyck PL, Appels R, Hohmann U, McIntosh  RA  (1992) .
 Characterization  of stem rust resistant  derivatives  of  wheat cultivar
 Amigo. Euphytica 58: 245-252.
 
 Tsunewaki K  (1964).  Genetic studies of a 6x-derivative from an
 8x-Triticale. Can J Genet Cytol 6: 1-11.
 
 Vahl   U,  Muller  G  (1984)   Elektrophoretisch   getrennte
 Primarblatt-Peroxidasen als biochemische Marker in 
 Winterweizen-jungpflanzen. Biochem Physiol Pflanze 179: 391-402.
 
 Vahl U, Muller G (1986) Nutzung elektrophoretisch  getrennter Peroxidasen im
 ZuchtprozeB von Winterweizen. Arch Zuchtungsforsch 16: 1-10.
 
 Vahl  U, Muller G, Bohme T  (1993)  Electrophoretic  protein analysis  for
 the identification of doubled haploid 1A-1R,  1B-1R wheat-rye  double
 translocation lines and for the  assessment  of  their genetic stability.
 Theor Appl Genet, in press.
 
 Vapa L, Savic M (1988) The HMW glutenin subunit  composition of  wheat
 varieties bred in Yugoslavia. Proc 7th Int Wheat  Genet Symp, Cambridge:
 1019-1023.
 
 Villareal RL, Rajaram S, Mujeeb-Kazi A, Del Toro E (1991) The effect  of
 chromosome 1B/1R translocation on the yield  potential of certain spring
 wheats (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Breed 106:77-81.
 
 Zeller FJ (1972) Cytologischer Nachweis  einer  Chromosomen-substitution in
 dem Weizenstamm Salzmunde 14/44 (T. aestivum L.).  Z Pflanzenzucht  67:
 90-94.
 
 Zeller   FJ  (1973)  1B/1R  wheat-rye   substitutions  and translocations. 
 Proc 4th Int Wheat Genet Symp,  Columbia  (USA):209-221.
 
 Zeller FJ (1993) pers. comm.
 
 Zeller FJ, Fischbeck G (1971) Cytologische Untersuchungen zur
 Identifizierung des Fremdchromosoms in der Weizensorte 'Zorba' (W 564). Z
 Pflanzenzucht 66: 160-165.
 
 Zeller FJ, Fuchs E (1983) Cytology and disease resistance  of a  1A/1R  and 
 some 1B/1R wheat-rye  translocation  cultivars.  Z  Pflanzenzucht 90:
 285-296.
 
 Zeller FJ, Hsam SLK (1983) Broadening the genetic variability of  cultivated 
 wheat by utilizing rye chromatin.  Proc  6th  Int Wheat Genet Symp, Kyoto
 (Japan): 161-173.
 
 Zeller FJ, Gunzel G, Fischbeck G, Gerstenkorn P,  Weipert  D  (1982). 
 Veranderung  der  Backeigenschaften  der   Weizen-Roggen-   
 Chromosomen-Translokation 1B/1R. Getreide Mehl Brot 36:141-143.
 
 Zhong SN, Yao JX (1991) Cytological identification of  1B/1R translocation 
 in  a  bread wheat line  '84059-4-2'.  Acta  Agron  Sinica 17: 321-325.
 
 Vahl U, Muller G (1989), unpubl.
 
 Vahl U, Muller G (1992), unpubl.
 
 Vahl U, Muller G (1982), unpubl.
 
 Vahl U, Muller G (1985), unpubl.
 
 Vahl U, Muller G (1993), unpubl.
 
 ------------------------- 
      A. Borner*, J. Plaschke, I. M. Ben Amer, V. Korzun, Institute of Plant
 Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben
 
      Progress report on wheat genetics research
 
      Pleiotropic effects of Ppd genes on grain yield. By using single
 chromosome recombinant lines (kindly supplied by A. J. Worland, Cambridge
 Laboratory, Norwich) the effects of the gene for day-length insensitivity
 Ppd1 on yield and its components were studied over three growing seasons
 under the field conditions in middle Germany. In each of the three seasons,
 Ppd1 significantly accelerated days to flowering by an average of 3.5 days.
 Secondary pleiotropic effects are associated with the gene shortening the
 growing period. This was seen by a reduction in plant height and in the
 number of spikelets developed per ear. The grain setting in each of the
 remaining spikelets, however, was always significantly increased. In all
 three seasons the improved spikelet fertility more than compensated for the
 reduction in spikelet number producing an overall increase in grains per
 ear. The grain weight was significantly increased by the presence of Ppd1
 only in one season. The combination of both increased numbers of grains
 setting in the spikelet and ear, and improved grain weight resulted in
 increases in ear yield, that were significant in two seasons. Over three
 seasons a yield advantage of around 9% was recorded. For the breeding of
 high yielding winter wheats adapted to middle Europe a switch to day-length
 insensitive wheats should yield positive benefits by bringing forward
 flowering time and permitting the plant to develop and fill grains before
 the onset of hot and dry summer conditions.
 
      GA insensitivity in a Libyan Dwarf Wheat. The genetics of the GA
 insensitivity of the hexaploid wheat line 'TRI 6964' (Catalogue number, gene
 bank Gatersleben), which was collected in 1955 from an isolated area in
 Libya, called 'Al-Kufra' oasis was studied. The dwarf was crossed with three
 near isogenic lines of 'M. Huntsman', carrying the GA insensitive dwarfing
 genes Rht1 (chromosome 4B), Rht2 (chromosome 4D) or the tall allele rht.
 About 200 F(2) seedlings per combination were treated with GA(3) at the
 seedling stage and scored regarding to their response to the phytohormone.
 The segregation patterns gave clear evidence for a monogenic inheritance and
 therefore, that the GA insensitivity of 'TRI 6964' is determined by an
 allele at the Rht2 locus.
 
      Effect of temperature on the fertility of wheat containing a GA
 insensitive dwarfing gene from T. aethiopicum. Six F(4) families, classified
 in F(3) as GA insensitive or GA sensitive, from a cross between 'W 6824'
 (Triticum aethiopicum JACUBZ., GA insensitive, allelic to Rht1) and
 'Castelporziano' (Triticum durum, GA sensitive) were grown together with
 three near isogenic lines carrying the genes/alleles rht (tall), Rht1 or
 Rht3 in the genetical background of the variety 'Bersee', under controlled
 environmental conditions at a day/night temperature of 18/15 degC with
 illumination of 18 h per day. About three weeks before ear emergence the
 material was divided into two groups and grown either at a temperature of
 constantly 18 degC or at a day/night temperature of 30/25 degC till harvest.
 The illumination was always 18 h per day. It was found that the fertility of
 all the dwarfs carrying either the alleles Rht1, Rht3 or the Rht allele from
 T. aethiopicum is more sensitive to high temperatures than their tall
 counterparts.
 
      Chromosome substitutions lines for tissue culture response studies. Six
 'Chinese Spring/Triticum spelta' substitution lines for chromosomes 1A, 1D
 (duplicates), 3D (duplicates), 6D and one 'Chinese Spring/Marquis'
 substitution line for chromosome 2B were studied together with 'Chinese
 Spring' as control for tissue culture response (TCR), related to seed
 weight. The results indicated that chromosomes 2B and 6D were critical for
 TCR, whereas chromosome 1D affecting callus weight only. Chromosomes 1A and
 3D were found not to be critical, however, these chromosomes may carry genes
 with minor effects. Genes that influence seed weight of the donor plant
 might be involved in TCR, depending on the influences of other factors.
 
      Screening of a rye DNA library for RFLP mapping. By using, the
 methylation sensitive restriction enzyme Pst1 a library of single and low
 copy DNA sequences of rye was developed. More than 100 clones were selected.
 So far 12 sequences were located on wheat and rye chromosomes by using 
 nullisomic-tetrasomic lines of wheat and wheat-rye addition lines. Two of
 the probes were mapped with respect to known RFLP markers on chromosomes 5R
 and 7R.
 
      Dwarfing genes of wheat and rye and its expression in triticale.
 Primary octoploid triticale have been produced by crossing a GA insensitive
 (Rht3) wheat with a GA sensitive rye as well as a GA sensitive wheat with a
 GA insensitive rye (ct2). After colchicine treatment and vegetative
 multiplication of the hybrids, grains were harvested and most of the lines
 were cytologically checked. Then a GA seedling test was applied. Whereas the
 triticale carrying the Rht3 gene of wheat did show the expected GA
 insensitivity, the triticale with the GA insensitive ct2 gene were GA
 sensitive which suggests that the expression of ct2 may be affected by
 intergeneric genomic interactions between wheat and rye.
 
                         Publications
 
 Borner, A.; Meinel, A., 1993. The effects of the growth retardant
 chlormequat (CCC) on plant height and yield in GA insensitive wheats. Plant
 Breeding 110, 255-258.
 
 Borner, A.; Gale, M. D.; Appleford, N. E. J.; Lenton, J. R., 1993:
 Gibberellin status and responsiveness in shoots of tall and dwarf genotypes
 of diploid rye (Secale cereale). Physiologia Plantarum 89, 309-314.
 
 Borner, A.; Plaschke, J.; Schumann, E.; Knopf, E., 1993: Analyse von
 Pleiotropieeffekten halmverkurzender Gene beim Weizen. Tagungsbericht 43.
 Tagung der Vereinigung osterreichischer Pflanzenzuchter, Gumpenstein,
 Osterreich, 1992, 181-185.
 
 Borner A.; Worland, A. J.; Plaschke, J.;  Schumann, E.; Law, C. N., 1993:
 Pleiotropic effects of genes for reduced height (Rht) and day-length
 insensitivity (Ppd1) on yield and its components for wheat grown in middle
 Europe. Plant Breeding 111, 204-216.
 
 Paschke, J.; Borner, A.; Xie, D. X.; Koebner, R. M. D.; Schlegel, R.; Gale,
 M. D., 1993. RFLP-mapping of genes affecting plant height and growth habit
 in rye. Theor. Appl. Genet. 85, 1049-1054.
 
 -------------------------
                      ITEMS FROM HUNGARY 
 
      Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
 Martonvasar
 
      Production.  The 1992/1993 season was again unfavourable in almost
 every respect. The autumn was dry and warm. The first half of the optimum
 sowing period (October) proved to be favourable, but from 17th onwards it
 rained continually, a total of 55 mm falling by the end of the month. The
 first half of November was also wet, with a further 42 mm of rain, so wheat
 sowing could not be resumed until a month after the optimum sowing date and
 was not completed until December.
 
      For these and other reasons, wheat was sown on a smaller area than usu-
 al, 992,000 hectares instead of 1.2 million ha.
 
      The winter was dry and relatively cold. The wheat was frozen out in
 some northern parts of the country. The water reserves of the soil were not
 sufficiently replenished. In early spring the cold dry weather continued,
 then in mid-March it suddenly became very warm, but continued to be dry. A
 substantial amount of rain did not fall until the end of May, but June was
 again dry. The total amount of precipitation from January to August was only
 90 mm.
 
      Consequently, the national yield average dropped to 3060 kgs/ha. The
 harvest had not been this poor since 1971. In recent years, with the
 exception of 1992, the yield average has been between 4800 and 5430 kgs/ha.
 
      Breeding.  Four new Martonvasari varieties were state registered in
 1993. Mv Koma (Mv 225-90) is an early, high-yielding variety with excellent
 frost resistance, good resistance to powdery mildew, excellent stem rust
 resistance and medium resistance to leaf rust. It has medium quality, being
 classified in farinograph category B(1), but it has a large loaf volume. Its
 pedigree is as follows: GT 13A 354/Mv 5//Bara/3/GK Protein.
 
      Mv Optima (Mv 706-90) is a medium early, very high-yielding variety
 with excellent frost resistance, good powdery mildew resistance and
 excellent resistance to stem and leaf rust. It has good quality (farinograph
 category A(2)-B(1)) and has a large loaf volume. Its pedigree is: 762-10-1-
 2-3/4/Mv 9.
 
      Mv Magma (Mv 116-90) is a medium early, high-yielding, short-stemmed,
 frost-resistant variety with excellent resistance to powdery mildew and stem
 rust and good leaf rust resistance. It has medium quality (farinograph
 category A(2)-B(1)), but its gluten content fluctuates. Its pedigree is: F
 29/3/Mv 3/SKC 1055//Bez. 2/K 1.
 
      Martonvasari 25 (Mv 117-90) is a medium late, very high-yielding,
 short-stemmed, frost-resistant variety with excellent resistance to powdery
 mildew, stem rust and leaf rust. It is a sibling line of Mv Magma. It has
 medium quality (farinograph category A(2)-B(1)) but its gluten content is
 relatively low and fluctuates.
 
      The number of varieties developed at Martonvasar has now reached 30,
 and 18 of these are currently in  cultivation. They are sown on some 60 % of
 the growing area. Four of the varieties have also been registered in Turkey,
 two in the Ukraine and three in Yugoslavia.
 
      A modified single doubled haploid descent selection method was carried
 out, involving the analysis of F(1) populations produced using gametocide,
 the selection of F(2) plants following the principles of single seed descent
 and the regeneration of dihaploid plants. This method combines the
 advantages of early selection, the SSD technique and makes it possible to
 shorten the breeding cycle. The more independent the regeneration of
 dihaploids can be made from the genotype, the easier it will be to  put this
 concept into practice. In our experiment 346 green dihaploids were obtained
 from the anther of ears isolated from 280 anther donor plants. However, the
 number of dihaploids originating from one ear ranged from 0.08 to 7.37,
 indicating the genotype dependence of in vitro androgenesis. The
 competitiveness of the method with traditional breeding is proved by the
 fact that dihaploid lines with a performance equal to that of the best
 control varieties were successfully produced despite the small initial
 stock.
 
      As a participant in an USAID-PSTC research program it became possible
 to establish a molecular marker laboratory in the Wheat Breeding Department.
 The aim of it is the direct use of RFLP markers in breeding, partly in
 quantitative trait loci analysis and partly in molecular marker assisted
 selection. Our first specific objectives together with the US research group
 are to precisely determine the location of genes controlling freezing
 tolerance, vernalisation, and photoperiod reaction in barley and to
 determine the level of orthologous gene expression in diverse accesion of
 barley germplasm. Later on we are planning to use the RFLP technique for
 studying other quantitative traits, such as breadmaking quality in wheat.
 
      Resistance breeding.  Due to the dry, warm, droughty nature of the sea-
 son, few diseases appeared in Hungary in 1993. Thus, there was only weak
 powdery mildew infection, and very weak leaf and stem rust infection was ob-
 served in a few places. Among the insect pests, problems were caused by
 cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus), cereal bugs (Anisoplia austriaca),
 stink bugs (Eurygaster sp.) and aphids in some regions.
 
      In greenhouse experiments carried out in 1993, 23 powdery mildew races
 were identified. The prevalent races and their frequencies are as follows:
 72 (25.4 %), 51 (20.9 %), 90 (20.5 %), 46 (14.3 %), 77 (4.8 %). Races 51 and
 90 are multiplying very rapidly. Very few races are virulent to genotypes
 containing resistance genes Pm 4a and Pm 4b.
 
      In field experiments with artificial infection, the resistance genes Lr
 9, Lr 13, Lr 19, Lr 24 and Lr 25 provide adequate protection to leaf rust
 and Sr 9b, Sr 11, Sr 21, Sr 24, Sr 31, Sr 36 and Sr 37 to stem rust. The
 majority of new Martonvasari wheat varieties owe their resistance to gene Sr
 31.  Genotypes containing the resistance genes Bt 8, Bt 9 and Bt 10 are
 chiefly resistant to bunt. Among the wheat varieties registered in Hungary,
 only Mv 17 has good resistance to bunt.
 
      The latest varieties bred at Martonvasar (Mv 22, Mv 23, Mv 24, Mv 25,
 Fatima 2, Mv Magma, Mv Koma and Mv Optima) have good disease resistance,
 satisfying the demands raised by growers.
 
 -------------------------
      Deparment of Cell Biology
 
      B. Barnabas, G. Kovacs, E. Szakacs, I. Takacs, M. Kovacs
 
      In vitro manipulation of the reproductive processes in wheat Continuing
 our studies concerning the application of haploid techniques for wheat and
 several wild wheat species a highly reproducible cell-plant system had been
 established. Regenerable, embryogenic haploid cell suspensions were
 initiated from polen calli of three wheat genotypes. After repeated callus
 and cell selection during the culture procedure led to stable haploid
 suspensions consisting of fine cell clusters each containing 20-50 cells.
 These suspensions were able to maintain their regenerative capacity during 2
 years of subculture, and several  fertile plants had been regenerated from
 them during this period. On the basis of these haploid cell suspension
 system  haploid protolast culture had been established. Although the isola-
 tion and culture of the haploid protolast and plant regeneration were
 succesfully carried out, no fertile plants were obtained up till now.
 Presently the modification of the culture system for getting fertile
 regenerants are one of the main object of our study in this field. Another
 point of our interest is to compare the effectiveness of somatic and haploid
 protoplast-plant systems both in the aspect of regeneration of fertile
 plants and the phenotypic stability of the offspring of the regenerants. 
 
      The established haploid cell suspensions are the main target of genetic
 transformation via particle bombardement. Presently we have some transgenic
 cell lines carrying foreign genes such as GUS, hygromycin and herbicide
 resistance. The frequency of stable transgenic cell lines on the basis of
 cell clusters bombarded are more than 30%. Amog them 6 subcultured cell
 lines and 25 plantlets had been regenerated from selective media.
 
      For practical aspects of view the established anther culture systems
 are presently used for selection to aluminium tolerance also. Based on the
 present results the aluminium toxicity can be well simulated in anther
 culture, the 50  and 100 uM/l  solution of aluminium applied to the nutrient
 medium with low pH  reduces considerably the callus induction. The higher
 concentrations destroy entirely the microspore population. On regeneration
 medium containing the same amount of aluminium fertile plants can be
 regenerated. According to the seedling test results of grains originating
 from fertile DH plants, an increase had been observed in the variability of
 aluminium tolerance even if the aluminium treatment is applied only in the
 induction phase. The multiplication of progenies and the testing of their
 tolerance are now going on. 
 
      The earlier established method for producing gametes to get mature
 seeds in in vitro cultured wheat florets had been successfully applied to
 several wheat genotypes and wild wheat species. In artificial conditions the
 sexual processes proved to be similar to the normal flowering, but the seed
 set decreased considerably while the the in vitro fertility of the different
 genotypes and species showed significant differences. Each genotype and
 species produced sufficient number of funtionable pollen grains for the
 successful fertilisation therefore the low seed set can at least partly
 attributed to the disfunction of the female reproductive organ. The in vitro
 developed seeds had normal morphology althoug they showed considerable
 shrinking after drying because of their incomplete endosperm. Inspite of
 that most of them germinated under laboratory conditions. 
 
      Seven wheat cultivars and one wild subspecies were compared for their
 in vitro fertility and androgenic capacity by studying their anther culture
 response and in vitro seed production. Both the haploid embryogenesis and
 the in vitro seed set showed a very wide genotype dependent variability in
 accordance with previous observations. At the same time, an analysis of the
 data showed a significant negative correlation between androgenic ability
 and the in vitro fertilization potential, which was especially obvious in
 the case of highly embryogenic genotypes. 
 
      Utilization of the doubled haploid method of breeding usually shortens
 the time to cultivar release, and method of haploid production need
 evaluation in a breeding programme. Several Triticum aestivum and Triticum
 durum genotypes were tested for anther culture response and some improtant
 lines found to be recalcitrant.  To get haploids from this non-responsive
 genotypes wheat x maize crosses had been used applying stored maize pollen.
 In our laboratory a successful pollen storage technique had been elaborated
 and the combination  of this method with the wheat x maize haploid procedure
 gives us a very promising technique to introduce the recalcitrant genotypes
 to doubled haploid breeding programmes. Using stored maize pollen for
 pollination the average percentages of haploid embryo formation in wheat x
 maize crosses were 10.7 and 21.6, respectively, while in the case of durum x
 maize crosses approximately 10% of haploid embryos can be regenerated from
 embryo culture. All plants regenerated from wheat x maize crosses were
 haploid. We did not find any defective effect of the pollen storage
 procedure comparing with the application of fresh maize pollen, while the
 application seems to be more comfortable, because we do not have to care on
 the synchronization of the flowering of the two different species.
 
      A method for the isolation of viable egg cells of wheat has been
 ellaborated. This technique combined with procedures already developed in
 our group for the isolation of viable sperm cells of wheat permits us to use
 the gametes for in vitro fertilization experiments and other genetic
 manipulations e.g. as targets for foreign gene introduction.
 
 -------------------------
      J. Sutka, G. Galiba, M. Molnar-Lang, B. Koszegi, E. Farshadfar, M.
 Arshadfar,  O. Veisz, G. Linc
 
                         Genetic studies
 
      Drought tolerance: Six different bread wheat cultivars were used in a
 drought-stressed experiment, to estimate genetic variation and heritability
 for seven morphological characters related to drought. Path-analysis was
 used to partition the phenotypic correlations between some of the characters
 into direct and indirect effects. The phenotypic stability of the cultivars
 was estimated. Moderate genetic variation was displayed by the root system.
 The heritability estimates ranged from 0.30 to 0.94. The expected genetic
 advance with selection of the highest 5% was around 0.90 for the root
 system. The root system had a high positive significant correlation with
 total biomass, and showed the highest direct effect. Shoot heigth had a high
 negative significant correlation with total biomass, but exhibited the least
 direct effect. A significant difference was found between the root length
 and root-shoot ratio of Plainsman compared with those of other cultivars.
 All cultivars had average stability and general adaptation. However, due to
 its better root system, higher yield and shorter shoot height (plant height)
 Plainsman is the most suitable for drought  tolerance breeding.
 
      Osmotic and salt stress:  Osmotic and salinity-induced polyamine accu-
 mulation were compared in callus cultures of drought and salt tolerant wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and in disomic substitution lines.
 Putrescine, spermidine and spermine occured in all cultures. Mannitol-
 induced osmotic stress increased putrescine in all, and cadaverine in two
 varieties, while salt stress increased spermidine titer, the accumulation
 rate being higher in sensitive than in tolerant varieties. Specific
 chromosome (5A and 7A) involvement in osmotic stress induced spermidine
 accumulation revealed that mannitol was the most effective stress agent and
 only spermidine titer of Chinese Spring was significantly changed as a
 consequence of chromosome substitution. The A genome of Cappelle Desprez
 (donor) substituted into Chinese Spring (recipient) appears to carry genes
 involved in the control of osmotic stress induced spermidine accumulation,
 and the genes controlling cadaverine biosynthesis may be localized in
 chromosome 5B.
 
      Frost resistance:  During the frost testing of Chinese Spring
 ditelosomics, genes responsible for frost resistance were found on the short
 and long arms of chromosome 7A and on the long arms of chromosomes 5A, 3B,
 5B, 7B and 5D. Since monosomic and substitution analysis indicated that
 genes responsible for frost resistance were carried by chromosomes 5A, 5B
 and 5D, it can be taken as proved that these genes are located on the long
 arms of chromosomes.
      
      The crossability of different wheat genotypes: The crossability of
 three common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (Amor, Martonvasari 15,
 Martonvasari 9) and one  wheat line, Martonvasari 9 kr1, was assessed  with
 Triticum timopheevi Zhuk. and T.  araraticum Jakubz.. Pollinations were car-
 ried out  in the field and under controlled environmental conditions
 simultaneously. Higher seed set was obtained in the phytotron than in the
 field. No significant difference was found in the crossability of the T.
 timopheevi x T. aestivum and the T. araraticum  x T. aestivum combinations.
 A significant difference in seed set was found between the reciprocal
 crosses, which indicates the importance of the cytoplasmic effect in these
 crosses. The highest crossability was achieved for the Martonvasari 9 line
 possessing the crossability gene kr1. Immature embryos were rescued on the
 B5 medium. Hybrid plant production efficiency per hybrid seed was 82.02 per
 cent with the help of embryo culture.
 
      Cereal Gene Bank:  Objectives are to collect, conserve, evaluate and
 utilise germplasm, and continue to create wheat genetic stocks for
 fundamental research and the breeding of up-to-date wheat cultivars with a
 broad genetic base. Wheat genetic resources and stocks will also be used for
 the establishment of a premier academic center for training graduate
 students and visiting scientists from Hungarian and foreign universities and
 institutes. The Cereal Gene Bank in Martonvasar contains not only 1500
 common wheat varieties but also other 1300 accessions of the species
 belonging to the following genera: Triticum, Aegilops, Agropyron, Secale,
 Hordeum, Avena and a considerable range of cytogenetic lines (amphiploids,
 monosomic sets, chromosome substitution, addition, recombination and
 isogenic lines).
 
 -------------------------
            Physiological and biochemichal studies on wheat
 
      T. Janda, G. Szalai, J. Kissimon, E. Paldi
 
      Two types of wheat varieties ( Triticum aestivum L. ) cv. Cheyenne and
 cv. Chinese Spring, with excellent and poor frost resistance, were used in
 experimens to investigate how the photosynthetic apparatus contributes to
 the development of frost resistance.Using a PAM fluorometer, changes in the
 photochemical quenching were traced at 2 C and 20 C. Although there was
 generally less photochemical quenching at low temperature than at room tem-
 perature, in the case of the frost-resistant variety Cheyenne an increase in
 Photochemical quenching was observed at low temperature as a function of the
 length of the hardening period. This seems to indicate the existence of a
 regulating mechanism which ensures that even at low temperature the plant
 will be capable of an  adequate level of photosynthesis.
 
      During the vernalisation period complex changes take place in the
 metabolism of nucleic acids and protein molecules. To study the effect of
 changes in the RNA pool on the intensity of protein synthesis different
 homologous and heterologous cell-free protein synthesising systems were
 constructed with polysome fractions (S(23)) and tRNAs is isolated from
 vernalised and non-vernalised wheat seedlings.The homologous cell-free
 protein synthesising systems contained polysome fractions from both non-
 vernalised and 1, 2, 5 and 7 week vernalised samples of wheat cultivar
 Martonvasari 15, together with their own tRNA. Heterologous systems were
 constructed with tRNA fractions of vernalised seedlings with S(23) fractions
 of non- vernalised ones and vice versa. Cell-free protein synthesis was
 carried out at 4 C and 30 C. Our results demonstrate that, independently of
 the vernalisation period, the intensity of protein synthesis in homologous
 vernalised systems at 4 C was as high as the intensity of homologous non-
 vernalised systems at 30 C. Combinations of vernalised S(23) fractions with
 vernalised tRNAs were about 30% more effective than vernalised S(23)
 fractions with non-vernalised tRNAs at 4 C, while combinations of vernalised
 tRNAs with non-vernalised S(23) fractions resulted in only a slight decrease
 in activity at 30 C. It can thus be concluded that vernalisation leads to
 changes in the protein synthesising system resulting in an optimal
 synthesising capacity under the altered conditions.
 
                         Publications
 
 Abd El-Maksoud MM., Bedo Z. 1993. Genotypes and Genotype x Medium
 Interaction Effects on Androgenetic Haploid Production in Wheat (Triticum
 aestivum L.) Cereal Research Communications, 21. 1. 17-24.
 
 Abd El-Maksoud MM., Karsai,I. and Bedo Z. 1993. Agronomic traits of wheat
 lines developed by the doubled haploid, single seed descent and pedigree
 methods after three cycles of selection. Acta Agronomica (in press),
 
 Barnabas,B., Bedo, Z. 1993. Relationship between biology and plant breeding.
 Hungarian Agricultural Research, 2. 1:30-33. p.
 
 Bedo,Z.,  Balla,L., Szunics,L., Lang,L. and Kramarikne Kissimon J. 1993.
 Agronomical properties of Martonvasar wheat varieties with 1B/1R transloca-
 tion. Novenytermeles, 42. 5. 391-398.
 
 Bedo,Z., Karsai,I., Balla,L. and Lang, L. 1993. Modified single doubled
 haploid descent selection in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cereal Research
 Communications 21:125-132.
 
 Farshadfar E., Galiba G., Koszegi B. and Sutka J. 1993. Some aspects of the
 genetic analysis of drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cereal
 Res. Comm., 21, (in press).
 
 Fischl, G., L. Szunics, J. Bakonyi.: 1993. Black point of wheat seeds.
 Novenytermeles, 42. 5. 421-434.
 
 Galiba G., Kocsy G., Kaur-Sawney R., Sutka J. and Galston A. W. 1993.
 Chromosomal localization of osmotic and salt stress-induced differential
 alterations in polyamine content in wheat. Plant Sci., 92: 203-211.
 
 Galiba G., Tuberosa R., Kocsy G. and Sutka J. 1993. Involvement of
 chromosomes 5A and 5D in cold-induced abscisic acid accumulation in and
 frost tolerance of wheat calli. Plant Breed., 110: 237-242.
 
 He,G.Y., Korbuly,E., Barnabas,B. 1993. High frequency callus formation and
 regeneration of fertile plants from haploid cell suspensions derived from
 anther culture in wheat /Triticum aestivum L./. Plant Science, 90: 81-87.
 
 Janda,T., Kissimon,J., Szigeti,Z., Veisz,O., and Paldi E. 1993. Effect of
 low temperature on photosynthesis of wheat and maize. 11th International
 Biophyzics Kongress. July 25-30. Budapest, Abstracts, pp. 109.
 
 Karsai,I., Bedo,Z., Balla,L. 1993. Effect of donor plant growth environment
 on in vitro androgenesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Acta Agronomica, in
 press,
 
 Kovacs,G., Takacs,I., Barnabas,B. 1993. In vitro pollen maturation and
 fertilisation in detached spikelet cultures of wheat. Novenytermeles, 42:
 119-126.
 
 Kovacs,G., Karsai,I., Bedo,Z., Barnabas,B. 1993. Effect of aluminium and low
 pH on the callus induction and green plant regeneration in anther culture of
 wheat. Novenytermeles, 42: 399-408.
 
 Kovacs,G., Barnabas,B. 1993. Long term storage of rye and triticale pollen
 in liquid nitrogen. Novenytermeles, 42: 301-305.
 
 Limpert E., Lutz J., Remlein E. J., Sutka J. and Zeller F J. 1993.
 Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in common wheat (Triticum
 aestivum L.) III. Hungarian and Croatian cultivars. J. Genet. and Breed.,
 (in press).
 
 Szunics, L., M. Sykora, M. Miklovicova, Lu. Szunics, M. Svec.: 1993. Studies
 on the virulence of barley and wheat powdery mildew populations.
 Novenytermeles, 42, 4, 323-329.
 
 Szunics,L., Lu.Szunics.: 1993.  Field stem rust infection of wheat
 varieties. Novenytermeles, 42, 3, 221-230.
 
 Szunics,L., Jolankai,M. and Bedo,Z. 1993. Results of wheat resistance
 breeding and variety-specific agronomic research in Martonvasar. Hungarian
 Agricultural Research, 2 (June), 26-32.
 
 Szunics L. - Jolankai M. - Bedo Z. (1993): Results of wheat resistance
 breeding and variety-specific agronomic research in Martonvasar. Hungarian
 Agricultural Research, 2, 26-32.
 
 Szunics L. - Sykora M. - Miklovicova M. - Szunics Lu. - Svec M. (1993):
 Study of virulence of barley and wheat powdery mildew populations in Hungary
 and Slovakia. Novenytermeles, 42. 4. 323-329.
 
 Szunics L. - Szunics Lu. (1993): Stem rust resistance of wheat varieties
 under field conditions. Novenytermeles, 42. 3. 221-230.
 
 Szunics L. - Szunics Lu. (1993): Virulence of wheat powdery mildew in
 Hungary during 1970-1992. Polnohospodarstvo, 39. 4. 299-303.
 
 Szunics L. - Szunics Lu. (1993): Virulence of wheat powdery mildew in
 Hungary during 1970-1992. Proceedings of cereal fungal diseases conference,
 March 24-25, 1993,  Bratislava. 10.
 
 Takacs,I., Kovacs,G., Barnabas,B. 1993. Analysis of the genotypic effect on
 different developmental pathways in wheat gametophyte cultures. Plant Cell
 Reports /in press/.
 
 Veisz O. (1993): The effect of winter frost on the yield components of
 wheat. Novenytermeles, 42. 3. 205-212.
 
 Veisz O. and Sutka J. 1993. Ditelosomic analysis of frost resistance in
 wheat (cv, Chinese Spring) Cereal Res. Comm., 21, (in press).
 
 -------------------------
      Cereal Research Institute,  Szeged
 
      Matuz, J*., Z. Kertesz*, L. Bona*, B. Beke, A. Mesterhazy and J. Falusi
 
      Wheat breeding program. In this year, our Cereal Research Institute
 (CRI) a government research unit is 70 years old, starting its mission in
 1924. The wheat breeding program was initiated in 1961 to develop high
 yielding common and durum wheats suitable for the Hungarian agriculture. In
 the last 25 years 20 wheat varieties were developed by CRI breeders. This
 time sixteen researchers are involved in this program. Selection theory,
 applied biotechnology, protein analysis, biotic and abiotic stress
 resistance highlights the long-term areas of research.
 
      The Wheat Research Unit of the CRI announces the release of 2 Triticum
 aestivum and 1 T. durum wheat cultivars in the beginning of 1994. Breeder
 seed of all the three cultivars released will be maintained by the Wheat
 Research Unit and small quantities (5-10 g) of seed for research/breeding
 purposes will be provided upon request to one of the corresponding authors.
 
      GK Pinka is an awned, white glumed, middle tall, very early ripening
 winter wheat cultivar. Indeed, this is the earliest one in the present
 Hungarian wheat sortiment. GK Pinka derived from a F5 plant selection
 (GKT5/GKT6744). GK Pinka has an outstanding yield performance. Average grain
 yield for 43 experiments (3 years in the Hungarian National Wheat Trials)
 was 6.48 t/ha for GK Pinka. The strong stem with excellent lodging
 resistance and the good adaptability to a range of environments will allow a
 wide spreading of this cultivar.
 
      GK Zugoly is an awnless, yellow-glumed, short strawed, middle ripening
 winter wheat cultivar. GK Zugoly was selected from the cross of GK Kincso (a
 powdery mildew resistant) and GK Istvan (p.mildew sensitive) cultivars. GK
 Zugoly is resistant to the p. mildew races speared in the Carpathian Basin
 region of Europe. It is also resistant to leaf rust and heterogeneous for
 reaction to Fusarium ssp. Average grain yield of GK Zugoly was 6.5 t/ha (+
 5.1 % compared to the standards, 3 years in the Hungarian National Wheat
 Trials). 
 
      GK Novodur is a yellow glumed, 85-90 cm tall, winter durum (Triticum
 durum Desf.) cultivar with excellent pasta making quality. GK Novodur was
 selected from  back-cross population of Parus/*2GK Minaret. Among durum
 wheats, it has an outstanding winter hardness and frost resistance. The
 Parus parent is BYDV resistant and the released GK Novodur is also resistant
 to BYDV. The other parent, GK Minaret has the highest pasta quality standard
 in the region. The grain of GK Novodur has an excellent wet gluten (35%) and
 beta carotene ct (7.5 mg/kg).
 
 -------------------------
      Cs. Kertesz, J. Matuz and Z. Kertesz
 
      Comparison of three maintenance systems. Three systems of variety
 maintenance i.e. pedigree in spaced planting, pedigree in dense planting and
 a mass selection (Jensen method), were compared on two different cultivars
 GK Sagvari and Yubileynaya 50 on the basis of superelite (breeder seed) and
 elite (foundation seed) yield performance.
 
      All the three methods proved to be suitable for the maintenance of
 cultivars. Although the response of the varieties were different. For GK
 Sagvari a strict pedigree selection was successful, while for Yubileynaya 50
 a mass selection was just enough. The second task examined was, that which
 traits should be considered when the pedigree seed were mixed for producing
 the breeder seed. It was found that the 1000 kernel mass and the seedling
 vigor was extremely important parameters. This traits affected the yield of
 breeder seed in booth cultivars. The third question examined was, that how
 many and what kind of sublines the pedigree seed should consists of. In the
 case of GK Sagvari, the yield of breeder seed was higher when the high-
 yielding subline components were included in the pedigree seed. The best
 result was achieved when the 7 best lines were blended in the pedigree seed.
 At cv. Yubileynaya 50 such tendency was not found. The sublines of this
 cultivar showed extreme adaptability to the environment and the years
 tested. Our conclusion is, that the number and kind of the sublines blended
 depends upon the certain cultivar.
 
 -------------------------
      L. Cseuz 
 
      Simple field screening methods and water potential measurements in
 wheat. Water retention ability of excised wheat leaves and chemical
 desiccation tests were done in the nursery to study a wide range of the
 breeding material`s cuticular resistance against water loss and
 translocation ability of stored stem reserves. Using the measured water
 potential and relative water content data, pressure-volume curves were drawn
 and osmotic potential, and water saturation deficit at zero turgor were
 calculated. Varieties performed well in the field-tests had lower water
 potential (osmotic potential) values and reached the zero turgor point at a
 higher water saturation deficit. Although, correlation between the rank of
 entries in the different tests was low.
 
      Water retention ability was tested by the determination of the fresh
 weight of the excised twenty leaves of 78 genotypes harvested from the field
 early in the morning. Keeping them in controlled environment room after 24
 hours their weight was measured again and after a total desiccation the
 leaves` dry weight was determined. From these data the total loss of initial
 water content could be defined. Chemical desiccation tests were done to
 evaluate the translocation ability of the stem reserves in 114 different
 genotypes. Desiccant spraying was done 14 days after anthesis in case of
 each entries. Kernel weight depression due to the post anthesis stress was
 compared between the treated and control plot at every genotypes. The water
 relations characteristics of 16 winter wheat genotypes of different drought
 tolerance grown in the field were measured by a Scholander pressure bomb on
 flag leaves. As in earlier investigations significant differences were found
 among the tested genotypes in both field tests. The water loss of excised
 leaves ranged between 35 and 71 % among the 78 genotypes tested. Depression
 in thousand kernel mass due to the desiccant spraying was between 15 and 56
 % of the untreated control plots. From the pressure-volume technique total
 water potential, osmotic potential at zero and full turgor, water saturation
 deficit at zero turgor and turgid weight/dry weight ratio (TW/DW) were
 calculated. Among the water relations characteristics listed, water
 saturation deficit and osmotic potential at 0 turgor showed the largest
 difference among the varieties tested. Also, these traits had the highest
 correlation with the results of both field tests and earlier field records.
 No correlation was found between the TW/DW ratio data and other
 characteristics. Genotypes that showed good water retention ability (NE
 83/T, Tiszataj m, Mv 8) or resistance to post anthesis drought stress in
 field-tests, (OK 84343, Tiszataj m, Pitic 62) had generally lower water
 potential (osmotic potential) values and reached the zero turgor point at a
 higher water saturation deficit. The pressure - volume technique gave less
 variable results than the field screening methods, so in spite of its
 relative slowness, it could be a convenient complementary screening tool in
 wheat breeding.
 
      Gene Bank Activity. By the financial support of the Hungarian Ministry
 of Agriculture the Wheat Department of Cereal Research Institute could start
 maintaining a gene collection of cca. 500 entries of valuable lines of bread
 wheat, durum wheat and other related species. Large part of the collection
 are resistant lines for fungal diseases. 
 
 ------------------------- 
      M. Papp
 
      Resistance of winter wheat to cereal leaf beetle. Resistance test based
 on estimation of leaf-feeding damage by cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus
 L.) was carried out on 52 winter wheat genotypes (mainly Hungarian-origin
 cultivars) in 1993. Experiments were conducted in two isolated cages covered
 by insect nets in the beginning of April. In the first cage chemical control
 was used to provide a reliable check. In the other cage about  3000 adult
 cereal leaf beetles were introduced on 26 April. Fungal diseases were
 controlled in both cages by Bayleton 25 WP.  The feeding damage by cereal
 leaf beetle was determined on the flag leaf  as a percentage of the whole
 leaf-surface.  The grain yield of 20 heads chosen by random  sampling was
 measured in each plot, and expressed as a percentage related to the not-
 infested (protected) control. Thousand kernel mass was measured  from these
 samples. 
 
      Average leaf-feeding damage by cereal leaf beetle in 52 genotypes
 studied was 20% on 24 May and 90% on 1 June. There were highly significant
 differences in resistance to cereal leaf beetle between genotypes. At the
 first estimation the most resistant cultivars  (Downy, GK Ambitus, Mv 15, GK
 Veka, GK Othalom, GK Reka) had only 6-15% feeding damages, and the most
 susceptible  ones  (GK Kalaka, GK Lili, MM-In, GK Korany)  had 29-32%. At
 the second estimation the most resistant genotypes (Downy, GK Reka) had 41-
 65% feeding damages, and the most susceptible ones (GK Korany, MM-In, GK
 Kovasz, GK Lili, GK Kalaka, Mv 8) had 98-100%. Grain yield response to
 attack of cereal leaf beetle was more sensitive than that of thousand kernel
 mass. Yield was reduced by 31%, while thousand kernel mass decreased only by
 22% on average. Yield of the most tolerant cultivars (Downy, Brjk-LixLov34,
 MM-Kincso, Kincso-Krp) decreased by 6-16%, while that of the most sensitive
 ones (GK Lili, GK Szoke, GK Csuros, Mv 15, Mv 17, GK Ambitus) was reduced by
 45-56%. Leaf-feeding damage by cereal leaf beetle (second estimation)
 exhibited a medium correlation with yield reduction and yield of infested
 plots (r = 0.3378, P < 0.05; r = -0.4612, P < 0.001 respectively).
 Pubescence of the flag leaf was significantly correlated to feeding damage
 by cereal leaf beetle (r = -0.8015, P < 0.001).
 
 ------------------------- 
      M. Papp and A. Mesterhazy
 
      Resistance of wheat to viruses in field tests. In 1993, 120 wheat
 cultivars and breeding lines (Triticum aestivum and T. durum) were tested in
 three replications at early sowing (late September) and  wide spaced
 surrounded by grassland. The dominating virus was BYDV beside sporadical
 occurrence of BMV and WSMV. Due to the autumn infection only 17% of the
 total 25704 plants were killed by the end of April. The most resistant
 genotypes were GK Ablanc, T89-92, Jbj 50-SdvS, T101-92, GK 804-Mv 8 and GK
 Csornoc (96-99% survival by April), and the most susceptible ones were GK
 Minaret, BD 4312xBa-Mi, Brjk-LixLov34 and 5A 24 (40-60% survival). In June
 the most susceptible lines (GK Minaret, VIC-Pa3, BD 4312xBa-Mi, 5A 39, 5A
 24) had 67-87% virus infection, while the most resistant ones (Zo-F113D,  GK
 Ablanc, GK Csaba, GK Ambitus, GK Kincso, Mv 17, GK Gobe, GK Csornoc, GK Olt,
 Jubilejnaja 50) had only 3-17%. The evaluation carried out in June was
 significantly correlated to the percentage of killed plants recorded in the
 end of April (r = 0.7338, P < 0.001).
 
 -------------------------
      L. Purnhauser
 
      Copper enhanced plant regeneration from somatic and androgenic tissue
 cultures of wheat. In our experiments, Cu-ions at concentrations 10 to 1000
 times higher than in the original Murashige & Skoog medium (0.1 uM CuSO(4))
 strikingly enhanced shoot and root regeneration in somatic callus cultures
 of wheat and triticale. In wheat embryoids induced in anther culture,
 CuSO(4) was also important for regeneration. With hormone-free 1/2 MS medium
 at high (2 M) CuSO(4) content the shoot and root formation of anther
 derived embryoids was significantly higher than that in hormone (0.5 mg l-l
 naphtaleneacetic acid + 0.5 mg l-l kinetin)-containing 1/2 strength MS
 medium (with 0.1 M CuSO(4)), which is commonly applied for regeneration.
 CuSO(4) pretreatment significantly promoted plant survival when regenerated
 wheat plants were transferred directly to potting soil. 
 
      A method for crossing non-synchronously flowering parents in wheat,
 using cold storage of the female parent. A simple method is developed for
 making efficient hand crosses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) parents with
 large differences in flowering dates. It involves the cold storage of
 emasculated plants at 5 degC between emasculation and pollination. The seed
 set of cold-stored females was high when spikes were pollinated 30 days
 after emasculation (DAE). Female plants kept only in a greenhouse (30
 degC/20 degC day/night temperature) without cold storage showed a poor seed
 set when pollinated 10 DAE, and the stigmas had completely lost their
 receptivity 15 DAE. Experiments with other species (T. durum x T. aestivum,
 wheat x rye and triticale x wheat crosses) likevise revealed the highly
 reproducible effect of cold storage of the females on extending the duration
 of stigma receptivity.
 
      Personnel.  J. Falusi, Wheat breeder has been appointed to Research
 Leader of the CRI Research Station , Taplanszentkereszt, West Hungary. He is
 countinouing the small grain breeding activity at the Station. L. Cseuz,
 Wheat breeder participated at the two month International Postgrad Course on
 Biological and Physical Aspects of Crop Production in Arid Zones of the Ben
 Gurion University, Israel.
 
                         Publications 
 
 Barabas, Z., J. Matuz and T. Monostori. 1993. Tomato hybrid seed production
 using auxotroph (thiamin dependent) mutants. Annual Meetings ASA, CSSA,
 SSSA, Cincinnati, Ohio, Nov. 7-12., 1993. Agronomy Abstr. p. 81.
 
 Bona, L., R.J. Wright, V.C. Baligar and J. Matuz. 1993. Screening wheat and
 other small grains for acid soil tolerance. Landscape and Urban Planning.
 27:175-178.
 
 Bona, L., V.C. Baligar and R.J. Wright. 1993. Soil acidity effects on
 agribotanical traits of Triticum durum Desf. and Triticum aestivum L.
 genotypes. Third Plant-Soil Interaction at Low pH Int. Symp. Brisbane,
 Australia, Sep. 12-16. 1993. Abstr. p. 117.
 
 Bona, L., V.C. Baligar, R.J. Wright and L. Leder. 1993. Acid soil tolerance
 of juvenile stage proso millet genotypes. Cereal Res. Commun. 21:83-86.
 
 Carver, B.F., W.E. Whitemore, E.L. Smith and L. Bona. 1993. Registration of
 four aluminum tolerant winter wheat germplasm and two susceptible near-
 isolines. Crop Sci. 33:1113-1114.
 
 Csosz, M, A. Mesterhazy and M. Papp. 1993. Prospects and retrospects in
 resistance breeding of wheat. Hung. Agriculture, 2: 41-46.
 
 Kertesz, Z., J. Pauk and J. Matuz. 1993. Comparison of the traditional
 selection with haploid breeding in winter wheat. Proc. 8th International
 Wheat Genetics Symposium, Beijing 20 - 25 July. Abst. p. 154.
 
 Matuz, J., T. Bartok and L. Purnhauser. 1993. The inheritance and aminoacid
 content in the F1 hybrids of winter wheat cultivars. Proceedings of the 17th
 International Congress of Genetics, Birmingham, 15-21 August. Abst. p.118.
 
 Matuz, J., Z. Kertesz and E. Acs. 1993. Inheritance of bread making quality
 in crosses of Hungarian and North-American winter wheats (Triticum
 aestivum). Proc. 8th International Wheat Genetics Symposium, Beijing 20-25
 July. Abst. p. 140.
 
 Matuz, J., Z. Kertesz and E. Acs. 1993. Inheritance of bread making quality
 in crosses of Hungarian and North-American winter wheats (Triticum
 aestivum). Cereal Res. Commun. 21:39-43.
 
 Mesterhazy, A. 1993. Resistance level and toxin contamination: possibilities
 for breeding resistance to head blight in wheat. Vienna Workshop on Current
 Status of Fusarium Head Blight Research in Europe. Abst. p.7.
 
 Papp, M. 1993. Winter wheat resistance to cereal leaf beetle and bird
 cherry-oat aphid. In J. Angyan, J. Kiss and L. Podmaniczky (eds.) Sci. Conf.
 New Strategies for Sustainable rural Development, March 22-25. Godollo,
 Hungary. Abst. p. 108.
 
 Papp, M., A. Mesterhazy: 1993. Resistance to bird cherry-oat aphid
 (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) in winter wheat varieties. Euphytica 67:49-57.
 
 Papp, M. 1993. Resistance mechanism of wheat to aphids (In Hungarian with
 English summary). Novenytermeles 42:191-198.
 
 Pauk, J. and L. Purnhauser. 1993. Advances in tissue culture of wheat whit
 special regard to plant regeneration and applications in breeding. Hungarian
 Agricult. 2:22-25.
 
 Pauk, J., B. Jenes, L. Purnhauser and Z. Kertesz. 1993. Protoplast - plant
 system in hexaploid wheat. 6th European Congress on Biotechnology, Firenze,
 13-17 June. Abst. p. 369.
 
 Purnhauser, L. 1993. A method for crossing non-synchronously flowering
 parents in wheat, using cold storage of the female parent. Cereal Res.
 Commun. 21:175-179.
 
 Purnhauser, L. and G. Gyulai. 1993. Effect of copper on shoot and root
 regeneration in wheat, triticale, rape and tobacco tissue cultures. Plant
 Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 35:131-139. 
 
 Purnhauser, L., J. Schulcz, T. Monostory and J. Matuz. 1993. Crossability of
 wheat with rye and use of the tissue culture method for wide hybridization.
 Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Genetics, Birmingham, 15-
 21 August. Abst. p. 118.
 
 -------------------------
                       ITEMS FROM INDIA
 
      Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Division of Genetics, New Delhi
 
                        Wheat Breeding
 
      R. N. Sawhney, S.S. Singh, H.B. Chowdary, Harsh Mehta, J .B. Sharma and
 D. N. Sharma
 
          The use of (i) genetically well defined sources for resistance,
 (ii) simultaneous testing of breeding materials under timely sown, both
 water stress and adequate irrigation conditions as well as late sown,
 irrigated conditions and (iii) through shuttle breeding has led to the
 development of a new set of high yielding, widely adapted wheats with
 well-defined and diverse resistance. Some of the wheats which have emerged
 from the program are endowed with an inherent mechanism of genetic
 homoeostasis enabling them to achieve stability of production at higher
 levels of productivity both under optimum and sub-optimurn environments over
 diverse agroclimatic conditions of the country. These wheats are also likely
 to be durable for resistance to rusts.
 
      'Kanchan' (DL 803-3) - an outstanding dwarf wheat. 'Kanchan' (DL
 803-3), an aestivum wheat identified by the All India Wheat Research
 Workers' Workshop in 1993 for the timely sown, irrigated and high fertility
 conditions, is the latest in the series including 'Kundan' (DL 153-2) and
 'Vaishali' (DL 784-2) released for the commercial cultivation in the last
 decade.  This cultivar was derived from the cross HUW 202//K 7537/, a black
 point free mutant of HD 2160.
 
      1. Yield potential. The yield figures in Table 1 project that DL 803-3
 outclassed the most popular wheat of the zone WH 147 with convincing margins
 registering first rank in the three consecutive years. An average yield of 5
 t/ha with yield potential of 7 t/ha under good management on large plots in
 on-farm tests in Punjab was achieved.
 
 Table 1.  Comparative performance of DL 803-3 with WH 147 in the Central
 Zone,
                          AICWIP data
 
 
                          DL 803-3                   WH 147  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------    
           Year      Yield          Rank      Yield          Rank
                     (q/ha)                   (q/ha)
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------     
           1990-91   46.4           1         41.5           17
           1991-92   50.3           1         48.7            4
           1992-93   47.2           1         42.5            7
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
           Mean      48.0                     44.2                
 
 
     2.  Durable rust resistance.  The wheat-rye (lB/1R) translocation that
 carries Lr26/Sr31/Yr9 for resistance to leaf, stem and yellow rusts
 respectively has been exploited extensively for the development of high
 yielding cultivars in different parts of the world. DL 803-3 and DL 802-3
 evoIved from two differnt local cross combinations possessing lB/1R
 translocation.  DL 803-3 is postulated to carry Lr23, Lr26/Sr31 /Yr9 and
 Lr34/Yr18. Lr26 alone has become ineffective due to the evolution of new
 races of 77 group. However, Lr34, an adult plant partially effective gene,
 which is implicated for durability in combination with Lr23 and Lr26
 provided higher level of resistance and is likely to be durable for
 resistance to leaf rust. Sr31 is still highly effective gene the world over
 and suggested to have durable resistance to stem rust. Yr18, a partially ef
 fective adult plant stripe rust resistance gene, has been shown to be
 closely associated with Lr34 and is likely to provide durable and high level
 of resistance to stripe rust in combination with Yr9 which again is a gene
 that is still highly effective to stripe rust in the sub-continent. 
 
      3.  Stability and sustainability.  Wheats that are capable of yielding
 at higher levels of productivity both under optimum and sub-optimum
 environments are Iikely to produce higher average yields because of several
 inherent natural and socio-economic constraints encountered by the peasantry
 in different parts of the country in the availability of adequate inputs for
 higher production. In this context DL 803-3 displays a good degree of
 genetic homoeostasis when tested over diverse agronomic situations (Table
 2). It outyields WH 147 both in the Varietal Trials (Table 1) and the
 Agronomic Trials (Table 2) under normal sown as well as when shown early or
 late in Agronomic Trials (table 2).  Thus, the cultivar imparts a sufficient
 degree of latitude in planting time to the farmer.
 
            The genotype holds sufficient prornise in sustainable agriculture
 when planted under a wide range of sub-optimum input conditions of
 fertilizer and number of irrigations. The cultivar maintained its edge over
 WH 147 even when the fertilizer levels were reduced to 2/3 and 1/3 of the
 recommended levels. Similarly, DL 803-3 retained its superiority over WH 147
 in water deticit situations. Thus, the genotype fairly meets the
 requirements of a subsistence farmer who can ill-afford the use of costly
 chemical fertilizer and depends on weather gods to meet the irrigation
 requirements. WH 147 again is a wheat known for its better performance under
 moderate inputs of fertilizer and water.
 
 
 Table 2 : Comparative performance of D L 803-3 and WH 147 over varied
 agronomic situations in Central Zone, AICWIP data (1992-93)
 
                             Yield (q/ha) 
    
                          Dl 803-3  Wh 147         
  ---------------------------------------------------------
 Sowing date    Normal    48.3 -    44.8
                Early     46.3 -    41.4
                Late      39.1 -    33.0
 
 FertiIizer doses         N 120 P60 K40  43.6 38.5
                          N80 P40   K27  40.7 36.4
                          N40 P20   K14  32.0 2a8
 
 No. of irrigations       Adequat   51.0  43.3
                          Two       34.6   32.8    
                          One       29.6   28.1
  ---------------------------------------------------------
 
      4.  Wide Adaptability.  Wheats performing consistently superior across
 different agroclimatic regions are likely to be more adapted and stable in
 performance. Widespread adaptability of DL 803-3 is implicit in Table 3. The
 cultivar performed consistently superior in different zones having a wide
 range of environments when compared with the most popular wheat of the
 respective zone.
 
 
 Table 3.  Widespread adaptability of DL 803 (Kanchan) under  diverse
 agroclimatic conditions, AICWIP
                                                                              
      Cultivation            1992-93          1991-92         1990-91
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Zone  condition  Variety   V       R        Y       R       Y      R  
 Central TS, IRR  DL 803   47.2     1       50.3     1      46.4     1 
                  WH 147   42.5     7       48.7     4      41.5    17
 NorWest LS, IRR  DL 803   41.2     3       43.0     1      38.4     5
   Plain         HD 2285   36.0    16       39.3    12      37.9     9
 NorEast TS, IRR  DL 803   46.3     2         -      -         -
                 HUW 206   42.9    21         -      -         -
         TS, RF   DL 803   20.1     1         -      -         -
                   C 306   17.2    17         -      -         -
 Penin-  TS, IRR  DL 803   47.1     3       48.3     1         -       -
 sular           NI 5439   38.2    14       48.3     1         -       -
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 -Y:   Yield (q/ha)        R:   Rank           IRR: Irrigated
 TS:  Timely sown         LS:  Late sown      RF:  Rainfed
 
 
 Quality features.  It has amber (white), hard, well filled and roundish
 grains with grain weight of 45 mg.  It had the highest protein percentage
 (14.0) in comparison to the check wheats.
 
                         Publications
 
 Sawhney, R.N. 1993. Kundan - a superior wheat cultivar among the dwarf
 wheats. Ind. Fm 9. 43(8): 35-37.
 
 Sawhney, R.N. 1993. Kundan - the ideal chapati and bread wheat. The Indian
 Bakers 24(3): 27-31.
 
 Sawhney, R. N. 1993. Genetic strategies for sustaining green revolution in
 wheat. Abstr. National Symposium on Plant Breeding Strategies for India 2000
 A.D. and Beyond at Aurangabad, December 25-27, 1993 organised by Marathawada
 Agricultural University, Parbhani and Indian Society of Genetics and Plant
 Breeding, New Delhi. pp 4-6.
 
 Sawhney, R.N. 1994. Breeding for durable resistance to the wheat rusts.
 Monograph, IARI, New Delhi 110 012. Publication and Information Directorate
 of the CSIR, New Delhi ( i n p ress) .
 
 -------------------------
      Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural  Research Institute, New
 Delhi 
 
      S. M. S. Tomar* and M. Kochumadhavan
 
      Improvement of Wheat Cultivars: A number of alien genes and  genes from
 related species have been identified as effective source of resistance
 against the Indian stem rust and leaf rust race flora. These genes are
 available but in poor backgrounds with regard to Indian conditions. Many of
 them such as Sr26, Lr24, Lr28 and Lr9 have been transferred to Indian wheat
 cultivars through backcross breeding to improve rust resistance. The yield
 potential of the improved cultivars (constituted after 6 or 7 backcrosses)
 along with their recurrent parents was assessed in RBD with 6 replications
 in a plot size of 5 m X 0.92 m. The crop was inoculated twice (tillering and
 boot leaf stages) with a mixture of races of stem and leaf rusts to create 
 epiphytotic conditions. The leaf rust infection recorded on check varieties
 (recurrent parents) ranged from 60S to 90S.  Although differences in yield
 between recurrent parents and the improved lines were observed (Table l),
 the data indicated significant differences in yield only in two cases. It is
 also observed that rust appearing at boot stage can cause damage up to 10%
 but depends on the time of rust appearance and tolerance of the genotype
 against the pathogen. The infection of stem rust was of low magnitude
 ranging from TS to 5S at the time of maturity.
 
 Table 1. Relative performance of improved cultivars in comparison to their
 recurrent parents
 
 Cultivar/Improved line        Gene(s)        Average yield in Kgs..per
          (Imp.)               present         plot (5 m X 0.92 m)
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Sonalika                                          2.09
 HW 2001A (Imp. Sonalika)      Lr24                2.17
 
 Kalyansona                                        2.16
 HW 2002A (Imp. Kalyansona)    Lr24                2.32
 HW 2021  (Imp. Kalyansona)    Lr24 Sr26           2.18
      
 WH 147                                            2.20
 HW 2022   (Imp. WH 147)       Lr24 Sr26           2.26
 HW 2005   (Imp. WH 147)       Lr24                2.28
 
 Lok 1                                             2.26
 HW 2006   (Imp. Lok 1)        Lr24                2.34
 
                              
 HD 2329                                           2.19      
                     
 HW 2007   (Imp. HD 2329)      Lr24                2.46      
 
 HD 2285                                           2.18
 
 HW 2008   (Imp. HD 2285)      Lr24                2.24      
 
 WL 711                                            2.12
 HW 2014   (Imp. WL 711)       Lr24                2.48
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
       C.D. = 0.25 Sig. at 5% level of significance 
 
 -------------------------
      IARI Regional Station, Wellington, The Nilgiris
 
      M. Kochumadhavan and S. M. S. Tomar*
 
      Introgression of stem rust resistance gene Sr27 and leaf rust
 resistance gene  Lr28 in Indian wheat cultivar(s). In continuation of
 previous work on improvement of wheat cultivars by incorporating different
 genes conferring resistance to stem and leaf rusts, a popular wheat cultivar
 Kalyansona was chosen for introgression of the gene Lr28 derived from
 Aegilops speltoides . The line CS 2A/2M 4/2 was used as a donor parent for
 leaf rust resistance (Lr28). Selection constituted after seven backcrosses
 from Kalyansona*7/CS 2A/2M 4/2 were tested under field conditions against a
 mixture of leaf rust races. The improved Kalyansona carrying Lr28 showed
 resistance under field  conditions and also in seedling stage to those races
 to which the recurrent parent is susceptible.
 
      The gene Sr27 (WRT: Wheat Rye Translocation) available in Chinese
 Spring background, translocated from Imperial rye to CS by Acosta (1963)J
 has been found effective against Indian stem rust race flora in seedling as
 well as in adult plant stages. This  gene had earliar been transferred to
 Kalyansona by Prabhakar Rao (1985). Our efforts were to combine Sr27 and
 Lr28 and Sr27 and Lr24 in Kalyansona background. The Kalyansona carrying
 Sr27 was crossed to Kalyansona carrying Lr28. A number of single plants
 looking phenotypically close to Kalyansona and carrying resistance to leaf
 rust and stem rust in F(2)  generation were carried over to F(3) 
 generation.  Uniform F(3) families resistant to stem rust and leaf rust were
 bulked separately. The uniformity and the resistance of the individual bulks
 was tested in next generation. Similarly, Kalyansona carrying Sr27 was
 crossed to HW 2002 carrying Lr24 (an improved line of Kalyansona) and the
 procedure adopted in combining Sr27 and Lr28 was followed. The above method
 of combining two  specific genes in a single background seems to have  merit
 for constituting the genotypes with multigenic resistance.
 
 -------------------------
      Dalmir Singh 
 
          INDUCED TRANSLOCATIONS BETWEEN WHEAT AND RYE
             CHROMOSOMES FOR RUST RESISTANCE 
 
      The Mexican hexploid wheat variety Kalyansona was crossed with a amber
 seeded and self compatible rye mutant.  Crossed seeds were irradiated with
 35 Kr. of gamma rays (1989-90) with the objective to induce translocation
 between chromosomes of  wheat and rye.  During the 1991-93 season plant
 progenies were in M3 and M4 generations.  The M3 material was screened under
 Delhi conditions while M4 generation was evaluated at Wellington (hot spot
 for all the diseases of wheat).  The M3 material screened at Delhi segre-
 gated for rust resistance except for one plant progeny which produced only
 resistant plants (the plant was resistant in M2  generation at Wellington.
 The material was then evaluated as M4 at Wellington (Table 1).  Plants
 possessing rust resistance were also selected for improved fertility. Plant
 progenies possessing rust resistance in M3 generation were found to be
 resistant in Mr generation also.  These plant progenies flowered about 10
 days later than the parent variety (Kalyansona).  Differences were also
 observed in the spike morphology,  some spikes were  of speloid types.  The
 mature plants were about 10 to 15 cm  taller than the parent. Since the
 spike fertility was good, these lines will be evaluated for their yielding
 ability.  Rust resistant plants have been selected from other segregating
 material to improve spike fertility.
 
 Table 1  Rust reactions in variety Kalyansona, Secale cereale and
 translocation line (at Wellington).
                                               Rust reaction                 
 
 Parents                  Black rust     Brown  rust         Yellow rust
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Kalyan sona              60-80 S        60 S                40 S
 Secale cereale           F              F                   F    
 Kalyan sona x Secale
  cereal translocation    F              F                   F
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Spontaneously induced early plants in T. timopheevi (Zhula) Zhuk.  IN
 an attempte to transfer desirable traits, two strains of T. timopheevi are
 being used.  Both strains are of winter habit (late flowering).  At
 flowering stage it was observed that one of the strains produced some
 exceptionally early plants which flowered about 30 days earlier than the
 rest.  As a curiosity, one of the early plants was analysed cytologically at
 first meiotic metaphase and it was observed that instead of forming regular
 14 bivalents, it showed a prevalence of univalents, trivalents and
 quadrivalents in most of the cells scored..  Since it happened to be an
 unusual phenomenon, the remainder of early plants and some normal plants
 were also analyzed cytologically.  The data were recorded on the number of
 univalents bivalents (ring or rod), trivalents, quadrivalents and chiasmata
 per cell.  Mean values were calculated and compared with the normal T.
 timopheevi observations (Table 1).
 
      Data analysis revealed that the increase in the mean values of the
 univalents, trivalents and quadrivalents per cell were significantly higher
 in all the plants which flowered early than the mean values of normal
 plants.
 The mean values of rod bivalents did not differ much but the mean values of
 ring bivalents were significantly lower in all the early plants than the
 values observed in the late plants. The mean values of trivalents and
 quadrivalents on the other hand were significantly higher in all the early
 plants except plant number 6, where quadrivalents failed to occur (Table 1).
 
      In general the chiasma frequencies in all the early plants were
 significantly lower than the late plants.  It certainly could be due to the
 failure of chromosome pairing.  The partial reduction in the number of
 bivalents on the one hand and the increase in the number of univalents on
 the other side may be the effect of desynapsis.  In the present observations
 the increase in the number was not only restricted to univalents but it was
 also observed in the number of trivalents and quadrivalents (which could be
 due to the supression of Ph gene like system).
 
      In the early flowering (abnormal) plants, there appeared to be three
 different events which are common. 1. Decreased ring bivalents and increased
 univalents (desynaptic effect).  2. Increased chromosome associations like
 trivalents and quadrivalents (mutated Ph  gene effect).   3. Early flowering
 (vernalization).
 
      Although it is difficult to pinpoint which event took place first and
 later on triggered the rest of them but it is likely that the change might
 have occurred in the pairing of chromosome (Ph gene system) and then due to
 homoeologous chromosome pairing, the other functions got reshuffled.  A few
 seeds were obtained by crossing hundreds of florets with hexaploid wheat. 
 Resulting progenies are to be studied.
 
 Table 1.  Meiotic chromosome pairing in T. timopheevi (flowered late) and
           its abnormal (flowered early) Plants (mean per cell).
 
                         No. of
 Parents                 cells
                         scored     Univalents
  ---------------------------------------------------
 T. timopheevi            50        0.42 +/- .01
 
 Abnormal Plant-1         50        8.58 +/- .33
                                           (23.31)
 
 Abnormal Plant-2         25        5.68 +/- .48
                                           (14.61)
 
 Abnormal Plant-3         30        4.40 +/- .40
                                           (15.47)
 
 Abnormal Plant-4         25        4.68 +/- .38
                                           (14.20)
 
 Abnormal Plant-5         30        5.17 +/- .40
                                           (13.97)
 
 Abnormal Plant-6         25        5.40 +/- .48
                                           (13.53)
  --------------------------------------------------
 Table 1.  Meiotic chromosome pairing in T. timopheevi (flowered late) and
 (cont'd)  its abnormal (flowered early) Plants (mean per cell).
                                
        Bivalents
  ----------------------------
 
 Ring Types        Rod Types        Trivalents     Quadrivalents    Chiasmata 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 10.50 +/- .23     3.16 +/- .23      0.06 +/- .22  0.02 +/- .01    25.64+/-.29
 
  3.78 +/- .15     4.70 +/- .21      0.74 +/- .09  0.08 +/- .02    14.34+/-.40
   (24.34)           (5.03)           (7.64)          (7.50)        (22.60)
 
  5.20 +/- .32     6.68 +/- .19      0.88 +/- .12  0.04 +/- .04    19.08+/-.53
   (13.58)           (4.47)           (9.11)          (4.00)        (11.92)
 
  5.03 +/- .27     3.83 +/- .22      1.60 +/- .15  0.28 +/- .08    20.37+/-.39
   (14.32            (3.10)           (12.41)         (3.71)        (10.75)
 
  4.80 +/- .21     4.04 +/- .26      1.20 +/- .17  0.32 +/- .09    20.00+/-.33
   (16.05)           (2.31)           (10.63)         (4.28)        (12.00)
 
  4.50 +/- .23     4.50 +/- .19      1.37 +/- .11  0.20 +/- .07    19.57+/-.44
   (17.14)           (4.20)           (14.55)         (3.00)        (11.90)
 
  5.16 +/- .26     4.20 +/- .25      1.32 +/- .16       --         19.84+/-.27
   (14.43)           (2.88)           (10.50)                       (12.60)
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Figures in parenthesis are "t" values.
 
 
 Table 2.  Some quantitative characters of the Pusa timopheevi
           derivatives (PTD) lines
  --------------------------------------------------------------                  Culm                  Ear
 Derivatives/      length    Tiller      length    Spikelet
 Checks            (cm)      Number      (cm)      number  
  --------------------------------------------------------------
 PID     1         83.72     12.60      11.72      20.12
 PID     2        104.84     11.65       9.09      17.90
 PID     8         94.13     15.05       9.06      18.05
 PID    11         98.29     10.25      10.16      17.65
 PID    12         86.24     12.85      10.12      22.12
 PID    16         81.53     12.35       9.74      22.05
 PID    18         81.52     13.60      10.69      20.80
 PID    28         81.31      9.95       9.17      22.62
 PID    30         87.42      8.35      10.71      21.71
 PID    32        108.56     10.20      11.12      18.81
 PID    34         82.37      8.10      10.57      23.15
 PID    40        102.56     10.55      10.22      20.66
 PID    44         86.44      9.65      10.63      21.81
 PID    47         76.30     12.80       9.99      19.75
 PID    48         88.83     12.20       8.93      20.71
 PID    49         78.90     12.75      10.00      20.30
 PID    50         84.77     13.40       9.75      19.62
  --------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Table 2.  Some quantitative characters of the Pusa timopheevi
 (cont'd)  derivatives (PTD)lines
  --------------------------------------------------------------
 No days                 Ear      Ear       Grain      Yield
 to           Biomass    yield    grain     weight     plant
 flower        (g)        (g)      No       (mg)       (g)
  --------------------------------------------------------------
  98.50       49.75      2.03      60.16     31.72     12.32
 125.50       47.75      1.28      40.75     31.42      6.35
 115.75       51.30      1.72      39.39     43.17     13.07
 107.25       42.25      1.63      46.40     35.17     10.22
 108.75       62.35      2.31      58.41     38.80     17.12
 111.25       59.50      2.04      53.08     36.35     17.84
 108.00       43.00      1.77      57.33     28.00     11.47
 109.00       51.75      2.44      54.90     34.20     14.37
 109.75       54.50      2.51      68.08     35.02     15.17
 103.50       55.75      2.06      46.48     46.70     11.12
 106.50       43.50      2.38      62.39     38.90     13.30
 119.25       55.75      1.44      38.33     40.85     12.00
 111.25       48.25      2.10      52.58     37.32     10.55
 110.00       40.75      1.48      62.74     23.40      6.85
 112.00       49.25      1.54      53.24     29.77     11.02
 111.00       54.75      1.67      67.74     22.82     11.70
 113.00       49.50      1.54      72.74     21.75     11.11
  --------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Table 2.  Some quantitative characters of the Pusa timopheevi
 (cont'd)   derivatives (PTD) lines
  --------------------------------------------------------------                   Culm                  Ear
 Derivatives/       length   Tiller      length    Spikelet
 Checks             (cm)     Number       (cm)     number  
  --------------------------------------------------------------
 PID    61          85.66    13.30         9.86    18.64
 PID    64          88.09    14.97        10.71    22.47
 PID    65          84.39    10.85         9.97    20.81
 PID    76          79.72    12.00        11.03    21.47
 PID    83          79.95    12.50         9.72    20.16
 Kalyansona         75.27     8.60        10.22    19.95
 CM 108-31          93.30    12.30         9.57    19.65
  -------------------------------------------------------------
 C.V. (%)            6.22    19.42        13.38     7.96
 C.D. at 5%          7.6573   1.6066       1.9097   2.296
 C.D. at 1%         10.20     8.5253       2.546    3.061
 
 
 
 Table 2.  Some quantitative characters of the Pusa timopheevi
 (cont'd)   derivatives (PTD) lines
  ------------------------------------------------------------
 No days                 Ear      Ear       Grain      Yield
 to           Biomass    yield    grain     weight     plant
 flower        (g)        (g)      No        (mg)       (g)
  ------------------------------------------------------------                   
 112.00       55.00      1.98      46.66     40.07    15.22   
 111.00       48.75      1.54      59.49     26.30    10.10
 109.75       38.70      1.50      58.49     22.00     8.06
 109.25       44.50      1.99      59.33     31.97     9.65
 110.50       41.00      1.41      68.24     21.80     9.30
 115.50       51.22      2.63      59.33     31.97    14.87
 110.75       68.10      2.41      56.24     41.72    18.17
  ------------------------------------------------------------
   3.96       20.01      17.14     17.95      8.76    22.32
   6.1866     14.3885     0.4572   14.146     4.0688   3.1875
   8.2489     19.1849     0.6096   18.8617    5.4250   5.0901
 
 
 Table 1.  Field reaction of timopheevi derivatives against rust disease
 
 Deriv/
 Checks       Pedigree                     Pusa Brown Rust
                                          88    89   91   92  
  ------------------------------------------------------------------             
 1      (CM108-3 z x timo.)x Ks(2)         R    TR    R   10S  
 8      (CM5B X TIMO.) X CM108-31          0     0    0   TR
 12                                        0     0    0   10S
 18                                       TS    10S   R   10MS
 28     (CM108-31 X TIMO.) X CM108-31(2)   0    10S  TR    TS
 30                                        0    TS   TS   5MR
 32                                       MS     0   TR   10S
 34                                       TMR   MR   TR   10S
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Wellington Brown Rust   Wellington Black Rust      Lahoul Yellow Rust
 88    89     92         88    89     92            88     89     92
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 -      0     20MR        -     0    10MR           -      0      20MS
 TR     0     TMS         0     0     0             0      R       R
 5S     0     10MR       10S    0     5R            MR     R       R
  0    20S    40MS        0     0     TR            0      0       R
 TS     5R    10S        5MS    0     0             -      50S    80S
 TS    TMS    10S         0     0     0             0      0      5MS
 MR     TS    10S         -     0     0             MS     4S      R
 10MS   TR    10S         TS    0     0             0      50S    20S
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Table 1.  Field reaction of timopheevi derivatives against rust disease
 (cont'd)
 
 Deriv/                                Pusa Brown Rust
 Checks       Pedigree
  -----------------------------------------------------------
 40                                 TR    20S  TS    20S
 44     (CM 108-31 X TIMO.) X Ks(3)  0    TS    R    TS
 47                                 TS    TS    -    10S
 48                                 TR    10S  10S   20S
 49                                 TR    TR    -    10S
 50                                 MR    10S  TR    10S
 61                                  0    MR   20S   20S
 64                                  0     0    R    10S
 65                                  0    TR    R    TS
 83        Ks x (TIMO> X Ks)(3)     MR    TS   TR    20S
 KS            Kalyansona           80S   80S  100S  60S       
 CM-31           CM108-31           60S   60S  60S   60S
  -----------------------------------------------------------
 
 Wellington Brown Rust   Wellington Black Rust     Lahoul Yellow Rust
 88    89     92         88     89     92          88     89      92
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 TS     0     10S        5S     0      0           TS     R       R
 TR     0     20MR        0     0     TMS          0      R       R
 TMR    0     10S         0     0      0           TS     20S     40S
 TR    TR      -          0     0      0           0      TS      5S
 TR     0     5S          0     0      0           -      0       10S
 TR     0     10S         0     0      0           TS     5S      R
 10R    0     10MR       TS    TS     TR           0      0       R
 TS    TR     1-MS        0     0      0           S      50S     80S
 5S    5R      -          0     0      0           0      0       30S
  -    TS     MS         40S   40S    MS           20S    20S     40S
 60S   60S    100S       40S   40S   40S           80S    80S     100S
 40S   20S    40S        40S   40S   40S           30S    30S     30S
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 -------------------------
 Resistance against Multiple Rust Disease and Agronomic Behavior of
 Timopheevi Derivatives
 
      Bhowal, J.G., G. Huha, R.M. Brahma and R. Singh.
 
      McIntosh, in 1988 stated that it was not difficult to find or to
 produce rust resistant materials but it was difficult to combine high levels
 of resistance to multiple diseases with other desirable characters. 
 Timopheevi derivatives used in the study show a high level of multiple
 disease resistance including adult plant resistance to black, brown and
 yellow rusts and have desirable agronomic characters.  The derivatives were
 produced by crossing T. timopheevi as a male or female with aestivum
 cultivars and stocks (CM 108-31, CM mono 5B and Kalyansona) and back
 crossing the F(1)s one to three times to aestivum cultivars and stocks
 followed by repeated selfing and selection.  The derivatives are referred to
 as Pusa timopheevi derivatives (PTD).
 
      Other desirable characters of PTD are predominantly aestivum like in
 habit and other morphological characters.  All are earlier than timopheevi
 and without small ovate and pressed ear and winter habit.  Most are similar
 to aestivum parents in culm and ear length, tillering, spikelet and grain
 number and flowering time.  A few PTD lines have more or less the same ear
 grain yield, grain weight, yield per plant and biomass as aestivum parents.
 
      Several lines showed ear grain yield and yield per plant similar to
 aestivum parents.  Some lines even transgressed the superior parents in
 characters like tiller number, flowering time and grain weight.  All sources
 of germplasm to broaden the genetic base of resistance to rust diseases. 
 
 -------------------------
      P. Bahadur, K. D. Srivastava, D. V. Singh, and R. Aggarwal, Mycology
 and Plant Pathology
 
              Studies on Wheat Diseases in India
 
      Wheat rusts.  A prolonged cold wave for 5 weeks from the last week of
 December 91 to four week fo January 92 in Northern India delayed leaf rust
 appearance in Indogangetic plains on susceptible cultivars, Sonallika, HD
 2285  and HD 2329.  Heavy rains in Northern India also reduced the
 establishment of stripe rust in Haryana and Punjab.  Cultivation of many
 CIMMYT and Indian improved varieties in Nepal might have also contributed in
 reducing the inoculum spreading to India.
 
      Postulation of genes for stem rust resistance.  Evaluation of 79
 entries of wheat with 12 pathotypes of Puccinia graminis tritici revealed
 the following SR genes were carried by cultivars listed:
 
      Sr9b           :    HPW 74
      SR9e           :    PDW 232, PDW 233, WH 896
      Sr2 + Se31     :    K 9000, HUW 391     
      Sr31           :    DL 803-2, DL 803-3, DL 802-3, DWR 187,
                          DWR 195, HD 2610, HD 2615, HDR 151,
                          HP 1704, HP 1705, HW 395, VL 719,
                          WH 585
 
      Adult plant resistandce (APR).  Evaluation of cultivars showed APR in
 PDW 232, PDW 233, PBW 34, HD 2285, K 9006, K 8962, GW 173, and HI 977 to
 pathotype 40A (62G29) of Puccinia graminis tritici and in GW 173, HPW 42,
 HUW 391, HUW 395, K 8804, PDW 232, PDW 332, VL 616, VL 719, WH 581, and WH
 585 to pathotypes 77-1 (109R63), 77-2 (109R31-1) adn 104 B(29R23) of P.
 recondita tritici.  
 
      Powdery mildew.  Powdery mildew developed in moderate severity in sub-
 mountaneous areas of northwest India in rabi 93 and some districts of
 Haryana.   Virulence analysis of samples revealed the existence of 11
 pathotypes from northwest India, 7 from Mahabaleshwar (central India) and 5
 from Nilgiris.  The pathotypes from Mahabaleshwar are different than those
 identified from other places.  
      
      Efficacy of fungicide revealed than 1 ppm of folicur, 10 ppm of Tilt
 and SAN 619 F, and 100 ppm Bayleton did not permit mildew to develop on the
 seedlings in the greenhouse.
 
      Loose smut.  Analysis over a period of 3 years, identified 14 entries:
 DL(89)-22, DL (89)-28, DL(89)-33, DL(89)-42), DL(89)-62, DL(89)-67, DL(89)-
 73, DL(89)-89, DL(89)-91, DL(89)-99, DL(89)-102, DL(89)-112, HW 2004, HW
 2004A.  Standardization of five different seed coating techniques revealed
 that conidial spore suspension of Trichoderma viride prepared in Aloes glue
 provided maximum spore attachment, 9.7x10exp8 spores/grain. Minimum spores
 were recovered from seed treated with spores mixed with methly cellulose.
 
                         Publications
 
 Bahadur, P., D. V. Singh, K. D. Srivastava, R. Aggarwal and S. Nagarajan. 
 1993.  Seeding and adult plant resistance in wheat to Puccinia recondita
 tritici.  Indian Phytopath 46: 76-77.
 
 Bahadur, P., K. D. Srivastava, D. V. Singh adn R. Aggarwal.  1992. 
 Identification of seedling and adult plant resistance in wheat to race 40 A
 (62-G29) of Puccinia graminis tritici.  Int. J. Tropical Plant Diseases
 10:185-188.
 
 Bahadur, P., K. D. Srivastava, D. V. Singh and J. B. Sharma.  1993. 
 Postulation of genes for stem rust resistance in Indian Wheat. 21:3-9.
 
 Bahadur, P. and C. P. Khare.  1993.  Virulence patttern of powdery mildew of
 wheat (Erysiphe graminis tritici) in India.  Indian Phytopath.  46:274.
 
 Aggarwal, R., K. D. Srivastava and D. V. Singh.  1993.  Note on the efficacy
 of Carboxin 40Sc against loose smut of wheat.  Seed Res. 20:58-59.
 
 Aggarwal, R., K. D. Srivastava and D. V. Singh.  1993.  Raxil a potent
 fungicide to control loose smut of wheat.  Indian Phytopath. 46: 172-173.
 
 -------------------------
      D. V. Singh, K. D. Srivastava and R. Aggarwal
 
                 Karnal Bunt of Wheat in India
 
      In post harvest surveys conducted during 1991-93 a total of 1858 wheat
 seed samples were collected.  Analysis revealed approximately 6.3%
 inffection of Karnal bunt [Neovossia indica (Mitra) Mundkur] (KB) in the
 wheat growing regions.  Percentage of samles with KB in the various states
 were Jammu and Kashmir (18.0%) Hiamchal Pradesh (20.9%) Delhi (3.3%),
 Rajashthan (1.5%) and Madhya Pradesh (2.6%).  The amount of infection in
 seed samples was not more than 5%.  In addition to highly susceptible
 cultivars like Arjun and WL711, some commercial cultivars like Lok1, HD
 2285, HD 2329, HD 2204, PBW 175, IPW 72 etc., had KB infection under natural
 conditions.
 
      Aerobiological studies conducted, using the Burkard Spore Trap and
 flagging methods showed that Allantoid secondary sporidia of N. indica
 release was greater during last week of February and 1st week of March.  The
 maximum number of sporidia were trapped during morning hours from 2.0-6.0 h,
 indicating a natural diurnal periodicity in release of secondary sporidia. 
 Maximum sporidia counts were recorded on lower leaves (30cm) but the counts
 reduced with increasing height and at 90 cm only 4-8 sprodoa were found. 
 This may be due to spatial spread of sporidia in the field.  Sporidia
 release coincided with the anthesis, the most vulnerable stage for
 infection.  More sporidia were trapped when relative humidity was above 80%
 and leaf wetness was high and while temperatures were 18-20deg with low
 solar radiation and wind speed.
 
      Chemical control.  The efficacy of three chemicals viz., Folicur 25 EC,
 Baycor25 WOP and Tilt 25 EC against KB was evaluated.  Post inoculation
 sprays of these chemicals at two different dosages were given after 48
 hours.  Tilt 25 EC @ 500 ml/ha proved highly effective in reducing KB
 infection.
 
      Biological control.  N. indica being a soil borne pathogen, could be
 possibly managed by the application of bio-control agents.  Experiments on
 biocontrol were conucted under glass house conditions and in vitro on potato
 dextrose agar (PDA) medium and the organisms Trichodeima viride Pers Fr:,
 T., harzianum Rifai, T. koeningii oudem Gar., Glicladium virens Miller, G.,
 roseum Bainier, G., catenulatum Glman & Abboll, G., deliquescens Sopp,
 G.penicilloides Corda and Bacillus subtilis Cohn showed that Trichoderma
 viride, T. harzianum and  Gliocladium deliquescens reduced the teliospore
 germination significantly.  In paired cultuver on PDA, hyphae of T. viride
 and G. deliquescens parasitized the colonies of N. indica without forming a
 zone of inhibition and started sporulating over the pathogen colony. 
 Detailed studies on the mechanism of antagonism are under progress.
 
                         Publications
 
 Singh, D. V., R. Aggarwal, K. D. Srivastava and S. Tandon.  1993.  Cultural
 Variability in Neovossia indica.  Indian Phytopath. 46:74-76.
 
 Singh, D. V., K. D. Srivastava, R. Aggarwal, P. Bahadur and S. Tandon. 
 1993.  Sources of resistance to Karnal bunt of wheat.  Indian J. Agric. Sci.
 63:454-455.
 
 Singh, D. V., K. D. Srivastava, R. Aggarwal.  1993.  Frequency and
 distribution of Karnal bunt of wheat.  Indian Phytopath. 46:274.
 
 -------------------------
      Department of Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 
 
      Neelam Vir, Mandip Kaur and R.G. Saini*
 
      Growth rate of wheat triticum aestivum and lts relationship with leaf
 rust resistance.  Expression of resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita
 Rob. ex. Desm. f. sp. tritici) of wheat is reported to be influenced by many
 factors like temperature, light, growth stage and genetic background
 (Drijpondt and Pretorius, 1991; Pretorius et al., 1988; Rajaram, 1971). Leaf
 rust resistance in a majority of wheats tested at the Punjab Agricultural
 University is due to  as yet undescribed genes many of which express at
 adult plant stage (Shiwani and Saini, 1993).  These genes confer varying
 levels of resistance to leaf rust race 77 and its variants which constitute
 the most important race flora of the Indian subcontinent.  Since wheats
 carrying these new genes vary in growth rate, the relationship of growth
 rate with variation for leaf rust resistance in 34 selected wheats was
 studied.
 
      Ten to fifteen seeds of each of 34 wheats were sown in two 30 cm x 30
 cm earthen pots filled with a l:l mlxture of farm yard manure and sandy
 loam.  Seedling numbers were thinned to four per pot and were kept in a
 glass house maintained at optimum growth conditions.
 
          Each of the 34 wheats was also planted as single 2m long rows in
 open experimental area and separately inoculated with a mixture of variants
 77-1 and 77-2 of race 77 which knocks down all the known Lr genes which are
 expected in the 34 wheats.  Two plants of each cultivar from each pot were
 uprooted at 40 days and at 100 days.  Above ground parts were dried at 45C
 for four days and weight per plant recorded.  Relative growth rate over a
 period of 60 days was calculated using standard procedures.  The terminal
 disease severity values were  subjected to angular transformation and used
 for calculating correlation coefficient of disease severity with relative
 growth rate and days to  flowering.
 
      Disease severity, days to flowering and relative growth rate for 34
 wheats is given in Table 1. The correlation coefficient(r) between disease
 severlty and relative growth rate was 0.3035 and that between disease
 severity and days to flowering was -0.2580. These observations suggest that
 wheats which have higher above ground biomass and flower early  are less
 resistant.
 
       The relative growth rate and days to flowering are two unrelated
 parameters of growth of wheat crop. If the leaf rust resistance of wheats
 used for present experiment is conferred only by adult plant resistance
 genes, a negative association of days to flowering with disease severity is
 unlikely.  The resistance to leaf rust in these wheats appear to be a
 function of accumulation of some unknown gene product over time.  The
 concentration of this product per unit weight may be less in genotypes
 having higher above ground biomass as well as in genotypes which flower
 early.  Detailed studies on biochemical characterization of such resistance
 may help in elucidating the biochemical basis of resistance to wheat rusts. 
 
 Table 1. Disease severity, days to flowering and relative growth rate of
 some wheats.
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    Disease        Days to 
           S.No.     Cultivar       Severity       flowering
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
           1.        WG138          Free           87
           2.        Moncho         Free           69
           3.        CSP44          TR             70
           4.        CPAN 1796      TR             65
           5.        VL4 04         TR             62
           6.        Chris          TR             76
           7.        FKN            TR             66
           8.        Frontana       TS             66
           9.        Flinders       TS             57             
           l0.       Nuri 70        TS             68
           11.       Nainari 60     TS             73
           12.       Egret          TS             85
           13.       HP1209         TS             61
           14.       Oxley          TS             71
           15.       CPAN 1676      5S             68
           16.       Raj 2535       5S             64
           17.       Mentana        5S             68
           18.       Raj. 2184      5S             62
           19.       Girija         5S             68
           20.       Potam 70       5S             66
           21.       Pavon 76       55             72
           22.       Huw 206        10S            66
           23.       HD2009         10S            65
           24.       NP 846         10S            73
           25.       Norteno 67     10S            58
           26.       IWP72          10S            77
           27.       HD2278         20S            61
           28.       Yecora 70      20S            67
           29.       Leema Rojo 64  20S            63
           30.       Sandal 73      20S            61
           31.       CPAN 1922      30MR           66
           32.       Vicam`S' 71    30S            72
           33.       HD2329         30S            62
           34.       HUW234         40S            61
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
                According to modified Cobb's scale
 
      Acknowledgements.  The senior author expresses her gratefulness to the
 Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Government of India,
 New Delhi, for providing financial support for this work.
 
                         Publications 
 
 Drijpondt, S. C. and Z.A. Pretorlus.  l991. Expression of two wheat leaf
 rust resistance gene combinations involving Lr34. Plant Disease 75 :526-528.
 
 Pretorius, Z.A., F.H.J. Rijkenberg and K.D. Wilcoxon. 1988. Effect of growth
 stage, leaf position and temperature on adult plant resistance of wheat
 inoculated by Puccinia recondita tritici. Pl. Pathol., 37: 36-45.
 
 Rajaram, S. 1971. Adult plant leaf rust resistance in bread wheat. Indian J.
 Genet. 31: 507-509.
 
 Shiwani and R.G. Saini. 1993. Diversity for resistance to leaf rust in
 Triticum aestivum. Plant Disease 77:359-363.
 
 -------------------------
      Biotechnology Centre, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana
 
      Harjit Singh, H.S. Dhaliwal and Khem Singh Gill
      NOTE:  This is a reprinting of the Vol. 39 version which contained
 several errors (editor).
 
      A new leaf rust resistance gene other than Lr 9 in Kharchia mutant KLM
 4-3B.  A leaf rust resistant mutant line KLM 4-3B of tall Indian spring
 wheat cultivar Kharchia local (Sawhney et al., 1979), resistant to all the
 prevelant races of leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f.sp. triticii) in India,
 has been implicated to possess the leaf rust resistance gene Lr 9 (Sawhney,
 pers. commu.).  However, tests for seedling reactions of the isogenic line
 Lr 9 (in Thatcher background), KLM 4-3B and various generations of the
 crosses of these two leaf rust resistant lines with an Indian spring wheat
 cultivar WL 711, showed that the leaf rust resistance gene Lr 9 behaved as a
 dominant gene in the background of WL 711 whereas the resistance gene in KLM
 4-3B segregated as a recessive gene.
 
      Parents, F(1) and F(s) generations of the cross WL 711 x Lr 9 were
 tested for seedling reactions to leaf rust pathotype 108 avirulent on Lr 9
 as well as KLM 4-3B.  The F(1) of this cross was resistant to pathotype 108
 and F(2) generation segregated resistant (57) and susceptible (25) plants in
 3:1 ratio (chi-sq = 1.31; P=0.25-0.50).  This indicated the dominance of the
 gene Lr 9.  F(3) progenies of resistant F(2) plants were tested with another
 leaf rust pathotype 77A-1 avirulent on both Lr 9 (0;) and KLM 4-3B (0;) and
 virulent on WL 711 (4-4 reaction on 0 to 4 scale).  These progenies were
 either uniformly resistant or segregated resistant and susceptible plants in
 3:1 ratio, thereby supporting the dominance of the gene Lr 9.  The number of
 resistant (14) and susceptible (16) plants in BC(1) generation of the cross
 WL 711 x Lr 9 with WL711, tested with pathotype 77A-1, did not differ
 significantly from 1:1 ratio (chi-sq = 0.13; P = 0.50-0.75).  This further
 supported the dominance of the gene Lr 9 in the background of WL 711. 
 However, F(2)  of the c4oss WL 711 x KLM 4-3B, tested with pathotype 77A-1,
 segregated into 1 resistant (18 plants): 3 susceptible (50 plants) ratio
 (chi-sq = 0.08; P=0.75-0.90) suggesting that this mutant line possesses a
 recessive gene for resistance.  The presence of the recessive gene in this
 line was supported by 1:1 proportion of uniformally susceptible and
 segregating BC(1) F(2) progenies of this cross tested with pathotype 77A-1
 (chi-sq = 0.33; P=0.50-0.75).
 
      The observations presented here showed that the leaf rust resistance
 gene in KLM 4-3B was recessive and it was difrerent from the dominant gene
 Lr 9.  Since, no Indian race of leaf rust virulent on KLM 4-3B or Lr 9 has
 been reported so far, the present observation is important with respect to
 their use as differential lines.  Also, these two lines should be treated as
 two different sources of resistance in planning breeding strategies for
 control of leaf rust in the Indian sub-continent.
 
                         References
 
 Sawhney, R.N, Nayar, S.K., Singh, S.D. and Goel, L.B. 1979.  A new source of
 resistance to leaf rust of wheat.  PI. Eis. Reptr. 63:1048-1049.
 
 -------------------------   
      Cytogenetics Lab, Department of Botany, Bharathiar University 
 
      R. Asir, V. R. K. Reddy* and Pl. Viswanathan
 
            Introduction of Aegilops ventricosa derived gene
    complex SR(38) Lr(37) Yr(17) into popular Indian bread wheat cultivars
 
      Aegilops ventricosa derived wheat line RL 6081 is carrying a useful
 linked gene complex Sr(37) Lr(37) Yr(17)   This stock has been tested for
 rust reaction at IARI - Regional station, Wellington (Nilgris).  The place
 is a `Hot spot' where all the three rusts perpetuate all around the year. 
 The resistant stock RL 6081 gave immune reaction to brown rust and
 moderately trace reaction to black and yellow rusts.
 
      The popular high yielding Indian wheat varieties Sonalika, Kalyansona,
 HD 2285 and HW 741 have become highly susceptible for all the three rusts. 
 In a backcross breeding programme the effective linked gene complex Sr(38)
 Lr(37) Yr(17) conferring resistance to the three rusts has been successfully
 introgressed into the above four Indian bread wheat cultivars through
 backcrossing.  Resistant genotypes with desirable agronomic characters were
 constituted at BC(2)S(4) generation.  The rust reactions of the constituted
 lines are given in Table 1.
 
 Table 1.  The rust reaction of parents and newly constituted genotypes at
                         BC(2)S(4) generation
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------                     Rust Reactions
 Parents/Genotypes --------------------------------------------------------                                  Stem rust   Leaf rust  Stripe rust   
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 RI 8061(Sr(38) r(37) r(17)            5MS       F         TMR
 Sonalika                             40MS       80S       60S
 Sonalika/SR(38) r(37) r(17)           5MS       F         TMR
 Kalyansona                            60S       80S       60S
 Kalyansona/Sr(38) r(37) r(17)         5MS       F         TMR
 HD 2285                               40S       60S       60S
 HD 2285/Sr(38) r(37) r(17)            TMS       F         TMR
 HW 741                                40S       60S       60S
 HW 741/Sr(38) r(37) r(17)             TMS       F         TMR
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 S -  Susceptible                    F -  Free
 T -  Trace infection               MS -  Moderately Susceptible
 MR -  Moderately resistant 
 
                         Publications
 
 Asir, R., and Reddy,  V. R. K.  1993.  Transfer of yellow rust resistance
 genes into Indian Wheat cultivars.  Annual Wheat Newsletter 39:p. 184.
 
 Asir, R., and Reddy, V. R. K.  1993.  Transfer of yellow rust resistant
 genes into popular Indian wheat cultivars.  Abst.of Proc., National Seminar
 on Bio-diversity, strategies for conservation and future challenges held at
 Bharathiar University, Coimbatore between 16th and 17th October 1993. 
 Abstract. p. 16.
 
 Asir, R., and Reddy, V. R. K.  1993.  Incorporation of yellow rust resistant
 specific genes into Unnath Kalyansona carrying different gene complexes. 
 Wheat Information Service, Kihara Memorial Yokohama Foundation for the
 Advancement of Life Science, Yokohama 232, Japan.  (accepted)
 
 Asir, R., and Reddy, V. R. K.  1993. Introduction of specific genes for
 stripe rust resistant in Indian Wheat Cultivars.  Abstr. of Proc. of
 National Symposium on Plant Breeding Strategies for India in 2000 AD and
 Beyond held at Marathwada Agricultural University, Prabhani on December 25-
 27, 1993.
 
 Brahma, R. N.,  Asir, R. and Reddy, V. R. K.  1993.  Transfer of yellow rust
 resistance from C306 into Indian Wheat cultivars through a bridging
 technique.  Acta Botanica 21:156-157.
 
 Reddy, V. R. K., Asir,  R. and Brahma, R. N.  1993.  Development of rust
 resistance in two Indian wheat cultivars.  Crop Research (6):335-36.
 
 Reddy, V. R. K., Brahma, R. N. and Asir, R.  1993.  Transfer of Secale
 cereale derived SR(27) into Indian wheat cultivar unnath Kalyansona.  Crop
 Science 8(2)-1994.
 
 Reddy, V. R. K., Brahma, R. N., and Asir, R.  1993.  Transfer of yellow rust
 resistance to Unnath Kalyansona, Wheat Information Service, Kihara Memorial
 Yokahama Foundation for the Advancement of Life Sciences, Yokohama 232,
 Japan. 76:20-22.
 
 -------------------------
      Aloka Saikia and V. R. K. Reddy
 
      New resistant wheat lines.  Four Indian wheat cultivars namely HD 2329,
 NI 54439, WH 147 and WL 711 were crossed with each of the 13 exotic stocks
 carrying different rust resistance gene/genes.  The stocks used were TR 380
 14*  7/3 AG 14 (SR(24) Lr24), Agent (Sr24+Lr24), Darf Kite (Sr26+Lr24),
 Eagle (Sr26), W 3353 (Sr27), Veery's (Sr31+Lr26+Yr9), combination III (SR
 36), Abe (Lr9), Agatha (Lr19), Transec (Lr25), CS 2D/2M/ 3/8 (Lr28), CS
 7D/Ag #11 (Lr29) and Compair (Yr8).  In addition to these, rye addition
 lines 1R(Sr3+Sr26+Yr9), 2R (Lr25), 3R (Sr27) and Agropyron addition lines
 Argus/7*Thatcher (Lr19+Sr25), PW 327/8*Thatcher (Sr26) were also used as
 donor parents.  Genes from exotic stocks were transferred by simple
 backcross, while genes from addition lines were transferred via manipulating
 5B system (using ph mutant).  Lines were constituted at BC(2)S(4) and
 BC(5)s(4).  Plants showing high degree of resistance to respective rusts and
 having good agronomic characteristics including good seed quality were
 selected.
 
      Based on the good agronomic characteristics 13 promising backcross
 derivatives were obtained.  These derivatives were one each from the hybrids
 HD 2329/TR 380 14* 7/3 Ag 14; HD 2329/Darf Kite; HD 2329/Eagle; HD
 2329/Veery's' WH 147/TR 380 14* 7/3/ AG 14; WH 147/Darf Kite; WH 147/Eagle;
 NI 5439/TR 380 14* 7/3 Ag 14; NI 5439/DARF Kite; NI 5439/W 3353; WL 711/TR
 380 14* 7/3 Ag 14; WL 711/Darf Kite and WL 711/Combination III.
 
                         Publications
 
 Reddy, V. R. K. and Aloka Saikia.  1993.  Transfer of rust resistance genes
 into Indian wheat cultivars. Proc. Natl. Sem. "Biodiversity: Strategies for
 Conservation and Future Challenges", Coimbatore, p. 17.
 
 Reddy, V. R. K., and Aloka Saikia.  1993.  Wide hybridization in wheat
 improvement.  Proc. Natl. Symp. "Plant Breeding Strategies for India 2000 AD
 and Beyond.  Parbhani.
 
 Aloka, Saikia and Reddy, V. R. K.  1993.  Transfer of stem, leaf and yellow
 rust resistance genes to four Indian wheats.  Ann. Wheat Newsletter. 39:185-
 186.
 
 Reddy, V. R. K., Suganthy, C. P., and Aloka Saikia.  1993.  Cytological
 effects of different mutagens in Triticale, wheat and barley.  J. Rec. Adv.
 Appl. Sci. 7:(in press).
 
 -------------------------
      Germplasm Enhancement Programme in Jammu Province
 
      J.S. Bijral, K.S. Kanwal and T.R. Sharma. SKJAST
 
      Wild germplasm provides an important reservoir of unexploited genetic
 variablility.  While diploid and tetraploid primitive forms including
 Triticum boeoticum, Triticum araraticum, Triticum dicoccoides provide
 valuable genes for disease resistance, high protein content and other
 agronomic traits, the utilization of Triticum urartu and Aeqilops ovata
 offers promise for the production of high P max, and salt tolerant wheat
 germplasm, respectively.  Utilization of these and other alien species has,
 however, lagged behind collecting, evaluating and conservation activities
 primarily due to almost complete lack of pre-breeding programs. With a view
 to provide a short list of germplasm stocks, we are currently concentrating
 on crossing the local high yielding wheat cultivars, such as WL 711 and C-
 306 to selected wild germplasm viz., Triticum boeoticum (acc. 4667),
 Triticum arareticum (acc. 4697), Triticum dicoccoides (acc. 4632), Triticum
 urartu (acc. 5357) and Aeqilops ovata (acc. 3548), kindly supplied by Dr.
 H.S. Dhaliwal, Director, Biotechnology Centre, PAU, Ludhiana, (India).
 
      A good number of wide hybrids developed during 1993 stand planted in
 the field and await evaluation.  Some of the F(4) derived lines from the
 cross, Triticosecale cv. DT 35/Triticum aestivum cv. HD2428, apart from
 possessing bold amber grains also shows immune reaction against yellow and
 brown rusts of wheat, and are in preliminary stages of testing.
 
 -------------------------
      Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Regional Station, Wellington
      R.N. Brahma
 
      New Wheat Lines - Two new lines HW3006 and HW 3007 were constituted at
 BC(2)F(3) using the variety Unnath Kalyansona carrying Agropyron elongatum
 derived linked genes Sr 24 and Lr 24 as recipient parent and the line Verry
 `S' carrying Sr 31, Lr 26 and Yr 9 as donor parent for stripe rust
 resistance.  The leaf rust resistance gene Lr 26 is not effective against
 the race 77-1 prevalent in the Nilgiri hill.  The new lines are resistant to
 all the treee wheat rusts (stem, leaf and stripe) under natural condition at
 Wellington in the Nilgiri hill.  The line HW 3006 is brown glumed, while HW
 3007 is white glumed.  In both the lines, grains are medium bold and amger
 coloured.
 
      Leaf Rust Race - Leaf rust race 16 could be isolated only from the
 samba wheat (Triticum dicoccum) cultivated in the Nilgiri hill.  The race
 appears to be very weak against hexaploid wheats, even the universal
 susceptible wheat like Agra Local is highly resistant to the race.
 
 -------------------------
                       ITEM FROM ISRAEL
 
      Sem Y. Atsmon,  Udi Meidan*, Research Department, Hazera
 
      The breeding program.  In June 1993, Hazera reinitiated its wheat
 breeding program, inactive since the end of 1991, with the same nomination
 of Udi Meidan as successor to Atsmon.  The present crop year is dedicated to
 re-evaluation of all our breeding materials - bread as well as durum wheat,
 cold stored since December 1991 - enabling us to redefine at least the
 program's short and medium range aims and methods.  This re-evaluation and
 re-definition is very much needed in view of privatization of the local
 wheat market since 2 years, which brings about major changes in the rules of
 the game as well as the changing political and hence the economic situation
 in the region.  We have to adapt ourselves to more severe quality
 requirements - first of all protein content - and to take important
 decisions about our eventual future role in durum breeding and production.
 
      Cultivars.  All the cultivars mentioned in our previous publication as
 being released before 1984, (AWN 37, 1991) except SHAFIR, are practically
 out of business.  We estimate that the 1993-94 reason DARIEL occupies 45% of
 total acreage - much of this for early cutting as silage - ATIR 22%, BETH
 HASHITA 15% and the new Weizmann Institute cultivar NIRITH 11%.
 
      Official Regional Trials during the past 3 years showed average yields
 of ATIR and NIRITH to be more or less equal to BETH HASHITA.  DARIEL as well
 as the recently launched HAZERA-cultivar YANIV and Exp. Line 555 of Weizmann
 Institute outyielded all 3 of them by 6-8%.
 
      Growing conditions in the last 2 years - much precipitation - lowered
 protein contents in all cultivars.  Under these conditions YANIV seems to be
 more marginal for acceptance by millers and bakers than all other cultivars. 
 Improvement of protein content by means of N headdressings is uncertain,
 being heavily dependent on weather - and soil conditions, which leaves an
 important task to the breeders.
 
      The present season is very dry.  National production will be
 considerably lower than in the 2 previous, much more favorable, years.
 
 -------------------------
                       ITEMS FROM ITALY                        
 
      Experimental Institute for Cereal Research, Via Cassia
          
           M. Pasquini, L. Sereni, F. Casini, F. Casullil
          
                   Wheat fungal diseases in Italy:  population biology and
 host resistance.  Leaf rust caused by Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici, 
 stem rust caused by P. graminis f. sp. tritici and powdery mildew caused by
 Erysiphe graminis tritici, are important wheat diseases  in Italy. The
 behaviour of many durum and bread wheat cultivars and of "near" isogenic
 lines carrying known resistance genes, is tested yearly in Italian growing
 areas and in controlled conditions. 
 
      During the last two years the unfavorable environmental conditions
 limited the development of regional epidemics.  Nevertheless field surveys
 were made through the areas where wheat is important and leaves or stems
 bearing the diseases were collected.
 
      At the seedling stage the genes for resistance to leaf rust  Lr9, Lrl9,
 Lr24, Lr25 and Lr29 confirmed their efficacy; a good behaviour in the field
 was exhibited by Lr2b, Lrl3, Lrl5, Lrl9,  Lr22a, Lr24, Lr2S and Lr29.
 Isolates with apparently high levels of pathogenicity were found to be
 widespread in Central and  Northern Italy.
 
      Only traces of stem rust were found in wheat cultivars during  the last
 two years. Anyway the most effective resistance genes at the seedling stage
 were Sr9e, Srll, Srl3, Sr26, Sr31 and Sr37.  As regards powdery mildew no or
 low virulence was found in  the field to wheat "near" isogenic lines with
 genes Pm3a and Pm3b, and to the cultivar Einkorn  (T. monococcum) and Vernal
 and Khapli (T. dicoccum). In greenhouse low frequencies of isolates with
 virulence to Pm3b, Pm4a and Pm8 were found.
 
      Virulence to Pml and Pm3a appeared to decrease in the last years.  The
 Italian durum wheats Adamello, Belfuggito, Grazia, Ofanto, Valforte, Valnova
 and the bread wheats Asiago, Elia, Felino, Maestra and Manital, confirmed a
 good behaviour with respect to powdery mildew.  Leaf rust severity was low
 on the Italian durum wheat cultivars  Arcangelo, Belfuggito, Creso, Diaspro,
 Messapia, Piceno, Plinio, Ulisse, Vento and on the bread wheats Orione,
 Pegaso and Pandas.
      
       25 accessions were screened for resistance to powdery mildew biotype
 V4, virulent on Pm4a gene, and biotype A4, avirulent on  the same gene, and
 for resistance to one biotype of leaf rust virulent on the genes Lr3ka,
 Lrl4b, Lrl5, Lrl7, Lr30 and  avirulent on Lrl, Lr2a, Lr2b, Lr9, Lrl9, Lr24.
 All the accessions resulted resistant to leaf rust. As regards to mildew 18
 accessions showed resistance or moderate resistance to both biotypes V4 and
 A4, 6 were segregating from high resistance to  moderate susceptibility and
 only one was completely susceptible.
 
 -------------------------
      M. Pasquini, N.E. Pogna, R. Redaellil, S. Pagliaricci, P. Cacciatori,
 R. Castagnal.
 
      Transfer of disease resistance genes in durum wheat. Accessions of
 T.dicoccoides have been used as a source of powdery mildew resistance genes
 as well as of genes controlling quality factors. Lines derived from the
 cross between the Italian durum wheat cultivar Valnova and T.dicoccoides
 accession GalO753 were selected for earliness, powdery mildew resistance,
 white-glume colour and morphological similarity to durum wheat plant.
 Selection for white-glumed spikes was applied because of the close linkage
 between the Glu-B3 locus coding for low-molecular-weight (LMW) glutenin
 subunits, and the Rgl locus controlling the glume colour character. The
 so-called LMW-2 glutenin subunits are primarily responsible for pasta-making
 quality and are associated with the white-glume phenotype in cv. Valnova.
 Protein fractionation of whole-meal samples from the progeny lines of this
 cross suggested that protein content higher than 18% combined with a
 glutenin/gliadin ratio superior to 1.0 can be obtained with progeny from
 crosses involving T. dicoccoides. Electrophoretic procedures are being
 carried out on this material to select "good" gliadin and glutenin alleles.
 It will be possible to develop durum lines having superior pasta-making
 properties derived from the durum parent as well as high protein content and
 powdery mildew resistance from T.dicoccoides.
 
      Chromosome translocation have been used successfully for introgression
 of genes from allien species into wheat. Genes controlling useful agronomic
 characters and resistance to several wheat fungal diseases (yellow, leaf and
 stem rust; powdery mildew) are known to be located on the short arm of rye
 chromosome lR. Tetraploid wheat lines carrying the lBL/lRS translocation
 were found to have high resistance to powdery mildew (controlled by Pm8) and
 poor gluten quality.  In order to induce allosyndetic recombination between
 the rye chromosome arm and its wheat homoeologues, the phlc mutant of the
 durum wheat cv. Cappelli was crossed with two lBL/lRS lines. 19 of the
 resulting F3 lines were analysed by Southern blot using the PSR128 probe
 which hybridizes to DNA sequences on the long arms of the group 5
 chromosomes. The same F3 lines were characterized using storage protein
 markers and were screened for reaction to the biotype V4 of powdery mildew,
 avirulent on Pm8 gene. The lBL/lRS chromosome showed a reduced transmission
 through the male gametes. Translocation mapping of the Glu-Bl locus
 indicated a map distance of 33.7=5.6 cM between this locus and its
 centromere.  Analyses are being carried out in order to clarify if  Pm8 is
 really located on 1RS.
 
 -------------------------
      N.E. Pogna, C. Saponaro, R. Castagnal, M. Pasquini, M. Corbellinil, P.
 Cacciatori and M. Mazza.
 
      Storage protein composition, gluten quality and disease reslstance in
 Triticum monococcum. The potential of Triticum monococcum as a source of new
 genes for the improvement of polyploid wheat is well documented. Two years
 ago we set up a research programme aimed at the improvement of T.monococcum
 for yield potential and technological quality. The final purpose of the
 programme is to develop a new, low-input and industrially acceptable wheat
 crop.
 
      A large variability for several characteristics of economic importance
 exists in the 1300 accessions of T. monococcum we are now growing in the
 field. Most accessions have genes conferring resistance to rusts, Septoria
 spp. and virus diseases and show a wide variation for plant height,
 earliness and protein content. 
 
      Genetic polymorphism for endosperm protein composition is particularly
 high as determined by A-PAGE and SDS-PAGE of 58 accessions. Most of them
 showed two HMW glutenin subunits encoded by Glu-Al-l (x-type subunit) and
 Glu-Al-2 (y-type subunit), only a few genotypes lacking the y-type
 subunit.Moreover, T.monococcum spp. laetissimum (accession ATRI 4321/75 from
 IGK, Gatersleben, Germany) showed no HMW glutenin subunit even in the
 presence of the Glu-Al locus as determined by Southern blot. In total 30
 alleles coding for HMW glutenin subunits, 25 alleles at the Gli-Al locus and
 44 alleles at the Gli-A2 locus have been found amongst the 58 accessions
 analysed. Three accessions of T.monococcum spp. nigricultum, and one
 accession of spp. vulgare were found to lack   - gliadins whereas some
 accessions showed alcohol-soluble monomeric proteins (probably gliadins) in
 the HMW glutenin region of the SDS-PAGE pattern. Ten accessions containing
 two genotypes with different gliadin or HMW glutenin subunit composition
 have been grown in the field and the resulting seed has been submitted to
 the SDS-sedimentation test. A significant intra-accession variation for the
 sedimentation volume (from 19 to 94 ml) has been found in accessions 1006
 and 13190. Moreover T.monococcum sp. nigricultum (accession no.13189) showed
 high (90 to 95 ml) sedimentation volume as compared to those of durum wheat
 (18 to 49 ml) or bread wheat (45 to 85 ml). The alveograph test on
 accessions with high sedimentation volumes indicated that high-quality
 alleles coding for protein affecting dough viscoelastic properties occur in
 Triticum monococcum.
    
                         Publications
          
 Autran, J.C., Pogna, N.E., and Kudryautseu, A.M. 1993. Use of genetic
 variation in the improvement of quality in durum wheat.  Proc. of "Seminar
 on Durum Wheat Quality in the Mediterranean   Region", November 17-19,
 Saragoza (Spain).
          
 Casulli, F. e M. Pasquini. 1993. Virulenza delle popolazioni di Puccinia
 recondita f.sp. tritici e P.graminis f.sp. tritici in  Italia. Phytopath.
 medit., 32, 115-120.
          
 Dachkevitch, T., Redaelli, R., Biancardi, A.M., Metakovsky, E.V.  and Pogna,
 N.E. 1993. Genetics of gliadins coded by the group l  chromosomes in the
 high quality bread wheat cultivar Neepawa.
 Theor. Appl. Genet., 86, 389-399.
          
  Metakovsky, E.V., NG, P.K.W., Cerna Kov, V.M., Pogna, N.E. and  Bushuk, W.
 1993. Gliadin alleles in Canadian western red spring  wheat cultivars: use
 of two different procedures of acid
 polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for gliadin separation.   Genome, 36,
 743-749.
          
 Metakovsky, E.V., Vaccino, P., Accerbi, M., Redaelli, R. and Pogna, N.E.
 1993. Polymorphism and spontaneous mutations at the gliadin-coding loci.
 Proc. 5th Int. Gluten Workshop, June 7-9,
 Detmold (GermanY).
          
 N.G, P.K.W., Redaelli, R., Vaccino, P., Accerbi, M., Pogna N.E.  and Bushuk,
 W./ 1993. Biochemical and genetical characterization  of novel HMW glutenin
 subunits and their effects on breadmaking quality. Proc. 5th Int. Gluten
 Workshop, June 7-9, Detmold (Germany).
          
 Pasquini, M. e F. Casulli. 1993. Resistenza "durevole" a Puccinia recondita
 f.sp. tritici ed Erysiphe graminis f.sp. tritici in frumenti duri italiani.
 Phytopath. medit., 32. 135-142.         
          
 Pasquini, M., Casulli, F., Lendini, M., Mameli, L., Impiombato,D., Gallo,
 G., Monti, M., Lo Re, L., Padovan, S., Arduini, F.,  Minoia, C. 1993. Le
 malattie del frumento: cosa e successo in  Italia durante l'annata agraria
 1992-93. L'Inf. Agrario n. 34,  39-46.
          
 Pogna, N.E., Metakovsky, E.V., Redaelli, R., Raineri, F. and Dachkevitch, T.
 1993. Recombination mapping of gli-5, a new gliadin-coding locus on
 chromosomes lA and lB in common wheat.
 Theor. Appl. Genet., 87, 113-121.
          
 Pogna, N.E., Metakovsky, E.V., Redaelli, R., Dackevitch, T. and Chernakov,
 V.M. 1993. The group 1 chromosomes of wheat contain  several loci coding for
 gliadins. Proc. 8th Int. Wheat Genetics
 Symp., July 20-25, Beijing (China).
          
 Pogna, N.E., Redaelli, R., Pasquini, M., Curioni, A., Dal Belin Peruffo, A.
 and Castagna R. 1993. Inheritance studies of two chromosome translocations
 in bread and durum wheat. Proc. 5th
 Int. Gluten Workshop, June 7-9, Detmold (Germany).
          
 Vaccino, P., Pogna, N.E., Accerbi, M. and Redaelli, R. 1993. The  bread
 wheat variety Fiorello contains a 2-type lDx subunit of glutenin. J. Genet.&
 Breed., 47, 179-182.
 
 -------------------------
      Istituto Tossine  e Micotossine  da Parassiti vegetali, CNR, V. le L.
 Einaudi
 
        V. Vassilev*(1) P. Lavermicocca and N.S. Lacobellis
 
       Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens toxins. Basal glume rotand  leaf  
 blight  caused  by  Pseudomonas   syringae  pv.atrofaciens (PSA)  is  an 
 important  bacterial  disease  of cereals in  Europe. Different PSA toxins
 contributed for the highest virulence  of the  pathogen, and  could be  used
 for express screening  of  cereal  germplasm  and  selection  of  resistant 
 or  tolerant  clones  to  PSA  toxins,  in  plant breeding programmes. 
 Toxigenic ability  of several virulentstrains of  the pathogen  as well  as
 the  bacterial  growth conditions  leading   to   the   production   of  
 bioactive metabolites were  assessed. Biologically  (antimicrobial and
 phytotoxic) active  preparations have been obtained and sent for more
 complete chemical studies to Prof. A. Ballio, Rome, Italy. Necrosis  was
 induced  in tobacco leaves by injection of 60  l semipurified  toxins 1
 mg/1ml (after Whatman CM 52 cation exchange  chromatography, by  the scheme
 of Gross and DeVay 1977).  The same  amount of  this biologically  active
 substances injected in the pseudostem caused symptoms in the leaf of  young
 wheat  plants similar  to natural Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens leaf
 blight ones.
 
 
    (1) K. Malkoff Institute of Introduction and Plant Genetic Resources 4122
 Sadovo-Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
 
 -------------------------
      Instituto Patologia Vegetale, Facolta Scienze Agrarie, Via Filippo
 
      C.  Rubies-Autonell
 
      Soilborne wheat Mosaic Viruc (SBWMV) and Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus
 (WSSMV are both present in Italy, but their impact on wheat yields has been
 recognized only recently. Variation in resistance to these viruses is being
 investigated in collaboration with Dr. V. Vallega (Istituto Sperimentale per
 la Cerealicoltura, Rome. Various sets of wheats, including thirty modern
 Italian cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)  were grown from
 1987-88 to 1991-92 in a field severely infested by both SBWV and WSSMV.
 Resistance to the mixed infection was evaluated on the basis of
 symptomatology and virus particle counts rerformed using a modified lSEM
 technique. Particle counts were made either on extracts from shoots
 collected once during the season or on extracts from roots and shoots
 sampled at various time intervals from eight cultivars. Most lines presented
 very mild symptoms and low amounts of SBWM and  WSSMV particles. Cultivars
 Latino, Appio, Creso, Quadruro, Nepal, Mito, S. Alberto and Ulisse exhibited
 the highest levels of resistance to the mixed infection. Particles of the
 two viruses appeared contemporaneously in the roots of a same cultivar, but
 on disparate dates in different wheats.  Particles of SBWMV augmented
 rapidly in wheats susceptible to WSSMV increase, but at a reduced pace in
 wheats resistant to fWSSMV increase. Correlations between SBWMV and WSSMV
 particle counts in roots and betweenr SBWMVT and WSSM'V particle counts in
 shoots were positive and statistically significant throughout all
 experiments. Correlations between SBWMV and WSSMV counts tended to augment
 as the season progressed.. The close close parallelism found between SBWMV
 and WSSMV particle numbers was unexpected, and may be attributed to varioud
 causes, including synergism beween  SBWMV and WSSMV, defenses directed at
 the common fungal vector and close linkage between the genes conferring
 resistance to each of the two pathogens.
 
                         Publications
 
 Rubies-Autonell, C. 1989. Detection of the rnixed Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic
 Virus and Wbeat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus infection by ISEM. Intern. Symp.
 Electron Microscopy Applied in Plant Pathology, Konstanz, 1989, p. 125.
 
 Rubies-Autonell, C. and V. Vallega. 1985. Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic on wheat
 crops in Central Italy. L'Inf. Fitopat. 35:39-42 (in Italian, English
 summary).
 
 Rubies-Autonell, C. and V. Vallega. 1987. Observations on mixed  Soilborne
 Wheat Mosaic Virus and Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus infection in durum wheat.
 J. Phytopathology 119:111-121.
 
 Rubies-Autonell, C. and V. Vallega. 1990. Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic Virus and
 Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus-in Italy. Proc. First Symp. Intern.
 Working Group on Plant Viruses with fungal vectors, Braunschweig, Germany,
 1990, p. 135-138.
 
 Rubies-Autoriell, C. and V. Vallega. 1991. Studies on tbe development and
 interaction of Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic Virus and Spindle Streak Mosaic
 Virus. In: Biotic interactions and Soil-borne Diseases (Beernster A.B.R.
 ed.), Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Arnsterdam, 107-112.
 
 Rubies-Autonell, C. and V. Vallega. 1991. Reactions of diploid wheat
 Triticum monococcum to Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic Virus and Wheat Spindle
 Streak Mosaic Virus. VI Conf. on Virus Diseases of Grarnineae in Europe.
 June 18-21. Torino p. 38.
 
 Vallega, V. and C. Rubies-Autonell. 1985. Reactions of Italian Triticum
 durum cultiv.ars to Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic. Pl. Dis. 69:64-66.
 
 Vallega, V. and C. Rubies-Autonell. 1986. Wheat Soil-borne Mosaic Virus:
 results of a three year study on the behavior of our durum wheat cultivars.
 L'Inf. Agr. 42:85-86 (in Italian).
 
 Vallega, V. and C. Rubies-Autonell. 1987. Soilborne Wheat Mosaic in Italy:
 distribution and Triticum durum varietal reactions. Proc. seventh Congr.
 Medit. Phytcpath. Union. Granada (Spain) 1986, p.  95-96.
 
 Vallega, V., and C. Rubies-Autonell. 1989. Further investigations on the
 geographical distribution of Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic in Italy. L'Inf.
 Fitopat. 39-57-58 (in Italian, English summary).
 
 Vallega, V. and C. Rubies-Autonell. 1989. Durum wheat: studies on the
 resistance to a complex viral syndrome. Proc. S.l.G.A. Meeting, Alghero
 (Italy) 1989, p. 91-92 (in Italian).
 
 Vallega, V. and C. Rubies-Autonell. 1990. Studies on a complex viral
 syndrome caused by Soil-borne Wheat Mosaic Virus and Spindle Streak Mosaic
 Virus. Proc. Eight Symp. Medit. Phytopath. Union, Agadir, Morocco, 1990, p.
 341-342.  Instituto Sperimentale per la Cerealicoltura, Via Cassia 176,
 00191 Rome
 
 -------------------------
      V. Vallega
 
      Triticum monoeoecum - Diploid wheat, Triticum monococcum L. ("einkorn")
 was one of mankind's earliest plant domesticates and, most probably, also
 the donor of the A genome to common and durum wheat. Einkorn is presently
 grown only in marginal farmlands of Yugoslavia, Italy and Turkey. However,
 recent reports suggest that this ancient wheat may still play a significant
 role in modern agriculture, not only as a source of useful genes, but also
 as a crop in its own right. T. monococcum  appears especially valuable for
 identifying recessive endosperm mutants as yet unavailable in the polyploid
 wheat taxa . Detection of such genes is expected to widen the scope of
 utilization of all the cultivated wheats and to enhance their nutritional
 value.  Some of the main agro-biological and technological attributes of
 diploid wheat have been described in the publications cited below.
 Collaborative work with Dr. M.G. D'Egidio (Technology Section, I.S.C., Rome)
 and Dr. R. Acquistucci (Instituto Nazionale per la Nutrizione, Rome),
 allowed to acquire new data, regarding the bread-making qualities of 
 monococcum  and  the amino acid composition of lts grains.
 
      Bread-making quality of monococcum. The bread making quality of eight
 germplasm accessions of einkorn wheat was compared ith that of four modern
 cvs. of common wheat and durum wheat.  Loaf volume of monococcums  (mean:
 798 cc, range 662-871 cc)  was analogous to that of the polyploid wheat
 checks (mean: 837 cc, range 727-917 cc). Einkorn loaves presented a
 relatively fine and uniform texture, similar to that of the two durums.
 Flour, dough and crumb colour of monococcum was distinctly yellowish. Crust
 clour and confirmation were analogous for the three species.  Falling number
 values were higher in einkorn flours (324 s) than ln those of the polyploid
 controlsc (283 s).  Mixogram mixing requirement and mixing tolerance were
 markedly lower in monococcum than in polyploid wheats. Farinograph
 absorption  and stability values were also lowest for diploid wheats. 
 Relatively  high-yielding free-threshing diploid wheats are available, but
 more quality-balanced sstrains need to be identified.
 
      Amino acid composition of monococcum grains Wholemeals of fifteen germ
 plasm accessions of diploid wheat and of two modern cvs. of common wheat and
 durum wheat were analysed.  Grain protein content of monococcums ranged from
 14.1% to 25.2%  (d.m.).  Amino acid determinations were made according to 
 official AOAC methods  published in 1984.  Results are here expressed as
 grams of amino acid per 100 grams of protein corrected to 100% recovery,
 protein basis. As can be seen in the table, the average amino acid
 composition of monococcum grains was similar to that of the two controls and
 to that generally reported for common wheats and durums.  However, one of
 the einkorns presented a disparate amino acid composition. This wheat is
 being studied more extensively. Grain protein content of monococcums  was
 positively correlated with proline and glutamine content, and negatively
 correlated with threonine, cystine, valine, isoleucine, lysine, asparagine,
 serine, glycine, and alanine content. Analogous correlations have been
 reported for the polyploid wheats.  Amino acid composition monococcum  and
 polyploid wheat grains are given below:
 
 
                Diploid wheats      Polyploid wheats
                      (n=15)                   (n= 2)
 
                mean      range               mean
  --------------------------------------------------------------
      Thr       2.6       2.3 - 2.8           2.9
      Cys       2.9       2.5 - 3.0           2.9
      Val       4.1       2.9 - 4.6           4.3
 
      Met       1.8       1.6 - 2.0           1.8
      Ile       3.8       2.7 - 4.2           3.6
      Leu       6.4       5.2 - 8.1           6.7
      Tyr       3.1       2.2 - 4.5           3.0
      Phe       5.0       4.1 - 6.0           4.5
      Lys       2.6       2.1 - 2.9           2.7
      EAA       32.2      26.3 - 34.7         32.7
      Asp       5.2       3.9 - 5.9           4.9
      Ser       4.0       3.6 - 4.4.          4.4
      Glu       31.7      27.8 - 35.4         29.6 
      Pro       19.3      9.0 - 15.9          11.7
      Gly       3.3       2.7 - 3.7           3.7
      Ala       3.3       2.7 - 3.6           3.5
      His       2.3       2.0 - 2.9           2.2
      Arg       4.6       3.7 - 6.7           4.6
      % prot.   16.7      14.1 - 25.2         13.0
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
                         Publications
 
 Vallega, V. 1977. Validity of Triticum monococcum in wheat breeding. Sementi
 Elette 23:3-8 (in Italian abstr. in English).
 
 Vallega, V. 1978. Search of useful genetic characters in diploid triticum
 spp. Proc.' Fifth Intern. Wheat  Genet. Symp.   New Delhi, pp. 156-162.
 
 Vallega, V. 1979. Field performance of Triticum monococcum, T. durum and
 Flordeum vulgare grown at two locations. Genet. Agr. 33:363-370.
 
 Val]ega, V. and C. Rubies-Autonell. 1952. Reactions of diploid wheat,
 Triticum monococcum~ to Soilborne Wheat Mosaic Virus and Spindle Streak
 Mosaic Virus. Petria 2:64 (Abstr.).
 
 Vallega, V. 1992. Agronomical performance 2nd breeding value of selected
 strains of diploid wheat, Triticum monococcum. Euphytica 61:13-23.
 
 D'Egidio, M.G., S. Nardi and V. Vallega 1991. Quality of diploid wheat,
 Triticum monococcum L. Proc. Cereals Intern. Conf., Brisbane, pp. 205-208.
 
 D'Egidio, M.G., S. Nardi and V. Vallega. 1993. Grain, flour and dough
 characteristics of selected strains of diploid wheat,  Triticum monococcum
 L. Cereal Chemistry 70:298-303.
 
 D'Egidio, M.G. and V. Vallega  1993. Bread-making quality of diploid wheat,
 Triticum monococcum  l.
 
 -------------------------
      M.G. D'Egidio, B.M. Mariani, S. Nardi, P. Novaro
 
      The suitability of the equation proposed to predict cooking quality of
 pasta dried at 80deg C was verified on two sets of samples of Italian durum
 wheats grown during 1989 and 1990.  The 1987 sample set used previously to
 define the predictive equation was considered as a reference set.  Protein
 content and gluten quality were measured on grain samples.  Cooking quality
 of pasta was evaluated as organoleptic judgment (OJ) values to measure a
 combination of stickiness, bulkiness and firmness.  The 1989 and 1990 pasta
 samples, dried with a diagram at high temperature (90degC) different from
 that applied to the reference set (80degC), were characterized by a higher
 protein content.  At 90degC, the OJ observed values were underestimated by
 the 1987 predictive equation.  A multiphase regression model with two
 straight lines was applied on the hypothesis of an interaction between a
 higher protein content and a higher drying temperature.  This model allowed
 the change of the slope between the two regression lines to be detected and
 the abscissa value (14% protein content) to be determined.  Therefore, two
 new equations were proposed to predict OJ for a 90degC pasta drying system
 because of the different effect of high temperature on protein content at
 14%.
 
      Genotype-environment (GE) interaction of durum wheat varieties, widely
 grown in Italy, was evaluated to determine variety response to environmental
 improvement for protein content and gluten quality considered as the most
 suitable indexes of pasta cooking quality.  Protein content and alveograph W
 were chosen because of being well associated with spaghetti quality and
 previously used to calculate predictive equations for pasta cooking quality. 
 For each character linear regression of variety performance on environmental
 indexes was calculated to estimate stability parameters  b and s d.  The
 stability parameters accomplish the information of genotype behaviour by
 defining as the mean performance follows the environmental improvement (b)
 and how this response is reliable (s d).  Hence these aspects of genotype
 must be considered jointly in deciding varietal evaluation and
 recommendation and in selecting parents for breeding programs.
 
                         Publications
 
 M.G. D'Egidio, B.M. Mariani and P. Novaro.  1993.  Influence of raw material
 characteristics and drying technologies on past cooking quality: a review of
 our results.  Italian Food and Beverage Technology.  1:29-32.
 
 P. Novaro, M.G. D'Egidio, B.M. Mariani and S. Nardi.  1993.  Combined effect
 of protein content and high-temperature drying systems on pasta cooking
 quality.  Cereal Chem. 70 (6):716-719.
 
 P. Novaro, B.M. Mariani and M.G. D'Egidio.  1993.  Genotype-environment
 interaction of protein content and gluten quality in Italian durum wheat
 varieties.  8th International Symposium of Wheat Genetics, Beijing (China).
 
 -------------------------
      Experimental Institute of Cereal Research Section of S.Angelo Lodigiano
 
      Cattaneo M.
 
      Androgenesis response: genes localization in wheats with different
 level of response carrying or not 1B/1R translocation. Genetic
 investigations were designed in order to study genes localization for
 androgenesis in vitro response. A diellelic cross among 7 cultivars with
 different level of response was studied to see which genes are tied to
 regulation of subsequent steps of growing: from embrioid stage to green
 plantlets development.
 
      Last year F1 generation analysis was carried out and it showed high
 differences among the different combinations: those with Veery and l 26
 appeared the most reponsive, but it must not forget that both varieties
 carry the 1B/1R translocation, that usually improves responsiveness.
 Otherwise also crosses with Farneto and Oderzo gave good performances but
 these two varieties do not carry the rye translocation. Since results till
 now reported (also from bibliography) on varieties with 1B/1R translocation
 always show a better response in vitro than those without translocation, it
 is in this direction that we are now deeping our studies to see which degree
 of correlation can be found between genes tied to translocation and in vitro
 response. This year we have a large number of varieties under observation
 carrying or not the translocation and we are trying to draw a general rule
 from their behaviour in relation to androgenesis response. Besides we are
 trying to obtain same more data from F2 generation of their diallelic cross.
 
 ------------------------- 
      Borrelli G.M., Travella S., Di Fonzo N., Lupotto E.
 
      Durum wheat varieties show dimorphism in callus culture : results on a
 protoplast system in cv. Creso. For a long time durum wheat was included
 among the species of agronomical value most recalcitrant to in vitro culture
 and cell manipulation, but in the recent years some important improvements
 have been obtained. In accordance with results obtained almost at the same
 time by other groups, we have been able to obtain highly regenerable
 embryogenic callus cultures in various durum wheat Italian varieties (see:
 Borrelli et al., Plant Cell Reports 10:296-299, 1991). The successful
 application of the basic methodologies for tissue culture, plant
 regeneration and cell transformation to durum wheat is a major requirement
 for the  introduction of advanced technologies into our breeding
 programmmes. Specific attention is being payed by our group in 
 characterizing each durum wheat variety under study in terms of
 responsiveness in vitro.
 
      For almost all cereal cultures it is now a common strategy the search
 of genotypes in which callus culture is not only inducible, but also
 characterized by the production if friable embryogenic callus type,
 indicated with the term of type II callus. This strategy was firstly adopted
 for maize, and resulted successful for the establishment of suspension
 cultures from type II calli, and regenerable protoplast systems obtained
 from them. The same results were also attained in hexaploid wheat, and durum
 wheat: although the whole procedure is extremely delicate and difficult in
 general terms, it seems that it represents the only route for regenerating
 plants from protoplasts of cereals. In durum wheat, this procedure was
 successful for the variety D6962 as described in the paper of Yang and co-
 workers (Plant Cell Rep. 12:320-323, 1993).
 
      We have screened several durum wheat varieties: chosen among the most
 commonly cultivated in the Mediterranean regions of Italy. Most of them
 produce, as callus culture, a compact nodular callus type, not suitable for
 the establishment of suspension cultures. Our best responding variety, also
 characterized by high regenerative capability, cv.Ofanto, produces in vitro
 this callus type. However, other two varieties, cvs. Plinio and Creso,
 besides this primary compact type of callus, produce a second callus type,
 friable, lighter in colour, very similar to the described type II callus.
 The friable callus lines from cv. Creso satisfied our expectations in that
 suspension cultures were started and established from them. About nine
 months after the obtainement of type II callus lines, cell suspension
 cultures were obtained and grown by weekly subcultures in 1/2 MS salts,
 vitamins as in N6 medium, 100 mg/l m-inositol, 200 mg/l L-asparagine, 1 mg/l
 2,4-D,  25 g/l sucrose, pH 5.8, filter sterilized. Finely dispersed
 suspensions had a cell doubling time of 48 hours. Protoplasts were easily
 isolated from mid-log phase suspension cultures of cv.Creso with yield as
 high as 5x10exp6 - 10exp7 protoplasts per gram fresh weight of cells.
 Protoplast viability reached up to 100%, tested with Evans' blue exclusion.
 Although at the time of our experiments the cell suspension were rather old
 and not regenerative anymore, and from protoplasts we could only obtain back
 friable callus lines, we think that these results altogether deserve some
 attention in that, at present, direct gene transfer PEG-mediated into
 protoplasts represents the most common and easy tool of transformation, not
 depending upon special machines. It is likely that, reducing the time needed
 from embryo explant to obtain friable type II callus and inducing very early
 suspension cultures, the cells retain regenerative capability. In fact,
 respect to other cereal systems, in which the establishment of finely
 dispersed cell suspensions is a hard task and takes a long time, in the case
 of cv.Creso suspensions are readily established. Work is underway either for
 obtaining trasnformed calliclones directly from the protoplast system,
 either for establishing fresh cultures and try transformation on early
 cultures. 
 
 -------------------------
       Corbellini M., Perenzin M., Castagna R.
 
      DNA based markers to study genetic variability in Triticum urartu.
 Fifty-two T. urartu accessions have been considered to analyse the level of
 variability present in this wild diploid wheat species, indicated as the A
 genome donor of polyploid wheats.
 Preliminary results showed the presence of different strains so that, for a
 better understanding of the genetic relationship between diploid and
 polyploid wheats, they need to be compared with durum and bread wheat
 cultivars.
 RFLPs, obtained with both frequent and rare cutter enzymes, and RAPDs will
 be used to look for polymorphic fragments to give us informations about the
 relationships among the species considered. Pair-wise comparisons will be
 used to calculate Jaccard's distances; multivariate analyses will be also
 performed.
 
 ------------------------- 
      Corbellini M., Vaccino P., Accerbi M., Metakovsky E., Pogna N.E.
 
      RFLP analysis in T.aestivum. The use of probes for - and -gliadins
 allowed the identification of most of gliadins alleles at the Gli-1 and Gli-
 2 loci. The DNA analysis was particularly useful in displaying cases of
 microdeletion, switching-off of a gene or gene amplification.  At the same
 time, using the probe pTag 1290, the study of Glu-1 locus, coding for HMW
 glutenins, has been performed, with particular interest towards the D-
 genome. Further analyses on these complex loci are in progress.
 The study on the posibility to predict hybrid wheat vigour by means of RFLPs
 is in progress as well. By now, about 50 probes have been tested on 40
 parental varieties of about 100 hybrid combinations: one third of the probes
 were shown to be polymorphic.
 
 ------------------------- 
      Perenzin M., Borghi B.
 
      Hybrid wheats. As in the previous years in 1993 a total of about 100
 bread wheat hybrids produced with CHA technology together with their
 parental varieties (chosen among the European material) were evaluated for
 agronomic traits in two rows unreplicated plots 1.6 m long.
 
      Moreover a group of 20 hybrids have been  in plot trials . The best
 three standard  and Pandas by 8% and the best cultivar Eridano by
 1%.Agronomic trials with different levels of nitrogen plot the hybrids can
 compete with the best cultivars in situations of low input. In a block have
 bean produced 45 new hybrids. In cases seed setting was very high.
                         
                     Publications
 
 
 Ajmone Marsan P., Lupotto E., Locatelli F., Qiao Y.M., Cattaneo M. 1993.
 Analysis of stable events transformation in wheat via PEG-mediated DNA
 uptake into protoplasts. Plant Sci. (in press).
 
 Annicchiarico P., Perenzin M. 1993. Adaptation patterns and definition of
 macro-environments for selection and reccomendation of common wheat
 genotypes in Italy. Plant Breed. (in press).
 
 Canevara M.G., Romani M., Corbellini M., Perenzin M., Borghi B. 1993.
 Evolution trend of morphological, physiological, agronomical, and
 qualitative traits in Triticum aestivum L. cultivars bred in Italy since
 1900. European J. of Agron. (in press).
 
 Castagna R., Borghi B., Bossinger G., Salamini F. 1993. Induction and
 characterization of Triticum monococcum mutants affecting plant and ear
 morphology. J. Genet. & Breed. 47:127-138.
 
 Castagna R., Maga G., Perenzin M., Heun M., Salamini F. 1993. RFLP based
 genetic relationships of einkorn wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. (in press).
 
 Corbellini M., Canavara M.G. 1993. Estimate of moisture and protein content
 in whole grains of bread wheat T. aestivum by near infrared reflectance
 spectroscopy. Italian J. of Food. Sci. (in press).
 
 Gavuzzi P., Delogu G., Boggini G., Di Fonzo N., Borghi B. 1993.
 Identification of bread wheat, durum wheat and barley cultivars adaptedo to
 dry areas of Southern Ital. Euphytica 68:131.145.
 
 Metakovsky E.V., Davidov S.D., Chernakov V.M., Upelniek V.P. 1993. Gliadin
 allele identification in common wheat. III. Frequency of occurrence and
 appearance of spontaneous mutations at the gliadin-coding loci. J. Genet. &
 Breed. 47: 221-236.
 
 Metakovsky E.V., NV P.K.W., Chernakov V.M., Pogna N.E., Bushuk W. 1993.
 Gliadin alleles in Canadian western red spring wheat cultivars: use of two
 different procedures of acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for gliadin
 separation. Genome 36: 743-749.
 
 
 Metakovsky E.V., Vaccino P., Accerbi M., Redaelli R., Pogna N.E., 1993.
 Polymorphism and spontaneous mutations at the gliadin-coding loci. Proc. 5th
 Int. Gluten  Workshop. Detmold, Germany (in press).
 
 N.G., Redaelli R., Vaccino P., Accerbi M., Pogna N.E., Bushuk W. 1993.
 Biochemical and genetical characterization of novel HMW glutenin subunits
 and their effects of breadmaking quality.  Proc. 5th Int. Gluten  Workshop.
 Detmold, Germany (in press).
 
 Pogna N.E., Metakovsky E.V., Redaelli R., Raineri F., Dachkevitch T. 1993.
 Recombination mapping of Gli-5, e new gliadin-coding locus on chromosome 1A
 and 1B of common wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet., 87: 113-121.
 
 Pogna N.E., Redaelli R., Pasquini M., Curioni A., Dal Belin Peruffo A.,
 Castagna R. 1993. Inheritance studies of two chromosome translocations in
 bread and durum wheat. Proc. 5th Int. Gluten  Workshop. Detmold, Germany (in
 press).
 
 Romani M., Borghi B., Alberici R., Delogu G., Hesselbach J., Salamini F.
 1993. Intergenotypic competition and border effect in bread wheat and
 barley. Euphytica 69: 19-31.
 
 Vaccino P., Accerbi M., Corbellini M. 1993. Cultivar identification in
 T.aestivum using highly polymorphic RFLP probes. Theor. Appl. Genet. 86:833-
 836.
 
 Vaccino P., Pogna N.E., Accerbi M., Redaelli R. 1993. The bread wheat
 variety Fiorello conteins a 2-type 1Dx subunit of glutenin. J. Genet. &
 Breed. 47:179-182.
 
 -------------------------                         
                       ITEMS FROM JAPAN
     
      Faculty of Agriculture, Gifu University         
 
      Ichiko Nishimura and N. Watanabe* 
 
      Combining ability and heritability of chlorophyll a/b ratios in durum
 wheat. It has been suggested that selection for higher chlorophyll a/b
 ratios for a given leaf chlorophyll content may provide a feasible surrogate
 for selecting higher photosynthetic capacity. We estimated significant
 general and specific combining 
 ablilties of chlorophyll a/b ratios in durum wheat using partial diallell
 crosses  between two groups of parental varieties for high and low
 chlorophyll a/b ratios. In the former experiments the parental varieties had
 similar leaf chlorophyll content, however, chlorophyll content of flag
 leaves varied significantly among parental varieties in the growing season
 of May 1993. Therefore, the benefits from higher chlorophyll a/b ratios were
 almost set off. High heritability (h2 = 0.715) was also estimated from F2
 genration in a cross between strains for high and low chlorophyll a/b
 ratios. Genetic correlation coefficient between chlorophyll a/b ratio and
 chlorophyll content per unit leaf area was 0.286.
 
 -------------------------
      National Agriculture Research Center, Kannondai
 
      H. Nakamura
 
      Relation between Seed Storage Protein Subunits and Japanese Noodle
 Making-Quality in Wheat.  Glutenin and gliadin account for about 80% of
 total seed storage protein content, and the composition of these proteins is
 closely related to  flour hardness (Nakamura et  al. 1990) etc.  In Japan,
 noodle-making quality is associated with  the degree of viscoelasticity of
 noodle.  Noodle viscoelasticity consists of two component factors: viscosity
 and elasticity.  The good taste of the Japanese noodles is attributed to a
 high degree of viscoelasticity. The electrophoretic pattern of seed storage
 proteins was compared between Kanto 107, a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) line
 with a high score of noodle viscoelasticity, and Norin 61, a wheat cultivar
 with a standard score of viscoelasticity.  53kD subunit was detected in
 Kanto 107, but not in Norin 61.  129kD subunit was detected in Norin 61, but
 not in Kanto 107.  When Kanto 107 was cultivated as winter crop on drained
 paddy field, the viscoelasticity was found to decrease, and the 53kD subunit
 disappeared from electrophoretic pattern  while the 129kD subunit appeared.  
 Furthermore, in the investigations carried out in the wheat Kankei lines
 (obtained by crossing with Kanto 107 as a maternal parent), it was found
 that when the 53kD subunit was present, but not the 129kD subunit, the
 viscoelasticity scores  were relatively high.  These findings suggest that
 the 53kD and 129kD subunits are related to noodle viscoelasticity (Japanese
 noodle-making quality).
 
                         Publications
 
 Nakamura, H., H.Sasaki, H.Hirano and A.Yamashita. l990.  A high molecular
 weight subunit of wheat glutenin seed storage protein correlates with its
 flour quality.  Japan. J. Breed. 40:485-494.
 
 Nakamura, H.  1993.  Relation between Seed Storage Proteins and Japanese
 Noodle Viscoelasticity in Wheat.  Japan. J. Breed. 43:625-628.
 
 -------------------------
                       ITEMS FROM MEXICO
 
 Developments in CIMMYT Wheat Program in 1993
 
      R. A. Fischer and G. Varughese
 
      Staff Changes.  There were few staff changes in 1993, but by the end of
 the year our budget had deteriorated dramatically, foreshadowing the need
 for substantial readjustment in 1994.  Two Post-Doctoral scientists joined
 in spring 1993, Hong Ma (China, rust pathology) and Enrique Autrique
 (Mexico, breeding).  In March 1993, Masanori Inagaki from Japan, with
 support from TARC, came to the Wheat Program to work on increasing the
 efficiency of dihaploid production, and utilizing dihaploiding in breeding. 
 In May 1993, Silvie Lewicki (France) arrived as a Post-Doctoral scientist
 with Special Project support from France in order to work on osmotic
 adaptation in wheat.
 
      In mid year Chris Mann, who had been with CIMMYT for 14 years, the last
 10 in Bangkok, left us; our Wheat office in Bangkok has now been closed. 
 Debbie Rees, an ODA-supported plant physiologist, left in December and
 Manilal William transferred from the Wheat Program to the Applied Molecular
 Laboratory.  Funding for our Special Project in Bangladesh (Craig Meisner)
 was successfully shifted from CIDA, who had to withdraw support, to AIDAB. 
 The long running support from UNDP for wheat improvement in non-traditional
 warmer and stressed regions terminated at the end of 1993.
 
      CIMMYT Wheat Megaenvironments.  Last year we briefly described a
 revision and expansion of the CIMMYT Wheat Program's system of classifying
 developing-country wheat growing environments.  Unfortunately the relevant
 table was omitted from the report, so that we are including it here.  Only
 the old ME6 and ME7 have been reclassified in this revision: old ME7
 (spring-planted spring wheat) now becomes new ME6, while old ME6
 (facultative and winter) has been expanded into new six MEs (ME7 to ME12).
 
      Northwest Mexico in 1992-93.  Weather was closer to normal (only 91 mm
 rainfall) than in 1991-92, but a warm spring and cloudy February held yields
 down to a Yaqui Valley average of 4.6 t/ha.  Durum wheat yields were low
 relative to bread wheats and triticales in 1992-93, possibly associated with
 unusual levels of leaf blight (Alternaria, Helminthosporium).  Other disease
 problems were minor  but KB levels were again moderate with 51% of farmer
 samples infected having a mean infection level of 0.4%. International
 nursery seed was produced successfully for the first time in KB-free
 locations (Mexicali, and Tepalcingo in Morelos State).
 
      Internally-managed external review of Wheat Crop Protection.  A team
 headed by Dr. S. Nagarajan and including Drs. J.W. Martens, R.T. Plumb and
 D. Worrall reviewed our Crop Protection subprogram in September 1993.  The
 subprogram provides key backup to CIMMYT breeders since host-plant
 resistance is a major mechanism by which the Program deals with wheat
 diseases.  The review, whilst very complimentary on achievements, pointed to
 weaknesses in communication both within the Program and with NARS clients. 
 The needs for additional financial support were emphasized, along with
 possibilities for getting more research done through collaborative
 mechanisms.
 
      Research Activities.  The analysis of the large survey of wheat
 breeding activities in developing countries by CIMMYT Economics was
 completed in 1993 and provides a unique view of this $100 m per year
 industry (CIMMYT 1993).  Whilst the rate of return on this investment,
 including that by CIMMYT, is generally very high, some small wheat countries
 appear to be overinvested in wheat improvement activities.  The existence of
 impressive technology spillovers, especially involving CIMMYT germplasm,
 would permit them to operate more efficiently by testing appropriate
 germplasm from outside.
 
      Wheat research projects in Mexico for 1993 are documented in terms of
 descriptions and updates (Fischer and Hettel 1994); at the end of 1993
 research was organized into 224 ongoing projects.  Highlights in 1993
 included results on the relatively simple inheritance of KB resistance,
 demonstration of a 10% yield advantage in isolines containing the 1B/1R
 translocation compared to ones without, and confirmation of a yield vs.
 canopy temperature correlations across genotypes under both temperate and
 hot conditions.  In northwest Mexico this canopy temperature relationship
 was shown to be part of an association between high yield, high stomatal
 conductance and high photosynthetic activities.  As breeders have increased
 yield potential since the first semidwarfs in 1962 apparently photosynthetic
 activity has also increased.  Finally, clear demonstration of an association
 between the gene Bdv 1 for tolerance to barley yellow dwarf virus, with
 genes Lr34 and Yr18 for adult plant resistance to rusts in bread wheat
 (Singh 1993) is of considerable value for our breeding program.
 
                         REFERENCES
 
 CIMMYT 1993.  1992/3 CIMMYT World Wheat Facts and Trends.  The Wheat
 breeding industry in developing countries: an  analysis of investments and
 impacts.  Singapore: CIMMYT.
 
 Fischer, R.A. and Hettel, E. (1994).  Wheat project documentation for 1992-
 93.  Internal publication, CIMMYT.
 
 Singh, R.P.  (1993).  Genetic association of gene Bdv1 for tolerance to
 barley yellow dwarf virus with genes Lr 34 and Yr 18 for adult plant
 resistance to rusts in bread wheat.  Plant Disease 77: 1103-1106.
 
 -------------------------
 R.L. Villareal, G. Hernandez, S. Rajaram and G. Varughese
 
      Twenty-seven Years of Wheat Improvement Research Training in CIMMYT,
 Mexico.  CIMMYT in Mexico provided practical training to 575 wheat
 improvement-in-service researchers from 80 developing countries between 1967
 and 1993. The number and regional distribution of these trainees are
 indicated in Table 1. The principal objective of this training is to
 strengthen the national research programs in developing countries. Its
 underlying principle is a team approach to problem solving. Trainees are
 placed in cosmopolitan teams that work "shoulder to shoulder" in the field
 with CIMMYT's experienced multidisciplinary scientific team. The course
 emphasizes a hands-on approach to illustrate the practical application of
 scientific theory and to ensure that trainees learn skills essential to
 carry on work in their respective countries. The course also aims to develop
 skills and knowledge necessary to establish objectives and to plan and
 conduct practical breeding programs at the national level. Trainees spend a
 large portion of their time sharpening research skills by designing and
 managing field plots, choosing parental materials, making crosses, creating
 epiphytotics, scoring for tolerance and resistance to biotic and abiotic
 stresses, and selecting improved progeny. They also learn how to
 characterize varieties and to produce basic seed and commercial germplasm.
 Although the course emphasizes wheat improvement research, crop management
 as well as other related important topics are also discussed.
 
 Table 1.  Classification of megaenvironments used by the CIMMYT Wheat  
           Program
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Mega-
 environment      Latitude      Moisture      Temperature    Growth     
 (ME)            (degree)(a)    regime(b)     regime(c)      habit    
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 SPRING WHEAT
 
 1(f)               Low     Low rainfall        Temperate   Spring
                            irrigated           
 
 2                  Low     High rainfall       Temperate   Spring        
 
 3                  Low     High rainfall       Temperate   Spring
 
 4A                 Low     Low rainfall,
                            winter dominant     Temperate   Spring
 
 4B                 Low     Low rainfall,
                            summer dominant                 
 
 4C                 Low     Mostly residual
                            moisture
 
 5A                 Low     High rainfall/      Hot         Spring
                            irrigated, humid                                  
                
 5B                 Low     Irrigated, low      Hot         Spring
                            humidity
 
 6                  High    Moderate rainfall/  Temperate   Spring
                            summer dominant
 
 
 WINTER/FACULTATIVE WHEAT
 
 7                  High    Irrigated           Moderate    Facultative 
                                                cold
 
 8A                 High    High rainfall/      Moderate    Facultative
                            irrigated,          cold
                            long season
 
 8B                 High    High rainfall/      Moderate    Facultative
                            irrigated,          cold
                            short season
 
 9                  High    Low rainfall        Moderate    Facultative
                                                cold
 
 10                 High    Irrigated           Severe      Winter     
                                                cold
 
 11A                High    High rainfall/      Moderate    Winter
                            irrigated,          cold
                            long season
 
 11B                High    High rainfall/      Severe      Winter
                            irrigated           cold
                            short season
 
 12                 High    Low rainfall        Severe      Winter
                                                cold
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Source: Adapted from Rajaram et al. (1993)
 
 (a) Low = less than about 35-40
 (b) Refers to rainfall just before and during the crop cycle.  High = >500   
     mm; low = <500 mm.
 (c) Hot = Mean temperature of the coolest month >17.5; cold = <5.0.
 (d) A = autumn, S = spring.
 (e) Factors additional to yield and industrial quality.  SR = stem rust,     
     LR = leaf rust, YR = yellow (stripe) rust; PM = powdery mildew, 
     and BYD=barley yellow dwarf virus.
 (f) Further subdivided into (1) optimum growing conditions, (2) presence     
     of Karnal bunt, (3) late planted, and (4) problems of salinity.
 
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     Year
 ME     Major Breeding                       Representative          Breeding 
        Objective(e)                         Locations/Regions       Began at
  Sown(d)                                                            CIMMYT
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 1  A  Resistance to                   Yaqui Valley, Mexico          1945
       lodging, SR, LR, YR             Indus Valley, Pakistan
                                       Gangetic Valley, Egypt
 
 2  A  As for ME1 + resistance         North African Coast,          1972
       to YR, Septoria spp.,           Highlands of East Africa,
       Fusarium spp., sprouting        Andes, and Mexico
 
 3  A  As for ME2 + acid soil          Passo Fundo, Brazil           1974
       tolerance                       
 
 4A A  Resistance to drought,          Aleppo, Syria                 1974
       Septoria spp., YR               Settat, Morocco
 
 4B A  Resistance to drought,          Marcos Juarez, Argentina      1974
       Septoria spp., Fusarium
       spp., LR, SR
 
 
 4C A  Resistance to drought,          Indore, India                 1974
       and heat in seedling
       stage
 
 5A A  Resistance to heat,             Joydepur, Bangladesh          1981
       Helminthosporium spp.,          Londrina, Brazil
       Fusarium spp., sprouting
 
 5B A  Resistance to heat              Gezira Sudan                  1975
       and SR                          Kano, Nigeria
 
 6  S  Resistance to SR, LR,           Harbin, China                 1989
       Helminthosporium spp.,
       Fusarium spp., sprouting,
       photoperiod sensitivity
 
 7  A  Rapid grain fill, resistance    Zhenzhou, China               1986
       to cold, YR, PM, BYD
 
 8A A  Resistance to cold,             Chillan, Chile                1986
       YR, Septoria spp.
 
 8B A  Resistance to Septoria spp.,    Edirne, Turkey                1986
       YR, PM, Fusarium spp.,
       sprouting
 
 9  A  Resistance to cold, drought     Diyarbakir, Turkey            1986
 
 10 A  Resistance to winterkill,       Beijing, China                1986
       Yr, LR, PM, BYD
 
 11A A Resistance to Septoria spp.,    Temuco, Chile                 1986
       Fusarium spp., YR, LR, PM 
 
 11B A Resistance to LR, SR, PM,       Lovrin, Romania               1986
       winterkill, sprouting
 
 12  A Resistance to winterkill,       Ankara, Turkey                1986
       drought, YR, bunts
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Source: Adapted from Rajaram et al. (1993)
 
 (a) Low = less than about 35-40
 (b) Refers to rainfall just before and during the crop cycle.  High = >500   
     mm; low = <500 mm.
 (c) Hot = Mean temperature of the coolest month >17.5; cold = <5.0.
 (d) A = autumn, S = spring.
 (e) Factors additional to yield and industrial quality.  SR = stem rust,     
     LR = leaf rust, YR = yellow (stripe) rust; PM = powdery mildew, and 
     BYD = barley yellow dwarf virus.
 (f) Further subdivided into (1) optimum growing conditions, (2) presence     
     of Karnal bunt, (3) late planted, and (4) problems of salinity.
 
 
 
      The special strength of the course that has evolved over 25 years is
 its focus on the wheat crop and on farmers' actual conditions, as well as
 its combination of practice and theory. The ultimate result of this approach
 to training is the creation of an international network of scientists
 involved in the development and release of high yielding and disease
 resistant varieties. These are essential components to furthering the
 production of wheat in the developing world. Finally, many alumni of the
 CIMMYT training programs have moved into administrative positions within
 their own national programs. Thus, there is a continuing need to train young
 promising researchers to replace them, and to maintain a critical mass of
 knowledgeable and field-oriented wheat scientists.
 
 Table 1.  Participation and regional distribution of CIMMYT wheat
 improvement trainees from 1967 to 1993.
 
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Year      Asia      Africa    Latin     Other          Total             
                               America   Countries
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 1967      10        0         2         0              12
 1968-72   41        27        23        4              95
 1973-77   35        27        26        6              94
 1978-82   56        21        34        3              114
 1983-87   57        31        39        6              133
 1988-92   53        26        28        2              109
 1993       9         3         6        0              18
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
           261       135       158       21             575
 
 -------------------------
 K.D. Sayre, M. Van Ginkel, S. Rajaram and I. Ortiz-Monasterio
 
     Tolerance to water-logging losses in spring bread wheat:
             effect of time of onset on expression
 
      Introduction.   In the high-rainfall wheat-growing areas of the world
 the crop may seriously suffer from stress due to water-logging during
 certain periods of its development. These conditions may occur in particular
 on heavy clay soils or Vertisols, such as in parts of the Eastern and
 Central African Highlands.  Also irrigated wheat production, such as in the
 Indo-Gangetic Plains of Northern India and Pakistan, southern China and
 Egypt may encounter temporary water-logging due to poor drainage (Kozlowski,
 1984: Sharma and Swarup, 1988). More than one third of the world's irrigated
 areas has insufficient drainage (Donman and Houston, 1967).  Industrialized
 countries, such as Australia and Canada, also encounter this problem. 
 Although hard data on the frequency of water-logging stress and its impact
 on production are scarce, we estimate that 10-15 million ha annually may
 suffer this stress.
 
      Water-logging is considered to be detrimental to wheat for three major
 reasons. Lack of oxygen to the roots is the major cause of poor growth and
 sometimes death of the plant (Trought and Drew, 1982; Belford et al., 1985).
 As is obvious from the appearance of a water-logged crop, nutrient  levels
 in the plant, in particular nitrogen, are reduced due to decreased
 availability in the flooded soils (Belford et al., 1985; Cook and Veseth,
 1991; Trought and Drew, 1982). A third influence may be the release of
 certain toxic chemicals, such as iron and manganese, into the soil-water
 solution (Ponnamperuma, 1984). These latter effects need to be further
 confirmed (Sparrow and Uren, 1987; Sharma and Swarup, 1988). 
 
      The effects of extended water-logging are evident in premature
 yellowing of the lower leaves and later the entire foliage, reduced
 tillering, male and female sterility, fewer grains per spike and lower
 thousand grain weight. The poor development finally results in yield losses
 in the order of 50%, and sometimes more (Grieve et al., 1986; McDonald and
 Gardner, 1987; Sharma and Swarup, 1988; Trought and Drew, 1982).
 
      In the 1989/90 and 1990/91 crop cycles, 1344 bread wheat genotypes were
 tested by CIMMYT for tolerance to  water-logging in experiments carried out
 at the Centro de Investigaciones Agricolas del Noroeste (CIANO) in northwest
 Mexico. Most lines tested did not produce a single grain. However, six
 genotypes were identified that expressed superior behavior in those soils,
 when exposed to water-logging (Van Ginkel et al., 1992).
 
      These six selected genotypes were identified under water-logged
 conditions extending from two weeks after emergence to the boot stage. A
 major question remained as to the role of the timing of the water-logging
 stress related to stage of crop development. Certain areas encounter early
 water-logging, generally not exceeding one month after planting whereas
 others may experience excessive rains throughout the season or only
 following flowering and during grain maturation.
 
      The objective of this study was to test the behavior of the six
 identified genotypes plus additional germplasm obtained from certain water-
 logged regions in the world, under stresses extending over different growth
 stages.
 
      Materials and Methods.  A  trial was conducted during the 1992/1993
 crop cycle at CIANO to evaluate the effects of water-logged soil conditions
 on sixteen spring bread wheat genotypes.  The experiment station is located
 near Cd. Obregon, Sonora in northwest Mexico at an elevation of 39m above
 sea level at 27 N and 109 W latitude and longitude, respectively. Soil is
 classified as a coarse sandy clay mixed montmorillonitic typic caliciorthid,
 low in organic matter (<10 mg g exp(-1)) with slightly alkaline pH (7.7) and
 adequate K fertility.
 
      The trial used a split-plot layout within a randomized complete block
 design with three replications. Main plots were six water-logging regimes
 described in Table 1 to evaluate the interaction of stage of crop
 development and onset of water-logging.  Water-logged conditions were
 established using flooded basins measuring 12m wide by 11m long.  During the
 duration of each water-logging treatment, continuous standing water was
 maintained within a range of approximately 3-8cm. Sub-plots were the sixteen
 spring bread genotypes listed in Table 2 and comprised eight row plots (20cm
 between rows) that were 3m long.  Harvest area (2.4 m(2)) involved a 2m
 length of the six center rows leaving approximately a 0.5m border at each
 end of each plot.
 
      The trial received a pre-plant broadcast application of 150 kg N ha(-1)
 and 40 kg P(2)O(5) ha(-1) as urea and triple super phosphate, respectively,
 which was incorporated by disc harrow.  Seeding occurred on Nov. 25, 1992,
 followed by a light, uniform irrigation on Nov. 28, 1992.  Emergence (50%) 
 occurred on December 4, 1992.  Normal weed, disease and insect pest
 management practices were uniformly applied over the trial.
 
      Extensive observations were made throughout the duration of the trial
 including visual vigor and chlorosis scores, direct measurements of leaf
 chlorophyll levels, plant height and days to anthesis and maturity.  Yield
 and yield components were measured and yield losses for the water-logged
 treatments in relation to the control treatment yields were calculated. Only
 these latter factors will be discussed here.
 
      Results and Discussion.  Table 3 presents mean yields for each water-
 logging treatment, mean genotype yields over the water-logging treatment
 plus genotype yields for each water-logging treatment. Mean yields were
 similar and significantly lower than the other water-logging treatments for
 both of the treatments that included water-logged conditions between the 1st
 node stage and mid-boot (10 DAE to mid-boot and 1st node to mid-boot). 
 These were followed by the treatments 10 DAE to 1st node and mid-boot to
 anthesis with the former having a lower (but not significantly different)
 yield.  The highest average yielding water-logging treatment was from
 anthesis to mid-grain fill.
 
      Large differences occurred between genotype means averaged over the six
 water-logging treatments (Table 3).  Clearly, the four DUCULA sister lines
 were superior compared to the other genotypes.  These lines had been
 previously identified in a preliminary screening for water-logging tolerance
 of a large number of genotypes by the CIMMYT bread wheat program (Van Ginkel
 et al., 1992).  Other genotypes with high over all mean yield performance
 were ZHEN 7853 WR89-3420 and WR89-3246.
 
      There was a large and significant genotype by water-logging treatment
 interaction.  The DUCULA sister lines tended to have rather stable
 performances over the various water-logging treatments but had particularly
 superior yields, when compared to other genotypes, in the treatments
 involving early water-logging from 1st node to mid-boot.
 
      On the other hand, genotypes like WR89-3246, ZHEN 7853, MIKN YANG#1 and
 Pato Blanco had comparatively higher yields in the late water-logging
 treatments (especially for the anthesis to mid-grain fill treatment).  This
 may reflect late season water logging conditions that are common in many
 spring wheat areas in southern China and in Argentina.  Certainly more
 research is needed to clarify potential differences in physiological
 mechanisms and heritability  patterns for genotypes that appear to interact
 with stage of development at the time of water-logging.
 
      Genotype grain yields were not significantly correlated with plant
 height or days to maturity for any of the water-logging treatments.
 Similarly, yields were not significantly correlated with days to anthesis
 except for the anthesis to mid-grain fill treatment (r=-0.702, significant
 at the 1% level). The range in days to anthesis was 68-91 DAE (latest
 genotype was 46 WR NORIN whereas the next latest was VEE/MYNA at 84 DAE) and
 probably was partially associated with yield differences for anthesis to
 mid-grain fill treatment.
 
      Grain yields were strongly correlated with both total above ground
 biomass and harvest index for all water-logging treatments including the
 control treatment.  Spikes m(-2) were only correlated with yield for the
 treatment 10 DAE to mid-boot.  Grains m(-2) were well-correlated with yield
 for all treatments, grains spike(-1) were correlated with yield for all
 treatments except the control and anthesis to mid-grain fill. Thousand grain
 weight was not correlated with yield under the control treatment but the
 correlations became significant and continually greater as the stage of
 water-logging onset became later.
 
      Table 4 presents the percent yield loss for each genotype in each
 water-logging treatment as compared to the control yields.  The yield loss
 data clearly exemplifies the remarkable genetic variation in tolerance to
 water-logging and the obvious interactions between genotypes and stage of
 crop development at the onset of water-logging.
 
      Conclusions.    The results demonstrate that there are marked genotypic
 differences among spring bread wheat genotypes for tolerance to water-logged
 conditions and that genotypes appear to react differently to this stress
 based on stage of development when onset of water-logging occurs.  In
 certain areas, water-logged conditions may more likely occur early in the
 cropping period; in other areas it may occur during later stages whereas in
 some locations it can occur at almost any stage of crop development.  Our
 results indicate that it is apparently possible to differentiate between
 genotypes appropriate for these varying conditions by proper field screening
 techniques.  This has direct implications for CIMMYT's breeding program as
 it attempts to develop high yielding, stable germplasm for the variable
 wheat growing areas throughout the world.
 
                         References
 
 Belford, R.K., R.Q. Canell and R.J. Thomson. 1985.  Effects of single and
 multiple water-loggings on the growth and yield of winter wheat on a clay
 soil.  J. Sci. Food Agric. 36: 142-156.
 
 Cook, R.J. and R.J. Veseth. 1991.  Wheat Health Management. APS Press. 152
 pp.
 
 Donman, W.W., and Houston, C.E. 1967. Drainage related to irrigation
 management. Pp 974-987 in: Drainage of Agricultural Lands. R.W.Hagan,
 H.R.Haise and T.W.Edminster (Eds). Am. Soc. Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin.
 
 Grieve, A.M., E. Dunford, D. Marston, R.E. Martin and P. Slavich. 1986. 
 Effects of water-logging and soil salinity on irrigated agriculture in the
 Murray Valley: a review. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 26: 761-77.
 
 Kozlowski, T.T. 1984. Extent, causes and impact of flooding. Pp 1-5 in:
 Flooding and Plant Growth. T.T.Kozlowski (Ed.). Academic Press, Inc.
 
 McDonald, G.K. and W.K. Gardner. 1987.  Effect of water-logging on the grain
 yield response of wheat to sowing date in south-western Victoria. Aust. J.
 Exp. Agric. 27: 661-70.
 
 Ponnamperuma, F.N. 1984. Effect of flooding in soils. Pp 9-45 in: Flooding
 and Plant Growth. T.T.Kozlowski (Ed.). Academic Press, Inc.
 
 Sharma, D.P. and A. Swarup. 1988.  Effects of short-term flooding on growth,
 yield and mineral composition of wheat on sodic soil under field conditions. 
 Plant and Soil 107: 137-143.
 
 Sparrow, L.A. and N.C. Uren. 1987.  The role of manganese toxicity in crop
 yellowing on seasonally water-logged and strongly acidic soils in north-
 eastern Victoria.  Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 27: 303-307.
 
 Tottman, D.R. and R.J. Makepeace. 1979.  An explanation of the decimal code
 for the growth stages of cereals, with illustrations.  Ann. App. Biol.
 93:221-234.
 
 Trought, M.C.T. and M.C. Drew. 1982. Effects of water-logging on young wheat
 plants (Triticum aestivum L.) and on soil solutes at different soil
 temperatures.  Plant and Soil 69: 311-326.
 
 Van Ginkel, M., S. Rajaram and M.Thijssen. 1992. Water-logging in wheat:
 germplasm evaluation and methodology  development. Pp 115-124 in: The
 Seventh Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa.
 Nakuru, Kenya, September 16-19, 1991. D.G.Tanner and W.Mwangi (Eds).
 
 
 Table 1.  Description of the six water-logging treatments.
 
                                               (Duration)
                              Start     Finish    Days
  ----------------------------------------------------------------   
 Control                        -         -         0
 15 DAE(b)to Mid-boot          12        45        42
 15 DAE(b)to 1st node          12        31        28
 1st node to Mid-boot          31        45        28
 Mid-boot to Anthesis          45        69        28
 Anthesis/Mid-Grain fill       65        79        28
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
 a - Tottman and Makepeace, 1979.
 b - DAE - Days after emergence.
 
 
 Table 2. Description of the sixteen spring bread wheat genotypes.
 
 Genotype                 Origin             Description
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 TINAMOU                  CIMMYT/Mexico      Water-logging tolerant
 VEE/MYNA                 CIMMYT/Mexico      Water-logging tolerant
 PRL/SARA                 CIMMYT/Mexico      Water-logging tolerant
 DUCULA-1                 CIMMYT/Mexico      Water-logging tolerant
 DUCULA-2                 CIMMYT/Mexico      Water-logging tolerant
 DUCULA-3                 CIMMYT/Mexico      Water-logging tolerant
 DUCULA-4                 CIMMYT/Mexico      Water-logging tolerant
 Seri 82                  Mexico             Susceptible check
 Pato Blanco              Argentina          Water-logging tolerant
 BR34                     Brazil             Susceptible check
 PF8442                   Brazil             Water-logging tolerant
 MIKN YANG#11             China              Water-logging tolerant
 ZHEN 7843                China              Water-logging tolerant
 WR89-3420                Unknown            Water-logging tolerant
 WR89-3246                Unknown            Water-logging tolerant
 46 WR NORIN              Unknown            Water-logging tolerant
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
 Table 3. Grain yields (kg/ha at 12% H(2)O) for the sixteen bread wheat
 genotypes and six water logging treatments.
 
 Genotype          Without 10DAE  10DAE  1st Node Midboot Anthesis
 and               water-  to mid to 1st to mid    to     to Mean       
                                                  Anthesisgr.fill  
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 TINAMOU            5717   1676   1973   1462     2994     4669  
 3082
 VEE/MYNA           5444   2323   3263   2647     1945     4192  
 3304
 PRL/SARA           5363   1960   2982   1151      955     1724  
 2356
 DUCULA-1           6455   2222   3689   3720     3160     4695  
 3990 
 DUCULA-2           6251   2704   3221   3445     3161     4883 
 3944
 DUCULA-3           6516   2896   3742   3028     3030     3600  
 3802
 DUCULA-4           6066   2461   2840   3023     2831     4568  
 3632
 Seri 82            6906   1481   2891    391     2375     5337  
 3230
 Pato Blanco        4956   1598   2832    618     2942     4161  
 2851
 BR34               5347   1408   2056    210      962     3266 
 2208
 PF8442             5045    714   1648    455     2534     4322 
 2453
 MIKN YANG#11       5558   1767   2984   1005     1653     5185  
 3025
 ZHEN 7853          7219   1470   2818    846     3941     5908  
 3700
 WR89-3420          5991   1606   2662   3272     2913     4987  
 3572  
 WR89-3246          6764   2014   2892    916     3433     5720  
 3623
 46 WR NORIN        5283   1801   2261   2600      919     2835  
 2616
 
 Mean               5930   1881   2797   1799     2485     4378      
  ------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                         
 LSD (0.05) - Water-logging treatment = 800.
 LSD (0.05) - Genotype = 383.
 LSD (0.05) - Water-logging*genotype = 1208
 a - Included as previously identified susceptible check.
 
 Table 4. Percent yield reduction for each water-logging treatment in
 relation to the control treatment.
 
 Genotype                  10DAE    10DAE   1st node Midboot Anthesis     
 to 1st                   to mid    to 1st    mid      to       to
                            boot     node     boot  anthesis  gr.fill
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 TINAMOU                     71       65       75      48       18
 VEE/MYNA                    58       41       51      64       23
 PRL/SARA644478              82       67
 DUCULA-1                    66       43       43      51       27
 DUCULA-2                    57       49       45      49       22
 DUCULA-3                    56       43       54      53       44
 DUCULA-4                    59       54       50      54       24
 Seri 82                     78       58       94      66       23
 Pato Blanco                 68       43       88      41       16
 BR34                        73       62       96      82       39
 PF8442                      86       67       91      49       14
 MIKN YANG#11                68       46       82      71        7
 ZHEN 7853                   80       61       88      45       18
 WR89-3420                   73       55       45      52       16
 WR89-3246                   70       57       87      49       14
 46 WR NORIN                 66       57       51      82       46
                                                                              
 
 Mean                        68       53       70      59      26
 LSD (0.05)                  13       16       15      23      19
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 -------------------------
      A. I. Morgunov, M. Albarran, S. Rajaram
 
      International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 
 
      Introduction.  The crosses between spring and winter wheat have been
 successfully used to improve varieties of both crops.  CIMMYT wheat breeding
 program concentrates both on spring and winter/facultative germplasm. 
 Spring wheat lines are used to transfer rust resistance, semi-dwarf stature
 and high yield potential into winter germplasm.  However, within a number of
 F2 populations from crosses between spring lines very late, typically
 winter-type plants with a long vegetative phase segregate, which could be
 used in winter wheat breeding.  This is most likely a result of the
 segregation of Vrn1, Vrn2 and Vrn3 loci (Flood & Halloran, 1986). 
 Segregation of 15:1 (spring/winter) can be expected if spring parents
 possess different dominant Vrn alleles.  The methodology of breeding winter
 wheat form spring x spring crosses was described by Stelmakh & Avsenin
 (1987) and Avsenin (1988).   The objective of this study was to estimate the
 adaptability of very late segregates from spring x spring crosses in a
 winter environment.
 
      Materials and Methods.  Eight F2 populations originating from crosses
 between spring wheat lines Pfau, Kauz, Weaver as female parent and K 342,
 Laj 3302 and Cruz Alta as male parent were used in the study.  All of them
 demonstrated a 15:1 segregation for spring/winter type.  F2 populations were
 space planted in Toluca, State of Mexico (2640 m as1) during the 1992 summer
 cycle.  Planting at Toluca in the summer cycle is routinely practiced in the
 spring wheat breeding program to evaluate germplasm under high rainfall
 conditions.  In each F2 population the heading date of 80-10 random
 individual plants was recorded. Some 35-40 plants from each cross were
 promoted to F3.  They included plants from all ranges of earliness plus all
 very late plants.  The seeds of each plant were divided into two parts
 providing identical sets of F3 lines.   One set of F3s was grown in the
 Northern Mexico (State of Sonora, 30 m as1) during the winter cycle
 (November-April, 1992-93) which is normally used for breeding spring
 germplasm.  The other set was grown in Toluca (2640 m as1) in the winter
 (November-July, 1992-93).  Due to high elevation of this location, the
 winter months represent a typical winter/facultative environment and is used
 to screen this type of germplasm.  The F3 lines were grown in 1 m(2)plots
 with solid planting.  In both locations heading date was recorded for all F3
 lines.  Visual selection of lines with desirable type was made only in the
 winter environment (Toluca 1992-93).
 
      Results and discussion.  The period between planting and heading in the
 winter scenario (Toluca, 1992-93) was almost twice as long as in the spring
 scenario (Obregon, 1992-93) - 158 days on the average as compared to 85-90
 days.l  At the same time the variation in heading date within each cross in
 winter scenario remarkably decreased, to half.  A long vegetation period can
 be attributed to cold temperature in the highlands of Mexico in the winter
 where night temperature ais close to 0 degC.   Any success in selection of 
 winter/facultative genotypes from spring x spring crosses depends on a 
 correlation between heading date of F2 plants in the spring scenario and the 
 behaviour of the corresponding F3 lines in winter scenario, to ensure that 
 very late, selected F2 plants behave as winter wheat.  Coefficients of 
 correlation were calculated for each cross between F2 plants and 
 corresponding F3 lines both in the spring wheat and winter environment.  
 When F2-derived liens were grown in the spring environment there was 
 relatively high positive
 correlation (0.39 - 0.81) indicating that heading date of F3 ilnes can be
 predicted by the performance of their progenitor F2 plants. On the contrary,
 all the correlations between F2 plants and F3 lines planted as winter wheat
 were low and insignificant.  Only two crosses demonstrated significant but
 still medium correlation (0.42 - 0.49) between F3 lines in spring and winter
 environment.  This demonstrates that late F2 plants identified and selected
 as winter type were not necessarily later under winter conditions.    The
 majority of F3 lines planted in the winter scenario suffered from frost due
 to early development.  They reached that boot stage in February-March when
 low temperatures were still common.   At this stage the wheat crop is
 sensitive to frost resulting in leaf damage and steriiity (Lamb, 1967). 
 Visual selection was conducted among F3 lines.  Only 12 lines (3.4%) out of
 348 had less frost damage and acceptable plant type to be selected for
 further evaluation.  These selected lines did not necessarily originate from
 very late F2 plants but rather from plants with variable numbers of days to
 heading.  Normally 20-30% of the F3 lines are selected from spring x witner
 or winter x winter crosses.  The data indicates that selection of very late
 plants from F2 spring x spring crosses possibly has limited value for winter
 wheat improvement.  However, the study continues on F3 lines which survived
 winter and serer selected to see their performance in the second winter
 cycle.
                         Publications
 
 Avsenink, V. I.  1988.  Methodology of obtaining winter forms of bread wheat
 by crossing only spring varieites.  In: Applied aspects of genetics,
 cytology and biotechnology of field crops.  Odessa, VSGI, p. 21-30.
 
 Flood,  R. G. adn Halloran, G. M.  1986.  Genetics and physiology of
 vernalization response in wheat .  In: Advances in Agronomy. Ed: Brady N. C.
 Vol. 39:87-126.
 
 Lamb, C. A.  1967.  Physiology.  In: Wheat and wheat improvement.  Ed. K. S.
 Quisenberry. Agronomy Vol. 13. p. 181-224.
 
 Stelmakh, A. F. and Avsenin, V. I.  1987.  Method of producing winter forms
 of bread wheat from spring types. USSR Patent (A.s. 1340676).
 
 ------------------------- 
                      ITEMS FROM MOROCCO
 
      Aridoculture Center, CRRA/INNA, B. P. 598, Settat
 
      M. Mergoum
 
      Effects of Severe Drought on Wheats in the Arid and Semi-Arid Zone of
 Morocco.  1992-1993 crop season in Morocco was the second in a row that was
 characterized by a severe drought.  Most farmer fields planted to cereals -
 particularly wheats - were completely lost in most regions.  The breeding
 nurseries of both durum and bread wheat programs in the dryland regions of
 Morocco were severely damaged.  In fact, except for locations where
 supplementary irrigation was applied (Tassaout, Khyemis, Zmamra, and Sidi El
 Aydi), all nurseries were abandoned.  In addition to drought, crop damage
 was caused by a severe infestation by Hessian fly (Meyetiola destructor
 (say) in many parts of the cereal growing areas.  Some useful notes related
 to wheat genotype behavior to drought and disease (plant vigor and survival,
 leaf characteristics, wax, reaction to Hessian fly, root rot, ...etc)
 however, were taken during this season.
 
 -------------------------
      M. Mergoum and N. Nsarellah
 
      Performance of Triticale under Severe Drought Conditions.  Triticale is
 relatively a new crop in Morocco.   The first cultivars of this crop were
 registered in the Official Catalog in 1988.  Since then, increasing surfaces
 were grown to triticale.  Actually, this crop is planted on more than 10,000
 hectares.  The 1992-93 severe drought has demonstrated the good performance
 of triticale as compared to the other cereals in many parts of Morocco.  In
 1991 to 1993 growing seasons and except for triticale and to a certain
 extent for barley, most cereals grown under rainfed conditions in Moroccan
 dryland zone were destroyed by drought.  While both bread and durum wheats
 did not survive drought and Hessian fly attack beyond tillering state at
 Jamat Shaim station, triticale lines produced an average 7 to 10 Quintals
 (Qx) grains per Hectare (Ha) in addition to straw.  Some lines produced more
 than 14 Qx/Ha.  Similarly, barley performed relatively well by producing an
 average yield of 6 to 8 Qx/Ha.  Among the 400 lines included in several
 triticale observation nurseries, about 150 promising lines showing good
 adaptation ability were selected.  These lines were advanced to preliminary
 yield test in 1993-94.  Similarly, from yield trials, about 100 promising
 lines (60, 20, and 20 lines from preliminary advanced and intermediary yield
 trials, respectively) were selected and advanced to further tests.
 
 -------------------------
      M. Mergoum, N. Nsarellah, and M. Nachit
 
      Screening Durum Wheat for Dryland Root Rot.  Dryland root rot of wheats
 caused by a complex of pathogens can cause tremendous losses in addition to
 the normal losses every year.  In Morocco, root rot is caused mainly by
 Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium culmorum.   Studies have shown that durum
 wheat is most affected in the dry areas of Morocco.  Root rot research in
 Morocco started in the early 1980's.  Pathogens causing this disease have
 been determined in numerous surveys.  Field inoculations and evaluation
 techniques have been developed and successfully tried.  Small genetic
 differences have subsequently been observed in available durum wheats. 
 Screening for sources of resistance and implementing a genetic improvement
 program of the resistance in durum wheat is timely.  In 1992-1993 growing
 season, 1132 accessions of durum wheat world collection (Moroccan and
 regional collections)  (provided by M. Nachit CIMMYT/ICARDA durum breeder)
 were included in a screening nursery for dryland root rot.  The experiment
 was installed at Sidi El Aydi experimental station located in the West
 Central region of Morocco.  Seed inoculation was done with spore suspensions
 of both F. culmorum and C. sativus.
 
      The severe drought that plagued Morocco in 1992 and 1993 growing
 seasons enhanced significantly the development of root rot on the most
 stressed growing wheats, particularly in the root rot nursery because of
 artificial inoculation.  Hence the 1992-93 crop season was "ideal" for root
 rot screening in the arid and semi-arid zones of Morocco.  White head
 percentages reached as high as 65% in some inoculated plots allowing
 excellent selection among genetic material.  Among the 1132 accessions
 tested, only 140 accessions showed few white heads (less than 5%) for both
 inoculated and control treatments and therefore, were classified as tolerant
 sources.  The other accessions had significant white head percentages
 varying between 10 to 35% and 25 to 65% for control and inoculated,
 respectively.  Tolerant, medium susceptible, and some accessions showing
 good agronomic characters in the field were retested at the seeding stage in
 the laboratory to confirm their reaction to root rot pathogens.  Test
 results showed that, except for some tolerant accessions, the reaction of
 most accessions were susceptible.  Therefore, more research is needed to
 improve laboratory techniques for better discrimination among genotypes to
 root rot disease.
 
 -------------------------
      M. Mergoum and A. Ouassou
 
      New Varieties of Triticale.  The only three cultivars of triticale
 available for farmers to grow in Morocco are "Beagle", "Drira out-cross",
 and "Juanillo".  These varieties, released in 1988, were selected from
 CIMMYT germplasm in the early 1980's.  Among these cultivars, Juanillo is
 the best for most characters (yield, grain quality and adaptation).  In
 1993, two new cultivars of triticale were released. These cultivars also
 selected from CIMMYT germplasm, were named "Borhan" and "Firdaws".  In
 general, they are more adapted than previous cultivars in term of yield and
 present better grain quality.
 
 -------------------------
      N. Nsarellah, M. Mergoum, and N. Miloudi
 
      Drum Wheat Program in Morocco.  Durum wheat is planted on more than 1.1
 million hectares in Morocco.  Major constraints are drought, temperature,
 root rot and Hessian fly infestation.  Predominant foliar diseases are tan
 spot, rusts and barley yellow dwarf (BYD) virus. Under irrigation durums
 develop much yellow berry which lowers grain quality.  During the 1992-93
 growing season several constraints were addressed by crop improvement
 specialists.  Hessian fly resistance incorporation from bread wheat is
 continued by performing more than 350 new crosses and backcrosses on
 pretested plants.  The most advanced material is actually in the F4
 generation.  The North African and part of the world durum collection were
 screened for Hessian fly resistance.  No resistance was identified.  Tan
 spot is an important disease in Morocco and genetic resistance is sought. 
 Screening part of the durum wheat world collection in the field was not
 successful due to drought.  However, some shared germplasm was greenhouse
 tested and some lines were found to possess resistance.  Dryland root rot
 was addressed by screening 1132 entries from the drum world collection (see
 previous report).  Tolerance was found in the field and selected entries
 were retested in the laboratory.  Progenies of intercrossed tolerant lines
 were evaluated to find higher levels of resistance.  Crosses using three BYD
 virus resistant lines and a male sterile line were made and progenies will
 be tested in coming generations.  Selection for drought and heat tolerance
 is done in the fields of three experiment stations.  To select for yield
 potential and wide adaptation at three irrigated stations, a favorable
 rainfed and a high altitude station are added into consideration.  During
 1992-93, evaluation of local and shared germplasm (CIMMYT, ICARDA and
 others) was done in two irrigated experiment stations and only two rainfed
 stations.  Drought was terminal in two other stations.  Testing for rust
 resistance was performed on advanced lines.  To improve grain quality
 families and lines that had shrivelled, black point or yellowberry seed were
 eliminated before inclusion in advanced nurseries.  Three lines were
 promoted to the catalogue trials for registration.
 
                         Publications
 
 Mergoum, M. J. Ryan, and J. P Shroyer.  1992.  Triticale in Morocco:
 Potential for Adoption in the Semi-Arid Cereal Zone.  Journal of Natural
 Resources and Life Sciences Education 21:137-141.
 
 Mergoum, M., G. A. Taylor, N. Nsarellah, and J. Ryan.  1992.  Triticale: An
 Alternative Cereal in the Drought-Prone Moroccan Zone.  Agron. Abstr., p.
 60.  Am. Soc. Agron., Minneapolis, MN.
 
 El Bouhssini, M., N. Nsarellah, Mergoum, M., and G. A. Taylor.  1992.  Field
 and Greenhouse Reaction of Durum Wheat to Infestation with Hessian Fly
 (Mayetiola destructor Say).  Agron. Abstr.,., p. 95. Am. Soc. Agron.,
 Minneapolis, MN.
 
 Nsarellah, N., Mergoum, M. and J. Ryan.  1992.  Evaluation of Durum Wheat
 Germplasm to Tan Spot (Pyrenophora Tritici-repentis) in Morocco.  Agron.
 Abstr., p. 109. Am. Soc. Agron., Minneapolis, MN.
 
 Taylor, G. A., N. Nsarellah, M. Mergoum, and J. Ryan.  1992.  Morocco's
 Catastropic Drought: Implications for Farmers, Scientists and the Economy. 
 Agron. Abstr., p. 361.  Am. Soc. Agron., Minneapolis, MN.
 
 Jlibene, M., G. A. Taylor, M. Mergoum, N. Nsarellah, and J. Ryan.  1992. 
 Breadwheat Production and Research in Morocco: A Shift in Emphasis. Abstr.,
 p. 364. Am. Soc. Agron., Minneapolis, MN.
 
 Ryan, J., M. Abdel Monem, A. Azzaoui, K. El Mejahed, M. El Gharrous and M.
 Mergoum.  1992.  A Current Perspective on Dryland Cereal Fertilization in
 Morocco.  p. 106-115.  In Fertilizer Use Efficiency under Rain-fed
 Agriculture in West Asia and North Africa.  Proceedings of the Fourth
 Regional Workshop, 5-10 May 1991, Agadir, Morocco.
 
 Nachit, M., N. Nsarellah, M. Mergoum and John Ryan.  1993.  Durum Wheat
 Performance under early and mid season drought stresses.  Abstr., p. 96. 
 Am. Soc. Agron., Cincinnati, OH.
 
 Nsarellah, N., M. Mergoum and G. A. Taylor.  1993.  Yield loss assessment of
 tan spot on wheat in Morocco.  Abstr., p. 96.  Am. Soc. Agron., Cincinnati,
 OH.
 
 Mergoum, M., N. Nsarellah and M. Nachit.  1993. Screening Durum Wheat
 germplasm for Dryland root rot resistance in Morocco.  Agron. Abstr., p. 94. 
 Am. Soc. Agron., Cincinnati, OH.
 
 Ryan, J., M. Mergoum, T. Gillard-byers, and J. P. Shroyer.  1992.  On Farm
 Trials in Morocco's Dryland Zone:  The key to technology transfer. 
 (Submitted to Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education).
 
 Ryan, J., M. Abdel Monem, and M. Mergoum.  1992.  Nitrogen and phosphorus
 fertilization of triticale varieties in Morocco.  (Submitted to Medit).
 
 Ryan, J., M. Abdel Monem, M. Dafir, M. Mergoum, and S. Belaid.  1992. 
 Response of local and improved Moroccan corn cultivars to zinc and
 phosphorus.  Al-awamia (submitted).
 
 Ryan, J., M. Abdel Monem, and M. Mergoum, and D. Hadarbach.  1991.  Impact
 of P Fertilizer on barley, wheat and triticale in a p-deficient dryland zone
 soil.  Al Awamia (submitted).
 
 Mergoum, M., J. S. Quick, and J. Nsarellah.  Root rot of wheat: Inoculation
 Techniques and Effects on Yield and its Components under Varying Water and
 Nitrogen Levels in Morocco.  Al Awamis (accepted).
 
 Nsarellah, N., E. Elias, R. Cantrell and A. Taylor.  Relationships of growth
 stage and Expression of tan spot in Wheats.  Agron. Abstr., p. 108.  Am.
 Soc. Agron., Denver, Colorado.
 
 Elias, E. M., N. Nsarellah and R.G. Cantrell.  1992.  Evaluation of three
 Field inoculation techniques of tan spot on wheat.  Agron. Abstr., p. 95.
 Am. Soc. Agron., Minneapolis, MN .  (Submitted to Plant Pathology).
 
 Elias, E. M., N.Nsarellah, and R. G. Cantrell.  1992.  Variation in
 Virulence within and between Wheat Tan spot populations of North Dakota and
 Morocco.  Agron., Abstr., p. 95.  Am. Soc. Agron., Minneapolis, MN. 
 (Submitted to Crop Science).
 
 Nsarellah, N. and M. Mergoum.  1993.  Comparison of four tan spot rating
 methods under two field inoculation techniques.  Al Awamia.  (submitted).
 
 -------------------------
                      ITEM FROM PAKISTAN
 
      Crop Diseases Research Institute, National Agricultural Research
      Centre, Park Road, Islamabad
 
      Munawar Husain
 
                Research on Wheat Rust and Powdery Mildew
 
      Virulence Analysis.  Virulence analysis of Puccinia recondita f. sp.
 tritici was investigated to determine the prevalence and distribution of the
 natural populations of the pathogen.  The isolates were assayed on 24
 selected single gene lines for rust resistance.  Lines carrying genes Lr9,
 Lr18, Lr19, Lr21, Lr24, Lr28, and Lr,28, and Lr29, maintained their
 resistance to the prevalent natural populations of leaf rust, whereas
 relatively few isolates could attack the host lines carrying genes Lr3Ka and
 Lr27+31.  Genes Lr2a, Lr10, Lr13, Lr15, Lr16, Lr20, Lr23, and Lr26
 demonstrated good differential reaction to the isolates tested.
 
                      Physiologic Specialization
 
      Leaf rust.  Two major pathotype groups viz. 104 and 77 were identified
 from the sample collected from major wheat growing areas on the recommended
 standard differentials as well as supplemental differentials.  The
 prevalence of pathotype 104 group was about 85%.  Of this, 39% isolates were
 virulent on gene Lr26.  Nine and 4 virulence combinations were obtained in
 pathotype 104 and pathotype 77 groups respectively.
 
      Stripe rust.  No significant change in the virulence pattern was
 observed anywhere.  Race 7E150 remained predominant in Punjab and NWFP. Weak
 virulence race OEO and 6EO were encountered from upland areas of
 Balochistan.
 
      Powdery mildew.  The study shows that genes Pm1, Pm2, Pm4, and Pm6 are
 highly effective in conditioning resistance against the prevailing
 populations of Erysiphe graminis tritici.  Virulence was common on Pm3C,
 Pm5, Pm7, Pm8, and MA.
 
      Wheat rust trap nursery.  To monitor the changes in nature,  wheat rust
 trap nurseries were planted at over 30 loctions throughout the country. 
 These nurseries comprised of 98 entries included selected ines carrying
 single genes for resistance to leaf and stripe rusts and past and present
 commercial cultivars.  The incidence of virulence was very high on genes
 Lr1, Lr2b, Lr3, Lr3bg, Lr10, Lr14a, Lr20, and Lr22b.  Mesothetic reaction
 was observed on host genes Lr2a, Lr3ka, Lr13, Lr14b, Lr15, Lr16, Lr17,
 Lr27+37, Lr30 and Lr33 in Punjab and North Western Frontier Provinces
 (NWFP).  However, in Sindh Province, susceptible reaction was observed on
 genes Lr2a, Lr3ka, Lr13, Lr14b, Lr15, Lr16, Lr17, and Lr20.  No virulence
 was found on resistance genes Lr9, Lr18, Lr19, Lr21, Lr24, Lr28, and Lr29. 
 Up to 80S reaction was recorded for leaf rust on cvs. possessing gene Lr26,
 e.g., Pak81, Pirsabak 85, Benno, Mehran 89 etc.  Adult Plant Resistance in
 addition to seedling resistance gne Lr26 was suspected in cvs. Rawal,
 Sutlej, Pasban, Rohtas, Faisalabad 85 and Kohinoor.
 
      Stripe rust was recorded with trrace to 30% severity on Chinese 166,
 Lee, H. Kolben, Corella and Heines vii at Sialkot, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, D.
 I. Khan, Bhaun, Nowshera and Peshawar.  In Balochistan province the
 incidence of stripe rust was very high only on Local White and Morocco.  The
 pattern of stripe rust virulence in Balochistan is markedly different from
 that obtained in Punjab and NWFP provinces.
 
      Identification of sources of resistance to rusts and powdery mildew.  A
 total of 876 lines comprising commercial cvs. and advance lines included in
 National Wheat Diseases Screening Nursery (NWDSN) and 51 candidate lines
 included in National Uniform Yield Trials (NUYT) were screened against rusts
 at 10 and 18 predesignated locations, respectively, in different
 agroecological zones.  The NWDSN results were communicated to respective
 contributors for further selection in the breeding programme. Whereas
 results of NUYT were used by the Variety Evaluation Committee (VEC) for
 selection of candidate varieties.
 
      Over 150 genetic stocks of national and international origin were
 evaluated in the field against natural populations of powdery mildew
 pathogen. Out of these, only 3 cvs. namely Bindawarra, Flinders and Kulin
 indicated resistant reaction, while 5 cvs/lines viz. Aroona, Schomberg,
 C273, V5300 and V86007 showed moderately resistant reaction to the pathogen.
 
      Cultivars released.  The following wheat cvs. were released/approved in
 Pakistan since 1990.
 
 Name                Prev. Ref.     Parentage/pedigree
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 Inqilab-90          V85060-1       WL711/Crow's'
                                    Pb 19454-9a-0a-1SHP
 
 Pasban-90           V86369         Inia66/A.Distt//
 (Tolerant to saline soils)         Inia66/3/Gen81
                                    FW5898-1-0a-7k-0a
 
 Rohtas-90           V86371         -do-
 (Drought tolerant)                 FW8461-3-0a-0a-18k-0a
 
 Soghat-90           M143           Pavon NaN3 10-=3 2 hrs.
 
 Anmol-91            V5002          Lira's
 (short duration)                   CM43903-H-4y-1m-1y-3m-3y-0b
 
 Barani-91           PR33           Kvz//Cno/Chr/3/On/4/Kal/Bu
 (for rainfed areas)                FR2208-7f-1f-Of
 
 Sariab-92           S19            Junco's'
 
 Kaghan-93           PR38           Bav's'
                                    CM51923-3m-1y-2m-1y-2m-2y-Om
 
 Kohsar-93           V8706          Psn's'/Bow's'
 
 Parwaz-94           V87189         V5648/Prl's'
                                    Pb20089-7a-4a-Oa
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Necrology.  Dr. S. F. Hassan, an eminent rust pathologist breathed his
 last on 1st March 1994, at the age of 70 years.  May God Almighty rest the
 departed soul in eternal peace.  We extend our deepest sympathies to his
 family.
 
 -------------------------
                      ITEMS FROM ROMANIA
 
      ICCPT (Research Institute for Cereals and Industrial Crops) Fundulea,
 8264, jud. Calarasi
      
      N.N. Saulescu*, Gh. Ittu*, Mariana Ittu, P. Mustatea
      
      New cultivar releases - One common wheat and one triticale cultivar
 bred at Fundulea were officially approved, registered and released in 1993:
      
      DROPIA was released as a high yielding semidwarf, mid-early hard red
 winter wheat of high bread-making quality. It was tested under the name
 F4141W1-13 or F141. Dropia was selected from the cross Colotana/F2120W1,
 where 2120W1 is a line derived from the cross Fundulea 29/ Lovrin 32//
 Fundulea 29/3/ Flamura 80. Dropia has medium winter hardiness, medium leaf
 rust resistance (presumably Lr 34), medium stripe rust and good powdery
 mildew resistance. On a 3 years average in 13 locations Dropia overyielded
 Fundulea 4 by 4.4%. It has maximum glutenine score ( 2*, 5+10, 7+8) and good
 mixing tolerance and loaf volume.
      
      COLINA was released as a high yielding medium-tall winter triticale
 cultivar with better Septoria and BYDV resistance than previously released
 triticale cultivars. Previously tested as TF 15, Colina was selected from
 the cross CT3/ F121TJ2-3, where CT3 is a Polish triticale and F121TJ2-3 is a
 line derived from the cross Sadovo1 (6x wheat)/ Lc79-70 (rye inbred)//
 Unknown triticale/3/ AD206 (Ukrainian 6x triticale). It is resistant to
 lodging, leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew. On a 3 years average in
 8 locations it overyielded TF 2 (previously released 6x triticale) by 13.5%.
      
      Breeding for BYDV resistance in triticale.- Under artificial
 inoculation with a mixture of one RPV and one PAV strain of BYDV, triticales
 showed larger differences in symptom intensity than wheat. After identifying
 some entries with relatively better resistance ( lines from the crosses
 F58TJ and F101TO, and the Polish cultivar Malno), selection under artificial
 inoculation with BYDV was practiced starting from F2 to F6 in crosses
 involving these parents.
 
      Several lines significantly more resistant to BYDV than their parents
 were identified ( e.g. F243TT, F238TT and 102TU). These lines are now in
 preliminary yield trials for an evaluation of their yield performance.   
 
 -------------------------
      S.C.A. (Agricultural Research Station), Tuda, jud. Cluj
 
      Maria Moldovan, V. Botezan, V. Moldovan
 
      Results in wheat breeding for disease resistance.  One of the most
 important objectives of the wheat breeding program at Turda is to create new
 cultivars with durable resistance to the main diseases in Romania (powdery
 mildew, yellow rust, leaf rust, stem rust, Septoria leaf blotch, Fusarium
 head blight).
 
      During the 1986-93 period about 400 entries (cultivars and lines) were
 tested each year in disease nurseries.  Plants were artificially inoculated
 at the adult plant stage in order to know the behavior of the new materials
 against each pathogen to find the changes in pathogen populations and to
 select resistant lines.
 
      During this period, no major changes were observed in the leaf rust
 (Puccinia recondita) and stem rust (Puccinia graminis) race patterns.  The
 Lr 9, Lr 19, Lr 24, Lr 25, genes are still effective and the Lr 13 and Lr 34
 genes for durable resistance are also effective to leaf rust.  The genes Sr
 31 and Sr 2 remain important to obtain durable resistance to stem rust.
 
      Since 1988 the virulence for Yr 9 was present in the yellow rust
 (Puccinia striiformis) populations and infected cultivars with this
 resistance gene.
 
      The dynamics of powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici)
 population is characterized by frequent virulence changes and therefore
 specific resistance is rapidly overcome by the pathogen.
 
      In the breeding strategy for wheats resistant to rusts and powdery
 mildew at Turda, attempts are made to diversify the genetic basis of
 resistance, to use the genes which confer durability of resistance such as
 Lr 13 to leaf rust and Sr 31, Sr 2 to stem rust respectively, and to use
 different forms of partial resistance to all of these pathogens.
 
      Attempts are made also to improve the resistance to Fusarium head
 blight and Septoria leaf blotch by diversifying the resistance to both
 diseases.
 
      The cultivars created at Agricultural Research Station Turda, have good
 agronomic traits and also show good resistance to diseases.  Turda 195, is a
 cultivar which shows durable adult plant resistance to leaf rust and partial
 resistance to Fusarium head blight and Septoria leaf blotch.  Transilvania,
 which also has durable adult plant resistance to leaf rust, powdery mildew,
 yellow rust  (Yr 9 and other factors of adult plant resistance), stem rust
 (Sr 31 and other factors of adult plant resistance) and partial resistance
 to Fusarium head blight and Septoria leaf blotch.  Turda 81, had good
 resistance to Septoria leaf blotch (Septoria tritici and Septoria nodorum). 
 This cultivar also shows adult plant resistance to powdery mildew and to
 leaf rust.  It is also resistant to stem rust.  The new cultivar Apullum is
 resistant to yellow rust and stem rust and shows a high level of partial
 resistance to Septoria leaf blotch.
 
 -------------------------
                      ITEMS FROM RUSSIA  
 
      Agricultural Research Institute for South-East Regions, Saratov
 
      N. S. Vassiltchouk, V. I. Kassatov, S. N. Gaponov
 
      Durum wheat breeding for dry regions of Russia:  Breeding program for
 South-East regions of Russia addresses several problems - drought
 resistance, high yield, grain quality, resistance to major pests (suni bug,
 aphid, cereal leaf beetle, stem sawfly) and diseases (loose smut, leaf rust,
 blackpoint).  Also in some wet years sprout damage resulting from rainfalls
 prior to harvest is a serious quality problem in durum wheat.  The breeding
 material is evaluated in the rain simulator chamber.  As a rule the best
 released varieties or lines of local advanced trial are taken as material
 forms.  The donors of missing genes, can be the varieties of various
 institutes of Russia or other countries.  To accelerate the breeding process
 a promising material is studied at the experimental stations in different
 locations of Russia.  The new varieties are characterized by higher yield
 and stronger gluten, higher yellow pigment content (Table 1).
 
 Table 1.   Yield and grain quality of newly developed varieties and
 promising lines of durum wheat grown at Saratov (average 1991-93)
 
                                   SDS-
                               Sedimentation  Yellow      Protein
                          Yield    test       pigment     content,
 Varieties                 t/ha      ml       content,mg%    %    
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 St Bezentchuokskaya139   1.84      41        4.7          16.8
 Saratovskaya 57          2.21      56        6.1          16.0
 Saratovskaya zolo-
     tistava              2.37      49        8.1          16.1
 D-2027                   2.67      56        6.5          17.0
 D-2033                   2.85      58        4.4          15.9
 D-2034                   2.85      67        6.0          15.5
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Suni bug influence on durum wheat quality:  The suni bug (Eurygaster
 integriceps Put) is the most dangerous pest for South-East regions of
 Russia.  In Volga Region suni pest has often resulted in damaged kernels up
 to 15-20%.  The kernels injured by suni pest have much worse rheological
 properties of semolina and lower quality of pasta products.  Breeding for
 resistance to suni bug is one of the important problems to control durum
 wheat gluten quality.
 
      Resistance of 12 durum wheat cultivars to suni pest was studied.  Field
 experiments were conducted in Saratov during 1987-93; Plots consisted of 10
 rows, 25 m long with 15 cm row spacing, with four replications in a
 randomized complete block design.  The percentage of damaged kernels was
 calculated under natural conditions after harvesting.  The blends of
 semolina (0, 5, 10, 20%) from non-damaged kernels and damaged by suni bug
 was prepared to estimate gluten quality.
 
      SDS-sedimentation test was used to estimate the gluten strength as 
 rapid and very sensitive to suni bug ferments method.  Highly significant
 differences were found between both varieties and blends.  The most strong
 gluten cultivars (Saratovskaya zolotistaya, Saratovskaya 57, Saratovskaya 59
 and Ludmila) were more resistant to suni pest ferments.  They could keep
 rather good quality even if their blends contained up to 10% of semolina
 from injured kernels.  The      weakest gluten ones (Bezentchoukskaya 139
 and Kharkovskaya 46) were more susceptible.  They lost quality when their
 blends had only 3-5% of semolina from damaged kernels.
 
      Mixograph and farinograph curve characteristics were significantly
 better and more stable for strong gluten cultivars in comparison to weak
 gluten ones even if their semolina contained up to 20% of that from damaged
 kernels.
 
      Influence of 5 and 20% injured grain on dry and cooked and overcooked
 spaghetti firmness and cooking loss of strong and weak gluten cultivars also
 was studied.  The cooking quality of strong gluten cultivars was more stable
 under various sunin pest damage percentage independently of cooking time.
 
      So, newly developed varieties Saratovskaya 57, Saratovskaya 59,
 Saratoyskaya zolotistaya and Ludmila are more resistant to suni pest
 ferments than old ones.  The introduction of new varieties in industry farms
 will provide the macaroni industry with high quality raw material.
 
 -------------------------
      S. V. Tuchin, Yu V. Italianskaya
 
      The drought-resistant somaclones of spring bread wheat:  Above 50
 somaclonal variants of spring bread wheat cultivar Ershovskaya 32, were
 selected in callus culture via 20% (W/V) polyethyleneglycol in the media as
 the model of water status extreme.  After one cycle of sexual propagation
 the seed progenies of regenerants were planted under control and drought
 conditions until plant senescence and seed maturation was complete.  Plants
 were analyzed for several agronomic traits.  Under drought conditions plants
 derived from somaclones appeared to have reduced height, changed wax film
 and greater grain yield as compared with the parent cultivar.  
 
      The drought-resistant somaclone No. 184 was studied for heat stress
 response: 8-day old seedlings were subjected to 41 degrees  C for 90 min and
 heat shock proteins (hsps) induced were analyzed by PAG-electrophoresis. 
 Applied heat shock led to increased synthesis of the hsps 70, 24, 18 KD
 groups of proteins when compared with parent cultivar plants.  Moreover the
 electrophoretic patterns of somaclones had new proteins band in zones of low
 molecular weight hsps (24, 14 KD).  It is well known that low molecular
 weight hsps just take part in regulation of mitochondrial energetics and
 protect those organells from heat shock damage.
 
      The strong correlation was found between changes in leaves wax film and
 in the isozymes of esterase (EST)  studied by PAG-electrophoresis is
 somaclones and parent plants.  Electrophoretic patterns of somaclones
 differed markedly form those of parent plants.  The most variations occurred
 for EST 1 isozymes with appearance of two mutant proteins that was never
 seen in parent plants and for EST 2 with loss of a parental protein band.
 
      Thus, these findings suggest that stress proteins and some isozymes
 might contribute to the drought resistance found in tissue-culture-derived
 plants with using polyethylene glycol.
 
 -------------------------
      T. I. Dyatchouk
 
      Agronomic performance of doubled haploids:   Since 1986 above 4,000 DH
 lines of bread wheat have been developed through anther culture.  The best
 of them showed a good combination of the agronomic traits. For instance, in
 1993 more advanced breeding line Nol. 94/93 was superior as compared with
 two high yielding local variety Saratovskaya 42 and Saratovskaya 58.  The
 results for grain yielding were 128.3% and 115.7%, respectively.  Our
 results confirm that complete homozygosity is not detrimental even for such
 unique climatic regions as South-East of Russia. Unique DH-lines genetic
 status allows us to understand the real role of heterogenity in the
 environmental buffering of a variety - one of the key problems of breeding
 strategy.
 
 -------------------------
      Information and Computation Centre of Russian Academy of Agricultural
      Sciences, P.O. Emmaus 171330, Tver
 
      S.P.Martynov*, T.V.Dobrotvorskaya
 
      Wheat Genetic Resources Database. Awnedness Genogeography on the Former
      USSR Territory.
      The structure of the Database on Genetic Resources for Wheat (BDGRW)is
 described in Annual Newsletter, 39:214-221. In 1993 the BDGRW was
 replenished with new information on pedigrees and  identified  genes
 alleles. By 1994 the Database contains 46,414 entries (Table 1). 
 
    Table 1. The wheat genetic resources database filling up status
 
                                                 Species
    Records characteristics       
                                   T.aestivum  T.durum      All
  --------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 Accessions with known pedigrees    22379       3429        28880
 Accessions with known genes        10917       1210        13023
 Accessions from the former USSR     8732       1513        10447
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 Total                              36736       5355        46414
 
      Information on genes alleles is very important for  wheat  breeding. 
 Some hints of such information are given in Table 2 containing  data on
 genes alleles belonging to some genetic systems.
 
 Table 2. Number of records with genes alleles belonging to some 
          genetic systems
 
           Genetic system                        Number of records
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 Hybrid necrosis (Ne1,Ne2)                         5723
 Grass-clump dwarfness (D1,D2,D3)                  1324
 Response to vernalization (Vrn1,Vrn2,Vrn3)         911
 Gliadin (Gli-A1,Gli-A2,..., Gli-D2)                231
 Glutenin (Glu-A1,Glu-B1,Glu-D1)                   1069
 Crossability with rye (Kr1,Kr2)                   1121
 Resistance to leaf rust (Lr1,Lr2,..., Lr34)       1867
 Resistance to stem rust (Sr1,Sr2,..., Sr37)       1874
 Resistance to yellow rust (Yr1,Yr2,..., Yr16)      516
 Resistance to powdery mildew (Pm1,Pm2,...,Pm120)   481
 Resistance to bunt (Bt1,Bt2,...,Bt10)             1014
 Resistance to Hessian fly (H1,H2,..., H19)         157
 Reduced height (Rht1,Rht2,..., Rht20)             1483
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Botanical variety is one of the BDGRW passport descriptors. It is an
 integral characteristic of an accession and incorporates data on
 morphological traits of the spike and the seed. Agronomic role of the se
 traits has not been investigated yet and the information available is
 conflicting. This paper presents results of  a  genogeographic analysis of
 such morphological trait as awnedness.
 
      Records containing data on T.aestivum cultivars  and  landraces from
 different regions of the former USSR were analyzed.  This  vast territory
 was divided into natural-and-agricultural provinces,  climatic conditions
 being considered. The latter include  provision  of warmth and moisture in
 the period of vegetation. Natural-and-agric provinces of the former USSR are
 given in Table 3. 
 
    Table 3.    Natural-and-agricultural provinces of the former USSR with
                moisture and warmth provision indication
 
                                              Provision      Provision  
  No       Province name                      of moisture    of warmth
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
  1   Southern taiga forest areas of
      Baltic and Belarussia                   moist          low
  2   Southern taiga forest areas of
      Middle Russia                           moist          low
  3   Forest and steppe areas of Middle
      Russia                                  moist          medium
  4   Caucasian northern foothills steppe
      and dry steppes along the river 
      Manych and Don                          arid           high
  5   Steppe area of Southern Russia and
      Trans-Volga river                       arid           high
  6   Steppes and dry steppes of the
      Ukraine                                 arid           high
  7   Trans-Caucasus                          arid           high
  8   Middle Asia subtropics                  dry            high
  9   Kazakhstan steppe                       arid           medium
 10   Forest and steppe areas in
      West Siberia andwest foothills
      of the Urals                            moist          low 
 11   Forest and steppe areas in Middle  
      and East Siberia                        semiarid       low
 12   Southern taiga and forest areas in 
      the Far East                            moist          low
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Software package for BDGRW analysis makes it possible to construct a
 two-dimensional contingency table. A table with two inputs was constructed
 with the help of this package programme. Natural-and-agri-cultural provinces
 of the ex-USSR are used for input 1 and awned and 
 awnless accessions for input 2. Such tables  have  been  constructed for
 landraces and cultivars (Table 4).
 
  Table 4. Distribution of awned and awnless wheats on the ex-USSR 
 
                          Landraces            Cultivars       
   Province*          Awnles      Awned      Awnless   Awned  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------   
        1                 29          4       113       113
        4                  2         27       110       106
        5                 16          9       127        62
        6                 38         99       232       310
        7                  8         48        34        99
        8                 18         90        62       156
        9                  4         17       119        28
       10                 14         18       123        34
       11                  8         18        54        14
       12                  5          6        21        33
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
       Total              190        347      1192       955
    * Numbers coincide with numbers in table 3.
 
      Xi-square test indicated the distribution of awned  and  awnless wheats
 by natural-and agricultural provinces to be not  casual:  for landraces X2 =
 149.1 (P < 0.01), for cultivars X2 = 313.5 (P < 0.01).  Both landraces and
 cultivars of awned wheats tend to prevail in arid 
 provinces (Table 4). Nevertheless, there is at least one  exception, i.e.
 steppe area of Southern Russia and Trans-Volga river (N 5). The province
 includes Saratov, Volgograd, Orenburg and  Samara  regions.  
 
      Physiologists working in the South-East zone incorporating these
 regions think the awnedness to be an useless trait. However, all  cultivars
 of durum wheat and barley here are awned.  A  model  cultivar for a
 drought-resistant bread wheat here is an awned cultivar Eryth-
 rospermum 841 bred in 1924. According to the investigations of Prof.
 V.A.Krupnov on near-isogenic lines awned  lines  have  an  advantage over
 awnless lines in case of drought and brown rust epiphytoty. The latter is
 explained by the fact that rust destroys 70-80%  of  upper 
 leaves surface at the beginning of ripening and awns serve to compensate
 partially the lack of leaves.
 
      If we compare the distribution of awned and awnless  wheats  for
 landraces and cultivars can see the same results in  most  provinces (at
 least in 8 cases from 12). Breeding caused changes in correlation between
 awned and awnless wheats in Caucasian northern  foothills 
 steppe (4), Kazakhstan steppe (9), Forest and steppe areas  in  West Siberia
 and west foothills of the Urals(10), Forest and steppe areas in Middle and
 East Siberia(11). One of the probable causes for change is the extensive use
 of well-known winter wheats Bezostaya 1, Mironovskaya 808 and spring wheat 
 Saratovskaya 29  by  most  breeding centres of the ex-USSR. All these
 cultivars are awnless  and  belong to lutescens variety. From the total
 number of 2147  analyzed  bread wheats 554 are offsprings of Bezostaja 1,
 256 - offsprings of  Mironovskaya 808, 184 - offsprings of Saratovskaya 29. 
 
 
      If we group the data of Table 4 according to  the  provision  of moist
 in provinces we come to the following  distribution  of  awned and awnless
 wheats (Table 5).
 
  Table 5. Distribution of awned and awnless wheats on the former USSR
 territory
 
 Province            Landraces           Cultivars        
 Characteristics     Awnless   Awned     Awnless   Awned    
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
  Moist               96        39        454      180     
  Arid                94       308        738      775
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
  Total              190       347       1192      955    
 
      Five provinces are considered to be moist: 1, 2, 3, 10, 12;  and seven
 are considered as arid: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11.  Chi-square  test again
 indicates the distribution of  awned  and  awnless  wheats  by moist and
 arid provinces to be not casual:  for  landraces X2 = 98.6 (P < 0.01), for
 cultivars X2 = 93.4 (P < 0.01). The distribution  of awned and awnless
 wheats in the former USSR territory is represented graphically in the
 following Figure. Coefficient of association between the  moisture provision
 in area of wheat growing and the awnedness is for landraces  r = 0.43,  for
 cultivars  r = 0.21.  The  received  results show a significant contribution
 of awnedness to drought-resistance of wheat. It is quite probable that 
 awnedness  is  linked  with some genes responsible  for  drought-resistance. 
 Nevertheless,  the results of genogeographic analysis of awnedness suggest 
 it reasonable to use this trait when breeding drought-resistant wheats.
 
                           Figure Here
 
       Distribution of Awned and Awnless Cultivars in ex-USSR
 
                (see image file "Awn-distribution.gif")
 
 -------------------------                        
      The Moscow, People's Friendship University 
 
      Alexandr Fedorov
 
      Ontogenesis of Wheat Hybrids Obtained by Crossing Varieties of
 Different Develpmental Types - Winter, Alternative and Spring.  In breeding
 for economically valuable wheat cultivars ever increasing use is being made
 of forms differing in provenance and developmental type.  Crossing varieties
 of different developmental types has also been used in work on wheat
 hybridization using male sterility.  Study of the developmental traits of
 hybrids obtained in this way can be of great help in understandng the nature
 of their ontogeny and of properties such as wintering, winterhardiness,
 vernalization, length of the vegetative period and photoperiodicity.  There
 is great practical and theoretical significance of studying crosses of
 cultivars of different developmental types - winter, alternative and spring
 wheats.  Some literature exists on segregation in hybrid generations of
 crosses between winter and spring wheats (Vavilov, Kuznetsova, 1921; Sears,
 1954; Riley, 1963; Tsunewaki, 1966;  Pugsley, 1971).  However little is
 available on the developmental traits of crosses between winter and
 alternative wheats and between alternative and spring wheats, nor on
 differences in the behavior of winter x alternative and winter x spring
 hybrids.  We (Fedorov, 1973, 1976, 1989) have been studying developmental
 traits of crosses between winter, alternative and spring wheats for a number
 of years.  This paper reports observation data of first and second
 generation hybrids.
 
      Cultivars used for crossing included: winter wheats - Lutescens 329,
 Kooperatorka, Mironosvkaya 808, Bankuty 1201 and others; alternative wheats
 - Czech alternative, 26191, 109, Surhak 5688 and others; spring wheats -
 Lutescens 62, Milturum 321 and others.  Hybrids of first and second
 generation were sown at various times and under various illumination
 conditions.  The usual phenological observations and observations for
 differentiation of the shoot apex were made.  The F(2) the date of each
 plant was noted.
 
      Developmental Traits of Winter x Spring Hybrids.  After spring sowing
 all F(1) plants headed although often somewhat later than the spring parent,
 e.g., in three test years F(1)'s of winter Lutescens 329 and spring
 Lutescens 62 headed 6-7 days later than Lutescens 62.  Lutescens 329 crosses
 and the late spring variety Milturum 321 were even later in heading viz. 17-
 22 days.  From autumn sowing, at a date a week or two later than optimum for
 winter cultivars, hybrids survived the winter over a number of years, while
 the spring parent sown either at the same time or even later did not
 survive.
 
      Table 1.  Wintering of F(1) of winter x spring crosses sown in autumn
 (II Sept).
 
                                    Number of plants           %
      Cross                         in autumn after winter   wintering
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Lutescens                     120       40             33,3+4,3
      Kooperatorka x Lutescens      128       29             22,6+3,6
      Lutescens 329 x Milturum 321  131       64             48,8+3,3
      Lutescens 62 (spring)         139       0              -
      Lutescens 329 (winter)        136       131            96,3+1,6  
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Table 1 shows that from early September sowing the F(1)'s survived,
 although less than for the winter parent. The spring parent Lutescens 62
 winterkilled entirely.  The Lutescens 329 late spring Milturum 321, (more
 winterhardy than Lutescens 62) cross survived best.  How can the greater
 winterhardiness of F(1)'s over spring parents be explainted?  Tests showed
 that F(1)'s react somewhat differently to the spring parent to a short day
 regime, e.g., in one test the F(1) of Lutescens 329 x Lutescens 62 headed 28
 days after the spring parent.  The hybrids were delayed by about the same
 amount as the weekly winterhardy alternative wheats 28 and 109. 
 Observations of growth and development of wheat sown at various dates showed
 that in autumn (short day) the hybrid plants were much more retarded than
 those of the spring parent.  For example, when sown 21 August plants of F(1)
 of Lutescens 329 x Lutescens 62 reached differentiation of the shoot apex 54
 days after complete germination, i.e., at about the same time as the weekly
 winterhardy alternative varieties (Surhak 5688, 28), while the spring
 variety Lutescens 62 reached this stage after 21 ays, i.e., 33 days earlier.
 
      The first-generation hybrids sown in autumn showed delayed growth as
 well as development in comparison with the spring types.
 
      Height measurements made at the end of autumn (27 October) gave mean
 values of 4.8 cm for the hybrid plants and 12.3 cm for the spring varieties. 
 Hybrid plants showed more tillering and resembled more the winter parents,
 while spring parents had an erect form.  F(1)'s shows dominance of earliness
 and is closest to the weakly winter-hardy alternative wheats in maturity. 
 When spring sown many F(2) plants showed full ear emergence, although not
 simultaneously.  A small proportion remained in the tillering phase to the
 end of the growth period.  Sample data on the distribution of hybrid plants
 according to heading date, for the cross Lutascens 329 x Lutescens 62 are
 given below:
 
 Date   # plants headed   Date    # plants headed  Date # plants headed
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 1 July          2        7 July         32        13 July   6
 2 July          4        8 July         37        14 July   6
 3 July          6        9 July         47        26 July   2
 4 July          9        10 July        27         7 July   4
 5 July         14        11 July        25         8 July   1
 6 July         34        12 July         8        10 July   3
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Semi-winter; 15 plants, or 4.2%; winter, remaining in the tillering
 stage: 16 plants or 4.9%; total number of plants: 354.  The spring variety
 Lutescens 62 headed 30 June, the late spring variety Milturum 321 - 9 July,
 the semi-winter variety Apulicum - 15 August, the Czech alternative variety-
 12 July.
 
      In the F(2) generation there was considersable segregation with regard
 to the length of the vegetation period.  Most hybrid plants headed somewhat
 later (5-10 days) than the spring parent. A small proporton headed at nearly
 the same time as the Czech alternative wheat, 15 plants headed rather late -
 in August and the beginning of September, at about the same time as semi-
 winter varieties, and 16 plants remained at the tillering stage until the
 end of the growth period.
 
      In the second generation there was rather complex segregation in
 vegetation period and hybrid plants covered almost all stages of the
 transition from one parent to the other but with a predominance of plants
 closer to the cultivar with the shorter vegeation period (less pronounced
 winter property and photoperiodicity).
 
      Hence in F(2) there was great diversity in the length of the vegetation
 period, ranging from early spring types, similar to the initial spring
 parent, through medium early, late spring and alternative types, to semi-
 winter and winter forms.  
 
      Developmental Traits of Spring x Alternative Hybrids.  The F(1) hybrids
 behaved somewhat similarly to that of the spring x winter crosses.  When
 sown in spring they headed uniformly.  In cases where the alternative parent
 was later than the spring parent the F(1) headed somewhat later than the
 latter but earlier than the former.  For example, the F(1) of the cross
 Lutescens 62 (spring) x Czech alternative headed 3-6 days later than
 Lutescens 62 but 5-13 days earlier than Czech alternative.  In photoperiodic
 reaction F(1) plants were intermediate between the parents.  On a short (12
 hour) day they lagged in development more than the spring variety but less
 than the alternative variety.  In one of the short-day tests the hybrids
 showed 8 days more lag in the differentiation of teh shoot apex than the
 spring parent but 26 days less than the alternative parent.  The difference
 in ear emergence on a short-day regimen was even greater: the hybrids headed
 16 days later than the spring variety.
 
      The F(1) hybrids when sown in autumn were more retarded in development
 and growth which enabled them to winter better than the spring variety.  For
 example, in one test F(1) progeny of Lutescens 62 x Czech alternative sown
 11 September survived 30.4%, while all plants of the spring parent Lutescens
 62 were killed; 55% of the Czech alternative variety survived.
 
      In the F(2) generation of spring x alternative all plants showed full
 ear emergence, although not simultaneously when the initial parents differed
 in the length of the vegetation period.  In F(2) there was rather complex
 segregation for the vegetation period.  The hybrid plants covered almost all
 stages of transition from one parent to the other.  A predominance of plants
 were closer to the parent with the shorter vegetation period (Lutescens 62)
 but most hybrid plants headed somewhat later (3-7 days) than the spring
 parent.
 
      Developmental Traits of Winter x Alternative Hybrids.  The F(1)
 hybrids, unlike F(1)'s of winter x spring and spring x alternative crosses,
 remained at the tillering stage for a long time when spring sown, resembling
 more the winter parent.  Nevertheless, the plants showed full ear emergence
 by the end of summer, unlike the winter varieties, although the seed often
 did not mature.
 
      The plants reacted sharply to light conditions, particularly the day
 length, with a change of development rate.  Table 2 shows that under
 conditions of natural illumination the F(1) hybrids was considerably
 retarded in development, not heading till the end of summer.  In development
 rate these hybrids are intermediate between the parents (winter and
 alternative).  The period from emergence to short apex differentiation was
 longer in F(1) hybrids than in the alternative but shorter than in the
 winter parent.  However, continuous illumination speeded up (by almost a
 month) the development of the hybrids.
 
      On a short-day regime the hybrid plants showed considerably more delay
 in development than the alternative parent.  These results indicate that the
 winter property (of winter varieties) and photoperiodicity (of alternative
 varieties) in wheat are phenomena of the same type, the difference being
 probably in essence only qualitative.  This is confirmed by results of other
 studies.  For example, crossing the same alternative parent with various
 winter parents differing in degree winter properties gives F(1)'s with
 different photoperiodic reactions.  The F(1) of one of the crosses between
 the Czech alternative and Lutescens 329 (with a pronounced winter type)
 showed 22 days more dealy on a short-day regime than F(1) of the cross
 between the same alternative variety and the variety BAnkuty 1201 (weak
 winter property).  Thus the photoperiodic reaction of F(1) hybrids is
 influenced by the degree of the winter property of the winter parent.  In
 the case of the cross Lutescens329 x Czech alternative, the F(1) and the
 initial varieties had approximately the same vernalized period (40-50 days). 
 This indicates that developmental differences between them are due basically
 to differences in reaction to light.
 
 Table 2.Influence of illumination conditions on the development of first
 generation hybrids from crosses of winter and alternative wheat.
 
                                         Duration from
                                         emergence to
                                         differ. of the      Date of
 Cross/parent        Ilumination         shoot apex (days)   heading
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Lutescens 329 x     natural                  57             20 Aug
 Czech alternative
 Kooperatorka x                               54             12 Aug
 
 Czech alternative                            26             15 July
 Lutescens 329                                119            did not head
 Lutescens 62                                 12             30 June
 Lutescens 329 x     continuous               39             25 July
   Czech alternative
 Kooperatorka x -natural+                     37             18 July
   Czech alternative
 Czech alternative   supplementary            21             7 July
 Lutescens 329  illumination                  92             did not head
 Lutescens 62 of about 5000 lux                9              26 June
 Lutescens 329 x     short day (12)           88             did not head
   Czech alternative
 Kooperatorka x hours from                    80             did not head
   Czech alternative
 Czech alternative   7 a.m. to                52             did not head
 
 Lutescens 62        7 p.m.                   20             24 July 
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      When sown in auturmn F(1) hybrids of winter x alternative crosses
 wintered  much better than the first generations of winter x spring and
 spring x alternative crosses.  In winterhardiness they were close to the
 winter varieties.  For example, when F(1) of Lutescens 329 x Czech
 alternative variety was sown 11 September 87% of the plants survived
 wintered, compared with 88.8% of the winter parent and 66.3% of the Czech
 alternative.  When sown simultaneously the F(1) heads at about the same time
 as the winter parent.
 
      The F(2) sown in spring showed rather complex segregation in
 developmental type and vegetation period.  Hybrid plants included
 representatives of almost all vegetative stages of transition between the
 parents.  All F(2) plants had different lengths of the vegetative period.
 There were not 2 classes (winter and sprng) but 8.  For example, in one test
 there were 326 plants of F(2) from the cross between the winter wheat
 Lutescens 329 and the Czech alternative variety.  Of these, 3 plants headed
 at the same time as the alternative variety - 18 July.  The largest
 proportion - 133 or 40.8% headed during the period 23 to 28 July, i.e., 5-10
 days later than the Czech alternative.  Thirteen percent headed during
 August and the beginning of September, i.e., during the heading period of
 semi-winter varieties.  The majority of F(2) plants had a shorter vegetation
 period, closer to the alternative parent variety, than in the F(1).  Twenty
 eight percent of the hybrid plants remained at the tillering stage, i.e.,
 true winter forms.
 
      Considerably  more winter and semi-winter (weekly winter) forms
 segregated in F(2) of crosses of winter and alternative varieties than in
 F(2) of winter x spring crosses.  This is readily explained, since
 alternative cultivars are much closer to winter types than are springs.  The
 number of winter forms segregating in F(2) from crosses of winter and
 alternative or springs depends on the photoperiodic reaction of the latter. 
 In crosses between the same winter variety and various alternatives or
 springs more winter forms segregated from crosses where the parents had more
 pronounced photoperiodic or delayed reactions.  The greated number of winter
 forms segregating in F(2) was observed in the cross between the winter
 parent and the Czech alternative line.  In a cross between the same winter
 variety and the alternative cultivar Surhak 5688, which has a much weaker
 photoperiodic reaction, only 21.2% winter forms segregated.  The least
 proportion of winter forms (9.1%) in F(2) was obtained from the cross
 between the winter line and the spring Lutescens 62, a cultivar that showed
 the least retardation on a short-day regime of all the parents tested.
 
      These data, and the results for developmental traits in F(1) show that
 the winter property of winter cultivars (retardation of development under
 long-day conditions and corresponding intense illumination) and the
 photoperiodic reaction of alternative and spring cultivars (retardation
 under short-day conditions) are essentially of the same origin, the basic
 difference between them being probably only quantitative.  Different wheats
 exhibit the winter property in differing degrees - winter varieties - react
 to a long day with a pronounced retardation in devlopment; alternative
 varieties react to a short day with a pronounced retardation of lesser
 extent; and spring varieties showing only a very sight retardation under
 short-day conditions.  Vernalization, to a considerable extent, levels out
 these differences in reaction to light.
 
      Vernalization is a facultative process, which takes place under certain
 conditions (for instance, in autumn) and does not take place under the other
 ones (in summer).  Therefore, the type of plant development (spring,
 alternative and winter) is not due to vernalization as was thought earlier
 (Lyssenko, 1936; Pugsley, 1971) but it is conditioned by the different
 reaction to light at the beginning of plant life.
 
      The type of plant development is due to their different reactions to
 light at the beginning of their life (in the gframineous plants at the
 tillering stage).  Spring plants have a slight development delay under the
 short day.  Alternative plants are considerably delayed under the short day
 and winter plants are delayed under both short and long day.
 
      The length of the vegetative period for the spring-sown plants (spring,
 alternative) is conditioned by the light reaction in the non-vernalized
 plants (we called it the lst photoperiodic reaction) but for winter-sown
 plants (alternative, winter) it is conditioned by the light reaction in the
 vernalized plants (we called it the 2nd photoperiodic reaction).
 
      The first generations of crosses between winter, alternative and spring
 varieties differ in their reaction to light during the initial period of
 life (up to the transition of the shoot apex from the vegetative to the
 reproductive phase).  Crosses of winter x alternative wheats were more
 retarded in development under sort-day conditions than winter x spring and
 spring x alternative crosses.  The first generation obtained by crossing
 winter and alternative wheat showed considerable retardation in development
 under natural summer (long) day conditions, heading only at the end of
 summer, unlike crosses of the other two combinations.
 
      In developmental type and reaction to light and winterhardiness the
 first generation hybrids are intermediate between the parent varieties but
 nearer to the earlier variety.  In F(2)'s segregation for vegetation period
 was rather complex.  The hybrid plants covered almost all stages of the
 transition from one parent to the other, but with a predominance of plants
 closer to the variety with the shorter vegetation period (less pronounced
 winter property and photoperiodicity).
 
      The different crossing combinations of developmental types differed in
 the proportion of winter forms observed in F(2).  In F(2) of spring
 alternative there were no winter forms - all plants headed after spring
 sowing.  In F(2)'s of winter x spring a small percentage of winter forms (5-
 10%) segregated while in F(2)'s of winter x alternative there was quite a
 large percentage of winter types (up to 50%).  The most pronounced the
 photoperiodic reaction of the spring or alternative type the closer it is to
 a winter type.  These data and the results of observation of the development
 of first generation hybrids show that the winter property is not determined
 by the duration of vernalization and the conditions under which it takes
 place, as was earlier considered, but basically by the plants reaction to
 light, i.e., similar to photoperiodicity (of long-day plants).  Differences
 in developmental type and the length of the vegetation period are to a large
 extent due to differences in the plant's reaction to light during the
 initial period of life.
 
                         Publications
 
 Fedorov, A. K.   1973.  Some data on genetics of wheat ontogenesis. Proc. 4
 Int. Wheat Genet. Symp. (Univ. of Miss., USA):801-803.
 
 Fedorov, A. K.  1976.  On photoperiodism, wintering and vernalization in
 wheat. Cereal Res. Communications, v. 4,N.4:419-429.
 
 Fedorov, A. K.  1989.  Physiological genetical basis for the type of plant
 development and length of the vegetation period in wheat.  Cereal Res.
 Communications, v. 17, N.2:121-127.
 
 Fedorov, A. K.  1989.  Forage Plants. M. (USSR). Nauka. 170 p.
 
 Lyssenko, T. D.  1936.  Fundamental Basis of Jarovization. M. L. (USSR). 
 Selchozgiz. 94 p .
 
 Pugsley, A. T.  1971.  A genetic analysis of the spring-winter habit of
 growth in wheat.  Australian J. Agric. Res. v. 22:21-31.
 
 Sears, E. R.  1954.  The aneuploids of common wheat.  Missouri Agr. Exp. St.
 Res. Bull. N. 572:1-59.
 
 Tsunewaki, K. 1966.  Commerative gene analysis of common wheat and its
 ancestral species.  Japan J. Bot. v. 19:175-229.
 
 -------------------------
 Book Review:   Fedorov, A. K., and L. P. Cheltsova.  Vernalization Enigma
 (preface by N. P. Dubinin, member of the USSR Academy of Sciences) -
 Kishinev, USSR: Publisher "Shtiintsa", 1990, 175 pp.
 
      This book - the clear criticism of the Lyssenko and Pugsley theories
 and hypotheses.  These theses disagree with published data.  T. D. Lyssenko
 was the first to cool seed of plants and proved that the winter plants were
 made to act like spring plants.  He coined the term "jarovizacija" (1929).
 R. O. Whyte and P. S. Hudson coined the term "vernalization" (1933).  Both
 terms were equivalent at first. Then Lyssenko formulated the theory of plant
 phasic development.  The term "jarovizacija" now signifies the stage of
 plant ontogenesis.
 
      This theory proved to be not true.  The authors of the book describe
 the history of its creation and discuss the reason why Lyssenko's theory
 excited interest by serious scientists.  The authors describe new
 experimental facts and discuss the newest literature in this question.
 
      It is shown that the type of plant development (spring, alternative and
 winter) is not due to vernalization as it was thought earlier(Lyssenko,
 1936-52); Pugsley, 1971) but it is conditioned by different reaction to
 light at the beginning of plant life.  The authors write: "Vernalization is
 the process going on in wintering plant tissues in nature.  In autumn a
 delay in their growth and development is observed.  This property is of
 great adaptive importance as it causes the plant to prepare for suffering
 the unfavorable winter conditions.  At the same time under the low
 temperature conditions the plants suffer vernalization as a result of which
 they acquire the ability to activate their growth and development in
 spring."
 
      In spite of the Lyssenko confirmation in the ontogenesis of plants
 there is not strict compulsory consequent changes in the requirements to the
 environmental conditions.  There is no compulsory vernalization stage as
 well as the light stage.  There is no consequent changes in the requirement
 to temperature and light.  It was shown that the plants have the clear light
 reaction beginning with their early period of life.  They change their
 development rate under the light conditions.  This reaction is the lst
 photoperiodic response.  After vernalization the light reaction is
 considerably weaker.  This reaction is the 2nd photoperiodic response.
 
      The type of plant development as well as the length of the vegetation
 period cannot be conditioned by vernalization.  It is a facultative process,
 which takes place under certain conditions (in autumn) and does not take
 place under other ones (in summer).  The type of plant development is due to
 their different reaction to light in the beginning of their life in the
 gramineous plants in the tillering phase).  The spring plants have the
 ability for a slight development delay under the short day.  The alternative
 plants have the ability for a considerably delay under the short day and the
 winter plants have the ability for delay under both the short and the long
 day.  The length of the vegetation period for the spring-sown plants
 (spring, alternative) is conditioned by the light reaction in the non-
 vernalized plants (called the lst photoperiodic reaction) but for winter-
 sown plants (alternative, winter) it is conditioned by the light reaction in
 the vernalized plants (called the 2-d photoperiodic reaction).  The role of
 vernalization in the ontogenesis of plants consists in the change of the
 light reaction on plants.
 
      The book has the chapter "The study on the genetical control for the
 type of plant development" and the chapter "The origin of different types of
 plant development".  The authors discuss the works by N. I. Vavilov and the
 works by A. T. Pugsley.
 
      It is shown that the physiological and biochemical researches of the
 vernalization changes did not result.  The authors formulated the hypothesis
 about the role of the changes in the structure and properties of
 mitochondria under vernalization.  They studied the structure and function
 of mitochondria by electronic microscopy and by differential centrifugation
 from tissues.  New facts leads to a conclusion that mitochondria formed in
 conditions of cold may function both at normal and decreased temperatures.
 
      The book has an English summary and references (229 names). It is
 interesting and useful for biologists and agronomists.
 
 -------------------------
      Agricultural Research Institute for South-East Regions, Saratov
 
      S. N. Sibikeev*, S. A. Voronina, Y. E. Sibikeeva, V. A. Krupnov
 
      Genetic studies of new wheat-Agropyron lines.  Incorporation of the
 leaf rust resistance into bread wheat is an important plant breeding
 objective because the incidence of the diseases is a major destabilizing
 factor for wheat production.  Among the rusts, Puccinia recondita Rob. ex
 Desm is especially important in Russia because it appears in all wheat
 growing regions.  Unfortunately, among 43 registered genes for resistance to
 leaf rust only three (Lr 9, Lr 19, Lr 24) are highly effective in the Volga
 region.  Potential useful genetic variation for leaf rust resistance is
 found in Agropyron intermedium (Host) Beauv (2n=42) though only one gene is
 registered in Catalogue of Gene Symbols for Wheat as Lr 38 (McIntosh, 1993). 
 Many workers have attempted to incorporate this resistance into bread wheat. 
 In the present paper we report on the successful transfer into hexaploid
 wheat and the inheritance of resistance to leaf rust derived from local
 strain of Agropyron intermedium.  
 
      Wheat-Agropyron lines Saratovskaya 29 x 3 // Melyanopus 69 / Ag.
 intermedium were produced by crossing the local cultivar durum wheat
 Melyanopus 69 with a local strain of Ag. intermedium and then backcrossing,
 three times to bread wheat Saratovskaya 29.  Resistance in  these lines is
 determined by a single dominant gene.  The leaf rust resistance gene in
 lines L 393, L 395, L 399, and L 406 is inherited independently of Lr 9 and
 Lr 24.
 
      Analysis of M1 meosis in the pollen mother cells in hybrids between
 Saratovskaya 29 and L 393, L 395, L 399 and L 406 showed normal pairing
 without univalent chromosomes.  Therefore, these wheat-Agropyron lines are
 carrying translocations of Agropyron-segments into wheat chromosomes and are
 used in further crosses with the promising lines bread wheat.
 
 -------------------------
                    ITEMS FROM SOUTH AFRICA 
 
      Department of Genetics, University of Stellenbosch
 
      G.F. Marais*, R. Prins, A. Antonov, H.S. Roux, M Horn and A.S. Marais
 
      Durum wheat breeding.  The South African pasta industry processes 20
 000 to 22 000 tonnes of imported and locally produced durum wheat annually.
 The programme aims to develop spring cultivars with a relatively short
 growing period to fit in with the rotation systems in practice in the Orange
 River irrigation areas.  Material without any vernalization requirement or
 daylength sensitivity is normally selected.
 
      Triticale breeding.  A programme for the development of spring
 triticales for the western, southern and eastern Cape province was
 continued.   A selection from CIMMYT's 21st ITYN 14 (TARASCA 87-1/ YOGUI 1)
 was released under the name "Rex", while a selection from the 18th ITSN 33
 (D7069// P1243741/ SPY/3/ ANZA/ P1243741/6/ CIT/ UC90 C3 TRIPLE DWF/5/ TOB/
 8156// CC/3/ INIA/4/ SPY) is being released as "Kiewiet".
 
      In the past the breeding programme was aimed at the development of
 multipurpose cultivars, which generally gave only average grain yields.  
 Recently, an increased demand for triticale grain by the feed industry
 resulted in an urgent need for short strawed, early maturing cultivars with
 high grain yields.
 
      Cytogenetics.  Programmes aimed at the transfer of genes for increased
 kernel protein content from Triticum dicoccoides to common wheat (2d
 backcross) and triticale (4th backcross) were continued.   The attempted
 transfer to wheat is being done in collaboration with the Small Grain
 Centre.   In the latter attempt a second cycle of 300 backcrosses to
 `Palmiet' were completed.   F2 families were raised for a field selection
 cycle in 1994.
 
      Isogenic lines were developed for the original Lr19d translocation as
 well as four shortened translocations.   Also, reciprocal chromosome
 substitution lines for specific wheat chromosomes, were developed with
 respect to the wheats `Indis' and `Chinese Spring'.   These are being used
 in crosses to study the nature of a complex segregation distortion system
 associated with Lr19d, and to determine whether the shortened segments still
 retain genes with agronomically deleterious effects.
 
      A very strong gametocidal (Gc) gene is associated with both a leaf rust
 and a stem rust resistance gene that were derived from Triticum speltoides.  
 No progeny without the Gc gene is produced.   It reduces fertility in
 heterozygotes by approximately 70-100% and in Gc homozygotes by
 approximately 10-50%.   It also causes serious seed shrivelling making it
 impossible to utilize the resistance genes commercially.   Attempts to
 disable the Gc gene through mutation are being made and involve (i) seed
 treatment with the mutagen EMS, and (ii), egg cell irradiation (gamma
 rays).    Crosses were initiated to determine (i) the arm location on
 chromosome 1D of a stem rust resistance gene derived from Triticum tauschii,
 and (ii) linkage relationships with the genes Lr21, Sr33 and a gene for
 brown glumes.
 
      A gene(s) for Russian wheat aphid resistance was transferred from
 chromosome arm 1RS of the rye `Turkey 77' to a 1BL.1RS (`Veery')
 translocation of common wheat.   A plant in which Lr26, Sr31 and the Russian
 wheat aphid resistance were expressed was obtained.   Since the rye arm
 cannot pair with its wheat homoeologues during meiosis, the rust resistance
 loci can also serve as genetic markers of the aphid resistance gene.  
 Attempts are being made to determine the linkage relationship between the
 rust and Russian wheat aphid resistance loci.
 
      Our wild species collection presently contains 878 accessions.  
 Attempts were made to cross 98 accessions showing strong leaf rust
 resistance with wheat in a first attempt to (i) study the crossing barriers
 involved and possible means to overcome them, (ii) determine gene expression
 in a wheat genetic background, and, (iii) determine which sources carry the
 same genes.
 
                         Publications
 
 Marais, G.F. & F. du Toit (1993)  A monosomic analysis of Russian wheat
 aphid resistance in the common wheat PI 294994.  Plant Breeding 111:246-248.
 
 Marais, G.F. & B. Lombard (1993)  Pistilloidy in common wheat resulting from
 a spontaneous mutation.  S.Afr. J. Plant Soil 10:193-196.
 
 Crous, P.W., B.J.H. Janse, D. Victor, G.F. Marais & A.C. Alfenas (1993) 
 Characterization of some Cylindrocladium species with three-septate conidia
 using morphology, isozyme banding patterns and DNA polymorphisms.  System.
 Appl. Microbiol. 16, 266-273.
 
 -------------------------
 Department of Plant Pathology, University of the Orange Free State,
 Bloemfontein 
 
 Z.A. Pretorius*, F.J. Kloppers* and A.L. Vorster
 
      Germ plasm development.  Sixty leaf rust-resistant BC4F3 Palmiet and
 Karee families, derived from crosses involving Lr29 and Lr34, were selected
 from the germ plasm improvement program.  A further 45 BC2-BC5 populations,
 representing  Palmiet, Karee or SST66 with the monogenic resistance sources
 Lr21, 22a, 29, 32, 34, 36, 37, "39", "40", 41, 42, and the adult-plant
 resistance gene in KS91WGRC12, are being advanced.  Once backcross lines
 homozygous for the respective Lr genes have been confirmed, our objective is
 to intercross these in a gene pyramiding strategy. Lines containing both
 Lr29 and Lr34 are currently being selected.
      
      Lr gene combinations and resistance expression.  The effects of
 combinations among  Lr12, Lr13, Lr34 and Lr37 on components of adult-plant
 resistance in wheat to leaf rust were quantitatively assessed on the flag
 leaves of plants infected with Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm. f.sp.
 tritici pathotypes UVPrt2 or UVPrt13.  Gene interaction and pronounced
 resistance improvement were observed on plants with the gene combinations
 Lr13+37, Lr34+37 and Lr34+13.  All resistance components measured were
 significantly affected by the host genotype, pathotype and their
 interaction.  Histologically observed, colonies of pathotypes UVPrt2 and
 UVPrt13 in the gene combination lines Lr13+34, Lr13+37 and Lr34+37 were
 significantly restricted when compared to the single gene lines CT263
 (Lr13), RL6058 (Lr34), RL6081 (Lr37) and the leaf rust-susceptible Thatcher. 
 The degree of colony restriction and association with hypersensitivity
 depended on the individual genes combined and the pathotype involved. No
 resistance improvement, or only marginal effects, were observed in lines
 containing Lr12+13.  
               
      Characterization of resistance.  The degree of adult-plant resistance
 conferred by Lr37 in RL6081 to four avirulent leaf rust pathotypes was
 quantified by assessing histological components as well as latent period,
 uredinium density and uredinium size.  Histological observations revealed a
 hypersensitive response and significant arrestation of fungal structures at
 early infection stages.  Characterization of resistance indicated that
 disease development on genotypes with Lr37 should be extremely limited.
 
      To facilitate manageabiltiy of resistance genes in the germ plasm
 improvement program, the degree of dominance and expression of the leaf rust
 resistance genes Lr36, "39", "40", 41, 42 and the unnamed gene in
 KS91WGRC12, were characterized in three genetic backgrounds.  With the
 exception of Lr42, all genes behaved partially dominant.  Lr42 was dominant
 in the Palmiet and SST66 backgrounds, but recessive in Karee.
 
                         Publications
 
 Kloppers, F.J. & Pretorius, Z.A., 1993.  Bromus catharticus : A new host
 record for wheat stem rust in South Africa. Plant Disease 77:1063.
 
 Kloppers F.J. & Pretorius Z.A., 1993.  Histological  
 recognition of resistance mechanisms in wheat to leaf rust. Phytophylactica
 25:167. (Abstr.).
 
 Kloppers F.J. & Pretorius Z.A., 1993.  Host cell necrosis and colony size as
 components of Lr29-resistance to leaf rust of wheat.  Phytophylactica
 25:189. (Abstr.).
 
 Kloppers F.J. & Pretorius Z.A. & Van Lill D., 1993. Grain protein in South
 African wheat lines containing the leaf rust resistance genes Lr29 and Lr37.
 Phytophylactica 25:173. (Abstr.).
 
 Kloppers F.J. & Pretorius Z.A. & Van Lill D., 1993. The influence of Lr29,
 Lr35 and Lr37 on leaf rust severity, yield loss and quality characteristics
 in wheat.  Phytophylactica 25:193. (Abstr.).
 
 Pretorius Z.A. & Kloppers F.J., 1993.  Development and expression of Lr gene
 combinations in wheat.  Phytophylactica 25:174. (Abstr.).
 
 Pretorius Z.A. & Kloppers F.J., 1993.  Low-temperature seedling inheritance
 of leaf rust resistance gene Lr34. Phytophylactica 25:173. (Abstr.).
 
 Pretorius Z.A. & Kloppers F.J., 1993.  Lr36: A new gene for wheat leaf rust
 resistance breeding in South Africa. Phytophylactica 25:193. (Abstr.).
 
 -------------------------
      Small Grain Centre, Grain Crops Institute, Bethlehem 
 
      H.A. van Niekerk*, M.C.B. Coetzee, H.A. Knobel, D.J. Exley, W. Miles
 and Riana Pretorius
 
      Winter wheat breeding.  This will be the first crop year that cultivars
 with Russian wheat aphid resistance will be grown commercially. Two
 resistant cultivars, 'Tugela-DN' and 'Betta-DN', have already been released
 and a third, 'Oranje', will be released this year.  Both 'Tugela-DN' and
 'Betta-DN' has now been sent to Dr Bockelman for inclusion in the Small
 Grains Germplasm Collection in Idaho.
 
      Brooks Coetzee, previously from the University of the Orange Free
 State, joined our programme as a replacement for Retief Celliers.
 
      The shuttle with CIMMYT in Turkey is improving every year, and most of
 the time limits and speedy movement of germplasm has now been sorted out. 
 We are very keen to make this a profitable operation.
 
 -------------------------
      H.A. van Niekerk, F. Koekemoer, Anschen Grobbelaar, T.G. Paxton,
 Suzette   Jordaan, R. Britz, T. Bredenkamp and Suretha Pelser
 
      Spring wheat breeding. That part of the programme concentrating on the
 high potential environments is going from strength to strenght.  A new
 cultivar 'Kariega' has been released which equals the best ('Gamtoos') in
 yield potential and the best in protein content, protein quality and flour
 yield.  And following on this will be BSP92/10 which will be considered for
 release during this season.
 
      The dryland part of the programme has invested heavily in selecting for
 higher protein content and quality with the retention of yield potential in
 the Winter Rainfall Region.  The benefits of this input is finally showing
 positive results and hopefully we will be able to replace our own cultivar
 'Palmiet', which has been dominating spring wheat production in South Africa
 since 1983.
 
 -------------------------
      I.B.J. Smit, Antoinette Otto and F. Groenewald
 
      International Nurseries and Germplasm collection.  This programme
 continues to be a major source of genetic variability.  A direct release has
 also been made with a triticale line that was selected from the CIMMYT
 nurseries.  This line has now been released as 'Kiewiet' with the approval
 of CIMMYT.
 
      The germplasm storage facility is now the responsibility of T
 Bredenkamp who replaces F Groenewald.  This programme is not only a storage
 facility but is also progressively being used for "pre-breeding" purposes.
 
 -------------------------
      J L Purchase, Annelie Barnard, C G Burbidge, J C H de Wet, T F Walsh, H
      J Potgieter, A H Botha, A Rautenbach, M Maritz, C J S Nel, H S C A van
      der Merwe, W van der Westhuizen, Hesta van Tonder, Jeanette du Plessis,
      E J Visser and Hanelie du Plessis
 
      Production and 1993 Crop Conditions.  The three major wheat producing
 regions of South Africa are the Western Cape Province (Mediterranean
 climate), Orange Free State (summer rainfall region) and the irrigation
 areas along the major rivers (arid region).  High-yielding spring types are
 generally planted in the Western Cape and under irrigation, while winter and
 intermediate wheat types dominate production under dryland conditions in the
 Orange Free State.  The total wheat crop for the 1993/1994 season, as
 estimated by the Wheat Board, should amount to 2,0 million metric tons. 
 This is close to the long term average and will just about meet the demand
 of approximately 2,1 million metric tons.  Conditions in the Western Cape
 were fairly favourable, although excessive rain in April/May and July, and
 drought in September in parts of the Swartland, limited yields.  In the
 Orange Free State fairly good yields were realized, especially in the
 Eastern Orange Free State where near-record levels were achieved as a result
 of the good spring rainfall in October.  The yields under irrigation were
 however considerably down due to the considerably higher temperatures that
 were experienced in September and October which badly affected the grain
 filling period.
 
      Cultivar performance in the Western Cape.  In the Western Cape the
 cultivar 'Palmiet' still accounts for the major part of the production, even
 though it was released as far back as 1982.  Although recently released
 cultivars such as 'Nantes' and 'Adam Tas' are also high-yielding and have
 various desirable agronomic traits, they do not tend to have the yield
 stability of 'Palmiet'.  Two new cultivars bred by Sensako, viz. 'SST 55'
 and 'SST 38', are showing some promise.
 
      Cultivar performance in the Orange Free State.  Due to the relatively
 large variation that exists in climatic conditions and soil types in this
 region, a fairly extensive cultivar evaluation program is followed.  In the
 OFS a range of diverse cultivars are planted, ranging from spring to winter
 types, including a number of hybrids.  Due to favourable conditions the past
 season, the longer growth period cultivars (winter and intermediate types)
 such as 'Letaba', 'Molen', 'Tugela-DN', 'Carina' and 'Carol' generally
 outperformed the other cultivars.  The release of 'Tugela-DN', 'Betta-DN'
 and 'SST 333', all three cultivars with excellent Russian wheat aphid
 resistance, promises to boost production in this region considerably as this
 devastating pest is finally effectively countered.
 
      Cultivar performance under irrigation.  An intensive spring wheat
 cultivar adaptation research programme is run in five irrigation areas,
 which vary in climatic conditions. The objective of the programme is to
 characterize commercial cultivars and newly released lines suited to
 irrigation, in terms of adaptation, yield stability and agronomic
 characteristics.  The cultivars 'Palmiet' and 'Gamtoos' have been found to
 be well adapted over a wide range of environmental conditions, while certain
 cultivars, for example 'Harts' and 'T4', show very specific adaptation.
 
      Grain filling.  In most irrigation areas of South Africa, the grain
 yield of spring wheat is often adversely affected by high temperatures
 during the grain filling period.  Average maximum temperatures in the
 irrigation areas vary between 26degC and 31degC during the grain filling
 period, with daily maximum temperatures of > 35degC   All commercial spring
 wheat cultivars and advanced breeding lines are characterized under
 temperature controlled conditions and in field trials in terms of grain
 filling rate and duration. It was found that the cultivar 'Harts' possesses
 a relatively long grain filling duration and a low grain filling rate, while
 'Gamtoos' fills its kernels over a relatively shorter period but at a
 greater rate, which may to a large degree explain the difference in
 adaptation of the two cultivars.
 
      Southern African Wheat Evaluation and Improvement Nursery (SARWEIN). 
 The SARWEIN programme was established in 1976 at the instigation of Dr
 Norman Borlaug during a visit to Southern Africa.  A nursery of well adapted
 germplasm is made available to several Southern African countries, including
 Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi, Mozambique and Botswana.  Cultivars
 selected from the nursery have already made a significant impact on the
 limited wheat production in most of these countries.
 
      Preharvest Sprouting.  South African spring wheat cultivars were
 evaluated for preharvest sprouting resistance.  Spikes were exposed to a
 wetting treatment in a rain simulator.  The study indicated that 'Nantes'
 and 'Harts' are the most resistant to preharvest sprouting, while 'Elize'
 and 'Adam Tas' are the most susceptible cultivars.   Preliminary experiments
 conducted with molybdenum show a negative correlation between preharvest
 sprouting and increased molybdenum content.  The aim of this study is to
 determine whether a molybdenum treatment can significantly reduce preharvest
 sprouting.  Electrophoresis studies on preharvest sprouting did not indicate
 any significant differences between susceptible and resistant cultivars. 
 Molecular studies are being undertaken, but no significant results have yet
 been obtained.
 
      Crop Modelling.  The CERES-Wheat simulation model is being validated
 under dryland conditions in the Orange Free State.  Six winter wheat
 cultivars, differing in yield potential and growth season length, were
 evaluated in trials over a period of two years at the Small Grain Centre to
 determine their genetic coefficients, as well as to calibrate the model. 
 Fairly good correlations between predicted and observed data were generally
 found.  Subsequently, five trials were planted at widely differing sites in
 the Free State to validate the model with the six winter wheat cultivars. 
 Biomass tends to be oversimulated by the model and it would appear that the
 light-extinction coefficient, which is used by the model in its growth sub-
 routine, needs to be adapted to increase the simulation value of the model
 for this region.
 
      Seed physiology.  The effect of eight seed treatments, and the
 combination of these treatments with imidaclopried, on the germination and
 coleoptile length of four winter wheat genotypes was evaluated.  The trial
 was conducted in germination cabinets to determine the effect of the
 fungicides carboxin, carboxin + thiram, flutriafol + thiabendazole,
 terbuconazole, triadimenol(6/90), triadimenol(D31/10/1), bitertanol(75 FS),
 bitertanol(D10/90/1), imidaclopried (an insecticide) and combinations of
 imidaclopried with all the above-mentioned fungicides on the germination and
 coleoptile length of four genotypes, viz. 'Betta', 'Karee', 'Tugela' and
 'Molen'.  No single seed treatments or combination had any effect on the
 germination percentage when compared to the control.  However, highly
 significant differences in the effect of seed treatments on coleoptile
 length occurred.  The seed treatments triadimenol(D6/90),
 triadimenol(D31/90/1), flutriafol + thiabendazole, terbuconazole and
 combinations of these seed treatments with imidaclopried, reduced the
 coleoptile length to varying degrees.  The results indicate that
 imidaclopried had no additional phytotoxic effect on the germination or
 coleoptile length of wheat and combined safely with the above-mentioned seed
 treatments.
 
      Aluminum tolerance.  Thirty six cultivars were tested for aluminum
 tolerance on a very acidic soil [pH(KCl)3.75] over two years at
 Kransfontein in the Eastern Free State.  'Tugela' and 'Carina' had the best
 tolerance, while the 'Betta' types had no tolerance.  Acidification of the
 soils in the Eastern Free State is of great concern and the farmer can use
 these tolerant cultivars in conjunction with his corrective liming program.
 
      Humate products.  Sodium humate is a coal-derived product used as a
 foliar applied hormone, and was tested on wheat over two years under field
 conditions at the Small Grain Centre.  The results under glasshouse
 conditions were extremely promising but the application of sodium humate
 under field conditions had no beneficial effect on the growth, yield or
 quality of the wheat.
 
 -------------------------
      H.A. Smit, D.B. Scott, Elize Lubbe, J. Smith, Stienie Smith, D. van
      Niekerk, Karen Wilken, Lientjie Visser and Cathy de Villiers
 
      Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici):  No stem rust was found on
 commercial wheat in South Africa during the past growing season.  The
 disease is under good genetic control.  Although the annual rust survey for
 the past season has not been completed, preliminary results suggest that no
 shift in virulence has taken place in the stem rust virulence spectrum. 
 Once again pathotypes with virulence for Sr27 predominated.  Stem rust
 research furthermore centres around gene combinations, which aims to
 identify complementary action between genes so as to secure durable
 resistance.
 
      Leaf rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici):  Leaf Rust levels on
 commercial wheat cultivars were relatively low during the seasons, however
 in certain areas the disease remains high and alternative sources of
 resistance must be found.  The annual rust survey is still in progress and
 results are not yet available.
 
      A survey of barley leaf rust was conducted during the growing season. 
 Disease levels were relatively low in comparison with the previous season.
 
      `Eye spot (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides):  Very good progress
 has been made with the incorporation of resistance for eye spot into
 commercial cultivars through a backcross program.  Two of the lines are in
 the F5 and F6 generation respectively.  In addition experiments are under
 way to develop a rapid and reliable in vitro and/or greenhouse methods to
 evaluate these lines for the presence of the resistance.
 
      Soilborne Diseases:  Soilborne diseases continue to be a major cause of
 yield losses throughout the South African wheat producing areas.  Diseases
 which have not received much attention in the past included commen root rot
 caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana and Rhizoctonia diseases of wheat.  A
 comprehensive study of factors which might influence aggressiveness of B.
 sorokiniana is being done and preliminary results indicate that crop
 rotation systems are involved.  Rhizoctonia spp. isolated from diseased
 wheat are characterised according to anastomisis group and munber of nuclei
 and a possible new AG group is being investigated.
 
      Physiological leaf spot:  In South Africa yellowing and leaf necrosis
 of wheat is often associated with irrigation of compacted soils or soils
 with poor water drainage.  On dryland wheat leaf spotting is most severe in
 the cereal-growing areas of the Western Cape Province.  In this part of the
 country spring wheat is grown during the winter on rather shallow soils. 
 leaf blotches caused by Septoria  spp. are often present, but these start to
 develop late in the season, usually when most of the leaves have already
 been killed by unknown causes of leaf spot.  Fungicides are used extensively
 in this area, but in our trials foliar sprays were not effective, except on
 early plantings when we obtained a "stay green" effect with mixtures of
 triazoles and benzimidazoles.
 
      Take-all (Gaeumannomyuces graminis var tritici):  Take-all is causing
 much damage to wheat in the Western Cape Province.  During the past number
 of years rainfall in this area was well above average with heavy downpours
 occurring soon after emergence of the wheat.  Under such conditions farmers
 have learned that they can increase their yields with high applications of
 nitrogen.  Most of the nitrogen is topdressed and up to 120 kg N ha(-1) is
 applied.  In spite of this heavy application of nitrogen, yields are on
 average only about 2 tons ha(-1)   The inefficient use of nitrogen is also
 reflected in poor protein content of the grain, which is a major constraint
 for wheat in this area.
 
      The rhizobacteria of wheat are at present being investigated with the
 view to find a possible biocontrol agent against take-all in wheat. 
 Provisional results indicate that local strains of Bacillus spp. increase
 nitrogen use efficiency and plant growth in wheat.  Fluorescent pseudomonas
 and some grain-negative fermentative bacteria were neutral or deleterious to
 wheat.
 
  -------------------------           
      H.A. Smit, G.J. Prinsloo, Vicki L Tolmay, J.L. Hatting and J. du Toit
 
 
      Entomology.  Further progress has been made towards the establishment
 of an integrated control programme against Russian wheat aphid.
 
      Good progress has been made in the evaluation of the different sources
 of plant resistance.  This plant resistance is well established in both the
 winter and spring breading programmes.  Enough seed of resistant cultivars
 is available in South Africa to plant a potential 100 000 ha during the 1994
 season.    At present the parasitoid Aphelinus hordei and a predatory fly
 Leucopis ninae are being evaluated for their effectiveness as control agents
 of D. noxia.
 
      Laboratory studies have shown that the parasitic wasp, Aphelinus hordei
 introduced from the Ukraine, prefer Diuraphis noxia as a host to all the
 other wheat aphid species.  If no RWA is available they will oviposit eggs
 in other wheat aphid species and will therefore be able to survive periods
 of low RWA densities.
 
      Some 14000 of these parasitic wasps have already been released in wheat
 fields on an experimental basis.  The levels of parasitism in these fields
 were recorded two weeks subsequent to release and it was established that
 60% of the aphids had already been parasitised.  It is estimated the
 combined use of plant resistance and parasitic wasps will reduce the RWA
 populations to extremely low levels, which will save the wheat farmers in
 South Africa more than R20 million per annum in chemical control.
 
  -------------------------
      H.A. Smit*, B.L. de Villiers, H.H. Knobel, C.F. Pool and R. C. Lindeque
 
      Water quality studies.  Sodium bicarbonate at 30 mM in spray carriers
 decreased tralkoxydim efficacy with up to 70%.  This antagonism was induced
 at levels as low as 3mM of the cation.  Certain adjuvants however showed
 promise in alleviating this antoganism with carriers high in sodium
 bicarbonate.  The registered adjuvant applied with tralkoxydim could not
 overcome sodium bicarbonate antagonism and therefore these alternative
 adjuvants will have to be considered.
 
      Adjuvant studies.  Studies on the influence of adjuvants on the
 efficacy and selectivity of herbicides and herbicide combinations are still
 in progress.  The influence of the adjuvants Citrex (R), Biofilm (R) and
 Triton1956 (R) were evaluated on the selectivity of the wild oat herbicide
 Topic (R), MCPA, bromoxynil and a combination of parathion and thiomenton in
 different combinations.  It appears as if most of the adjuvants resulted in
 no effect on the selectivity of the pesticides.  Some of the adjuvants and
 pesticides resulted in a stimulatory effect to a certain extent, on the
 growth of the wheat plants.
 
      Residual studies.  Bioassays with lentils indicated that the residual
 action of imazamethabenz-methyl and chlorsulfuron/metsulfuron-methyl was
 longer under low soil water contents and temperatures.  The climatic
 conditions in the Summer rainfall region after herbicide application implies
 that a longer residual action will be obtained.  The predominant factor in
 determining residual action of these herbicides is the clay minerals in the
 soil.  Liming of soils to raise the very low pH, enhanced the activity of
 chlorsulfuron/ metsulfuron-methyl with a decline in yield and an increase of
 protein content of the grain of certain wheat cultivars.  Imazamethabenz-
 methyl, together with cultivation, at double the recommended rate, reduced
 Bilderdykia convolvulus growth up to twelve months after application.
 
 
  -------------------------
      SENSAKO, SOUTH AFRICA
 
      Lombard, Du Toit, Malan, Engelbrecht, Boonzaaier, Van Jaarsveld, R. de
      V. Pienaar and Jordaan
 
      Wheat breeding.  The past season was characterized by a very dry period
 during booting till harvesting in the Mediterranean region and a spell of
 very high rainfall during the same period in the winterwheat production
 areas.  This wheather pattern resulted in a very high maturity x variety and
 also planting date x variety interaction. Selection was for specific
 adaptation favouring the early maturities in the Mediterranean and the very
 late maturities in the winter wheat production areas.  Yield is such a
 variable character under our environmental conditions that we are paying
 more  attention to describe a variety in terms of its disease resistance,
 resistance to stress, maturity, RWA resistance, kernel quality and baking
 quality.
 
      New spring wheat and winter wheat releases performed excellent under
 irrigation and dryland conditions.   The new irrigation wheat SST 825, the
 new intermediate type with RWA resistance SST 333, the rye variety with RWA
 resistance SSR 727 and a new rye variety with a very late maturity SSR 729
 need to be mentioned.
 
      New technology is being implemented to select on a genotypic basis and
 to shorten generation time for characters such as resistance to leaf and
 stemrust, eyespot, maize streak virus, RWA resistance, tolerance to
 Aluminium toxicity and higher grain protein.
 
      We are challenging a very harsh and unpredictable environment to lower
 the production risk of the smallgrain producer and to ensure a better
 product to the user.
 
 -------------------------
      Winter Grain Center, Welgevallen Exp. Sta., Univ. of Stellenbosch
 
      R. de V. Pienaar* and D. Lesch
 
      Cytogenetics. With the collaboration of Kathleen Ross (USDA, ARS, Plant
 Genetics Research Unit, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.) the transfer of
 the Chinese Spring (CS) telosomic series to Pavon 76 (PVN) has reached B(9).
 A meiotic analysis of the F(1) (with 2n=40+tL+tS) resulting from her check-
 crosses of the 21 B(8) PVN doubletelotrisomic lines to their respective CS
 monosomics, showed that all the doubletelotrisomic lines except 2A, 7A, 6B,
 2D and 6D are correct. The F(1) involving doubletelotrisomic lines 2A, 7A
 and 2D had a trivalent (consisting of one normal and two telosentric
 chromosomes) in many PMCs, indicating that these three lines are incorrect.
 The heteromorphic bivalents observed in the F(1) involving
 doubletelotrisomic lines 6B and 6D could be the result of a translocation in
 PVN relative to CS; a quadrivalent was indeed observed in some PMCs of the
 disomic CS/PVN F(1) control. Doubletelotrisomic 6B has a satellited telosome
 indicating that its tS is correct.
 
      Doubled Haploids (DH). A complete set of double-ditelosomic DH with
 2n=40+2tL+2tS were produced from the PVN doubletelotrisomics (described
 above) by using a modification of Laurie's (1991) protocol (see below). This
 protocol was also used on highly crossable (with rye) PVN *5/CS and PVN
 *6/CS back-cross material to produce DH near-isogenic (NI) PVN lines
 homozygous for all the kr genes of CS and PVN. The crossability of the best
 DH NI PVN line with Henoch spring rye was 87.5% compared to the 80.5% of CS.
 The Ne1w gene and the ph1 mutant allele of CS are likewise being transferred
 to PVN.
 
      In 1992 only a few haploid embryos were obtained from wheat x maize
 crosses using Laurie's protocol (AWN 1991). Pienaar (1992, unpubl.) compared
 130 combinations and concentrations of plant growth regulators (GR) with the
 10 mg/L 2,4-D treatment of Laurie. The five wheat haploidizer (WH) solutions
 that gave better results than the 2,4-D solution were further evaluated in
 1993. One of these, WH4 (7.5 mg/L dicamba and 2.5 mg/L BA), was eventually
 selected for the routine DH breeding program. In many genotypes it induced
 more green parthenocarpic caryopses with haploid embryos per spike than the
 2,4-D solution, e.g., in 1992 it induced caryopses with one or more embryos
 in 42.3% of the PVN florets that had been pollinated with maize compared to
 the 18.4% induced by the 2,4-D treatment. Other genotypes responded better
 when treated with WH1 (75 mg GA(3)/L, 7.5 mg/L dicamba and 5 mg/L 2,4-D),
 WH2 (8 mg/L dicamba, 4 mg/L 2,4-D, 2 mg/L BA and 0.1 mg/L kinetin) or WH3 (7
 mg/L dicamba, 3 mg/L 2,4-D, 2 mg/L BA, 0.05 mg/L kinetin and 0.05 mg/L
 naphthalene acetamide). The best results with the WH treatment (filling the
 emasculated floral cups and the internode below the spike with WH solution)
 was obtained when it was given 20-30 h after pollination with maize, and
 (with some genotypes) repeated the following day.
 
      The excised haploid embryos were initially grown on MS culture medium
 containing 1/10th NH(4)NO(3) (as used at Freising-Weihenstephan). Since less
 than 30% of the embryos developed into plantlets, 40 other culture media,
 with and without GR, were screened. Eventually the media giving the best
 results were evaluated in two trials having four replicates each, using the
 haploid embryos of SST 55 (a recently released Sensako cultivar). In the
 first trial, conducted from April-June, 1993, Gamborg's B5, LS, MS and EM.5
 (our modification of Liang's medium) were compared using 100 embryos on each
 medium. EM.5 and MS enabled 48% of the embryos to develop into plantlets, B5
 43%, and LS 29%. In the second trial, which ran from August-November, six
 media, viz., B5, Difco Orchid Agar (DOA), EM.6 (similar to EM.5), MS,
 Norstog II (NII) and Ouyang's W14 were evaluated using 112 embryos on each
 medium. The best results were again obtained on MS and EM.6 which
 respectively enabled 30.4% and 29.5% embryos to develop into plantlets.
 However, these two media were not significantly better than DOA and B5 on
 which 28.6% and 26.8% plantlets developed respectively. Only 17.9% of the
 embryos on NII and W14 gave rise to plantlets. The addition of GR to the
 media did not increase the frequency of plantlets. The embryos that did not
 develop into plantlets propduced rooted calli. Even after repeated
 subculture these calli eventually turned brown and died. The plantlets that
 developed on DOA had the best roots. Root development of the plantlets was
 improved by the addition of 2 g/L activated carbon to the medium. The best
 sugar concentration was 20 g/L, and Gelrite was used at 2.3 g/L.
 
      The seasonal effect on in vitro embryo development noted in the above
 two trials was even more pronounced when the results of the spring and
 summer experiments were compared. During December 1992 (summer in the
 southern hemisphere), 1048 haploid embryos were excised from the 2405 green
 caryopses produced in the 2467 florets of the PVN doubletelotrisomic series
 that had been pollinated with maize, but only 30 (2.9%) developed into
 plantlets on the MS culture medium. When the experiment was repeated in
 September 1993, 190 (38.2%) plantlets developed from the 498 embryos that
 had been excised from 1129 green caryopses produced in 1762 PVN florets.
 Generally the quality of the caryopses was better in autumn and spring than
 in summer.
 
      Chromosome doubling of the haploid plants at growth stage 2 (Romig
 scale =22 Zadoks scale) with 0.05% colchicine for 24 h was just as effective
 as with 0.1% colchicine and was less lethal. The roots were trimmed to 12 cm
 and the base of the sprouts pricked with a needle before placing the plants
 in the continuously aerated colchicine solution. The used colchicine
 solution was filtered and stored in a refrigerator for further use (up to
 four times). The treated plants were washed in running tap water for an hour
 and then kept in continuously aerated 4 degC water in the refrigerator for
 three days. The third day 2 ml/L Kelpak was added to the cold water; this
 sea-weed extract stimulated root and shoot development of the repotted
 plants that had been trimmed to 12 cm. More than 95% of the plants survived
 this treatment and nearly all had fertile sectors in some spikes.
 
      We were contracted by Sensako to introduce the gene for blue aleurone
 to their eyespot and septoria resistant, high yielding cultivar, Alpha, in
 order to distinguish it as a feed wheat. By excising the embryos 18 days
 after pollination and culturing them on EM.6 it was possible to advance this
 work to the production of DH from B(3) plants within 18 months. We were also
 contracted to introduce various Lr genes to SST 55, and produce DH from
 advanced Russian aphid resistant winter wheat lines.
 
 -------------------------
      F. du Toit*, S. S. Walters, Audrey Brummer, Petro Thorpe
 
      The 1993 wheat planting season started off reasonably well but rainfall
 in August and above average rainfall in October ensured good yields in the
 western Orange Free State and outstanding yields in teh eastern Orange Free
 State.
 
      Winter Wheat Program.  Three winter wheat lines were provisionally
 classified in 1993 and will be submitted for final release in April 1994. 
 The line PEX 9132 is late maturing with high yield potential.  This line is
 fairly tolerna tto drought and has good baking quality.  PEX 9023 is medium
 maturing with good stem rust resistance.  PEX 9201 is medium a maturing line
 and resistant to Russian wheat aphid (RWA) with a field rating of 2 MR on
 adult plants.  This line was developed by backcrossing to the cultivar
 `Betta'.  It yielded 5% higher than Betta over a 2 year period.
 
      Spring wheat program.  Elite spring wheat lines were tested for the
 first time under dryland conditions in the western Cape Province and under
 irrigation in the northern Cape Province.  A few lines did exceptionally
 well and will be tested again in 1994.
 
      Russian wheat aphid resistance breeding.  Germplasm lines reported to
 be resistant to RWA in the USA were tested and those with the highest levels
 of resistance were included in the breeding program.  These lines include PI
 366637, PI 220127, CORWA 1, STARS 9302W and STARS 9303W.
 
 -------------------------
                       ITEMS FROM SYRIA          
 
      ICARDA,  Aleppo
 
      S.K.Yau*, J. Ryan, M. Nachit, G. Ortiz-Ferrara, and J. Hamblin 
 
      Screening for boron toxicity resistance in durum and bread wheat.  A
 project, screening for resistance to boron (B) toxicity, was initiated by
 the Cereal Program of ICARDA in 1992. It started because of an increasing
 awareness that B toxicity may be a widespread problem in dry areas of West
 Asia and North Africa (WANA). Boron toxicity symptoms were identified in
 winter cereal crops near Aleppo, Syria, near Eskisehir and Konya, Turkey,
 and on the NW coast of Egypt.
 
      Boron toxicity can cause a substantial reduction in grain and straw
 yields. Since treating the soil to remove or reduce the effect of B, e.g.,
 by leaching, is not economically feasible, selecting crop cultivars with
 high resistance to B toxicity is the most promising approach.
 
      According to A.J. Rathjen of the Waite Agricultural Research Institute
 of South Australia, the simplest and most effective way to screen for B
 resistance is to grow seedlings in the greenhouse in soils having a known
 quantity of boric acid evenly mixed in. This avoids the heterogeneity of B
 toxicity that is often present in the field. Getting results quickly is
 another advantage.
 
      In an earlier B-rate experiment with barley, adding 50 mg B/kg soil
 (giving a hot water extract of 27 ppm B) gave good symptom discrimination in
 4 weeks, and appeared to be the best level of B concentration for screening.
 This was also confirmed for durum wheat in a preliminary experiment on B
 rates. 
 
      Ten seeds from each entry were sown in trays (lxbxh= 200x75x20 cm) of
 soil thoroughly mixed with the appropriate amount of boric acid. There were
 two replicates. Besides looking at B toxicity symptoms, B concentration in
 the lines with least symptom development was also measured and compared to
 the resistant check (Halbred, bread wheat from Australia).
 
      A total of 246 durum lines from the 1992-93 regional observation
 nurseries, which represent the most advanced materials from the
 CIMMYT/ICARDA Durum Wheat Project, were tested. There was only a small
 variation (mean score of 2.0 to 3.5) in symptom development among the lines.
 Lines with low B toxicity symptoms and tissue concentration are presented in
 Table 1. The best durum lines had symptom scores as low as the tolerant
 bread wheat check (Halbred), but none of the durum lines had B
 concentrations comparable to Halbred. Durum may be more tolerant than bread
 wheat, or at least Halbred, to higher B concentration in plant tissue. The
 cross AW12/Bit appears three times on Table 1, indicating that it may
 contain the gene(s) for B toxicity tolerance.
 
      A total of 140 entries from the 1992-93 CIMMYT/ICARDA Bread Wheat
 Crossing Block, which consists of selections good in particular traits, were
 tested. There was a large variation in symptom development among the lines.
 Lines with low B toxicity symptoms and tissue concentration are presented in
 Table 1. Six entries had both low symptom scores and lower B concentrations
 than Halbred, the tolerant check. The cross Shi#4414/Crow`S' appears three
 times in Table 1, indicating it may carry gene(s) for B toxicity tolerance.
 Entries 4, 72 and 73 were very sensitive to B toxicity, displaying the `mid-
 leaf necrosis' symptom. Whether they are efficient in B uptake when grown in
 B-deficient areas needs to be investigated.
 
      One of us, John Ryan, is taking the lead in investigating the
 variability of soil B concentrations in fields known to have a spatial B
 toxicity problem. The distribution of B in Syria and in the WANA region will
 be surveyed. 
 
 Table 1. Durum and bread wheat lines with the least B toxicity symptoms and
 tissue concentration 5 weeks after sowing in soil treated with 50 mg B/kg
 soil.
                                                                              
      Ent.  B   Name/Cross
      no.  conc.
 Nursery   (ppm)          
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                            
 Durum Wheat:
 
 DON-SA#    72  613  T.A73-74/D.Coll-01.1Y/3/Pg/Chap//21563/4/Crosby
      287  610  Deraa2/Bicre
 DON-FA#    66  580  Ru/Mrb15
       69  595  Aw12/Bit
      120  618  Aw12/Bit
      145  576  Aw12/Bit
      167  633  Zud2/Kbr3
      168  599  Bicre/Kbr3
      200  625  Aw11//Memo/Goo
 
 Tolerant Check:
 
           477  Halbred (bread wheat from Australia)
 Sensitive checks:
 
           734  Schomburgk (bread wheat from Australia)
 DON-SA     49  937  Khb1/4/Rabi/3/Gs/AA//Plc
 
 Bread Wheat:
 
 WCB#  33  280  Shi#4414/Crow`S'
       37  416  Shi#4414/Crow`S'
       47  411  C182.24/C168.3/3/Cno*2/7C//Cc/Tob
       64  308  T.aest. Ast/Sprw`S'//Ca8055
      105  295  NS.12.5.3/Atfn
      134  272  Shi#4414/Crow`S'
 
 Tolerant Check:
 
           447  Halbred (from Australia)
 Sensitive Check: 
         
 WCB    4  878  Zidane 89
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                             # DON-SA: Durum Wheat Observation Nursery for Semi-arid Areas 1992-93
   DON-FA: Durum Wheat Observation Nursery for Favorable Areas 1992-93
   WCB: Bread Wheat Crossing Block 1992-93
 
 -------------------------   
                       ITEM FROM TURKEY
 
      CIMMYT/ICARDA, P. K. 39 Emek, 06511 Ankara, Turkey
 
      Hans-Joachim Braun*, Thomas S. Payne*
 
      For several years, there have been hints of major crop limiting factors
 on the Anatolian Plateau, as well as in other facultative and winter wheat
 (FWW) production environments in west asia and north africa (WANA). 
 However, it is difficult to tailor breeding methodologies to unclear or
 continually re-defined objectives.  It now appears as if micronutrient
 deficiencies and toxicities, and hyper-occurrence of nematodes, may greatly
 influence FWW cereal production systems throughout WANA.  What is gratifying
 is that an inquisitive spark has ignited a fire storm of interest, research
 and inquiry, both within the international centers and, of perhaps greater
 importance, in national agricultural research (ministerial, universities and
 commercial) programs.
 
      Micronutrient trials conducted in cooperation with the Bahri Da da ,
 Konya, and Transitional Zones, Eskisehir, agricultural research institutes
 showed a large response of cereals to elemental zinc application.  In some
 cases, grain yield doubled as a result of zinc + nitrogen application versus
 nitrogen alone.  Boron toxicity is also thought to be wide spread on the
 Anatolean Plateau.  Micronutrient deficiencies are of particular concern for
 cereal breeding in this region not only because of production limitation but
 because of their influence on reproductive sterility.  Zinc and copper
 deficiency may not overtly influence general plant phenotype and thereby
 result in a deceptively good-looking plant which is selected by observation.
 But in fields known to be deficient in zinc, correlations between phenotypic
 score (appearance) and grain yield and test weight were low.  Thus, breeding
 for these stresses will require quantitative in situ selection.
    
      Two nematological surveys were conducted in Turkey with the assistance
 of Dr. Gerhard Lung, University of Hohenheim and the Turkish Ministry of
 Agriculture.  Cereal cyst (CCN, Heterodera avenae) and Pratylenchus
 neglectus and P. thornei nematodes were found across the Anatolean Plateau. 
 CCN density was higher than the economical threshold in 60% of the site
 samples.  Pratylenchus spp. density was higher than the economical threshold
 in 50% of the site samples.  Thus, significant yield losses may be expected
 due to nematode infestations.  An association between the occurrence of CCN
 and soil zinc deficiency was also found. Infection with CCN may begin in
 autumn, unlike elsewhere, thus two generations per year may be expected. 
 High autumn densities of Pratylenchus spp. on  wheat seedling were found. 
 The influence of autumnal infestation vis a vis apparent spring "winter
 kill" in winter wheat and barley on the Plateau is a topic being further
 investigated.
 
      Dr. Linsey Penrose, Wagga Wagga, Australia has assisted in our
 understanding of the importance of vernalization in wheat to FWW
 environments.  When sown at Tel Hadye in the autumn, little difference in
 time of spike initiation for spring, facultative and winter wheats is
 observed.  This is because all genotypes are exposed to similar growth-
 repressing cool temperatures and the often sudden break between winter and
 spring temperatures.  Vernalization may effect cereal production to a
 greater extent where autumnal stand establishment is important, however, its
 influence in defining a distinction within the facultative/winter complex
 remains dubious.    
 
 -------------------------
                      ITEM FROM UKRAINE
 
       LA.Zivotkov, V.A.Vlasenko*, A.Yu.Shalin, Mironovka Institute of Wheat
 Breeding,  Tsentralnoe
 
     Some criteria for selection parental material in winter wheat breeding
     program at Mironovka Breeding Center.
 
      Meteorological conditions of the area of Mironovka Wheat Institute are
 characterized by some stresses which occure during the first stages of
 winter wheat development as well as during winter period (2,3). Thus, the
 germplasm created in the institute should possess following traits:  1)
 Relatively high frost tolerance (at least not lower then check). It is
 determined by freezing wheat plants in January.  2) Absence of growth
 reaction on changes of soil and air temperature in winter-spring period. It
 is evaluated by freezing wheat plants in the beggining of March.  3)
 Relative tolerance to low moisture content in the soil during the first
 stages of crop development. It is evaluated by the rate of primary root
 growth.
 
      Ninety varieties from 19 countries of Europe, Asia and America were
 used in the study aimed at screening the best parental material for the
 above mentioned objectives. Frost tolerance was evaluated by freezing plants
 in boxes in the end of January and the beginning of March under temperature
 -17degC and -15degC, respectively. Percentage of survived plants for check
 (Mironovskaya 808) was 84 and 77%, respectively. Frost tolerance of the
 entries studied was expressed as percentage to check.
 
      Evaluation of drought tolerance was based on the durability of the
 period from seedling emergence to the appearence of the third leaf. It was
 determined in the greenhouse. Since the fast development of the first leaves
 correlates with the fast penetration of the root system (1,4), the criterium
 used seems to reflect the drought tolerance of the entries on the seedling
 stage. Moreover, good development of the root system ultimatively influence
 tolerance to stresses and grain yield. In general, the period between
 seedling emergence and the apperance of the third leaf can be used for
 screening germplasm for tolerance to abiotic stresses. Fast development of
 the seedlings results in early tillering. Such genotypes could be planted
 later in the fall in order to escape the damage by insects. The reduction of
 the chemicals used for wheat production is very important for the ecology of
 the Ukraine affected by Chernobyl catastrophe. The approach described was
 developed in the department of physiology and biochemistry at Mironovka 
 Institute of Wheat Breeding.
 
      A numer of entries were selected based on frost and drought tolerance:
 Fedorovka, UK-53, Volgogradskaya 84, Komsomolskaya 56, Mironovskaya 28, 29,
 30, 61, Mirleben, Belotserkovskaya 13/89 (Ukraine), Don 85 (Russia),
 Century, Dynasty, Karl (USA), KM 57/83, BR 1249 (Chekhoslovakia). They all
 had frost tolerance more then 80% and period during seedling emergence and
 the appearence of the third leaf less then 8.8 days (average for locally
 bred varieties well adapted to the region).
 
      Three superior entries were selected: Line 4549, Bezenchukslaya
 ostistaya, Kinelskaya 4 (Russia). Their frost tolerance was more than 92%
 and "seedling - third leaf" period less than 7.9 days. For all traits they
 are close to check variety Mironovskaya 808 which has exeptionally wide
 adptability. Varieties Odesskaya 130, Stepnyak, Polesskaya 87 (Ukraine),
 Tarasovskaya 61 (Russia), MV 107-86 (Hungary) are characterized by high
 frost tolerance (83-104%) and can be used for winter hardiness breeding. The
 germplasm from Belgium, UK, Germany, Holland, China and Romania had low
 frost tolerance (<70%) and long "seedling - third leaf" period (>10 days).
 
      As a result of the study, a number of entries were selected with high
 frost and drought tolerance. They can be used in winter wheat breeding for
 the Northern part of Ukraine. Basically, most valuable germplsm originated
 from Ukraine, Russia and USA, some - from Central Europe, in particular from
 Hungary and Chekhoslovakia.
 
                         References
 
 Danilchuk P.V., Yatsenko G.K. & Sklifasovsky V.A. (1971) The development of
 roots and biomass in winter wheat. Review of Agric. Sci. 10:50-55.
 
 Logvinov K.T., Babichenko V.N. & Kulakovskaya M.Yu. (1972) Dangerous weather
 stresses in the Ukraine. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat. 236p.
 
 Mironovka wheats. (1976) Ed. V.Remeslo. Moscow, Kolos, 336 p.
 
 Potmistrov V.P. (1910) Root system in annual crops. Odessa, 69 p.
 
 -------------------------
                   ITEMS FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM
 
      John Innes Centre, Colney, Norwich.
 
      T E Miller, S M Reader, K A Purdie, R P Dunford, I P King (now at
      Department of Agricultural Botany, University of Reading, Reading UK)
      and S Abbo (now at Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel).
 
      In situ hybridization  Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) continues
 to be sed to study homoeologous chromosome pairing.  CS, CS5B and CSN5BT5D x
 rye hybrids have been studied.  In the euploid CS x rye hybrids l3.8% of the
 pairing was between wheat and rye chromosomes and 3.4% between rye
 chromosomes.  In the 5B deficient CS5 x rye hybrids the overall pairing was
 considerably higher but only 7.7% was between wheat and rye chromosomes.  In
 the CSN5BT5D x rye hybrids the overall level of pairing was slightly lower
 than in the CS5B hybrids but the wheat-rye pairing was much lower only 4.l%. 
 Chromosome 5D in extra dose apparently has a suppressing effect on wheat-rye
 chromosome pairing even when 5B is absent.  GISH is currently being used to
 similarly study the effects of homoeologous group 3 chromosomes on
 homoeologous chromosome pairing.
 
      Primer-induced in situ hybridization (PRINS) has successfully been used
 to detect nucleolus organizer sequences at meiosis in rye.  It has also been
 shown to have potential for detecting lower copy sequences, such as the B-
 hordein gene cluster of barley which has been detected in barley and on
 barley chromosomes in a wheat background
 
 -------------------------
      A J Worland
 
      Photoperiod response genes in European wheat cultivars  Experiments,
 conducted by this laboratory, over a number of years demonstrate that the
 early flowering of winter wheats associated with a chromosome 2D gene
 presumed to be the photoperiod insensitive gene Ppd1 promotes increased
 spikelet fertility and average yield increases of over 30% in Yugoslavia and
 around l5% in mid-Germany.  In the UK, yield increases over 5% were detected
 in the warm dry summers of 1989 to 1992.
 
      Using a specially constructed glasshouse in which potted plants are
 grown on benches that automatically move from natural day light to dark
 chambers, the photoperiodic response of l20 European winter wheat cultivars
 was determined.
 
      All 26 tested Southern European cultivars originating from Bulgaria,
 Italy, Rumania or Yugoslavia, were photoperiod insensitive.  This would
 permit grain to develop and mature before the onset of the hot desiccating
 summer conditions regularly met in this region.
 
      Of 47 German cultivars all were late flowering photoperiod sensitive. 
 Two cultivars Ibis and Ramiro were however of an intermediate flowering
 time, suggesting the presence of a weak allele for photoperiod
 insensitivity.  Conversely of 22 tested cultivars from adjacent France, l5
 were photoperiod insensitive and only seven sensitive with Arche and Tremie
 being of intermediate habit.  Ten UK bred cultivars were all photoperiod
 sensitive although Mercia appeared to show the same intermediate flowering
 time as Arche, Ibis, Ramiro and Tremie.
 
      The results suggest that if there is a yield advantage associated with
 early maturity in central Europe this has not yet been recognised and
 incorporated into German cultivars.  In adjacent France where summer
 conditions are similar, most current cultivars are day length insensitive,
 benefiting from early flowering and maturity before summer desiccation.  In
 the UK where the advantages of early flowering are marginal the French bred
 photoperiod insensitive cultivar Soissons has performed well in recent warm
 dry summers, suggesting that UK wheat breeders should introduce some day
 length insensitive wheat cultivars to enable farmers to benefit both from an
 extended harvest season and to obtain positive yield advantages in the
 present trend towards warmer drier summers.
 
 ------------------------
      G Galiba, (Agricultural Research Institute, Martonvasar, Hungary), S A
      Quarrie, J Sutka and J W Snape
 
      RFLP mapping of a frost resistance (Fr1) and a vernalization (Vrn1)
 gene on chromosome 5A of wheat.  Using single chromosome recombinant lines,
 Sutka and Snape identified a single gene for frost resistance, designated
 Fr1, that was completely linked to the locus Vrn1.  This result can be
 explained by pleiotropic action of the Vrn1 locus or close genetic linkage
 between Vrn1  and Fr1.  Further mapping of Frl and Vrn1 has now been carried
 out using RFLP techniques in a second recombinant population developed from
 a cross between the substitution lines of chromosome 5A from the spring
 wheat T. spelta (frost sensitive) and the winter wheat cultivar Cheyenne in
 the recipient cultivar Chinese Spring.  Freezing tests on each recombinant
 line were carried out using the procedures described previously by Sutka,
 and flowering time and ear type were characterized in growth room
 experiments.  For RFLP analysis, polymorphisms were selected by hybridizing
 DNA of the parental lines digested with various restriction enzymes, with a
 range of cDNA and genomic DNA probes, known from previous work to be located
 on chromosome 7(5H) of barley.  Probes detecting polymorphisms between the
 parents were then used to genotype the recombinant population.  Linkage maps
 were then constructed using MAPMAKER v2.0.
 
      The recombinant lines segregated in a 1:1 fashion for freezing
 tolerance and flowering time, showing single gene segregation, as expected
 at Vrn1 and Fr1.  Additionally, however, four presumptive recombinants
 between these loci were detected, indicating genetic linkage of the loci
 (recombination distance of 7.5 cM), rather than pleiotropy.  This was also
 shown by the RFLP mapping which confirmed the location of these loci distal
 on the long arm of chromosome 5A, and showed that three RFLP loci Xpsr426,
 Xcd0504 and Xwg644 mapped very close to both Vrn1 and Fr1.  Further, the
 most likely map locations placed these RFLP loci between Vrn1 and Fr1,
 confirming their individual identities.
 
      Plaschke et al. have mapped the flowering time gene of rye, Spl, using
 RFLP techniques, and based on the available genetic data they proposed that
 wheat Vrn1 and Vrn3 and possibly Vrn4, rye Sp1, and barley sh1, form a
 homoeoallelic set.  This agreed with the present result since Sp1 was shown
 closely linked (6 cM) to Xpsr426-5R on the rye map.  In other studies, close
 linkage (about 4cM) has been found between the biochemical marker beta-
 amylase (Bamy1) and the Sh locus on barley chromosome 4HL.  The distal part
 of 5A is homoeologous to the group 4 chromosomes because of a translocation,
 and if Sh was homoeoallelic to Vrn1 a similar relationship would exist. 
 However, on the long arm of 5A of wheat B-Amy-1 (syn Bamy1) is well
 separated from Vrn1.  We have mapped Vrn1 about 70 cM proximal from the
 translocation break point and, thus it is not likely that Vrn1 is synonymous
 with Sh.
 
      QTL controlling traits associated with winter hardiness in barley
 (field survival, LT(50)  growth habit (vernalization response), and crown
 fructan content) were also mapped to chromosome 7(5H) by Hayes et al. in
 Oregon.  The largest QTL effects for all traits were detected in a 21%
 recombination interval on the long arm.  This interval should be the
 homoeologue of the region surrounding the Vrn1 and Fr1 genes on wheat
 chromosome 5A  because it contains both Xwg644 and Xcd0504 RFLP marker loci.
 
 -------------------------
      S A Quarrie and A Steed, M Gulli and C Calestani (University of Parma,
      Italy), G Galiba (Agricultural Research Institute, Martonvasar,
      Hungary).
 
      Genetic analysis of responses to environmental stresses.  Work to
 locate genes controlling high abscisic acid (ABA) production in response to
 drought stress has continued using F(2) plants and doubled haploid lines
 from the cross between the spring wheats Chinese Spring (low ABA) and SQ1
 (high ABA).  The preliminary evidence of a QTL for ABA production reported
 last year (AWN 1993) has been confirmed in both mapping populations using a
 range of RFLP markers which map to the long arm of chromosome 5A.  The
 computer package MAPMAKER-QTL predicted a strong QTL (maximum LOD score 4.8)
 from the F(2) population mid-way between the loci Xpsr575 and Xpsr426.  A
 similar location for the ABA QTL was predicted using 96 doubled haploid
 lines which were mapped with twelve RFLP probes on chromosome 5A.  However,
 the QTL was weaker in this population because the ABA differences amongst
 the doubled haploid lines were smaller than they were amongst the F(2)
 plants.  
 
      ABA concentrations are known to increase in response to a wide range of
 environmental stresses, including cold stress.  We have now shown by RFLP
 mapping of a population of single chromosome recombinant lines that genes
 for vernalization response and frost tolerance are present in the same
 region of chromosome 5A as the ABA QTL.  Work is, therefore, in progress to
 test whether the genes for low temperature response also affect the
 production of ABA, both in response to cold stress and to other stresses.
 
 -------------------------
      R M D Koebner and P K Martin
 
      Germplasm screening for salt tolerance in wheat and triticale.  The
 nutrient film technique hydroponics system, where plants are grown in a
 rockwood or vermiculite medium, and are irrigated from below by a flowing
 stream of nutrient solution, has been adapted to provide a large scale
 screen for salt tolerance of the wheat/triticale collection held at the JI
 Centre.  This collection consists of about 9000 accessions of cultivars,
 land-races and breeders' lines.  The plants have been subjected to a high
 level of salt stress (50mM NaC1), a level which kills the vast majority of
 wheat genotypes after exposure of 4-6 weeks.  However, preliminary results
 have shown that a small number of durum and aestivum wheats can tolerant
 this salinity level and continue to grow, albeit slowly.  However, a
 potentially more interesting finding has been that several triticales of
 Polish origin (but for the most part not those of CIMMYT origin) are highly
 tolerant and maintain good growth under these conditions.  We are interested
 in examining the genetical basis of this tolerance, and in testing this
 material under natural salinity conditions.  These novel sources of salt
 tolerance have, in most cases, been found within accessions that have not
 been selected for or bred in saline environments.
 
 -------------------------
      J E Flintham
 
      Red grain colour genes in hexaploid breadwheats.  A collection of 58
 winter and 10 spring cultivars have been characterized for their genotypes
 at the R1, R2 and R3 loci by test crossing to white-grained lines, to
 Chinese Spring (R1) and to Red Bobs (R2).  Most of the tested wheats are
 included.  Recessive r alles are present at about the same frequency as the
 R alleles.  Data from germination tests have confirmed that dormancy is
 largely dependant on the presence of red pigment in the testa, however it
 has become evident that other (unidentified) genes give rise to wide
 variation for dormancy amongst commercial cultivars.  RFLP markers have been
 identified within 5cM or the R loci.
 
 -------------------------
      J S Heslop-Harrison, T Schwarzacher and co-authors.
 
      Analysis of breeding lines.  We have used total genomic DNA as a probe
 to examine a number of wheat breeding lines with wheat-alien recombinant
 chromosomes.  Information about the physical sizes of the alien chromosomes
 is a valuable addition to knowledge of map and phenotypic data. 
 Developments of both chromosome and probe preparation techniques have been
 described in a number of technical publications.
 
      Changes in cell cultures.  Long term suspension cell cultures of wheat
 are potentially of value for transformation, gene isolation and genetic
 analysis.  However, many chromosomal changes occur, and we have shown using
 in situ hybridization that the copy number of the ribosomal genes is
 enormously reduced, and many sites of tandemly repeated DNA are lost.  These
 rearranged chromosomes may be useful for studying genetic architecture.
 
                         Publications
 
 Abbo S, Dunford RP, Miller TE, Reader SM, King IP. 1993.  Primer-mediated in
 situ detection of the B-hordein gene cluster on barley chromosome 1H. 
 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90, 11821-11824.
 
 Abbo S, Miller TE, King IP. 1993.  Primer-induced in situ hybridization to
 plant chromosomes.  Genome 36, 815-815.
 
 Aitken KS (1993)  Genetic Analysis of Grain Protein Content in Wheat, Ph.D.
 Thesis, University of East Anglia.
 
 Anamthawat-Jonsson K, Heslop-Harrison JS. 1993.  Isolation and
 characterization of genome-specific DNA sequences in Triticeae species. 
 Mol. Gen. Genet. 240: 151-158.
 
 Borner A, Appleford NEJ, Gale MD, Lenton JR. 1993.  Gibberellin status and
 responsiveness in relation to leaf expansion in tall and dwarf genotypes of
 diploid rye (Secale cereale L.).  Physiologia Plantarum 89, 309-3l4.
 
 Cabanne F, Snape JW. 1993.  Absence of differential metabolism of
 chlorotoluron in isogenic susceptible and tolerant lines of wheat. 
 Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 47, 56-59.
 
 Devos KM, Atkinson MD, Chinoy CN, Harcourt RL. Koebner RMD, Liu CJ, Masojc
 P, Xie DX, Gale MD. 1993.  Chromosomal rearrangements in the rye genome
 relative to that of wheat.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics 85, 673-680.
 
 Devos KM, Gale MD. 1993.  Extended genetic maps of the homoeologous group 3
 chromosomes of wheat, rye and barley.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics 85,
 649-652.
 
 Devos KM, Gale MD. 1993.  The genetic maps of wheat and their potential in
 plant breeding.  Outlook on Agriculture 22, 93-99.
 
 Devos KM, Millan T, Gale MD Comparative RFLP maps of the homoeologous group-
 2 chromosomes of wheat, rye and barley.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics
 85, 784-792.
 
 Flavell RB, Gale MD, O'Dell M, Murphy G, Moore G, Lucas H. 1993.  Molecular
 organisation of genes and repeats in the large cereal genomes and
 implications for the isolation of genes by chromosome walking.  Chromosomes
 Today 11, 199-213.
 
 Flintham JE. 1993.  Grain colour and sprout-resistance in wheat.  In:  Pre-
 Harvest Sprouting in Cereals 1992. (Eds:  Walker-Simmons MK, Ried JL). 
 Minnesota, American Association of Cereal Chemists, 30-36.
 
 Heslop-Harrison JS. 1993.  Applications of molecular cytogenetics in the
 Triticeae.  In: (Ed:  Damania A), Biodiversity and wheat improvement. 
 Chichester: Wiley and Sons, 3l-38.
 
 Heslop-Harrison JS, Leitch AR, Schwarzacher T. 1993.  The physical
 organization of interphase nuclei. In: (Eds: Heslop-Harrison JS, Flavell
 RB), The Chromosome. Oxford: 
 BIOS, 221-232.
 
 Heslop-Harrison JS, Schwazacher T. 1993.  Molecular cytogenetics - biology
 and applications in plant breeding.  Chromosomes Today 11:  191-198.
 
 Hollington PA, Royo A, Aragues R, Miller TE. 1991.  The responses of wheat
 cultivars and hybrids to controlled field salinity.  In:  Proceedings of the
 Second Conference of the European Society of Agronomy, 88.
 
 Hyne G, Wang G, Pike D, Snape JW. 1993.  Partial genome analysis for QTL in
 wheat.  In:  Seventeenth International Congress of Genetics. Ed:  Meredith
 M, Thatcham, The Quadraphics Partnership, 120.
 
 Johnson R. 1993.  Durability of disease resistance in crops:  some closing
 remarks about the topic and the symposium.  In:  Durability of Disease
 Resistance (Eds:  Jacobs TH, Parlevliet JE) Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic
 Press, 283-300.
 
 Johnson R. 1993.  A project to transfer durable resistance to stripe
 (yellow) rust from European to Indian bread wheats.  In: Durability of
 Disease Resistance (Eds:  Jacobs, TH, Parlevliet, JE) Dordrecht, Kluwer
 Academic Press, 328.
 
 Johnson R. (1993).  Past, present and future opportunities in breeding for
 disease resistance, with examples from wheat, Euphytica 63, 3-22.
 
 Johnson R, Bonman JM. 1993.  Durable resistance to blast in rice and to
 yellow rust in wheat.  In:  New Frontiers in Rice Research (Eds:
 Muralidharan K, Siddiq EA).  Hyderabad, Directorate of Research, Research,
 206-2l2.
 
 Johnson R, Jellis GJ (Eds). 1992.  Breeding for Disease Resistance,
 Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
 
 King IP, Laurie DA. 1993.  Chromosome damage in early embryo and endosperm
 development in crosses involving the preferentially transmitted 4S(1)
 chromosome of Aegilops sharonensis.  Heredity 70, 52-59.
 
 King IP, Purdie KA, Orford SE, Reader SM, Miller TE. 1993.  Detection of
 homoeologous recombination in Triticum durum x Thinopyrum bessarabicum
 hybrids using genomic in situ hybridization.  Heredity 72, 369-372.
 
 King IP, Purdie, KA, Reader SM, Orford SE, Abbo S, Miller TE. 1993. 
 Detection of homoelogous chiasma formation in wheat x alien hybrids.  In: 
 Seventeenth International Congress of Genetics (Ed:  Meredith M).  Thatcham,
 The Quadgraphic Partnership, 136.
 
 King IP, Purdie KA, Rezanoor HN, KJoebner RMD, Miller TE, Reader SM,
 Nicholson P. 1993.  Characterisation of Thinopyrum bessarabicum chromosome
 segments in wheat using random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) and
 genomic in situ hybridisation.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics 86, 895-
 900.
 
 Koebner RMD, Chinoy CN. 1993.  Monoclonal antibodies:  a novel source of
 genetic markers.  In: Proceedings of the 8th International Wheat Genetics
 Symposium Beijing, China, in press.
 
 Leitch AR, Heslop-Harrison JS. 1993. Ribosomal RNA gene expression and
 localization in cereals.  Chromosomes Today 11: 92-100.
 
 Leitch AR, Schwarzacher T, Jackson D, Leitch IJ. 1994. In Situ
 Hybridization.  Royal Microspocical Society Handbook 27. Oxford: BIOS. 
 
 Mahmood A, Quarrie SA (1993).  Effects of salinity of growth, ionic
 relations and physiological traits of wheat, disomic addition lines from
 Thinopyrum bessarabicum and two amphiploids.  Plant Breeding 110, 265-276.
 
 Masojc P, Zawistowski J, Howes NK, Aung T, Gale MD. 1993.  Polymorphism and
 chromosomal location of an endogenous alpha-amylase inhibitor genes in
 common wheat.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics 85, 1043-1048.
 
 Miller TE, Reader SM, Mahmood A, Purdie KA, King IP. 1993. Chromosome 3N of
 Aegilops uniaristata - a source of tolerance to high levels of aluminium for
 what.  In: Proceedings of the 8th International Wheat Genetics Symposium,
 Beijing, in press.
 
 Moore G, Abbo S, Cheung W, Foote T, Gale MD, Koebner RMD, Leitch AR, Leitch
 IJ, Money T, Stancombe P, Yano M, Flavell R. 1933. Key features of cereal
 genome organisation as revealed by the use of cytosine methylation-sensitive
 restriction endonucleases.  Genomics 15, 472-482.
 
 Moore G, Gale MD, Flavell RB. 1993.  Molecular analysis of small grain
 cereal genomes:  Current status and prospects.  Bio/Technology, 584-589.
 
 Nicholson P, Jenkinson P, Rezanoor HN, Parry DW. 1993. Restriction fragment
 length polymorphism analysis of variation in Fusarium species causing ear
 blight of cereals.  Plant Pathology 42, 905-9l4.
 
 Nicholson P, Rezanoor HN, Hollins TW. 1993. Classification of a world-wide
 collection of isolates of Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides by RFLP
 analysis of mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA and host range.  Plant Pathology
 422, 58-66.
 
 Nicholson P, Rezanoor HN, Worland AJ. 1993. Chromosomal location of
 resistance to Septoria nodorum in synthetic hexaploid wheat determined by
 the study of chromosomal substitution lines in 'Chinese Spring' wheat. 
 Plant Breeding, 177-184.
 
 Petrovi  S, Worland AJ. 1992. Height reducing genes I. determination of the
 presence in Yugoslavian wheat varieties.  Savremena Poljoprivreda 40, 8l-85.
 
 Petrovi  S, Worland AJ. 1993. Height reducing genes II. pleiotropic effect
 in Yugoslavian wheat varieties.  Savremena Poljoprivreda 41, 91-95.
 
 Plaschke J, Borner A, Xie DX, Koebner RMD, Schlegel R, Gale MD. 1993.  RFLP
 mapping of genes affecting plant height and growth habit in rye. 
 Theoretical and Applied Genetics 85, 1049-1054.
 
 Quarrie SA. 1993. Understanding plant responses to stress and breeding for
 impaired stress resistance - the generation gap.  In:  Plant Responses to
 Cellular Dehydration during Environmental Stress, 16th Annual Symposium in
 Plant Physiology, University of California, Riverside, 224-245.
 
 Rubiales D, Brown JKM, Martin A. 1993. Hordeum chilense resistance to
 powdery mildew and its potential use in cereal breeding. Euphytica 67, 2l5-
 220.
 
 Schlegel R, Kynast R, Schwarzacher T, Romheld V, Walter A. 1993. Mapping of
 genes for copper efficiency in rye and the relationship between copper and
 iron efficiency.  Plant Soil l54: 6l-65.
 
 Schwarzacher T, Leitch AR, Leitch IJ, Heslop-Harrison JS. 1994. Three
 chapters on insitu hybridization.  Methods in Molecular Biology:  Protocols
 for Nucleic Acid Analysis by Non-radioactive Techniques, ed. Isaac PG,
 Humana Press:  New Jersey.
 
 Taeb M, Koebner RMD, Forster BP. 1993. Gene expression and ABA biosynthesis
 in water stressed plants.  Journal of Experimental Botany 44 supplement, 40.
 
 Thompson GB, Brown JKM, Woodward FI. 1993. The effects of host carbon
 dioxide, nitrogen and water supply on the infection of wheat by powdery
 mildew and aphids.  Plant, Cell and Environment 16, 687-694.
 
 Wang G, Snape JW, Hu H, Rogers WJ. 1993.  The high-molecular-weight glutenin
 subunit compositions of Chinese bread wheat varieties and their relationship
 with bread-making quality. Euphytica 68, 205-212.
 
 Worland AJ, Law CN. 1992. Improving disease resistance in wheat by
 inactivating genes promoting disease susceptibility.  Mutations Newsletter,
 2-7.
 
 Xie DX, Devos KM, Moore G, Gale MD. 1993. RFLP-based genetic maps of the
 homoeologous group 5 chromosomes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
 Theoretical and Applied Genetics 87, 70-74.
                         
 -------------------------
                     ITEMS FROM THE UNITED STATES
 
 ARKANSAS
 
      University of Arkansas
 
      R.K. Bacon*, E.A. Milus*, B.R. Wells and J.T. Kelly 
 
      Production.  According to the Arkansas Agricultural Statistics Service,
 Arkansas farmers planted 1,100,000 acres and harvested 1,000,000 acres of
 winter wheat in 1993.  Average yield in the state was 41 bu/A, accounting
 for a total production of 41,000,000 bu.  Yields were generally high
 probably due in part to cool temperatures during grain fill and low leaf
 rust and leaf blotch severity.  Low test weight continued to be a problem.
 
      Management.  Soil fertility research with wheat in Arkansas has
 concentrated on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) during the past year. 
 Research is continuing on wheat cultivar response to N rate and fungicide
 treatment.  This work shows that the newer wheat cultivars respond to higher
 N fertilizer rates as compared to the older cultivars.  As with the older
 cultivars, fertilization with excessive N rates aggravates disease problems
 and makes the use of foliar fungicides an essential part of the management
 program, often without an economical increase in grain yields.  Current
 research has shown rather conclusively that wheat growing on soils with poor
 internal drainage, low available soil P and under high rainfall conditions
 will respond to topdress applications of P fertilizer made anytime from
 seeding in the fall until March.  Additionally, studies have shown that P
 availability is reduced in soils where wheat follows rice and wheat will
 respond dramatically to P fertilizer applications made on these soils.
 
      Diseases.  Stem rust and barley yellow dwarf were more severe in 1993
 than in any of the previous five years.  Stem rust devastated some fields of
 susceptible cultivars, especially in southern Arkansas.  Barley yellow dwarf
 occurred statewide and caused considerable yield and test weight losses in
 many fields.  Scab was found in many fields but was severe in only a few
 areas.  The greatest scab severities were associated with rotations
 immediately after rice or corn.  Soilborne viruses and bacterial streak were
 not as severe as in previous years.  Leaf rust and septoria leaf blotch
 generally developed too late to cause significant damage.
 
      Progress was made in understanding the epidemiology and control of
 bacterial streak caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens.  The
 bacterium did not survive well over summer in crop debris, alternative
 hosts, or soil, and therefore crop rotation or weed control are not
 necessary to reduce initial inoculum.  Infested seed was the principle
 source of initial inoculum, but the level of transmission from seed to
 plants was extremely low under field conditions.  An inoculation technique
 and disease reaction scales were developed to identify bacterial streak
 resistance in seedlings and adult plants under controlled conditions.  There
 was no evidence for races of X. c. translucens among 81 strains from North
 and South America that were tested on 19 wheat cultivars.
 
      Fungicides registered or tested experimentally on wheat did not control
 Fusarium head blight (scab) or reduce the level of deoxynivalenol in the
 grain.  A new project was begun to transfer fungal endophytes into wheat.
 
      Breeding and Genetics.  Due to its superior combination of high yield
 and high test weight, the experimental line AR 26413A will be released to
 seedsmen this summer as `Hazen.'  It was developed from the cross
 Doublecrop/Purdue 6559B5-6-6-6-1.  The original selection (AR 26413) was
 phenotypically mixed for head type, maturity, and color.  It was purified
 using head rows and then drill strips.  The seed from the bronze, awnless
 drill rows was bulked as AR 26413B and the awned, white line was bulked as
 AR 26413A.  Both AR 26413A and AR 26413B were tested in the Uniform Eastern
 and Uniform Southern Nurseries.
 
      AR 26413A has shown excellent adaptation at test sites around the state
 except for the extreme Southwest.  Averaged across 5 locations it was the
 second highest yielding entry in the 1992-93 State Performance trials under
 high management practices.  AR 26413A has a higher test weight than any of
 the other cultivars in the University's foundation seed program.
 
      AR 26413A is an awned, white chaffed line.  It has excellent straw
 strength and is moderately resistant to leaf rust, the soil-borne virus
 complex, and bacterial streak.  Overall combined quality score indicates
 acceptable milling and baking characteristics.  Most likely it will serve as
 a replacement for Cardinal in the Foundation Seed program.  Compared to
 Cardinal it is equal in yield potential, has almost 1 lb. heavier test
 weight, is 2 days earlier in maturity, is 5 inches shorter, and has better
 resistance to leaf rust.
 
      The nitrogen utilization research is being continued.  Lines that were
 selected for high and low nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in two
 populations, Keiser/McNair 1003 and Keiser/Saluda were evaluated last year
 at one location.  Ten lines were selected for high NRA and 10 lines selected
 for low NRA from each population based on their yield performance.  These
 lines were planted this fall at two locations and will be evaluated under
 four different rates of spring-applied N fertilizer.    
 
      Personnel.  Dr. Agha Mirlohi, a former research associate in wheat
 pathology, has a faculty position at the Esfahan Agricultural University in
 Iran.
 
                         Publications
 
 Bacon, R.K., J.T. Kelly, and C.E. Parsons. 1993. 1992-93 Arkansas small-
 grain cultivar performance tests. pp. 37.
 
 Correll, M.D., B.R. Wells, R.K. Bacon, and J.T. Kelly. 1993. Wheat response
 to time of phosphorus application. Better Crops. 77(4):27-29. 
 
 Correll, M.D., B.R. Wells, R.K. Bacon, and J.T. Kelly.  1993. Wheat response
 to time of application of phosphorus fertilizer. p. 49-51.  In W.E. Sabbe,
 editor.  Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 1992.  Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn.
 Research Series. 425.
 
 Kelly, J.T., R.K. Bacon, and B.R. Wells. 1993. Nitrogen utilization in soft
 wheat. Ark. Farm Res. 42(4):14-15.
 
 Mahmood, T., Gergerich, R.C., Milus, E.A., West, C.P., and D'Arcy, C.J. 
 1993. Incidence of barley yellow dwarf viruses in wheat, endophyte-infected
 and endophyte-free fescue, and other hosts in Arkansas. Plant Dis. 77:225-
 228.
 
 Mahmood, T., Gergerich, R.C., Milus, E.A., and West, C.P. 1993. Barley
 yellow dwarf virus incidence in wheat and other hosts. Ark. Farm Res.
 42(3):12-13.
 
 Milus, E.A. 1993. Leaf rust, septoria leaf blotch, and fungicide effects on
 wheat.  Ark. Farm Res. 42 (6):3-5.
 
 Milus, E.A. and Holt, W. 1993. Effect of fungicides on germination of wheat
 seed, 1992. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 48:337.
 
 Milus, E.A. and Mirlohi, A.F. 1993. A test tube assay for estimating
 populations of Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens on individual wheat
 leaves. Phytopathology 83:134-139.
 
 Milus, E.A., Mirlohi, A.F., and Parsons, C.E. 1993. Evaluation of foliar
 fungicides on wheat, 1992. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 48:238.
 
 Milus, E.A., and Parker, P.W. 1993. Evaluation of seed treatments for loose
 smut of wheat, 1992. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 48:335. 
 
 Milus, E.A., Penix, S.E., and Parker, P.W. 1993. Evaluation of seed
 treatments on "scabby" seed lots of wheat, 1992. Fungicide and Nematicide
 Tests 48:336.
 
 Milus, E.A. and Rothrock, C.S.  1993. Rhizosphere colonization of wheat by
 selected soil bacteria over diverse environments. Can. J. Microbiol. 39:335-
 341.
 
 Milus, E.A. 1994. Effects of leaf rust and Septoria leaf blotch on yield and
 test weight of wheat in Arkansas. Plant Dis. 78:55-59.
 
 Milus, E.A. and Mirlohi, A.F.  1994. Use of disease reactions to identify
 resistance in wheat to bacterial streak. Plant Dis. 78:157-161.
 
 Milus, E.A., Penix, S.E., and Gbur, E.E.  1994. Progress of Septoria nodorum
 infection on wheat cultivars.  Ark. Farm Res. 43 (1):14-15.
 
 Milus, E.A. 1994. Effect of foliar fungicides on disease control, yield, and
 test weight in soft red winter wheat. Crop Protection (in press).
 
 Milus, E.A. and Chalkley, D.B. 1994. Virulence of Xanthomonas campestris pv.
 translucens on selected wheat cultivars.  Plant Dis. (in press).
 
 Milus, E.A. and Mirlohi, A.F. 1994. Source of inoculum for bacterial streak
 of wheat.  Ark. Farm Res. (in press).
 
 Milus, E.A., Mirlohi, A.F., and Chalkley, D.B.  1994. An inoculation
 technique to identify resistance in wheat to bacterial streak.  Ark. Farm
 Res. (in press).
 
 Milus, E.A. and Parsons, C.E.  1994.  Evaluation of foliar fungicides for
 controlling Fusarium head blight of wheat.  Plant Dis. (in press).
 
 Wells, B.R., R.K. Bacon, and J.T. Kelly. 1993. Wheat cultivar response to N
 rate and fungicide treatment. p. 52-57.  In W.E. Sabbe, editor.  Arkansas
 Soil Fertility Studies 1992.  Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Research Series.
 425.
 
 -------------------------
 CALIFORNIA
 
      Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California,
      Riverside
 
      Christine A. Curtis, Bahman Ehdaie, Khouzama Knio, Adam J. Lukaszewski,
      Rana Tayyar, J. Giles Waines, and Xitang Xu
 
      Water-use efficiency and its components in bread wheat (Ehdaie and
      Waines)
 
      We defined water-use efficiency (WUE) as the ratio of grain yield (GY)
 to evapotranspiration water (ET) (Ehdaie and Waines, 1993).  The two primary
 components of WUE were defined as evapotranspiration efficiency (ETE = total
 dry matter/ET) and harvest index (HI = GY/total dry matter).  Thus, WUE
 could be expressed as:  WUE = GY/TE = (ETE) (HI).  Our preliminary results
 in well-watered pot experiments with seven wheat cultivars indicated that
 ETE and HI accounted for 59% and 41%, respectively, of the genetic variation
 in WUE.  A negative correlation (r = -0.73**) was found between ETE and HI. 
 Further study was conducted in the glasshouse and the field under well-
 watered and water-stressed conditions in 1992/93 season.  The data obtained
 is being subjected to statistical analysis to measure the effects of ETE and
 HI on WUE and to determine the relationship between the two components of
 WUE. 
 
 -------------------------
      Nitrogen-use efficiency in bread and macaroni wheat (Ehdaie and Waines)
 
      Nitrogen is the most expensive fertilizer nutrient used to raise wheat
 crops.  A sizable portion of applied N is lost by leaching and
 denitrification.  Therefore, plant breeders need to develop wheat cultivars
 that can absorb N more efficiently from the soil and partition most of the
 absorbed N into the grain.  In order to determine the genotypic variation of
 nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) among California bread and macaroni wheat
 cultivars, field experiments were conducted in 1993 using 15 cultivars and 3
 levels of N application.  In 1994, the same genotypes and levels of N were
 used at two different dates of planting.  The data obtained from the 1993
 experiments is being subjected to statistical analyses for NUE. 
 
 -------------------------
      Chromosomal locations of genes controlling water-use efficiency in
      bread wheat (Ehdaie and Waines)
  
      We are studying the locations of genes controlling transpiration
 efficiency (TE = total dry matter/water transpired) and water-use efficiency
 (WUE = grain yield/water used) using the technique of ditelocentric
 chromosome analysis.  The wheat cultivar with high TE and WUE is 'Chinese
 Spring', which is the cultivar used by E.R. Sears to make the original
 chromosome aneuploid series.  Twenty-four ditelocentric (half chromosome)
 lines and the Chinese Spring euploid line are being used in a gravimetric
 pot study in the glasshouse in well-watered conditions for TE, WUE, and
 carbon isotope discrimination. 
 
 -------------------------
      Inheritance of resistance to Russian wheat aphid in bread wheat
 (Ehdaie)
 
      Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Mardivilko) was found for the
 first time in California in spring 1988.  It has caused severe damage to
 wheat and barley in other western states.  Russian wheat aphid (RWA) was
 present since 1989/90 season in our field experiments at the Moreno Field
 Station, causing leaves to streak and curl.  In the 1990/91 and the
 subsequent seasons, several landrace wheat genotypes collected from
 southeastern Iran showed excellent resistance to this pest.  One of these
 genotypes was crossed to two susceptible spring wheat cultivars, Yecora Rojo
 and PR 2375, in the 1992/93 season.  In the 1993/94 season, F(1) seeds and
 seeds from the parents were sown in the glasshouse to produce F(2)and
 backcross generations.  The parental, F(1), F(2), and backcross generations
 will be evaluated next season to determine the inheritance of resistance to
 RWA. 
 
 -------------------------
      Population structure of weedy goat grasses (Waines, Knio, Tayyar)
 
      The most serious weedy goat grass is Aegilops triuncialis L. which has
 invaded pasture lands and roadsides in northern and central California.  The
 inflorescence is disseminated as a complete spike, possibly by grazing
 animals or wind.  Seeds of spikelets at the base of the spike germinate
 first and germination progresses towards the apex.  There are usually four
 to eight spikelets per spike and two seeds per spikelet, which can produce
 eight to sixteen seedlings.  These are full-sibs if the florets are self-
 pollinated, or half-sibs if there is cross-pollination.  Seedlings from the
 same spike grow together and produce seemingly different tillers of a large
 grass clump, as though they are tillers developed from a single seed. 
 However, they are really full- or half-sibs that form a "hill population"
 familiar to plant breeders.  Polymorphism for the enzyme phosphoglucose
 isomerase indicates that there is some outcrossing  among different tillers
 or plants in Ae. triuncialis populations in California.  The ability to
 disseminate small outcrossin "hill" populations may help explain the
 aggressive nature of this noxious weeds. gilops ovata has a dissemination
 unit similar to, but with fewer spikelets and seeds, than Ae. triuncialis. 
 It is restricted to one area of northern California. 
 
      Jointed goat grass, Ae. cylindrica, has individual spikelets as
 dissemination units.  These may be carried by cattle or possibly by
 harvester ants.  At germination, two seedlings emerge from each spikelet,
 and polymorphism for the enzymes phosphoglucose isomerase and menadione
 reductase indicates the population at Elwood Mesa, Santa Barbara County, is
 partially outcrossed.  Jointed goat grass is a serious weed in northern
 California. 
 
      Aegilops speltoides from near Tarsus, southern Turkey, is polymorphic
 for the dissemination unit:  entire spikes or individual spikelets.  Both
 morphs are polymorphic for several enzymes which indicated that the species
 is outcrossing.  On the other hand, Triticum urartu from Syria which also is
 disseminated as individual spikelets, possibly by seed harvesting ants,
 appears to be monomorphic for many enzymes, and may be largely self-
 pollinated.  The population structure and the dissemination unit of these
 weedy goat grasses and wild wheats may help explain their success as
 colonizing species.
 
 -------------------------
      Wheat cytogenetics (Curtis, Lukaszewski, Xu)
 
      Physical distribution of the ph1b-induced homoeologous recombination
 was observed in pairs of homoeologous chromosomes 7A and 7S, 1R and 1B, 1R
 and 1D, 1B and 1D, and 1B and 1A.  The location of the translocation
 breakpoints was analyzed in over 200 recombinant chromosomes.  The
 translocation breakpoints were concentrated in the distal ends of chromosome
 arms and absent fromthe proximal halves of chromosome arms.  The
 distribution appeared almost identical to that observed among homologues in
 the B-genome chromosomes of wheat.  However, at this point a possibility
 cannot be entirely ruled that the distribution of recombination may be
 related to the degree of pairing affinity of homoeologues.  In the case of
 recombination involving remotely related chromosomes like those of wheat and
 rye, a higher frequency of proximal translocation breakpoints was observed
 than had been expected on the basis of the distribution of recombination in
 homologues.
 
      Metaphase I behavior of pairs of chromosomes deficientfor different
 segments was studied in Chinese Spring wheat.  The MI pairing frequency was
 similar to that observed in combinations of normal + deficient so that even
 a small difference in length on the distal end of an arm caused dramatic
 reduction in pairing frequency.  This also held true for an asymmetrical
 isochromosome constructed from the long arm of chromosome 1B.  One arm of
 this chromosome is deficient for about 20% of its length; the other for
 about 50%.  The two arms of this asymmetrical isochromosome  never paired
 with each other.  In a plant diisosomic for this chromosome, pairing was
 between the arms of the same length.  This tends to support the notion that
 the alignment of telomeres plays a critical role in pairing initiation in
 wheat.
 
      Homoeologous pairing was induced by the ph1b mutation between
 chromosome 7A and 7S of Aegilops speltoides in Pavon wheat.  Chromosome 7S
 carries genes for resistance to leaf rust, greenbug and, possibly,
 blackpoint.  Twenty-five recombinants and one centric translocation were
 recovered.  The recombinants were screened for leaf rust resistance, and the
 segment of the short arm of 7S with the resistance gene was identified.  The
 gene appears to be located about 70% of the relative arm length away from
 the centromere.  Dr. K. Porter of USDA-ARS, Stillwater, OK, is testing the
 recombinants for greenbug resistance to identify the segment of 7S with the
 resistance gene.
 
      As it was reported previously, complete chromosomes 1R and 1B were
 reconstructed from the 1RS.1BL translocation of 'Kavkaz' origin.  The
 reconstructed chromosome 1R was moved, by monosomic shift, to replace
 chromosomes 1A and 1D, and all three substitutions of this chromosome, for
 1A, 1B, and 1D were isolated.  In the process, translocations 1RS.1AL and
 1RS.1BL were produced, and 1RS.1DL is being selected.  All these three
 translocations have the 1RS arm from the original Aurora/Kavkaz
 translocation and their long arms from Pavon wheat.  On the other hand, the
 reconstructed chromosome 1B was matched with chromosome 1R from a CIMMYT
 line E12165, and another new 1RS.1BL translocation was produced.  This
 translocation has the 1RS arm from chromosome 1R in the E12165, and 1BL arm
 from the Aurora/Kavkaz.  All these manipulations should allow us to
 determine which arm of the translocation 1RS.1BL of the Aurora/Kavkaz is
 responsible for yield increase.  The experiments with the 1RS.1BL
 translocation demonstrate redundancy in the centric regions of wheat chromo-
 somes.  A chromosome may undergo at least three cycles of centric breakage
 without appreciable loss of function.
 
 -------------------------
      Triticale cytogenetics (Lukaszewski)
 
      The total number of substitutions of the D-genome chromosomes in
 triticale Rhino was brought up to 18.  Still missing are 4D(4R), 7D(7B),
 7D(7R).  It does not appear likely that substitutions 4D(4R) and 7D(7R) are
 possible in Rhino.  A combination 20" + 4D" + 4R' was developed, but 4R is
 preferentially transmitted through the pollen and cannot be eliminated.  A
 combination 20" + 7D' (N7R) was sterile.  Monosomics of Rhino were advanced
 by another two backcrosses and only mono 7A, 3B and 5B remain with less than
 10 backcrosses to Rhino.
  
      In triticale Presto, the number of substitutions of the D-genome
 chromosomes was brought up to 19.  Still missing are 7D(7B) and 7D(7R).  The
 former was unsuccessfully sought among the progeny of a monosomic 20" + 7D'
 (N7B).  However, because of low male transmission rate of 7D, no disomics
 were identified and most of the progeny were nullisomic 7B.  Nullisomics 7B
 are fertile in Presto.  Also, substitution 4D(4R) was identified in Presto;
 it was fertile and produced good quality seed.  Monosomic lines in Presto
 are less advanced than in Rhino with about one half of the lines with less
 than ten backcrosses.
 
      The effects of the substitutions and translocations of chromosome 1D on
 SDS-sedimentation value were tested in several triticale lines.  In general,
 the introduction of the Glu-D1 gene appears to double the SDS-sedimentation
 value; the presence of Gli-D1, as in a whole chromosome substitution,
 increases the SDS-sedimentation value by another about 10%.  SDS-
 sedimentation values equal to the best wheat check (Wheaton) have been
 obtained in triticale Presto but, surprisingly, not the basis of the d
 allele of Glu-D1 (high molecular weight glutenin subunits 5+10), and not in
 the 1D(1R) substitution, but in the 1D(1A) substitution involving the a
 allele (subunits 2+12).  This may indicate that some secalins in triticale
 may have a positive effect on SDS-sedimentation value.
 
                         Publications
 
 Curtis, C. A. and A. J. Lukaszewski.  1993.  Localization of genes in rye
 that restore male fertility to hexaploid wheat with timopheevi cytoplasm. 
 Plant Breeding 111:106-112.
 
 Ehdaie, B., D. Barnhart, and J. G. Waines.  1993.  Genetic analyses of
 transpiration efficiency, carbon isotope discrimination, and growth
 characteristics in bread wheat, p. 4189-434.  In J. R. Ehleringer, G. D.
 Farquhar, and A. E. Hall (eds.), Stable Isotopes and Plant Carbon-Water
 Relations.  Acad. Press, San Diego. 
 
 Ehdaie, B. and J. G. Waines.  1993.  Genetic analysis of carbon isotope
 discrimination and agronomic characters in a bread wheat cross.  Theoret.
 Appl. Genet.  In press.
 
 Ehdaie, B. and J. G. Waines.  1993.  Growth and transpiration efficiency of
 near-isogenic lines for height in a spring wheat.  Crop Sci.  In press. 
 
 Ehdaie, B. and J. G. Waines.  1993.  Variation in water-use efficiency and
 its components in wheat.  I. Well-watered pot experiment.  Crop Sci. 33:294-
 299.
 
 Ehdaie, B. and J. G. Waines.  1993.  Water requirement and transpiration
 efficiency in primitive wheats:  a model for their  use, p. 187-197.  In A.
 B. Damania (ed.), Biodiversity and Wheat Improvement.  John
 Wiley/Sayce/ICARDA, Chichester, UK.
 
 Lukaszewski, A. J.  1993.  Reconstruction in wheat of complete chromosomes
 1B and 1R from the 1RS.1BL translocation of 'Kavkaz' origin.  Genome 36:821-
 824.
 
 Lukaszewski, A. J. and C. A. Curtis.  1993.  Physical distribution of
 recombination in B-genome chromosomes of wheat.  Theor. Appl. Genet. 86:121-
 127.
 
 Lukaszewski, A. J. and C. A. Curtis.  1994.  Transfer of the Glu-D1 gene
 from chromosome 1D to chromosome 1A in hexaploid triticale.  Plant Breeding. 
 In press.
 
 Waines, J. G., M. M. Rafi, and B. Ehdaie.  1993.  Yield components and
 transpiration efficiency in wild wheats, p. 173-186.  In A. B. Damania
 (ed.), Biodiversity and Wheat Improvement.  John Wiley/Sayce/ICARDA,
 Chichester, UK.
 
 -------------------------
 COLORADO
 
      Colorado State University 
 
      J.S. Quick, J. Stromberger, G.H. Ellis, R. Normann, A. Saidi, H. Dong,
      Q.A. Khan
 
      Production.  The 1993 Colorado winter wheat production was 94.5 million
 bushels, 137 percent of the 1991 crop, and the yield average was about 37
 bu/a.  Hard red spring, soft white spring and durum wheats were collectively
 grown on about 50,000 acres.  Leading cultivars were TAM 107, Lamar, Baca,
 Scout 66, and Hawk. The 1992 production season was generally very favorable.
 
 
      Breeding program.  Several new winter wheats were evaluated for
 potential release. Two advanced HRWW lines, CO880210 and CO880169, performed
 very well in 1992 and 1993 Colorado tests, and along with 2 RWA-resistant
 lines, are under foundation seed increase for possible release in 1994
 pending final seed increases and evaluation.  Selection progress was made
 for grain yield, grain volume weight, winter hardiness, resistance to
 shattering, drought tolerance, WSMV resistance, and bread-making quality.
 Cultivar performance trials and Russian wheat aphid evaluations were
 conducted statewide. Field tests of 8 T-57-derived resistant F7 lines at 5
 locations, and several hundred early generation lines in eastern Colorado
 identified 2 lines with cultivar potential for 1994 tests and several for
 further evaluation. Good agronomic, disease and bread-making properties
 suggests possible resistant cultivar release in 1994. 
 
      Russian wheat aphid. The Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) damage
 and cost in 1992 was about $2.0 million. The accumulated losses since 1986
 in Colorado are about $98.4 million. The aphid overwinters in Colorado and
 survives the dry summer on native and introduced grasses. Much project
 activity was associated with Russian wheat aphid (RWA) research where
 excellent cooperation resulted in useful information for improvement of RWA
 resistance in wheat. Field studies to determine the economic injury level on
 a resistant wheat line were conducted at Fort Collins in 1992 and 1993. RWA
 infestations resulted in significant yield reduction on susceptible wheat,
 but not on the improved resistant wheat.  The 4R chromosome of PI 386148
 triticale was backcrossed into wheat in an unstable condition including
 small segments and single doses, whereas in PI 386150 triticale x Lamar, the
 rye chromosome 4R was found as a disomic substitution and/or addition.
 Progeny derived from crosses between PI 386150 and Lamar and PI 386148 x
 Lamar were selected only for resistance to RWA. Preferential retention of 4R
 in resistant progenies indicates that this chromosome is associated with RWA
 resistance. Expression of this resistance appears to be disturbed by the
 action of the wheat chromosomes and the dosage effect. The lack of rye/wheat
 chromosome interchanges in advanced generations may indicate little
 homoeology between S. montanum and wheat chromosomes; hence, stabilization
 of resistance will be difficult. Other genetic studies on allelism among
 different sources of resistance will allow efficient gene pyramiding into
 new cultivars.
 
                         Publications
 
 Haley, S.D., Quick, J.S., and Morgan, J.A. 1993. Field excised- leaf water
 status evaluation and asscociations in winter wheat. Canadian J. Pl. Sci.
 73:55-63.
 
 Kisana, N.S., Nkongolo, K.K., Quick, J.S., and Johnson, D.L. 1993.
 Production of doubled haploids by anther culture and the wheat x maize
 method in a wheat breeding program. Plant Br. 110:96-102.
 
 Morgan, J.A., LeCain, D.R., McCaig, T.N., and Quick, J.S. 1993. Gas
 exchange, carbon isotope discrimination, and productivity in winter wheat.
 Crop Sci. 33:178-186.
 
 Nkongolo, K.K., Quick, J.S., Muhlmann, and Lapitan, N.L. 1993. An optimized
 fluorescence in situ hybridization procedure detecting rye chromatin in
 wheat. Genome 36:701-705.
 
 -------------------------
  GEORGIA
 
      J. W. Johnson,* B. M. Cunfer,*  J. J. Roberts,* G. D. Buntin, D. E.
      McMillin, and J. P. Wilson
 
      The 1993 Georgia winter wheat crop was grown on about 500,000 harvested
 acres and produced an average of 38 bushels per acre.  Excessive rainfall
 during the fall resulted in delay planting.  The winter temperatures were
 mild which resulted in good growth.  Grain yields were above average due to
 favorable winter and spring growing conditions.  Conditions at harvest time
 were favorable with no delays in harvesting.
 
      Germplasm:  Triticale germplasm GA-SRT with slow-rusting resistance to
 leaf rust was developed and jointly released by the USDA-ARS and the
 University of Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station.  GA-SRT is a spring-
 type triticale selected from the cross PI 429220/PI 434889.  Both parents
 are complete hexaploid triticales and express long latent periods of
 infection.  
 
      Research on Drought:  A study was conducted to reveal the genetic
 diversity in whet response to soil conditions which elicit a root signal. 
 Five spring wheat cultivars were established in the growth chamber in soil
 filled PVC tubes.  The water table treatment resulted in dry and hard top
 soil conditions.  Cultivars differed in their leaf water status, stomatal
 diffusive resistance and plant production.  Under conditions of a drying top
 soil, relative water content and leaf water potential increased in cultivars
 that had a higher stomatal diffusive resistance, indicating that stomatal
 activity was controlling leaf water status.  Therefore, the drying top soil
 elicited a root signal which caused stomatal closure and reduced plant
 production.  Two cultivars (Bethlehem and V748) consistently maintained
 relatively low stomatal diffusive resistance and high plant production. 
 These two cultivars had relatively fewer roots which may have been exposed
 to the drying top soil.
 
 Biochemical linkage.  Two hundred and fifty wheat accessions were examined
 for variation in the isozymes aconitase and alcohol dehydrogenase using
 starch gel electrophoresis.  While no isozyme variation was seen for alcohol
 dehydrogenase, variation was detected for aconitase and glucose phosphate
 isomerase.  The glucose phosphate isomerase phenotypes of wheat lines with
 the 1B-1Rs and 1A-1Rs wheat-rye translocations ere distinguished. 
 Therefore, evaluation of glucose phosphate phenotypes could potentially be
 used in wheat improvement programs to identify plants which are homozygous
 for wheat-rye translocations involving chromosome 1.  
 
      Near-isogenic lines (NIL) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell cv
 'Thatcher' exist for a number of genes conferring resistance to leaf rust,
 caused by Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm.  These NIL  were evaluated for
 the isozyme, endopeptidase.  The NIL with the leaf rust gene Lr19 exhibited
 a phenotype different from the recurrent parent, Thatcher.  All F(2) progeny
 from the cross NIL-Lr19 with a susceptible cultivar that exhibited the Lr19
 endopeptidase phenotype were resistant to leaf rust.  Maximum likelihood
 estimation of the F(2) progeny indicated a very tight linkage.   These
 conclusions were supported  by F(3) analysis.  Therefore, Lr19, which
 confers resistance to leaf rust and Ep-D1d, the gene encoding endopeptidase
 are linked.  This report provides new information which can be used in wheat
 improvement programs.  
 
      Lr19 is closely linked to a gene encoding yellow endosperm.  However,
 this linkage has been successfully broken.  Examination of cultivar with
 Lr19 and white endosperm still displayed the Lr19 endopeptidase phenotype,
 further indicating that Lr19 and endopeptidase are tightly linked. 
 Therefore, the endopeptidase phenotype can by used in wheat improvement
 programs where white or yellow flour color is desired.
 
      This linkage will allow plant breeders to use endopeptidase phenotypes
 to rapidly determine which breeding lines are homozygous for the Lr19 gene. 
 The association of the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase with the 1A/1R and
 1B/1R wheat-rye translocation will permit identification of plants with
 these alien chromosomes pieces and leaf rust resistant genes, Lr 24 and
 Lr26, respectively. As more isozyme markers are identified that are linked
 to genes conferring disease resistance, it will facilitate pyramiding
 resistance genes into one cultivar.
 
      PLANT PATHOLOGY.  Six barley germplasm lines (PI 572247 to PI 572252)
 with resistance to the barley biotype of Stagonospora nodorum (= Septoria
 nodorum) were deposited in the National Small Grains Collection at Aberdeen,
 ID.  The lines are six-row semihardy winter barleys adapted to the mid-
 Atlantic and southern U.S.  These are the second group of barley lines with
 resistance to S. nodorum released in North America (see Cunfer et al, Crop
 Sci. 30:1371).
 
      A book, "Seed-borne Diseases and Seed Health Testing of Wheat" edited
 by S.B. Mathur and Barry M. Cunfer, was published in 1993 (see full citation
 in the list of publications).  It has a soft binding and is 168 pages long. 
 The book discusses 27 diseases transmitted by seed and contains 70 color
 plates, five black and white photos, and disease cycles of seven diseases. 
 The cost is US$ 45.00.  The book can be ordered post-paid from the Danish
 Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries, P.O. Box
 34, Ryvangs Alle 78, DK-2900 Hellerup, Copenhagen, Denmark. 
 
      A survey of 36 wheat fields in 14 counties was conducted to determine
 the distribution and incidence of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) during
 1993.  Fifty leaf samples were collected randomly in each field from mid-
 flowering to early milk.  Samples were sent to Dr. Adrianna D. Hewings, USDA
 plant virologist at the University of Illinois, for analysis by ELISA.  BYDV
 was identified from each field.  More than 28% of the 1800 leaves assayed
 were positive for BYDV strain PAV.  In a companion survey of 25 fields in
 Alabama, 16.9% and 3.6% of leaves were positive for the PAV and RPV strains,
 respectively.  The winters of 1992 and 1993 were mild and aphid populations
 were high early in the spring.  The survey will be repeated in 1994.  Other
 studies are in progress to determine yield losses, aphid vectors of BYDV,
 time of infection, and selection of wheat lines with tolerance. 
 
      Wheat planted into sites where peach trees have been removed due to the
 complex known as `peach tree short-life' suppresses the pathogenic nematode
 Criconemella xenoplax for more than two years at levels comparable to that
 with soil fumigation.  Planting wheat is less costly and prevents potential
 adverse environmental effects from chemical fumigants.  
 
      A research bulletin summarizing more than 15 years work on changes in
 incidence and severity of wheat diseases in doublecropping conservation
 tillage systems in Georgia was prepared.  Changes in diseases were due
 primarily to lack of crop rotation and not to changes in survival of
 pathogens due to stubble remaining on the surface during the summer.  The
 major new disease that developed was take-all when wheat was planted several
 consecutive years in a wheat-soybean doublecropping system.  Wheat spindle
 streak and soilborne wheat mosaic occurred when susceptible cultivars were
 planted two or more years.  
  
      CEREAL RUST LAB. Cereal rust trap plots planted along a 2687 km route
 of interstate and federal highways in the southeastern United States were
 usedto study the over-summering and over-wintering biology of four major
 cereal rusts including leaf and stem rusts of wheat and crown and stem rusts
 of oats.  The system provided ease and speed of access for planting and
 monitoring and for general safety reasons.  Markers placed at 20 mile (32km)
 intervals were selected for the trap plot sites to conform to established
 cereal rust survey techniques.  Susceptible, well-adapted cultivars were
 pre-planted in the greenhouse for subsequent transplanting at the sites
 and/or seeded directly to increase the likelihood of plot survival.  The
 trials were conducted over a seven-year period, 1986-1993, with three years
 used to study over-summering, and four years to study over-wintering biology
 during the normal growing season.  Severe droughts limited survival in 1986
 and 1987.  In 1988, several plots along the Gulf Coast were flooded and
 died.  Planting and culturing techniques were modified each year to improve
 survival.  Over-summering data indicated this method is useful for
 monitoring cereal rust survival during the summer, but plot survival rates
 under extreme stress may limit effectiveness of the technique.  Trials
 during 1990-93 were promising, supplying both incidence and virulence data
 to supplement USDA-ARS Cereal Rust Laboratory annual surveys.  The technique
 is not only effective for cereal rust research but is also suitable for
 detecting other wind-borne pathogens, cereal and peanut viruses as well as
 insect pests at a reasonable cost.
 
 Blum, A. and J. W. Johnson.  1993.  Wheat cultivars respond differently to a
 drying top soil and a possible non-hydraulic root signal.  J. Exp. Bot.
 44:1149-1153.
 
 Cunfer, B. M. 1993. Leaf and glume blotch. pp. 73-81. In: Seed-borne
 diseases and seed health testing of wheat. Mathur, S. B., and Cunfer, B. M.
 (eds.). Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing
 Countries. Copenhagen. 168 pp.
 
 Cunfer, B. M. 1993. Other fungal diseases. pp. 123-128. In: Seed-borne
 diseases and seed health testing of wheat.  Danish Government Institute of
 Seed Pathology for Developing Countries. Copenhagen. 168 pp. 
 
 Hassett, S. W., D. E. McMillin, and J. W. Johnson.  1993.  Aconitase and
 glucose phosphate isomerase variation in hexaploid wheat.  Can. J. Plant
 Sci. 73:743-748.
 
 Johnson, J. W., D. E. McMillin, and J. J. Roberts.  1993.  Linkage of a
 biochemical marker to a leaf rust resistant gene.  International Crop
 Science Congress, Iowa, USA.
 
 Johnson, J. W., B. M. Cunfer, P. L. Bruckner, J. J. Roberts, G. D. Buntin,
 and D. Bland. 1993.  Registration of `GA-Gore' wheat. Crop Sci. 33:879.
 
 Johnson, J. W., G. D. Buntin, P. L. Bruckner, B. M. Cunfer, J. J. Roberts,
 and D. Bland. 1993.  Registration of `GA-Andy' wheat. Crop Sci. 33:880.
 
 Johnson, J. W., D. E. McMillin, and J. J. Roberts.  1993.  The use of
 isozymes as markers for pest resistance loci.  8th International Wheat
 Genetics Symposium, Beijing, China.
 
 McMillin, D. E., J. W. Johnson, and J. J. Roberts.  1993.  Linkage between
 endopeptidase Ep-D1d and a gene conferring leaf rust resistance (Lr19) in
 wheat.  Crop Sci. 33:1201-1203.
 
 Cunfer, B. M. 1994.  Management of pests on wheat and other cereal crops
 with an IPM program. Food Reviews International 10:159-175.
 
 Cunfer, B. M., and Rothrock, C. S. 1994.  The influence of conservation
 tillage and doublecropping practices on diseases of wheat in Georgia.
 Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations Research Bulletin (in press).
 
 Nyczepir, A.P., P. F. Bertrand, and B.M. Cunfer. 1993. Wheat/sorghum
 rotations for the preplant management of Criconemella xenoplax in peach.
 (Abstr.) Sixth Internat. Cong. Pl. Path. Montreal, Canada. p. 203.
 
 Cunfer, B. M. 1993. Suppression of Stagonospora nodorum on wheat with
 systemic seed treatments. (Abstr.) Phytopathology 83:1386.
 
 Wilson, J. P., P. L. Bruckner, G. Shaner, and J. W. Johnson.  1993. 
 Registration of GA-SRT slow leaf-rusting triticale germplasm.  Crop Sci
 33:349-350.
 
 Johnson, J. W. and John J. Roberts.  Changes in leaf rust virulences in
 Georgia and the Southeast.  Proceedings of the 1993 Meetings of the Southern
 Small Grain Workers.  Baton Rouge, LA.  April, 1993.
 
 Long, D. L., A. P. Roelfs, K. J. Leonard and J. J. Roberts. Virulence and
 Diversity of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici in the United States in 1991. 
 Plant Disease 77:786-791. 1993.
 
 Roberts, J. J., D. L. Long, R. E. Wilkinson and G.G. Ahlstrand. The role of
 wheat leaf epicuticular wax components in leaf rust germ tube growth.
 (Abstract). Phytopathology 83: 1381. 1993.
 
 Roelfs, A. P., D. L. Long, and J. J. Roberts. Races of Puccinia graminis in
 the United States during 1990.  Plant Disease 77:125-128.  1993.
 
 Roelfs, A. P., D. L. Long, and J. J. Roberts. Races of Puccinia graminis in
 the United States during 1991.  Plant Disease 77:129-132.  1993.
 
 Roelfs, A. P., D. L. Long, and J. J. Roberts. 1993c.  Races of Puccinia
 graminis in the United States during 1992.  Plant Disease 77:1122-1125.
 
      Personnel:  Dr. Yong Seo joined the small grain team in 1993 from the
 University of Nebraska.  He has a strong background in monoclonal antibiotic
 research.
 
 -------------------------
 IDAHO
 
      University of Idaho, Moscow and Aberdeen
    
      R. Zemetra*, E. Souza*, S. Guy*, S. Quisenberry, D. Schotzko, M.
      Lauver, J.M. Windes, M. Heikkinen, M. Rafi, F. Mohammad, and L.A.
      Mercado 
 
      Production.  The 1993 Idaho winter wheat production was 67 million
 bushels, a  28% increase from 1992.  The increase can be attributed to
 favorable moisture conditions in the winter and spring, and cooler than
 normal late spring and summer temperatures.  Seventy-eight percent of the
 production was soft white winter wheat with the rest being hard red winter
 wheat.  Due to the extended periods of snow cover in the state, both snow
 mold and dwarf bunt were problems in some areas.  The cool moist conditions
 in the late spring and summer were very favorable for the foliar rust
 diseases.  Late maturing cultivars were especially effected by leaf rust and
 stem rust resulting in reduced yield and test weight in susceptible
 cultivars.  Precipitation at harvest in some areas caused sprouting which
 also reduced test weight. Statistics for the Idaho winter wheat production
 for the last five years are shown below.
 
 
 Year    Acres planted        Acres harvest      Yield      Prod. (bu)
             x1000              x1000            bu/ac        x1000
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1989      880              810           70       56,700
 1990      960              920           75       69,000
 1991      870              700           70       49,000
 1992      870              800           65       52,000
 1993      920              850           79       67,00
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 
      Cultivar Development   In 1993 the Aberdeen wheat breeding program
 released Bonneville, a new hard red winter wheat.  Bonneville was tested
 under the breeding line number IDO421 and is targeted for dryland production
 in areas with snow mold.  Bonneville has excellent snow mold tolerance and
 dwarf bunt resistance, similar to Survivor.  Based on pedigree and common
 bunt reaction Bonneville likely carries Bt12 and one or more additional
 dwarf bunt resistance factors.  Yield of Bonneville has been superior to
 Survivor with stiffer straw and better test weight, than Survivor or
 Blizzard.  Milling yield has been excellent and baking quality better than
 Survivor, Weston, and Blizzard.  
 
      During a trade team evaluation at the Wheat Marketing Center, the hard
 white spring wheat breeding line IDO377S was identified as having superior
 Korean noodle quality.  IDO377S has starch viscosity ratings (RVA score)
 similar to Klasic without Klasic's tendency to produce grey noodles.  Bread
 baking quality of IDO377S has been inferior to Klasic.  IDO377S has
 excellent yield potential in dryland and irrigated production areas of the
 Pacific Northwest.  IDO377S has been proposed for release in 1994.
 
      In 1993 the Moscow wheat breeding program released Lambert, a new soft
 white winter wheat.  Lambert was tested under the breeding line number ID85-
 153.  Lambert is targeted for the intermediate to high rainfall dryland
 areas in Northern Idaho, Eastern Washington and Eastern Oregon.  It can be
 grown in irrigated regions but its height may preclude its use where wheel
 lines are the form of irrigation. Lambert is 5-8 cm (2-3 in) taller than the
 cultivar 'Stephens'  It has good straw strength and is similar to Stephens
 for heading date.  Winter-hardiness is also similar to Stephens.  Lambert
 has equalled or surpassed Stephens in yield in many of the yield trials in
 Idaho and Washington.  Lambert has good resistance to stripe rust.  It
 appears to have better Cephalosporium stripe tolerance than Stephens based
 on leaf expression and yield in a Cephalosporium stripe infected yield
 trial.  Lambert is susceptible to dwarf bunt and moderately susceptible to
 powdery mildew.
 
      Russian Wheat Aphid.   M. Rafi conducted research on Russian wheat
 aphid induced protein profile changes in wheat.  Time course experiments
 were conducted to study the effects of different densities of Russian wheat
 aphid (Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko) on resistant (PI 137739) and susceptible
 (Stephens) genotypes of wheat with regards to total chlorophyll loss, aphid
 nymphal production and protein profile modifications.  Increased chlorosis
 was evident in resistant line after 11 days of feeding.  Reduction in total
 chlorophyll was greater in resistant line compared to susceptible genotype
 after prolonged feeding which could be due to increased probing.  However, a
 three fold increase in nymphal production rate was observed in Stephens
 compared to PI 137739.  Protein profile studies revealed a preferential
 expression of a low molecular weight protein in resistant line after 11 days
 of feeding.  Furthermore, expressions of several high molecular weight and
 low molecular weight proteins were increased and decreased due to aphid
 feeding in both genotypes.  Further studies are being carried out to
 determine the involvement of "stress" and "defense" related proteins due to
 aphid attack. 
 
      Wheat Transformation.    Successful transformation of the soft white
 winter wheat cultivar 'Daws' was achieved using particle bombardment.  The
 transformation rate with the bar gene was approximately 0.5%.  Co-
 transformation of the bar gene with a BYDV coat protein also appears to be
 successful.  Based on PCR analysis a co-transformation rate of approximately
 50% was achieved.  
 
                         Publications
 
 Brown B.D., L.D. Robertson, R. Karow, W. Kronstad, S. Guy, E.J. Souza, R.S.
 Zemetra, and M. Kruk. 1993.  Malcolm soft white winter wheat.  University of
 Idaho, Cooperative Extension System, Current Information Series No. 1005.
 
 Quick, J.S., E. Souza, and D.W. Sunderman. 1993.  Registration of 'Fairview'
 wheat.  Crop Sci. 33: 878.
 
 Schroeder-Teeter, S., R.S. Zemetra, D.J. Schotzko, C.M. Smith, and M. Rafi.
 1994.  Monosomic analysis of Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia)
 resistance in Triticum aestivum Line PI137739.  Euphytica (in press).
 
 Souza, E., D.W. Sunderman, J.M. Tyler, B.D. Brown, and L. Robertson. 1993. 
 Registration of 'Meridian' wheat.  Crop Sci. 33: 1101-1102.
 
 Souza, E., J.M. Tyler, K.D. Kephart, and M. Kruk. 1993.  Genetic improvement
 in milling and baking quality of hard red spring wheat cultivars.  Cereal
 Chem. 70: 280-285.
 
 Souza, E., M. Verhoeven, W.E. Kronstad, and D.W. Sunderman. 1993. 
 Registration of 'Idaho 266' germplasm.  Crop Sci. 33: 1112-1113.
 
 Zemetra, R.S., D.J. Schotzko, C.M. Smith, and M. Lauver. 1993. In vitro
 selection for Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) resistance in
 wheat(Triticum aestivum).  Plant Cell Reports 12: 312-315.
 
 -------------------------
 
 ILLINOIS
 
      F.L. Kolb*, E.D. Nafziger, A.L. Rayburn, C. Gourmet, and T.K. Hoffman, 
 Dept. of  Agronomy; W.L. Pedersen*, Dept. of Plant Pathology, University of
 Illinois
 
      Production  Farmers in Illinois planted 1.65 million acres (668,000
 hectares) of soft red winter wheat in the fall of 1992.  Fall growth and
 winter survival were quite good, but wet spring weather in 1993 resulted in
 a great deal of water damage, and helped encourage the development of head
 scab and Septoria glume blotch.  Crop development was delayed somewhat by
 cool weather, and very wet conditions in July further delayed harvest.  The
 deterioration of the crop was reflected in the yield projections:  the May 1
 and June 1 official estimates of yield for the state were 55 bushels per
 acre (3,700 kg/ha), dropping to only 45 bushels per acre (3,030 kg/ha) by
 July 1.  The final harvested yield was 44 bushels per acre (2,960 kg/ha),
 and test weights were not very high.  Though not a disaster on the scale of
 the 1991 crop, the 1993 wheat crop in Illinois was the third in a row to
 have serious, weather-related crop losses, and there is concern that farmer
 expectations for wheat might be dropping rather sharply.  As a reflection of
 this, but also due perhaps in part to late crop harvests, seeded acreage in
 the fall of 1993 was only 1.115 million acres (466,000 hectares).  Growing
 conditions since planting have not been very good, with late planting
 problems compounded by low temperatures and ice damage.  At mid-winter, only
 25% of the crop is rated as excellent or good.
 
 -------------------------
 
      Management Research and Cultivar Evaluation (E.D. Nafziger)  We
 concluded three years of on-farm N rate studies in 1993, with trials in ten
 fields.  The crop was not as responsive to N as in 1992, especially in the
 northern part of the state, where yields were very low.  A second year of a
 planting rate x seed size x seed treatment study conducted at two locations
 again showed very little effect of these variables on grain yield.
 
      Cultivar comparisons were planted at six locations, with an average of
 about 60 entries per location.  Entries consisted of advanced lines from the
 University of Illinois breeding program, public varieties, and privately-
 labeled entries.  Yields generally reflected the poor conditions, though the
 average yields in the Central Illinois locations were good - about 78
 bu/acre (5,250 kg/ha) at Urbana.  Yields at the southern and northern
 locations were only 40 to 45 bu/acre (2,700 to 3,030 kg/ha).  A report of
 performance of commercial cultivars was distributed in early August.  Copies
 are available on request.
 
      Cultivar Development (F.L. Kolb)  Replicated performance trials to
 evaluate experimental breeding lines were conducted at three locations. 
 About 110 experimental breeding lines were evaluated.  Approximately 120
 preliminary breeding lines were also evaluated in replicated performance
 trials at two locations.     
 
      Effect of BYDV on Yield of Soft Red Winter Wheat (F.L. Kolb and T.K.
 Hoffman)  The first year of an experiment to assess the effect of barley
 yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) on the yield of eight wheat cultivars was
 conducted.  A split-plot design was used with insecticide-sprayed (Cygon),
 naturally infected and fall inoculated as the main plots and the eight
 cultivars as subplots.  In addition to grain yield, we are examining the
 effect of BYDV on the growth rate throughout the growing season by sampling
 the total above-ground biomass on weekly intervals.  In 1993, grain yield in
 the inoculated plots was reduced compared to the insecticide sprayed plots,
 but grain yield in naturally infected plots was not different from the
 insecticide sprayed plots.  
 
      Evaluation of a seed-treatment insecticide to control the spread of
 BYDV in wheat (F.L. Kolb and C. Gourmet)  In 1993, we conducted a field
 experiment to study the control of BYDV in wheat using imidacloprid, a seed-
 treatment insecticide with four wheat cultivars (Pacer, Clark, Pioneer 2510,
 and Cardinal) and four insecticide rates (0, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 g. a.i. 
 Kg(-1) seeds) in BYDV inoculated and uninoculated plots.  Plots were
 inoculated in the fall with viruliferous aphids carrying BYDV-PAV-IL. 
 Comparing plots planted from untreated seed with insecticide seed treatment,
 yield increases of up to 10, 15, and 36 % were observed in inoculated plots
 of Pacer, Pioneer 2510 and Clark, respectively.  The yield of Cardinal was
 not increased with increasing rates of the insecticide.  We plan to evaluate
 the insecticide again in 1994.
 
      Use of Molecular Cytogenetic Techniques to Study the Influence of Rye
 Chromatin in Wheat. (A.L. Rayburn)  Molecular cytogenetic techniques are
 being used to better understand the influence of rye chromatin added to
 wheat.  By using genomic in situ hybridization, flow cytometry, and
 polymerase chain reaction, the amount and type of rye chromatin added to
 wheat in wheat-rye 1B:1R translocation lines is being determined.  Other
 translocations being studied include 1A:1R and 6B:6R.  Molecular markers are
 being identified in order to assist the wheat breeder in identifying
 experimental lines carrying the translocation of interest.
 
      Evaluation of  Seed Treatments on Scab Infested Wheat. (W. L. Pedersen) 
 A study involving the evaluation of several fungicide seed treatments on
 three seed lots of Cardinal wheat was completed in 1993.  The three seed
 lots had scab infection of 23%, 14%, and 4% and the test weights of 52, 57,
 and 62 lb/bu respectively.  There were no significant differences among
 treatments for fall emergence in either year.  In 1992, differences between
 any treatment and the nontreated control were significant at Litchfield for
 spring stand and tillers/meter at harvest, but not at the other two
 locations.  There was a significant difference in yield for all fungicide
 seed treatments at all three locations compared with the nontreated control,
 but there wasn't a consistent difference among the treatments.  In 1993,
 there were significant difference for spring stand, plants/meter at harvest,
 and yield at all three locations.  The highest yields were obtained with the
 62 lb/bu seed and either treatment containing Baytan.  The effect of seed
 quality was also more evident in 1993, with the lowest yields obtained from
 the 52 lb/bu seed.
 
 Table 1. Effect of seed treatments on yield of scab infested wheat in 1992 &
 1993 from three locations in Illinois.
                                                                              
 
                               1993                1992
 Treatment                52   57   62        52   57   62
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Control                  29.4 36.9 37.7      62.7 68.3 68.0
 Dividend                 35.8 42.8 42.7      -    -    -
 Maxim                    35.0 42.0 44.3      69.9 71.2 76.3
 RTU Vitavax-Thiram+LSP   37.3 44.5 43.6      71.5 70.3 73.0
 Baytan + T + LSP         34.1 42.4 48.7      70.9 71.6 75.8
 Gromate 2FL              34.7 44.3 43.6      72.5 71.1 73.7
 Agrosol T                37.9 44.4 45.4      73.2 73.6 73.7
 Agrosol T + Baytan       39.4 47.3 48.3      72.4 73.4 73.9
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
      LSD 5%                     3.8                5.4
 
 
 -------------------------
 INDIANA
 
      H. W.  Ohm, H. C. Sharma, I. M. Dweikat, S. A. Mackenzie, D.
      McFatridge, F. L. Patterson (Dept. Agronomy), G. Buechley, D. M.
      Huber, R. M. Lister, G. Shaner  (Dept. Botany and Plant
      Pathology), F. B. Maas, R. H. Ratcliffe, R. H. Shukle, G.
      Safranski, S. Cambron (USDA-ARS and Dept. Entomology), Purdue
      University 
 
      Production. Farmers in Indiana planted 700,000 acres (283,400 hectares)
 of soft red winter wheat in the fall of 1992. The harvested wheat area of
 670,000 acres (271,255 ha) in 1993 was 149% of that in 1992. Total
 production in 1993 was 34.84 million bushels (946,000 metric tons), 155% of
 production in 1992. Average yield in 1993 was 52 bu/acre (3.50 m-tons/ha)
 compared to 50 bu/acre (3.36 m-tons/ha) in 1992.  Cardinal, Clark, and
 Caldwell were the three leading public cultivars, occupying 21, 18, and 8%
 of the wheat area, respectively.  Private cultivars occupied 43% of the
 wheat area, compared to 45% in 1992.
 
      Season. Wheat seeding progressed at a normal rate in the fall of 1992. 
 Soil moisture was somewhat better at seeding time than in prior years.  By
 the end of November, virtually all of the crop had emerged and 74% of the
 fields were rated good or excellent.  The coldest temperatures of the winter
 were in February but the wheat was well hardened and protected by snow cover
 so winter killing was not a problem.  Resumption of vegetative growth in the
 spring was delayed and tillering was less than optimal because temperatures
 were cooler than normal in March and early April. May was dry and cool,
 which further delayed growth, and delayed heading by several days compared
 to recent years.  After heading, days were warmer and wheat progressed
 through the grain filling process rapidly.  Yields were only average
 compared to recent years, and probably reflect the cool, cloudy spring.
 
      Disease surveys.  The cool spring retarded disease development in much
 of the state. Powdery mildew was severe in some fields in the spring,
 especially where nitrogen applications were heavy.  There was some
 development of Septoria leaf blotch, caused by Septoria nodorum and Septoria
 tritici.  Leaf rust was more severe than we have seen in recent years.  The
 popularity of Clark, which is moderately susceptible, may have contributed
 to the epidemic.  Some private wheat cultivars are also moderately
 susceptible.
 
      Insect surveys (Safranski and Cambron).  A survey of 212 fields in 57
 Indiana counties in the summer of 1993 showed that there was an increase in
 Hessian fly infestation from 1992 to 1993 for mean percentage infestation
 for all wheat varieties sampled (1.5 to 3.7), number of puparia per 100
 stems (2.0 to 5.3), percentage of fields sampled that were infested (28.6 to
 60.4) and percentage of fields sampled that had 10 percent or greater
 infestation (2.4 to 14.2). Hessian fly puparia were collected from the
 Purdue University Agronomy farm in November, 1993 and are being increased
 for biotype determination.  The Annual Uniform Hessian Fly Nursery
 evaluations were conducted by USDA, ARS in cooperation with SAES and private
 wheat breeders. Twenty-seven entries were evaluated in nurseries in AR, GA,
 IL, IN and SC (total of 10 trials) for Hessian fly resistance.  Hessian fly
 infestations were too low or variable in AR and IN to assess performance of
 entries.  Infestation levels of  20% occurred  on wheat entries with H3,
 H5, H6, H7H8 and H11 genes at Jerseyville or Mascoutah IL, H3 and H5 at
 Griffin or Plains, GA and H3 at Clemson, SC.  No infestation was recorded on
 wheat entries with H12 or H22 genes and  4% on entries with H9, H10, H13,
 H18, H21 or H22 genes.
 
      Cultivar and germplasm development.  Seed of two new soft red winter
 wheat cultivars, "Grant" and "INW  9241" were increased.  Seed will be
 available to farmers for seeding in the fall of 1995.  Parentage of Grant,
 PI 562658, breeding line P811670A9-10-6-7-63, is Caldwell//Beau/Kavkaz, and
 Grant has the 1B/1R translocation carrying Lr26.  Grant is about 2 days
 later in maturity than Caldwell, is resistant to powdery mildew, moderately
 resistant to leaf rust, resistant to wheat spindle streak mosaic virus, and
 slightly more resistant to Septoria leaf and glume blotches than Caldwell
 and Clark, but not as resistant as Auburn.  INW 9241, breeding line P8138I1-
 16-2-2-1-1-3-3, is about 4 days later in maturity than Caldwell, is
 moderately resistant to wheat spindle streak mosaic virus, resistant to
 powdery mildew and leaf rust, and has resistance to Septoria leaf and glume
 blotches similar to Auburn.  Grant and INW 9241 have very good soft wheat
 milling and baking qualities.
 
      Hessian fly resistant germplasm releases (Maas).  Germplasm line
 IN94HF22-1 is being released for sharing under the wheat worker's code of
 ethics.  IN94HF22-1 is derived from a single F(2) plant selected for
 resistance to Hessian fly biotype L.  Preliminary F(3) family tests indicate
 that IN94HF22-1 is homozygous for the H25 gene.  IN94HF22-1 was developed
 from the cross A211-4-I-EEL (F4) // A211-sel. (F3) /3/ MO 10136 / PSR Exp.
 A912 // GA85238-C5-AB5-4 / KS88HF79.  KS88HF79 carries the T4BS.4BL-6RL
 translocation from "Balbo" rye with the H25 gene.  About 1/2 of 6RL from
 Balbo rye is present in KS88HF79.  The A211 recurrent family was selected
 for apparent high yield and tillering potential in the F(1), F(2) and F(3)
 generations in replicated greenhouse tests on the basis of per plant yield
 per se (i.e. one plant per 4" pot; one 4" pot equal one plot).  The A211-4-
 I-EEL was derived from an F(4) plant visually selected in our Entomology
 Environmental Lab for short stature, apparent tillering potential, general
 plant type and appearance of the spike.  The A211 family resulted from the
 cross PSR Exp. A915 / Pioneer "2580".  Neither of these parents has
 resistance to Hessian fly biotype L.  IN94HF22-1 was developed using minimal
 vernalization requirement (MVR) genes so that three generations of crossing
 and selection per year could be carried out.  Lines with the MVR trait may
 be grown in greenhouse environments without vernalization thus reducing the
 time it takes to transfer other genes of interest (such as Hessian fly
 resistance) into adapted types.
 
      Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV) (Sharma and Ohm).  We have developed
 wheat lines in which a chromosome of Agropyron intermedium, carrying
 resistance to BYDV, has replaced chromosome 7D. Seed of one of these lines
 is being increased for release as germplasm.  We are developing
 translocation lines carrying BYDV resistance.  DNA markers (Dweikat and
 Ohm).  Using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and denaturing
 gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and a series of lines, near isogenic to 
 susceptible cv Newton, carrying single genes for resistance to Hessian fly,
 we have identified 20 polymorphic DNA fragments potentially associated with
 ten Hessian fly resistance genes: H3, H5, H6, H9, H10, H11, H12, H13, H14,
 and H16.  To date, we have verified tight linkage between genes H3, H5, H6,
 and H9, and the respective RAPD markers by F(2) cosegregation.  The RAPD
 marker for H9 remained associated with H9 resistance in a number of
 different T. aestivum and T. durum genetic backgrounds into which H9 was
 transferred from the durum wheat source line, Elva, by backcrossing.
 
      Populations (Ohm et al.).  We are characterizing several recombinant
 inbred populations and closely related pairs of lines for winterhardiness,
 resistance to a number of fungal diseases and Hessian fly, and agronomic
 traits, leading to the development of DNA markers associated with these
 traits.  It is crucial to accurately characterize plant populations for the
 traits of interest, particularly quantitatively expressed traits, as a
 requisite to efficiently develop DNA markers.
 
      Cytogenetics (Sharma).  To determine the chromosomal location of
 Hessian fly resistance genes in Purdue breeding lines by aneuploid analysis,
 F(2) populations from monosomic hybrids and F(3) progenies derived from F(2)
 resistant plants were tested against the fly.  Genes H10 and H12 are located
 on chromosome 5A.
 
      Our study on the genetic control of resistance to Hessian fly biotype L
 in Triticum monococcum continued.  Data from tests of 4996 progeny plants
 from segregating populations and test crosses between resistant and
 susceptible accessions are being analyzed.  The trigeneric hybrids between
 wheat pentaploid and Agropyron species that had been produced to enhance the
 chances of gene transfer from Agropyron chromosomes to the D-genome
 chromosomes, turned out to be very grassy with no flowering response. 
 Alternatively, we are crossing the BYDV resistant disomic alien addition
 lines to durum wheat.
 
      Leaf rust resistance.  Breeding line 69195C9-4-1-3-1 is from the same
 cross that gave rise to Auburn.  It has a complex pedigree that includes the
 cultivars Frontana and Exchange, which both have adult-plant resistance to
 leaf rust.  69195C9-4-1-3-1 is highly resistant to leaf rust in the adult-
 plant stage.  In a test in the greenhouse with a single culture of the leaf
 rust fungus, we found that Frontana and 69195C9-4-1-3-1 were resistant but
 that Exchange was susceptible, thus showing that the effective resistance in
 69195C9-4-1-3-1 did not come from Exchange.  An F(2) of a cross between
 Frontana and 69195C9-4-1-3-1 segregated for resistance, with most plants
 being susceptible.  This indicates that these two wheats carry different
 genes for resistance.  We plan to make greater use of 69195C9-4-1-3-1 in the
 breeding program because its resistance has been durable and is possibly
 conferred by the action of more than one gene.
 
      Graduate student Jeff Lehman passed each of three wild type isolates of
 Puccinia recondita through the slow rusting cultivar CI 13227, selecting
 that part of the population that sporulated earliest.  He compared
 populations selected for five generations with wild type.  The selected
 populations were more fit (shorter latent period, larger and more productive
 uredinia) on CI 13227 than were the wild types.  Selected and wild type
 cultures did  not differ on the susceptible cultivar Monon.  Moreover, the
 selected isolates were also more fit on other slow rusting cultivars, which
 had not been used for the selection experiments.  One selected isolate (881-
 C3) completely overcame the long latent period resistance of CI 13227.  In
 the field, isolate 851-C5, which had a latent period 2 days shorter on CI
 13227 than did the wild type, caused 65% more disease on CI 13227 than did
 the wild type. 
 
      Powdery mildew resistance.  Graduate student Xueyi Hu is investigating
 some new sources of resistance to powdery mildew.  Earlier work indicated
 that two of the lines each carry two independent recessive genes for
 resistance and that the third line has a single recessive gene.  We have now
 crossed these lines to several wheat lines that carry known single genes for
 resistance, to determine the uniqueness of resistance in these new sources. 
 These F(1)s have been test crossed back to a susceptible cultivar.
 
      Septoria tritici resistance.  Two sources of resistance to Septoria
 tritici that were used from the beginning of efforts to develop resistance
 to this pathogen at Purdue apparently contain the same gene.  Sullivan, with
 resistance from Bulgaria 88, and 68247A7-13-9-18-1, with resistance from Sao
 Sepe, each have a single gene for resistance.  Evaluation of a cross between
 Sullivan and 68247A7-13-9-18-1 shows that these two lines contain the same
 gene.  To obtain more accurate information about the genetic control of
 resistance to S. tritici, we are developing recombinant inbred populations
 from crosses between resistant and susceptible cultivars.  These populations
 are being used for resistance evaluation, and will also be useful for work
 with molecular markers.  Line 72626E2-12-9, which also carries resistance
 from Bulgaria 88, owes its resistance to a single gene.
 
      Fungicidal control of Septoria leaf blotch.  Graduate student Pam
 Mercure is investigating the usefulness of early season (GS 31) applications
 of propiconazole and mancozeb for control of Septoria leaf blotch.  Mancozeb
 applied at GS 31 did not significantly affect disease on Clark or Cardinal
 when it was applied in conjunction with propiconazole or triadimefon +
 mancozeb at GS 37.  There was a decrease in rate of disease progress on
 Clark but not on Cardinal when propiconazole was applied at GS 37, but
 triadimefon + mancozeb at this growth stage did not significantly affect the
 rate.  An application of mancozeb at GS 31 did not significantly affect
 AUDPC when applied with triadimefon + mancozeb at GS 58, although rate was
 improved for Clark but not for Cardinal.  Propiconazole at GS 31 in
 conjunction with propiconazole at GS 37 significantly decreased disease on
 Clark, but not on Cardinal.  The GS 31 application of propiconazole applied
 in conjunction with triadimefon + mancozeb significantly reduced AUDPC and
 rate for both varieties.  GS 31 propiconazole applied in a treatment with GS
 37 propiconazole and GS 57 triadimefon + mancozeb significantly reduced
 AUDPC for both varieties and reduced the rate for Clark but not for
 Cardinal.  When propiconazole at GS 31 was the only fungicide application in
 the season, it significantly reduced disease for both cultivars.
 
      Scab resistance.  Ning 7840 has stable resistance to scab.  Graduate
 student Gui-hua Bai inoculated four wheat cultivars with  the scab fungus
 and incubated them at various temperatures and relative humidities.  Scab
 developed equally well at 15 and 30 degC.  High relative humidity was not
 required for disease development after establishment of infection by fungus. 
 Cultivar Ning 7840 was resistant under all conditions.  Inoculum
 concentrations ranging from 40 to 220,000 spores/ml cause scab infection,
 but disease severity was less and incubation period was longer at low
 concentrations.  Differences in resistance among cultivars evident at
 concentrations as low as 10 spores per spike (400 spores/ml), but 4,000 to
 40,000 spores per ml are optimal for distinguishing levels of resistance.
 
      Ning 7840 expresses resistance toward invasion of the spike by Fusarium
 graminearum.  Nonetheless, when Ning 7840 was inoculated by spraying entire
 heads with spore suspensions of several concentrations, it was consistently
 more resistant than Clark.  This suggests that Ning 7840's resistance would
 be effective even under conditions of prolonged wet and warm weather in the
 field.
 
      A coleoptile elongation assay may have limited value in screening lines
 for scab resistance.  We tested sensitivity of coleoptile elongation of four
 cultivars to DON.  Ning 7840 had the lowest percentage of inhibition, but
 another resistant cultivar, Sumai #3, showed the highest percentage of
 inhibition.  Moreover, the susceptible cultivar Caldwell had a percentage
 inhibition as low as Ning 7840. It would appear that resistance to head scab
 and toxin tolerance at the seedling stage are not controlled by the same
 genes, and that the coleoptile test may not be a reliable technique for
 screening for resistance to head scab.
 
      Soilborne Diseases (Huber). Through a "multiple component analysis" of
 the biotic and abiotic factors involved in the take-all disease of cereals
 caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis, we have been able to focus on the
 interacting effects of the plant, pathogen, and environment relative to
 virulence, pathogenesis and disease control.  A new mechanism of biological
 control was demonstrated where several bacteria were able to prevent the
 pathogen from oxidizing manganese to the non-available form for plant uptake
 and, in this manner, effectively blocked virulence of the pathogen without
 significantly reducing its saprophytic growth in the rhizosphere. 
 Resistance of the plant was maintained through active functioning of the
 physiological defense reactions which are otherwise compromised by the
 pathogen.  This newly recognized mechanism of biological control is being
 elucidated further in cooperation with Dr. Darrell Schulz in Agronomy and
 Dr. Steve Sutton at the NSLS, Brookhaven Laboratories, with the synchrotron
 at the Advanced Photon Source  at Brookhaven.  The high energy x-ray
 fluorescence of the synchrotron provides an in vivo technique for following
 pathogenesis and biological control.  This mechanism of biological control
 appears to be an important indigenous interaction which may be manipulated
 for effective disease control through amendment, cultural and management
 options available in a crop production system.
 
      "Winter-kill" of wheat by Rhizoctonia cerealis is markedly affected by
 environmental conditions and management practices.  Reduction in disease
 severity by early seeding, tillage, manure  fertilization, in sediment areas
 of fields, or adjacent to tree windbreaks was correlated with significantly
 higher tissue levels of zinc compared with near-by areas which were severely
 diseased.  Increased zinc uptake under each of these conditions appeared to
 reflect the increased availability of zinc for plant uptake compared to
 near-by more severely diseased areas.  The source of higher levels of zinc
 in areas adjacent to tree fence lines or windbreaks appears to be from
 mycorrhizal induced uptake of zinc by the trees and its subsequent
 availability for the wheat during mineralization of soil deposited leaves;
 however, a more direct involvement of mycorrhizae can not be ruled out
 because of the availability of flavanoid and other compounds which could
 stimulate mycorrhizal infection of the young wheat plants.  Since disease
 was significantly reduced with soil-incorporated zinc but not with zinc
 foliage sprays, a physiologic mechanism enhancing resistance is indicated. 
 Various combinations of mineral seed treatments to enhance zinc availability
 are under investigation as well as the role of mycorrhizae in the increased
 zinc uptake observed with early seeded plants and those growing near a tree
 row.
 
      Hessian fly resistance.  R. H. Ratcliffe and G. Safranski conducted
 temperature contrast tests with "Parker 76" (H18) to determine whether
 susceptibility of H18 to some Hessian fly populations in previous laboratory
 studies was related to temperature sensitivity of H18.  Research
 demonstrated that virulence to H18 existed in Hessian fly populations from
 Pennsylvania and Maryland when tests were conducted at both 18 and 20deg,
 thus substantiating our previous reports of H18 virulence among Hessian fly
 populations from the Eastern United States soft winter wheat region (1993
 Wheat Newsletter).
 
      R. H. Shukle, V. Russell, and L. Zantoko are developing a molecular
 based map of the Hessian fly genome through in situ hybridization of DNA
 sequences to salivary polytene chromosomes.  Results will enable cloning of
 virulence/avirulence alleles from the insect.  Inbred Hessian fly lines have
 been established to determine the inheritance of virulence to resistance
 genes H13 and H18 in wheat.  Mariner transposable elements have been
 identified in the genome of the Hessian fly.  We are cloning and
 characterizing these transposons.
 
      Personnel. Dr.  Joe Anderson, Research Scientist, USDA - ARS,
 Department of Agronomy, arrived in November 1993, and will focus on barley
 yellow dwarf viruses and starch research. Dr. William Berzonsky has joined
 the Small Grains Research Program as Research Agronomist.  Bill will
 strengthen the germplasm and population development, and he will focus on
 genetics of resistance to Septoria glume blotch.  Lubaki Zantoko began his
 Ph.D.. program under R. H. Shukle, 12/93.  Graduate student Roberto Ranieri
 has taken a position with Barilla G. e R. F.lli in Parma, Italy.  Dr. Ouafae
 Benlhabib from IAV, Hassan II University, Rabat, Morocco, spent 8 weeks from
 July 1 to August 24 at Purdue University with Hari Sharma, learning
 cytogenetic and embryo/anther culture techniques.  Mr. Yang Xiaokun, Henan
 Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, Henan, China, has initiated
 studies for the Ph.D. degree with Herb Ohm.  Graduate student Tina McCay-
 Buis has accepted a position as Plant Pathologist with the Indiana
 Department of Natural Resources.
  
                         Publications
 
 Bai, G.-H., Shaner, G., Ohm, H. W.  1993.  Inheritance of resistance to
 Fusarium graminearum in eight wheat cultivars.  Phytopathology 83: Abst.
 
 Basile, F., K. D. Hughes, P. E. Wisniowski, D. G. Gorenstein, F. E. Lytle,
 T. S. McCay-Buis, D. M. Huber and B. C. Hemming.  1993.  Fast and sensitive
 laser-based enzymatic detection of the lactose operon in microorganisms. 
 Anal. Biochem. 211:55-60.
 
 Bostwick, D. E., Ohm, H. W., Shaner, G.  1993.  Inheritance of Septoria
 glume blotch resistance in wheat.  Crop Science 33:439-443.
 
 Buechley, G. and Shaner, G.  1993.  Effect of fungicidal seed treatments on
 wheat stand establishment, 1992.  Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 48:315.
 
 Day, K. M., Lorton, W. P., Buechley, G. C., and Shaner, G. E., Huber, D. M.,
 and Scott, D. H.  1993.  Performance of public and private small grains in
 Indiana, 1993.  Purdue University Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 668. 17 p.
 
 Dweikat, I., H. Ohm, S. Mackenzie, F. Patterson, S. Cambron, and R.
 Ratcliffe. 1993. Association of DNA markers with Hessian fly resistance
 genes in wheat. Agron. Abstr. 85:87.
 
 Dweikat, I., S. Mackenzie, M. Levy, and H. Ohm. 1993. Pedigree assessment
 using RAPD-DGGE in cereal crop species. Theor. Appl. Genet. 85:497-505.
 
 Goulart, L. R., S. Mackenzie, H. Ohm, and R. Lister. 1993. Barley yellow
 dwarf virus resistance in a wheat x wheatgrass population. Crop Sci. 33:595-
 599.
 
 
 Huber, D. M. and T. S. McCay-Buis.  1993.  A multiple component analysis of
 the take-all disease of cereals.  Plant Disease  77:437-447.
 
 Huber, D. M.  1993.  Manganese and the take-all disease of wheat.  Soil Sci.
 Soc. America symposium: "Rhizosphere Biology and Chemistry".  ASA, Madison,
 WI.
 
 Huber, D. M., A. L. Sutton, D. D. Jones, and B. C. Joern.  1993.  Nutrient
 management of manure to enhance crop production and protect the environment. 
 In: Integrated Resource Management and Landscape Modifications for
 Environmental Protection.  American Soc. Agricul. Engineering. pp. 39-45.
 
 Huber, D. M., T. S. McCay-Buis, C. Riegel, R. D. Graham and N. Robinson. 
 1993.  Correlation of zinc sufficiency with resistance of wheat to
 Rhizoctonia winter-kill.  6th International Congress of Plant Pathology,
 Montreal: 115.
 
 Huber, D. M., T. S. McCay-Buis, K. J. Miller, F. E. Lytle, J.P. Robinson,
 and B. C. Hemming.  1993.  Automation of  aminopeptidase profiles in 96-well
 plates.  Phytopathology  83:(In Press).
 
 Huber, D. M., T. S. McCay-Buis, R. D. Graham and N. Robinson.  1993. 
 Cultural conditions affecting take-all and their effect on manganese
 availability.  6th International Congress of Plant Pathology, Montreal: 179.
 
 McCay-Buis, T. S., D. G. Schulze and D. M. Huber.  1993.  An in situ
 technique for studying mineral interactions and biological control of take-
 all.  6th International Congress of Plant Pathology, Montreal: 177.
 
 Patterson, F. L., F. B. Maas III, J. E. Foster, R. H. Ratcliffe, S. Cambron,
 G. Safranski, P. L. Taylor, and H. W. Ohm, 1994. Registration of eight
 Hessian fly resistant common winter wheat germplasm lines (Carol, Erin,
 Flynn, Iris, Joy, Karen, Lola, and Molly). Crop Sci. 34:315-316.
 
 Ranieri, R., Shaner, G., Lister, R. M.  1993.  Barley yellow dwarf virus
 resistance in oat measured by ELISA.  Phytopathology 83: Abst.
 
 Ratcliffe, R. H., Safranski, G. G., Patterson, F. L., Ohm, H. W., and
 Taylor, P. L. Biotype status of Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)
 populations from the Eastern United States and their response to 14 Hessian
 fly resistance genes.  J. Econ. Entomol. 87.  (Accepted February, 1994).
 
 Schulze, D. G., T. McCay-Buis, S. R. Sutton and D. M. Huber.  1993. 
 Manganese oxidation states in the rhizosphere of wheat roots infected with
 the take-all fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.  Soil Sci. Soc.
 America, Agronomy Abstracts p. 246.
 
 Shaner, G. and Buechley, G.  1993.  Effect of foliar fungicides on control
 of Septoria blotch of wheat, 1992.  Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 48:243-
 244.
 
 Sharma, H. C., H. W. Ohm, R. M. Lister, and O. Benlhabib. 1993. Reaction of
 wheat x Agropyron derivatives to BYDV. Special session of 6th Int. Congress
 of Plant Path., July 29-31, Montreal, Canada.
 
 Shukle, R. H. and Stuart, J. J.  1993.  A novel morphological mutation in
 the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor.  Journal of Heredity. 84:229-232.
 
 Shukle, R. H. and Stuart, J. J.  1994.  Physical mapping of DNA sequences in
 the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor.  Journal of Heredity.  (Accepted
 January, 1994).
 
 Wilson, J.P., Bruckner, P. L., Shaner, G., Johnson, J. W.  1993. 
 Registration of GA-SRT slow leaf-rusting triticale germplasm.  Crop Science
 33:349-350.
 
 -------------------------
                       ITEMS FROM KANSAS
                                       
      U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory, USDA,  Manhattan
 
      O. K. Chung, G. L. Lookhart, V. W. Smail, J. L. Steele, W. H.
 McGaughey, I. Y. Zayas, D. B. Bechtel, A. K. Dowdy, D. W. Hagstrum, C.
 R. Martin, K. A. Tilley, J. D. Wilson, R. E. Dempster, K. F. Finney, D.
 B. Sauer, L. M. Seitz, D. L. Brabec, C. S. Chang, H. H. Converse, T.
 S. Cox, P. W. Flinn, R. W. Howard, R. Rousser, D. E. Walker, W. D. A. Lin,
 H. S. Kim, and Y. S. Kim
 
      The Relation of  Physical  Characteristics of Wheat Blends and
 Experimental  Millinq  Performance  to  Some  Commercial  Millinq
 Performance Parameters.  Striking physical and chemical differences exist 
 among  different  lots  and  varieties  of  wheat.    These differences have
 far-reaching effects and become the basis for what is  loosely referred to
 as quality of wheat.   Wheat physical characteristics, recognized by the
 U.S. Grain Standards (USGS) as quality factors, are the wheat class, damaged
 kernels, defects, foreign material,  dockage,  broken and shrunken kernels, 
 heatdamaged kernels and test weight.  Although the USGS determine the wheat
 prices, they do not provide the useful information on end-use quality of
 wheats.  Flour milling companies estimate the yield of products  and  other 
 commercial  milling  performance  based  on experience and type of wheat
 required.  However, estimations based only on experience are not sufficient
 in competitive markets. Therefore,  development  of  analytical  methods 
 for  estimating commercial milling performance is urgently needed.
 
      The  objectives  of  this  study  were:    (a)  to  evaluate  the
 significance  of  the  USGS  in  determining  commercial  milling
 performances (CMP) and (b) to develop mathematical algorithms to estimate
 CMP as a function of the physical/chemical characteristics of wheats and
 experimental milling results with commercial wheat blends of hard red
 winter, hard red spring, and their mixture. Simple and multiple linear
 regression procedures were used to determine relationships between CMP and
 the wheat physical/chemical characteristics  including  those  specified  in 
 the  USGS  and experimental  milling  results.    The  simple  linear 
 regression procedures showed that the USGS parameters, wheat characteristics
 or experimental milling data were either insignificantly related to CMP
 parameters except for commercial patent flour protein contents, or they were
 significantly related but with r2 values less than 0.6.  The multiple linear
 regression procedures showed that the CMP parameters, i.e. yields or ash
 contents of commercial patent flours were significantly related to the
 physical/chemical characteristics of wheats with the experimental milling
 results, but not to the USGS factors alone.  The CMP factors including
 yields and protein contents of commercial patent flours can be estimated by
 using mathematical equations developed in this study for hard red winter
 wheat blends and mixture of hard red winter and hard red spring wheat
 blends.
 
      Eqq Yolk Lipids in Pup Straiqht-Douqh Breadmakinq.  Egg yolk was used
 in breadmaking instead of conventional shortening:  fresh yolk and
 lyophilized yolk produced larger loaves at the 2% and 1% level,
 respectively,  than  the  control  loaves  with  3%  shortening. Lyophilized
 yolk consisted of 68.7% total lipids (51.7% free lipids by hexane plus 17%
 bound lipids by a mixture of chloroform and methanol, 1:1), 29.2% proteins
 (N x 6.25 by Kjeldahl), and 2.1% others  (by  calculation).    Yolk  lipids 
 extracted  by  various solvents, their residues, and the reconstituted yolks 
 (defatted residue  +  extracted  lipids)  were  used  in breadmaking.    The
 functionality of yolk as a loaf volume improver resulted from yolk lipids,
 especially polar lipids, but not from protein fractions. There were
 significant linear relationships between LV and the amount of yolk lipids, 
 of yolk polar lipids,  and a negative relationship with the ratio of
 nonpolar to polar lipids of yolk lipids added to doughs.
 
      D-Erythroascorbic Acid in Bakers' Yeast and Their Effects on Wheat
 Douqh.   Yeast  (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)  fermentation of wheat dough
 decreases  the  flow of  dough and increases  its  elastic character. 
 L-Ascorbic acid (L-AA) elicits a similar response when added to dough at >
 15 ppm.   It was reported that S. cerevisiae contained erythroascorbic acid 
 (EAA).   The naturally occurring material is thought to be the D-enantiomer
 because an isotopically labeled sample co-crystallized with chemically pure
 D-EAA.   The structure of D-EAA closely resembles that of L-AA suggesting
 this compound might cause the beneficial effects of yeast-fermentation on
 doughs.  Our objectives were to determine the level of EAA in several
 samples of bakers' yeast and to determine the effect of EAA on mixing time,
 dough flow, and gluten stretching.  Extraction of hydrated and freeze-dried
 bakers' yeast yielded = 50 ug EAA and 5 ug AA/g dry yeast as determined by
 HPLC with electrochemical detection.  D-EAA (82 ppm based on flour) slightly
 increased the flow of dough as rest time increased.   Gluten isolated from a
 flour-water dough containing 82 ppm D-EAA or 100 ppm L-cysteine stretched at
 a faster rate than control gluten.  EAA like AA did not change dough
 development time.  Unlike AA, EAA showed neither oxidizing effect on dough
 and gluten nor improving effects on bread.
 
      Immunocytochemical Methodoloqy Applied to the Study of Cereal Endosperm
 Structure.    Immunocytochemistry  is  a very powerful microscopy technique
 that can be applied to cereals for localizing proteins  and  other 
 macromolecules  that  elicit  immunological responses.   Three methods are
 commonly used.   One  is direct labelling in which the specific primary
 antibodies are complexed with  colloidal  gold. 
 
      The  labelled  antibodies  are  then immunospecifically bound to  TEM 
 thin  sections.    An  indirect labelling  involves  reacting primary
 antibodies  with the  thin sections and then localizing the bound antibodies
 with a colloidal gold-Protein A complex.   The third method is also an
 indirect method and uses secondary antibodies made against the primary
 antibodies and is complexed with colloidal gold.   There are a multitude of
 ways for conducting the technique and fine tuning the procedures can require
 considerable time. Almost every step of the specimen preparation can
 influence specific labelling. The type of fixative used can block or alter
 the antigenic determinants so as not to be  recognized by the antibody.  
 Embedding resins can similarly block labeling. Our work with wheat endosperm
 has revealed that immunocytochemistry can be highly varied, that each
 antiserum  must  be  tested  separately  and  that  controls  are essential. 
    One  of  the  most  important  factors  regarding immunocytochemistry is
 the dilution of the primary antibodies, secondary antibodies, and Protein A
 solutions.  Extremely dilute antisera yield much more specific labelling
 than concentrated ones. We have found that the primary antisera can be
 diluted as much as 1000x and that  the gold-labelled secondary antibodies 
 can be diluted 50-100x to yield high specific labelling.
 
      A Diqital Imaqinq Study of Environmental and Varietal Effects on Hard
 Red Winter Wheat Starch Granule Morphometry.  Three hard red winter wheats,
 Arkan, Newton and TAM107, were grown near Manhattan, KS for five harvest
 years,  1986-1990.   Field-grown wheats were harvested at  7,  10,  12,  14, 
 17,  19,  24,  and 35  days  after flowering.   Isolated starch was viewed
 with dark field light microscopy and images were recorded on videotape. 
 Digitization of the black and white images and computation of morphometrical
 starch granule features were conducted on a Kontron Image Processing System. 
  The data base of starch granule size and shape was analyzed  using  SAS 
 statistical  and  graphical  procedures. Equivalent diameter distribution
 was used to distinguish and relate changes in starch granule morphometry to
 environmental and varietal effects:  the changes were greater across years
 or environments in the  later  stages,  and  across  varieties  in  early 
 stages  of development.
 
      Application of Imaqe Analysis for Grain Science at the U. S. Grain
 Marketinq Research Laboratory.  USGMRL has a comprehensive program on the
 application of pattern recognition techniques in image analysis of cereal
 grains.   The objective is to devise grain grading  methods  which  are 
 consistent  with  grain  industry requirements.   Image analysis in
 combination with multivariate discriminant  analysis  was  used  in 
 differentiation  of  wheat varieties, classes and foreign material.   The
 same approach was used for  discrimination of whole corn kernels from broken
 corn kernels.   Image texture analysis of soft and hard wheat milled
 fractions  was  also  studied.    Hard  wheat  bran  samples  were
 discriminated correctly from  soft wheat bran samples using image texture
 parameters.  The feasibility of digital image analysis to quantify grain
 color for corn grade designation was studied using sound, damaged and blue
 eye mold infected kernels.  In this study, color parameters extracted from
 the Red, Green and Blue histograms were used to distinguish damage classes. 
 An extensive software package was used to analyze the patterns created by
 the color parameters.    While  the  results  were  varied,  several 
 pattern recognition   techniques   produced   high   recognition   rates,
 approximately 98 percent correct.
 
      Diqital Imaqe Texture Analysis for Bread Crumb Grain Evaluation.
 Baking,  milling companies and scientific laboratories evaluate crumb grain
 as  one  of  the  several  bread quality parameters. Digital imaging
 technique was used to evaluate bread crumb grain. Images of slices of two
 commercial bread brands were digitized and stored in 512*512 pixel format. 
 Eighteen image texture features were extracted.  Multivariate discriminant
 analysis using pattern of image texture features distinguished the two bread
 brands at correct recognition rates of 100% for BRRA and 97.5% for BRDI
 subimages (128*128) from the middle area of slice.  Technological factors
 and location of subimages on a slice effect the image texture feature values
 as crumb grain varied across a slice.  Variations in crumb grain within a
 slice were studied and a ranking scale was developed for evaluation of a
 crumb grain coarseness in 64*64 pixel subimages.   The developed scale has a
 potential to be used for quality control in a breadmaking.  A slice as a
 whole was scored by a developed ranking scale.  This ranking scale was
 developed by determining percent of fine or coarse subimages prest within a
 slice.  Bread slices with coarse texture of crumb grain were distinguished
 from slices with smooth crumb grain.  The ranking of the slices by these
 variables coincided with visual judgement.   The scale developed is 
 flexible and can be easily adapted to meet various user requirements.  The
 method has potential for both scientific laboratory and commercial use.
 
      Breadmakinq Factors Assessed by Diqital Imaqinq.  A study was conducted
 to evaluate differences  in bread crumb grain using digital image analysis. 
 The objective of the study was to develop an  image  texture-based model 
 which  recognized the  effect  of different technological factors
 (formulation, mixing time and water absorption)  on    bread  crumb  grain.  
  Co-occurrence  matrix evaluations  of  18  image  texture   features  from 
 64*64  pixel subimages within the bread slice images produced the data base
 used for image texture feature analysis.   Shape and size features of each
 slice were also included in the study.  The commercially baked bread  slices 
 represented  breads  baked  with  two  levels    of formulation: each of the
 lean and full classes had 10 subclasses representing different treatment
 combinations of water absorption and mix time.  The shape, size and texture
 features of the slices were sensitive to the formulation,  absorption and
 mixing time variations.   Image features were used to differentiate slices
 related to the technological factors studied.  Correlation analyses were
 made between the image features and the scores of an expert from baking
 industry.  Correlation coefficients of expert scores with image features
 were not very high inspite of statistical significances.   Lean and full
 formulations were differentiated better by slice shape descriptor than by
 image texture features, which were better for differentiating treatment
 variations.
 
      Biochemical and Structural Differences amonq Hiqh Molecular Weiqht
 Glutenin Subunits.  High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMWGS) of
 wheat, obtained by a modification of the method of Burnouf and Bietz (1989),
 were characterized by peptide mapping and amino acid  analysis.    The 
 purification method  involved  a  dimethyl sulfoxide extraction of flour,
 followed by reduction and alkylation of the proteins.   The extracted
 subunits were separated on and excised   from   sodium   dodecyl   sulfate  
 polyacrylamide   gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels.  These subunits, when
 analyzed by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)
 eluted at approximately 45% acetonitrile,  indicating that under these
 conditions, they were more hydrophobic (~30%) than previously reported
 (Burnouf and Bietz 1989, Wieser and Belitz 1990).   The purified HMW-GS were
 re-electrophoresed on mini SDS-PAGE gels and silver stained.   A single band
 for each subunit provided an indication of the purity of the subunit.  The
 purified HMW-GS were further characterized by RP-HPLC analysis of the
 peptides produced from chymotryptic hydrolysates.   Different chymotryptic
 peptide maps for each cultivar were found for subunits with the same
 relative mobility on SDS-PAGE in each cultivar, except for subunit 8.  Amino
 acid analysis also revealed differences between and among the HMW-GS of
 Chinese Spring and TAM 105.  That data varied from previously reported amino
 acid compositions deduced from cDNA.
 
      Evidence for Glycosylation of the Hiqh Molecular Weiqht Glutenin
 Subunits 2, 7, 8, and 12 from Chinese Sprinq and TAM 105 Wheats. High
 molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) of wheat, obtained by a
 modification of the method of Burnouf and Bietz (1989), were characterized
 by isoelectric focusing,  lectin binding,  and gas chromatography-mass
 spectroscopy. The purification method involved a dimethyl sulfoxide
 extraction of flour, followed by reduction and alkylation of the proteins. 
 The extracted subunits were separated on, and excised from, sodium dodecyl
 sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels.  These subunits, when
 analyzed by reversed phase   high-performance   liquid   chromatography,  
 eluted   at approximately  45% acetonitrile,  indicating  that,  under 
 these conditions,  they were more hydrophobic  (~30%)  than previously
 reported (Burnouf and Bietz 1989, Wieser and Belitz 1990).   The purified
 HMW-GS were reelectrophoresed on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel
 electrophoresis minigels and silver-stained.  A single band for each subunit
 provided an indication of the purity of the subunit.  Further
 characterization of the purified HMW-GS revealed that the proteins were
 glycosylated.   Lectin-binding analyses showed that the terminal
 carbohydrate moiety of these glycoproteins was mannose.  Gas
 chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses confirmed the presence of mannose
 in the total glutenin preparation as well as in each of the individual
 purified HMW-GS. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses also detected
 glucose and N-acetyl qlucosamine in the individual purified HMW-GS.
 
      Partially Purified Proteolytic Enzymes from Wheat Flour and Their
 Effect on Elon~ational Viscosity of Cracker Sponqes.  Enzymes were extracted
 from wheat flour with ammonium sulfate and purified by gel filtration
 chromatography.  Two peaks of proteolytic activity were detected. 
 Lubricated uniaxial compression was used to measure the changes in
 elongational viscosity of cracker sponges at pH 4 during fermentation.   The
 elongational viscosity of the sponges decreased with fermentation time,
 indicating enzyme activity.  The elongational viscosity of the sponges were
 not noticeably changed when the enzymes had been extracted from the flour. 
 However, the elongational  viscosity  of  the  sponge  again  decreased 
 with fermentation time when the extracted enzymes were added back to the
 flour.  Only one of the two proteolytically active fractions eluted from 
 Sephadex  G-100  was  responsible  for  the  change  in  the elongational 
 viscosity  of  the  sponge  during  fermentation. Rechromatography was used
 to further purify the proteolytic enzyme and produce a single peak with high
 specific proteolytic activity. Since pepstatin inhibited most of the
 activity of the purified enzyme preparation, it contains an acid protease.
 
       Effects  of  a  T2BS.2RL Wheat-Rye  Translocation on Breadmakinq
 Ouality in Wheats. Detrimental effects on hard wheat  (Triticum aestivum L.)
 bread baking quality have been shown in previous studies on wheat-rye
 translocations involving chromosome group 1. A new wheat-rye translocation
 (T2BS.2RL, Hamlet), which contains a single dominant gene (H21) for Hessian
 fly (Mayetiola destructor Say) resistance, should not affect wheat storage
 proteins found in chromosome groups 1 and 6.   The objective of this study
 was to determine if the T2BS.2RL translocation modifies milling and baking
 properties.   Backcross4F4-derived lines were grown in 1991 near Manhattan
 and Hutchinson, KS in replicated plots.  Grain from the 5 translocation
 lines and 11 nontranslocation lines were compared for several breadmaking
 quality traits.  Test weight, flour yield, and kernel hardness were reduced
 in the translocation lines but could be overcome by selection. 
 Mixograph-mixing time and bakemixing time also were reduced, but the small
 differences would not adversely affect breadmaking quality.  No significant
 differences were found for flour protein, mixograph mixing tolerance,  loaf
 volume, and crumb grain score.  However, statistically significant small
 improvements were found for flour color and water absorption. Overall,  the
 translocation did not have a large effect  (either positive or negative) on
 milling or baking quality.
 
      Statistical Analyses of Gliadin Reversed-Phase Hiqh-Performance Liquid
 Chromatoqraphy Patterns of Hard Red SPrinq and Hard Red Winter  Wheat  
 Cultivars   Grown   in  a   Common  Environment: Classification Indices.  
 Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze
 gliadins extracted from grain harvested from 12 hard red winter (HRW) and 12
 hard red spring (HRS)  wheat cultivars grown in a common environment.  
 Visual examination of the gliadin patterns did not distinguish the two wheat
 classes by the presence or absence of any one particular peak.  The peak
 heights at each time interval from each cultivar were analyzed through
 cluster, principal component, and canonical analyses. Cluster  analyses, 
 based  on  closest  (Euclidean) distances, produced five clusters plus six
 HRW cultivars that did not fall into any cluster.   In the five clusters,
 two contained only HRS cultivars,  two contained only HRW cultivars,  and
 one contained both HRW and HRS cultivars.  Principal component analysis
 showed that the first principal component (PC1) explained 21% of the total
 variation among cultivars, primarily separating HRW and HRS classes with
 only minor overlap.  The first three principal components  together
 explained nearly half  (44%)  of  the  total variation.   In these three
 major dimensions, there was greater scatter within the HRW class than within
 the HRS class.  Canonical analyses demonstrated that the correlation between
 PC1 and the first canonical variable was 0.79, indicating that the cultivars
 and classes were in similar groups.  Even though both PC1 and the first 
 canonical  variable  separated HRW  and HRS  classes,  HRW cultivars 
 occurred among the HRS cultivars  in both analyses. Canonical discriminate
 analysis, based on gliadin reversed-phase high-performance liquid
 chromatography, allocated all cultivars to their correct classes, except for
 the HRW cultivars TAM 105 and TAM 107.
 
      Comparison of Hiqh-Molecular Weiqht Subunits of Glutenin and Bakinq
 Performance of Flours Varyinq in Bread-Makinq Ouality.   Baking experiments
 and analyses of gluten protein composition were carried out with flours from
 U.S. an Norwegian wheat lines differing in baking characteristics.  
 Bread-making quality was evaluated by mixograph and baking tests.  The
 compositions of high-molecularweight (HMW) glutenin subunits and gliadins
 were examined by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide  gel  electrophoresis 
 and  acidpolyacrylamide  gel  electrophoresis,  respectively.    Lack  of
 correlation between the Glu-1 quality score based on HMW glutenin subunits
 and backing performance was observed.  For the Norwegian wheat lines, 
 variation in gluten polypeptides encoded from the short arm of the lB
 chromosome partially explained variation in baking performance.
 
      Volatile Compounds in Wettinq Grain Piles.  To simulate conditions
 associated with outdoor storage of grain, 80-100 bu of damp sorghum was
 placed in each of two piles inside steel bins with concrete floors.   Each
 pile was sprinkled with water several times to simulate  rainfall,  then
 covered with an insulated blanket  to simulate a larger grain mass which
 might undergo some heating.  The piles  were  monitored  for  temperature, 
 moisture,  microflora, volatiles and odors.  Volatiles were determined by
 direct analyses of grain samples removed with probes and by remote sampling
 in which a long tube was used to draw interstitial air through a Tenax
 absorbent  trap  from  specific  locations  in  the  grain  mass. Compounds
 were identified with a gas chromatograph interfaced to mass and infrared
 detectors.  Volatiles associated with molds (i.e. 1-octen-3-ol and other
 alcohols,  3-octanone,  sequiterpenes, and geosmin) and with bacteria (i.e.
 acetoin, butanoic and other acids) were observed.  Other volatiles that may
 be associated with heating or  other  causes  were  nitromethane,  tridecane 
 and  similar hydrocarbons.    Wet  grain  with  a  strong  piggy-barnyard 
 odor recovered near  the  floor  at  the  edge  of  one  pile  had high
 populations of bacteria and contained high levels of butanoic and other
 similar acids.
 
      Some Observations on Oven Moisture Determination of Humidified Grain. 
 When relatively dry grain was exposed to humid air to raise its moisture
 content, its weight after oven drying was lower than if it were not
 humidified before oven drying.  This resulted in an apparent moisture
 difference of up to 0.4%.  The effect was not observed in all lots of corn, 
 and was usually not observed in wheat,  sorghum or soybeans.   In grains
 where the effect was observable, it was proportional to the amount of
 pre-oven moisture change.  The effect was partly reversible by air-drying
 the grain before putting it in the oven.   When corn was ground before
 humidification and oven drying, there was no difference between humidified
 and not humidified.  However, the difference was present in kernels that had
 been slit with a blade.  The increased weight loss probably is water, but
 other volatiles might be involved.  A possible explanation is that some of
 the more tightly bound water in dry grain is made more mobile when
 additional moisture is added. The increased mobility persists long enough to
 be measurable in the drylng process.
 
      Modelinq of Moisture Content of Grain Durinq Storaqe with Aeration. Two 
 6.6  m diameter steel bins were used to  store wheat  for observing 
 seasonal  grain  temperature  and  moisture  content variations.  Each bin
 was filled with 99.3 t of Hard Red Winter Wheat to a depth of 3.66 m. 
 Aeration in one bin was controlled manually with temperature limit settings. 
 Aeration in the second bin  was  controlled  by  a  programmable 
 microprocessor  using temperature and humidity of ambient air and grain
 moisture content as the control parameters.  A model was developed to
 predict grain moisture content and its distribution within the grain mass
 during storage.  The model was based on a two-dimensional mass transfer
 equation with the associated boundary conditions and was solved using the
 finite difference method for cylindrical geometry.  Local hourly weather
 data  (air temperature,  relative humidity,  wind speed, and  solar
 radiation on a horizontal surface) and airflow rates during aeration periods
 were used as model inputs to simulate moisture content and distributions
 within the grain mass during extended storage periods.  Predicted and
 measured grain moisture contents were in close agreement for a storage
 period of 15 months. The model and the parameter values determined provide
 moisture content and distribution predictions for stored wheat with and
 without aeration.
 
      Development of a Sinale-Kernel Wheat Characterization System.  A single
 kernel wheat crushing device was developed to determine crush force, 
 moisture,  and size characteristics at a rate of approximately  180 
 kernels/min. A  procedure  for  determining hardness of single kernels was
 developed with corrections for the effects of kernel moisture and size on
 the crush force profile. Single-kernel  moisture measurement  comparisons
 with bulk oven moisture measurements were satisfactory.  Average kernel 
 size measurements were highly correlated with average kernel weight,
 although a random machine interaction with single kernel size measurement
 was noted.  Six prototypes of the rotor-crescent system were assembled for
 further evaluation   Tests to determine the system's potential for wheat
 classification and inclusion in the official qrain inspection process are
 under way.
 
      Comparison of Sinqle Kernel Physical Property Uniformity and Break
 Release Distribution. Three hard red winter wheats and two soft red winter
 wheats representing a range of NIR hardness from 9.1 to 71.1,  were used to 
 study the  relation between  single kernel physical properties and break
 release distribution.   The Single Kernel Wheat Characterization System
 (SKWCS) was used to measure single kernel physical properties prior to
 tempering and milling duplicate mixtures of soft-in-hard at 0, 3, 6, 9 and
 15%.  Stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) of break release data on
 SKWCS data showed significant correlations at first break (R-square =
 0.79-0.98) and progressively lower correlations through third break
 (R-square = 0.71-0.74).  Kernel uniformity (standard deviations) of the
 SKWCS data were selected more frequently than the sample means in MLR
 equations having significant R-square values.  Break release distributions
 were significantly related to the SKWCS measurements.
 
      Wheat Ouality Determination and Potential Alternatives to Test Weiqht. 
 As an introduction to the subject, a brief overview of the USGMRL research
 program was presented.   The organization and several recent and on-going
 research projects were presented using slides to highlight the research
 areas.  The following research was highlighted: biological grain storage
 insect control, expert system for grain storage insect control, acoustic
 grain storage insect monitoring,   bake-lab   early   generation  variety
 testing, protein-lipid-starch  relations,   electrophoresis  of  high-low
 molecular  weight  proteins,  grain  odor  analyses,  grain  odor sniffers,  
 machine  vision  for  grain inspection, mixograph instrumentation, grain
 flow through orifices, grain trajectories, grain  storage  temperature 
 modeling  and  single  kernel  wheat characterization system development 
 (SKWCS).   A review of test weight definitions, procedures and the potential
 for use of the SKWCS parameters to predict milling yield was presented as
 one alternative to use of test weight as a quality index.  In addition, the
 concept of grain uniformity in terms of single and multiple parameter or
 physical property variation was presented.   The following summary was
 presented: SKWCS parameters can help predict end-use quality,  SKWCS
 parameters  relate best  to first break granulations, that mixed quality
 prediction trends are frequently obtained when narrow ranges of test weight
 are evaluated,  that kernel density and shape  factor may help explain test
 weight variability, that these and other independent physical properties
 need to be combined to expect better end-use quality  predictions and that
 rapid, accurate and inexpensive devices for assessment of these properties
 are needed.
 
      Commercial Prototypes of a Sinqle Kernel Wheat Hardness Tester. After a
 long development and evaluation period,  the first two "COMMERCIAL"
 prototypes of the USDA/ARS, U. S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory's
 Single Kernel Wheat Characterization System (SKWCS)  were  delivered 
 (August,  1992)  to  the  Federal  Grain Inspection Service (FGIS).  Six
 additional commercial prototypes were delivered (February 1993) to allow a
 national field test of the commercial prototypes.  The delivery of these
 units is a major landmark  in the development  of  the  first  of  several 
 planned "objective grain grading and classification"  instruments being
 developed by USDA/ARS and FGIS.  Following extensive evaluation of the 
 improved  instruments,  the  FGIS  asked  ARS  to  determine commercial
 production feasibility and production cost estimates for the instrument. 
 After approaching numerous potential commercial partners, a cooperative
 research and development agreement (CRADA) was proposed, solicited and
 executed with Perten Instruments North America (PINA) to produce two
 commercial production prototypes for ARS and FGIS evaluation.  After
 extensive testing by ARS and PINA, two commercial prototypes were accepted
 by ARS as equivalent or better than the USGMRL experimental units based on
 classification performance.  These commercial prototypes were delivered to
 FGIS on August  13,  1992.    Six  additional  commercial  prototypes  were
 delivered in February 1993.   The commercial prototypes include several
 refinements to reduce operator attendance and enhance ease of operation.
 
      Normalization and Reproducibility of  Commercial  Prototypes  of Sinqle 
 Kernel  Wheat  Characterization  System.    Six  commercial prototypes of
 the single kernel wheat characterization system (SKWCS) were obtained and
 evaluated for system reproducibility. The systems were normalized using five
 hard and five soft samples of wheat from the FGIS Wheat Hardness Reference
 Set conditioned to three moisture  (M)  levels  (10.5,  12.5 and 14.5%
 w.b.).   Each prototype and all samples wre preconditioned to three ambient
 temperatures  (55,  75 and 95 degrees F).   Two 300 kernel  (K) sub-samples 
 (SS)  of  the  conditioned  Reference  samples  were processed by each
 prototype  (P)  and ambient  temperature  (T) condition (6P x 3T x 3M x 10S
 x 300K x 2SS).  After normalization, the results were statistically analyzed
 to determine prototype reproducibility based on hardness, moisture content,
 weight and size determinations.  To validate reproducibility in an
 independent test, five additional sub-samples of each Reference sample at
 one moisture  content  were  processed with  each prototype  at  room
 temperature conditions.  The results were similarly analyzed.  The results
 are useful in setting limits and performance specifications for commercial
 prototypes of the SKWCS.
 
      Measurement of Sorqhum Seed Hardness Usinq the Sinqle Kernel Wheat
 Characterization System.  Seed of sixteen sorghum conversion lines selected
 for diversity in grain characteristics were grown at Mead, NE in 1991.  
 Hardness, seed diameter, seed weight, and moisture were measured on an
 individual seed basis using the single kernel wheat characterization system
 developed at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory, Manhattan, KS. 
 Three hundred seed per plot were characterized, requiring approximately two
 minutes per plot. Following characterization of each plot, individual seed
 data was examined graphically, and obvious cracked seeds and double sampling
 events were eliminated from the data set.  Differences attributable to line
 effects were found for all characters measured, and for the standard
 deviations of those characters.  This technology provides a new and rapid
 measure of sorghum seed characters and uniformity on a single seed basis.
 
      Diqestive Enzymes from Stored Grain Insect Pests Characterized and
 Inhibitor Found in Wheat and Corn.  This is a cooperative effort between the
 U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, 
 Kansas  State University,  and the  Department  of Biological Sciences,
 University of Durham, England.  Amylases from stored grain beetles were
 isolated and their interaction with wheat and corn proteins examined.  Two
 alpha-amylase isozymes were isolated from adults of both the rice weevil,
 Sitophilus oryzae, and the red flour beetle,  Tribolium castaneum,  and a
 single alpha-amylase from adults  of  the yellow mealworm,  Tenebrio
 molitor.  All  of  the purified enzymes had similar amino acid compositions
 as well as physical and chemical properties. The apparent molecular masses
 ranged from 53 to 58 kDa. Circular dichroism measurements revealed
 approximately 33% alpha-helical content. Vmax and K(m) values ranged from
 1.33 to 5.98 mM min(-1) mg(-1) and 0.76 to 5.57 mg ml(-1)  respectively,
 using starch as the substrate. An alpha-amylase inhibitor from wheat
 (WRP-25) inhibited all five enzymes, whereas an inhibitor from corn
 inhibited only enzymes  from the  red flour beetle  and yellow mealworm. The
 genes for these inhibitors could be manipulated using biotechnology for
 insect pest management.
 
      Comparison of Acoustical Detection of Several Species of StoredGrain  
 Beetles    (Coleoptera:   Curculionidae,   Tenebrionidae, Bostrichidae,
 Cuculidae) Over a Ranqe of Temperatures.  Acoustical detection of five
 species of adult stored-product insects in 1-kg samples  of  wheat  was 
 compared.    Sitophilus  oryzae  (L.)  and Tribolium  castaneum  (Herbst) 
 were  detected  during  more  10-s intervals than Rhyzopertha dominica (F.);
 Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L>) were
 detected less frequently  than  other  species.  These  species  were  also
 distinguishable   by   differences   between   the   probability
 distributions of the numbers of sounds per 10-s interval.  The probability
 distributions decreased logarithmically with increasing numbers of sounds.
 The number of sounds for three species varied with temperatures between 17.5
 and 37.5degC. The number of sounds of S. oryzae increased as the temperature
 increased from 17.5 to 35degC and then decreased at higher temperatures. The
 number of sounds of T.  castaneum tended to be lowest at <25degC and then
 increased steadily as temperature increased.  The number of sounds of R.
 dominica increased as temperature increased from 17.5 to 30degC and then
 became level at higher temperatures. We also investigated the possibility of
 finding larger differences in acoustical signals between species by using
 different instrument settings for the filter which eliminates sounds above
 and below a selected frequency range  and the  counter which determines  the
 number of  sounds producing voltages above a selected threshold. Widening
 the filter frequency range increased the number of background sounds as much
 as it increased the number of insect sounds; thus,  it did not increase our
 ability to distinguish between species. Raising the counter voltage
 threshold resulted in a logarithmic decrease in the number of sounds for all
 insect species. These data should make it possible to distinguish between
 some species of adult insects using acoustical detection data, and to adjust
 the estimates of insect density made using acoustical detection by removing
 the effects of temperature.
 
      Seasonal Activity of Stored-Product Insects In and Around FarmStored
 Wheat.  The development of effective stored-product insect management
 programs  requires an understanding of  the  risk of storing grain in a
 particular location.  Managers need the ability to anticipate when, where, 
 and to what extent infestations are likely to  develop.   We  have  a poor
 understanding  of  insect migration into storage facilities.   This study
 was conducted to examine the relationship between the activity of
 stored-product insects outside bins and development of populations within
 the grain  mass.    We  found  a  good  relationship  between  outside
 population levels and the development of infestations in small experimental
 bins for several species.  However, the relationship was not as good with
 farm bins probably because of the use of grain protectants.  This study
 demonstrates that there is potential for using outside monitoring to predict
 infestations in bins but it is likely to be most effective where grain
 protectants are not used. Grain protectants, presence of livestock and other
 factors strongly influence movement of insects into the qrain.
 
      Fliqht   Initiation   of   Rhyzopertha   dominica   (Coleoptera:
 Bostrichidae) as Influenced by Temperature, Humidity, and Liqht. Most grain
 is not infested at harvest and stored-product insects must crawl or fly to
 storage facilities.  Because insects are cold blooded animals,  their
 ability to migrate into stored grain is dependent upon the temperature of
 the environment.   There is an optimal temperature for insect movement and
 activity decreases as temperature deviates from this optimum.  The ability
 of the lesser grain borer,  Rhyzopertha  dominica  (F.),  of  varying  ages, 
 to initiate flight was examined at temperatures from 15 to 45degC to assess
 the potential of this pest to infest stored grain during summer and fall. 
 Beetle adults that were one week old or younger flew much more than did
 older beetles.  This suggests that lesser grain borers flying to a commodity
 are young and likely stay and reproduce rather than leave.  Beetles flew
 when temperatures were between 19.9 and 41.6degC with 30.7degC being the
 optimal temperature for flight initiation.   This would result in the
 potential for active infestation through the summer months and possibly
 early fall when aeration may begin.   Fall harvested grains may escape with
 limited infestation because of lower temperatures late in the year.  It is
 important to know the temperature range in which the lesser grain borer will
 fly so models can be developed that depict insect miqration into stored
 grain.
 
      News at the Hard Winter Wheat Ouality Laboratory (HWWOL) in the Grain
 OualitY and Structure Research Unit (GOSRU). We at the HWWQL have evaluated
 intrinsic quality parameters of thousands of hard winter wheat lines from 17
 federal, state, and private nurseries and completed 17 reports for wheat
 breeders for the 1992 crop samples and 4 reports for collaborative studies
 on wheat quality.  For the 1993 crops, we have expanded our evaluating
 service to several private nurseries, Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Nebraska, 
 and South Dakota state nurseries in addition to the Federal and Kansas
 nurseries.
 
      The  hardness  scores  of  about  1500  wheats  (Set  I:    Kansas
 Association of Wheat Growers, KAWG and Set II:  Kansas Winter Wheat
 Performance  Testing  Nursery,  KWWPTN)  grown  in  Kansas  were determined 
 by  both  NIR  and  the  USGMRL  Single  Kernel  Wheat Characterization
 System (SKWCS):  this project was a collaborative study with the KAWG for
 news release during the harvest period (Set I) and with the Kansas State
 University, Agricultural Experiment Station (Set II).  In general, the
 hardness scores by the SKWCS are higher than the hardness scores by NIR. 
 The reverse was shown with some samples, depending on the growing locations. 
 For Set II, the average HS was 65 by the USGMRL SKWCS and 53 by the NIR
 Analyzer (NIRSystem 6500).  The average wheat protein content of the 1993
 KWWPTN samples was about 12% on a 14% moisture basis.
 
      We have completed check sample services by providing three wheats and
 three flours each coded to the 9 collaborators from the other wheat testing
 laboratories.  Tests included wheat, milling, NIR, flour, dough, and
 bread-making characteristics.  Comparison of data between the 9 labs will be
 shared at the Wheat Quality Council Annual Meetinq in March of 1994.
 
      During 1993, Ms. Bernadine M. Eichman, Baking Technician, retired after
 nearly 30 years of service and Mr. Lerance C. Bolte, Milling Scientist,
 retired after 39 years of service.  We will miss them both and wish them the
 best.  Please welcome Ms. Cristina E. Lang, Baking Scientist,  who began her
 new job in February of 1993, supposedly to replace Mr. Merle D. Shogren
 (retired in 1989) and Dr. Berne Bruinsma (resiqned in 1983).
 
      As we have no replacement for Mr. Bolte, Mr. Brad W. Seabourn is in
 charge of our wheat inventory, storage, and milling operations in addition
 to his assignment in the grain characterization study using an NIRSystem and
 the SKWCS.  Mr. Seabourn will work with a few hourly-waged students until we
 can hire a milling scientist. Renovation of the milling lab including the
 dust handling and collectors is nearly completed.
      
      For your information,  the phone number for the GQSRU Research Leader
 (Dr. Okky Chung) is (913) 776-2703 and the Unit Secretary's (Ms. Marsha
 Grunewald) number is (913) 776-2757.  The USGMRL FAX number is (913)
 776-2792.
 
                         Publications
 
 Bakhella, M., Lookhart, G. L., Hoseney, R. C., and Boujnah, M. 1992.  
 Relationships between high-molecular weight subunits of glutenin proteins
 and bread-making quality of the major Moroccan qrown common wheats.  Actes
 Inst. Aqron. Vet., Vol. 12(1):23-32.
 
 Bechtel, D. B.  1993.  Determining cereal grain quality and end-use
 properties by microscopy.   In:   G. Karlsson [ed.], Proc. Scand. Soc.
 Elect. Micros. 45:1-2.
 
 Bechtel, D. B.  1993.  Immunocytochemical methodology applied to the study
 of cereal endosperm structure.   Cereal Foods World 38:617.   [Abstract]
 
 Bechtel, D. B., Zayas, I., Dempster, R. and Wilson, J. D. 1993. Size
 distribution of starch granules isolated from hard red winter and soft red
 winter wheats.  Cereal Chem. 70:238-240.   [Note]
 
 Chang, C. S., Converse, H, H. and Steele, J. L.  1993.  Modeling of
 temperature of grain during storage with aeration.  Transactions of the ASAE
 36(2):509-519.
 
 Chung, O. K. 1992.  Wheat glutens:  effects of processing variables and 
 flour  quality  on  their  enhancing  characteristics  in breadmaking. 
 Proc. of the 9th Int'l Cereal and Bread Congress.
 
 Chung, O. K., Finney, K. F. and Bruinsma, B. L.  1993.  Egg yolk lipids in
 pup straight-dough breadmaking.   Cereal Foods World 38:630.   [Abstract]
 
 Chung,  O.  K.,  Lookhart,  G.  L.,  Smail,  V.  W.,  Steele,  J.  L.,
 McGaughey, W. H.,  Sauer,  D. B., Bechtel,  D. B.,  Seitz,  L. M., Zayas, I.
 Y., Martin, C. R., Cox, T. S., Wilson, J. D., Dempster, R. E., Chang, C. S.,
 Bolte, L. C., Dowdy, A. K., Flinn, P. W., Hagstrum, D. W., Converse, H. H.,
 Howard, R. W., Shogren, M. D., Walker, D. E., Brabec, D. L., Rousser, R. R.,
 Tilley, K. A., Lin, W.  D. A.,  Xu, A.,  Harrell,  L.  and Park,  H.  S.  
 1993.   Wheat research in the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory. 
 Annual Wheat Newsletter 39:287-301.   [Review]
 
 Chung, O. K. and Pomeranz, Y.  1993.  Cereal Processing.  In: S. Nakai and
 H. W. Modler  [eds.],  Food Proteins:   Properties and Applications.   VCH
 Publishers, New York.   Vol. II.   (In press) [Book chapter]
 
 Dowdy, A. K., Howard, R. W., Seitz, L. M. and McGaughey, W. H. 1993. 
 Response of rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) to  its 
 aggregation pheromone  and wheat  volatiles.    Environ. Entomol.
 22:965-970.
 
 Dowdy, A. K. and McGaughey, W. H.   1993.   Infestation of farmstored wheat
 in relation to refugial stored-product insect pest populations.  Prog. North
 Central Branch Mtg., Entomol. Soc. Am. [Abstract]
 
 Dowdy, A.  K.  and McGaughey, W. H.  1994.   Seasonal activity of
 stored-product insects in and around farm-stored wheat.  J. Econ. Entomol. 
 (In press)
 
 Finney, K. F.  1993.  Factors influencing the mixogram.  Am. Assoc. of
 Cereal Chemists.   (In press)   [Handbook]
 
 Gwirtz, J. A., Martin, C. R., Spillman, C. K. and Steele, J. L. 1993. 
 Comparison of single kernel physical property uniformity and break release
 distribution.  Cereal Foods World 38:602.  [Abstract]
 
 Hagstrum, D. W. and Flinn, P. W.  Survival of Rhyzopertha dominica
 (Coleoptera: Biostrichidae) in stored wheat under fall and winter
 temperature conditions.  Environ. Entomol.  (In press)
 
 Kim, H. S., Seib, P. A. and Chung, O. K.  1993.  D-Erythroascorbic acid in
 baker's yeast and effects on wheat dough.  J. Food Sci. 58:845-847, 862.
 
 Kim, Y. S., Flores, R. A., Deyoe, C. W. and Chung, O. K.  1993. Relation  of 
 physical  characteristics  of  wheat  blends  and experimental  milling 
 performance  to  some  commercial  milling performance parameters.  Cereal
 Foods World 38:616.   [Abstract]
 
 Knackstedt, M. A., Sears, R. G., Rogers, D. E. and Lookhart, G. L. 1993. 
 Effects of a T2BS.2RL wheat-rye translocation on breadmaking quality in
 wheats.  Crop Science.   (In press)
 
 Lin, W. D. A., Lookhart, G. and Hoseney, R. C.  1993.  Partially purified
 proteolytic enzymes from wheat flour and their effect on elongational
 viscosity of cracker sponges.  Cereal Chem. 70:448452.
 
 Lookhart, G. L.  1993.  Beneficial versus deleterious genes - an overview. 
 Cereal Foods World 38:633.   [Abstract]
 
 Lookhart, G. L. and Bietz, J. A.   1993.  Protein extraction and sample
 handling techniques.  In:  J. A. Bietz and J. Kruger [eds.], HPLC of cereal
 and legume proteins.  (In press)   [Book chapter]
 
 Lookhart, G. L., Cox, T. S. and Chung, O. K.  1993.  Statistical analyses 
 of  gliadin  reversed  phase-high  performance  liquid chromatography
 patterns of hard red spring and hard red winter wheat cultivars grown in a
 common environment:   classification indices.  Cereal Chem. 70:430-434.
 
 Lookhart,  G.  L.,  Hagman,  K.  and Kasarda,  D.  D.   1993.   High
 molecular-weight glutenin subunits of the most commonly grown wheat
 cultivars in the U.S. in 1984.  J. Plant Breedinq 110(1):48-62.
 
 Lookhart, G. L., Marchylo, B. A., Khan, K., Lowe, D. B., Mellish, V. J. and
 Seguin, L.  1993.  Wheat identification in North America. In:  C. W. Wrigley
 [ed.], Identification of food grain varieties. (In press)   [Book chapter]
 
 Lookhart, G. L., Martin, M. L., Mosleth,  E., Uhlen, A.  K. and Hoseney, R.
 C.  1993.  Comparison of high-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin and
 baking performance of flours varying in breadmakinq quality.  Food Science
 and Technology. 26:301-306.
 
 Lookhart,  G.  L.  and Wrigley,  C.  W.    1993.    Electrophoretic
 analyses.  In:  C. W. Wrigley [ed.], Identification of food grain varieties. 
  (In press)   [Book chapter]
 
 Rogers, D. E., Hoseney, R. C., Lookhart, G. L., Curran, S. P., Lin, W. D. A.
 and Sears, R. G.  1993.  Milling and cookie baking quality of near-isogenic
 lines of wheat differing in kernel hardness. Cereal Chem. 70:183-187.
 
 
 Martin, C. R., Rousser, R. and Brabec, D. L.  1993.  Development of a 
 single-kernel  wheat  characterization  system.    Trans.  ASAE,
 36:1399-1404.
 
 Martin,  C.  R.  and Steele,  J.  L.    1993.   Normalization  and
 reproducibility of commercial prototypes of the single wheat kernel
 characterization  system.     Cereal  Foods  World  38:602-603. [Abstract]
 
 Pedersen, J. F., Martin, C. R., Steele, J. L. and Kofoid, K. D. 1993. 
 Measurement of sorghum seed hardness using the single kernel wheat
 characterization system.   Agronomy Abstracts, Annual:170. [Abstract]
 
 Sauer,  D. B.  1993.    Some  observations  on  oven  moisture
 determinations of humidified grain.  Cereal Foods World 38:592. [Abstract]
 
 Seitz, L. M. and Sauer, D. B.  1993.  Volatile compounds in wetted grain
 piles. Cereal Foods World 38:594.   [Abstract]
 
 Smail, V. W., Chung, O. K. and Steele, J. L.  1993.  Recent efforts to
 develop technologies needed to implement a "total quality grain marketing
 system".  Proc. U.S.-Japan Protein Resource Panel.   (In press)   [Review]
 
 Subramanyam, B., and Hagstrum, D. W.  1993.  Predicting development times of
 six stored-product moth species (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in relation to
 temperature, relative humidity, and diet.  Eur. J. Entomol. 90:51-64.
 
 Subramanyam, B., Hagstrum, D. W. and Schenk, T. C.  1993.  Sampling adult
 beetles (Coleoptera) associated with stored grain: comparing detection and
 mean trap catch efficiency of two types of probe trap.  Environ. Entomol.
 22:33-42.
 
 Tilley,  K.  A.,  Lookhart,  G.  L.  and  Hoseney,  R.  C.    1993.
 Biochemical and structural differences among high molecular weight qlutenin
 subunits.  Proc. 1993 Gluten Workshop.   (In press)
 
 Tilley, K. A., Lookhart, G. L., Hoseney, R. C. and Mawhinney, T. P. 1993.  
 Evidence for glycosylation of the high molecular weight glutenin subunits
 (HMW-GS) 2, 7, 8, and 12 from Chinese Spring and TAM 105 wheats.  Cereal
 Chem. 70:602-606.
 
 Tilley, K. A., Lookhart, G. L., Hoseney, R. C. and Mawhinney, T. P. 1993. 
 Evidence for glycosylation of glutenins.  Proc. 1993 Gluten Workshop.   (In
 press)
 
 Zayas, I. Y.  1993.  Potential of digital imaging for bread crumb qrain
 evaluation.  Cereal Foods World 38:760-766.
 
 Zayas,  I. Y., Bechtel, D. B. and Wilson, J. D.   1993.   Digital imaging
 study of environmental and varietal effects on HRW wheat starch qranule
 morphometry.  Cereal Foods World 38:617.  [Abstract]
 
 Zayas, I., Bechtel, D. B., Wilson, J. D. and Dempster, R.  1993.
 Distinguishing hard and soft red winter wheats by image analysis of starch
 qranules.  Cereal Chem.   (In press)
 
 Zayas, I. Y., Steele, J. L., Weaver, G. and Walker, D. E.  1993. Breadmaking
 factors assessed by digital imaging.   SPIE Proc., Machine  Vision 
 Architectures,   Integration  and  Applications 2064:135-151.
 
 -------------------------
      BS Gill*, TS Cox, RG Sears, WJ Raupp*, B Friebe, GL Brown, EN Jellen, J
 Jiang, KS Gill, S   Singh, DE Miller, S Nasuda, DL Wilson, LM Young,
 J Zhang,
 
      The Wheat Genetics Resource Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan
 
      Established in 1984, the Wheat Genetics Resource Center (WGRC) at Kansas
 State University collects, maintains, evaluates, and documents the genetic
 resources of wheat. The main mission of the WGRC is the collection,
 conservation, and utilization of germ plasm in crop improvement by
 broadening the crop genetic base and the development of genetic and
 cytogenetic stocks for the rapid and efficient gene transfer for breeding
 superior wheat cultivars.  The WGRC maintains over 3500 accessions of wild
 wheat species and genetic stocks.  The species accessions are evaluated for
 resistance to leaf, stem, and yellow rust; Septoria; tan spot; powdery
 mildew; wheat streak and barley yellow dwarf viruses; Hessian fly; greenbug;
 Russian wheat aphid; wheat curl mite; and other useful traits.  The
 resistance genes are incorporated into wheat lines through interspecific
 hybridization and released as germ plasm.  The WGRC develops new cytogenetic
 stocks and chromosome and DNA-based assays for plant genome analysis and
 efficient germ plasm development.  The national and international networking
 of scientists and collaborative research facilitate the conservation and
 utilization of the world's germ plasm of wheat.
 
      RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS - The Working Collection of Wild Wheat Species:  The
 germ plasm collection maintained by the Wheat Genetics Resource Center is a
 composite collection made up of accessions from existing sources.  The
 various species and number of accessions maintained for each are listed in
 Table 1.  Samples in the working collection are maintained at  10degC
 (50degF and low relative humidity.  Long term storage of seed is at -20degC. 
 The permanent collection is housed off-site at the Kansas Crop Improvement
 Association facilities in Manhattan.  Raupp, Wilson, Friebe, B Gill
 
 Table 1.  Number and type of the accessions maintained by the Wheat Genetics
 Resource Center.
 
  -------------------------------------------------------------
 Wild wheat species
 Species                                       No. of        
                                               accessions  
  -------------------------------------------------------------
 Diploids                           
 
 T. monococcum var. boeoticum                  702
 
 T. monococcum var. urartu                     195
 
 T. tauschii                                   371
 T. speltoides                                  46
 T. bicorne                                     12
 T. longissimum                                  9
 T. searsii                                      9
 T. tripsacoides                                 3
 T. comosum                                      4
 T. uniaristatum                                 2
 T. dichasiansw                                  2
 T. umbellulatum                                15
 
 
 Genetic Stocks
 Alien addition                                194
 Alloplasmic                                     7
 Amphiploid                                     93
 Aneuploid                                     354
 Cultivar                                      158
 Deletion                                      387
 Germ plasm                                     33
 Marker or mutant                              231
 Substitution                                  311
 Translocation                                  71
  -------------------------------------------------------------
 
  -------------------------------------------------------------
 Wild wheat species
 Species                                      No. of        
                                              accessions
  ------------------------------------------------------------                    Tetraploids and hexaploids
                     
 T. timopheevi var.                            301
 araraticum
 
 T. turgidum var.                              379
 dicoccoides
 
 T. carthlicum                                  43
 T. ventricosum                                  5
 T. crassum                                     17
 T. juvenale                                     5
 T. kotschyi                                    13
 T. ovatum                                      20
 T. triaristatum                                10
 T. machrochaetum                                6
 T. columnare                                    3
 T. triunciale                                  54
 T. cylindricum                                 13
  -------------------------------------------------------------
 
         Molecular cytogenetic analysis of radiation-induced alien genetic
 transfers in wheat:  Radiation treatment and homoeologous recombination are
 widely used for transferring alien genes to wheat.  C-banding and genomic in
 situ hybridization analyses are very sensitive cytological techniques that
 allow the detection of alien chromatin in wheat.  We used these methods to
 determine the breakpoints, chromosomal locations, and sizes of the
 transferred alien segments in induced and spontaneous wheat-alien
 translocations.  The results on radiation-induced wheat-Triticum (Aegilops),
 wheat-Agropyron, and wheat-Secale translocations with leaf rust, stem rust,
 powdery mildew, wheat streak mosaic virus, green bug, and Hessian fly
 resistance gene chromatin in wheat are presented in Table 2.  The results
 suggest that radiation treatment breaks chromosomes randomly and most of the
 translocations are between non-homoeologous chromosomes and thus of non-
 compensating types.  Most of these transfers were identified as terminal
 translocations and only one intercalary translocation was detected.  In
 contrast, all of the transfers produced by induced homoeologous
 recombination are compensating translocations, usually involve smaller alien
 segments, and are therefore agronomically more useful.  However, since
 recombination in wheat is suppressed in the proximal halves of the
 chromosomes, radiation treatment may be the only way to achieve a transfer
 of a gene that is located in this region.
 
 
 Table 2.  Wheat-alien germ plasm characterized at the Wheat Genetics
 Resource Center.
  ------------------------------------------------------------
 Germplasm           Alien species           Alien target
                                             genes
  ------------------------------------------------------------
 Cl17884             T. speltoides            Gb5
 Transfer (T47)      T. umbellulatum          Lr9
 T40                 T. umbellulatum          Lr9
 T41                 T. umbellulatum          Lr9
 T44                 T. umbellulatum          Lr9
 T52                 T. umbellulatum          Lr9
 Amigo               S. cereale               Gb2/Pm17
 Transec             S. cereale               Lr25/Pm7
 88HF16              S. cereale               H25
 88HF79              S. cereale               H25
 88HF89              S. cereale               H25
 KS85HF011           S. cereale               H21
 KS91WGRC14          S. cereale               Pm8/Sr31
 Cl17884             A. intermedium           Wsm1
 T4                  A. intermedium           Lr38
 T7                  A. intermedium           Lr38
 T24                 A. intermedium           Lr38
 T25                 A. intermedium           Lr38
 T33                 A. intermedium           Lr38
 Cl15322             A. elongatum             Wsm
 Agent               A. elongatum             Sr24
 Agatha              A. elongatum             Lr19/
                                              Sr25
 Agatha-28           A. elongatum             Lr19/
                                              Sr25
 Agatha-235          A. elongatum             Lr19
 K2046               A. elongatum             Sr26
  ------------------------------------------------------------
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 *For this line, the length listed is the size of the chromosome arm present.
 
 Table 2.  Wheat-alien germ plasm characterized at the Wheat Genetics
 Resource Center. (cont'd)
 
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 Germplasm               Description     Size of          Size of
                                         alien            missing
                                         segment          segment
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Cl17884                 T7AS-7SS -7SL    8.54um          0.63um of
                                                          7AS*
 
 Transfer (T47)          T6BS -6BL-6UL    0.41um          0.51um of
                                                          6BL
 
 T40                     T6BL -6BS-6UL    4.65um          3.29um of
                                                          6BS
 
 T41                     T4BL -4BS-6UL    5.08um          2.90um of
                                                          4BS
 
 T44                     T2DS -2DL-6UL    1.66um          0.19um of
                                                          2DL
 
 T52                     T7BL -7BS-6UL    2.84um          1.13um of
                                                          7BS
        
 Amigo                   T1AL -1RS +      1RS             1AS
                         T1BL -1BS-
                         3Ae#1L
 
 Transec                 T4BS -4BL-5RL    2.40um          1.03um of
                                                          4BL
 
 88HF16                  T6BS -6BL-6RL    6.95um
 
 88HF79                  T4BS -4BL-6RL    3.88um
 
 88HF89                  T4AS -4AL-       0.70um
                         6RL-4AL          
 
 KS85HF011               T2BS -2RL        2RL             2BL
 
 KS91WGRC14              T1BL -1RS        1RS             1BS
 
 Cl17884                 T4DL -4Ai#2S     4Ai#2S          4DS
 
 T4                      T3DL -3DS-       2.78um          0.67um of
                         7Ai#2L                           3DS
 
 T7                      T6DS -6DL-       4.19u           1.45um of
                         7Ai#2L                           6DL
 
 T24                     T5AL -5AS-       4.20um          0.88um of
                         7Ai#2L                           5AS
 
 T25                     T1DS -1DL-       2.55um          0.82um of
                         7Ai#2L                           1DL
 
 T33                     T2AS -2AL-       2.42um          1.40um of
                         7Ai#2L                           2AL
 
 Cl15322                 T4DS -4DL-       1.31um          0.73um of
                         1Ae#1L                           4DL
 
 Agent                   T3DS -3DL-       1.26um          1.38um of
                         3Ae#1L                           3DL
 
 Agatha                  T7DS -7DL-       2.55um          2.62um of
                         7Ae#1L                           7DL
 
 Agatha-28               T7DS -7DL-       2.73um          2.71um of
                         7Ae#1L                           7DL
 
 Agatha-235              T7DS -7DL-       1.99um          1.29um of
                             7Ae#1L-7DL                   7DS
                                          
 K2046                   T6AS -6AL-       2.48um          3.63um of
                                                          6AL
  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 * For this line, the length listed is the size of the chromosome
 arm present.
 
 
         Cytogenetically monitored transfer of powdery mildew resistance from
 rye into wheat:  Twenty different powdery mildew resistance genes are known in
 wheat and most of them are used in cultivar improvement.  However, many of
 these genes were overcome by the fungus and are no longer effective and
 therefore, new sources of resistance are continuously being sought. 
 Recently, we reported a new source of powdery mildew resistance,
 preliminarily designated MIP6L, that was derived from the long arm of
 chromosome 6R of Secale cereale L. cv. Prolific.  The aim of the study was
 to transfer MIP6L to a cytologically stable wheat-rye chromosome
 translocation.  A cytologically stable wheat-rye translocation line,
 T6BS6RL, was produced.  The powdery mildew resistance gene was designated
 Pm20.  C-banding analysis was used to physically map Pm20 in the distal
 third of the recombined translocation chromosome.  The successful transfer
 of the resistance gene was verified by artificial inoculation with the
 powdery mildew fungus.  Friebe, B Gill.
 
         A  zebra  chromosome arising from multiple translocations involving
 non-homologous chromosomes:  An alloplasmic wheat line with a  zebra 
 chromosome(z5A) was isolated from the derivative of an Elymus trachycaulus x
 Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring hybrid.  Chromosome z5A was named zebra
 because of its striped genomic in situ hybridization pattern.  z5A consists of
 four chromosome segments derived from E. trachycaulus and four chromosome
 segments, including the centromere, from wheat.  The short arm of z5A paired
 with the telocentric chromosome 1H(t)S of E. trachycaulus and the long arm
 with the long arm of normal 5A.  z5A also has several genetic markers
 derived from 1H(t)S.  Chromosome 1H(t) was the only E. trachycaulus
 chromosome found in the sib plants of a previous generation from which z5A
 was derived.  Monosomic 5A and telocentric chromosome 5AL were also found in
 most of the sib plants.  The zebra chromosome most probably originated from
 spontaneous multiple translocation between chromosomes 5A and 1H(t)S or 5A
 and 1H(t).  Jiang, B Gill.
 
         Sequential chromosome banding and in situ hybridization analysis: 
 Different combination of chromosome N- or C-banding with in situ
 hybridization (ISH) or genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) were
 sequentially performed on metaphase chromosomes of wheat.  A modified N-
 banding ISH/GISH sequential procedure gave the best results.  Similarly, a
 modified C-banding ISH/GISH procedure also gave satisfactory results.  The
 variation of the hot acid treatment in the standard chromosome N- or C-
 banding procedures was the major factor affecting the resolution of the
 subsequent ISH and GISH.  By the sequential chromosome banding ISH/GISH
 analysis, multicopy DNA sequences, and the breakpoints of wheat-alien
 translocations were directly allocated to specific chromosomes os wheat. 
 The sequential chromosome banding ISH/GISH technique should be widely
 applicable in genome mapping, especially in cytogenetic and molecular
 mapping of heterochromatic and euchromatic regions of plant and animal
 chromosomes.  Jiang, B Gill.
 
         Development of a genetic map for A-genome wheat:  The A genome wheat
 are a useful source of leaf rust resistance genes. Introgression of these genes
 into elite bread wheat germ plasm is facilitated by using a pair of dominant
 genes from Triticum monococcum (PI355520) that promote female fertility in
 bread wheat-T. monococcum hybrids.  The main objectives of the study are to
 develop a genetic map for T. monococcum using primarily RAPD markers, and to
 identify markers closely linked to one or both of the female-fertility
 genes.  Mapping is in an F(2) population derived from a cross of PI266844 /
 PI355520.  The 57 individual F(2)s were crossed as males to bread wheat to
 determine their interspecific hybrid fertility.  Approximately 5% of the
 primers screened amplify useful polymorphic DNA fragments.  This low level
 of polymorphism is consistent with previous reports on variability in the A-
 genome wheats.  At least on RAPD, using primer OPD-19, co-segregates with
 one of the female-fertility genes.
 
                         Publications
 
 Badaeva ED, Gill BS, Badaev NS, Kawahara T, and Filatenko AA.  1993. 
 Chromosomal rearrangements and the process of intraspecific diversity in
 Triticum araraticum.  In:  Proc. 8th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp. 20-25 July
 1993, Beijing, China.  
 
 Chen PD, Tsujimoto T, and Gill BS.  199-. Transfer of Ph1 genes promoting
 homoeologous pairing from Triticum speltoides to common wheat.  Theor. Appl.
 Genet.  (Accepted).
 
 Cox TS, Hatchett JH, Gill BS, and Sears RG.  1993.  Notice of release of
 KS92WGRC26 Hessian fly-resistant hard red winter wheat germ plasm.  USDA-ARS
 and Kansas Ag. Exp. Sta.  Fall Cereals Conf., Manhattan, KS.
 
 Cox TS, Jellen EN, and Gill BS.  1993.  Development of a genetic map for A-
 genome diploid wheat.  Agron. Abstr.  174.
 
 Cox TS, Raupp WJ, and Gill BS.  199-.  Leaf rust-resistance genes Lr41,
 Lr42, and Lr43 transferred from diploid goatgrass to common wheat.  Crop
 Sci.  (Accepted).
 
 Cox TS, Sorrells ME, Bergstrom GC, Sears RG, Gill BS, Walsh EJ, Leath S, and
 Murphy JP.  1994.  Registration of KS92WGRC21 and KS92WGRC22 hard red winter
 wheat germplasms resistant to wheat streak mosaic virus and powdery mildew. 
 Crop Sci.  (March-April 1994).
 
 Dyck PL, and Friebe B.  1993.  Evaluation of leaf rust resistance from
 wheat-Agropyron intermedium chromosomal translocation lines.  Crop Sci. 
 33:687-690.
 
 Endo TR and Gill BS.  1993.  Production of deletion stocks in common wheat. 
 In:  Proc. 8th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp. 20-25 July 1993, Beijing, China.  
 
 Friebe B, Heun M, Tuleen N, Zeller FJ, and Gill BS.  1994.  Cytogenetically
 monitored transfer of powdery mildew resistance from rye into wheat.  Crop
 Sci.  (May-June 1994).
 
 Friebe B, Gill BS, Cox TS, and Zeller FJ.  1993.  Registration of KS91WGRC14
 stem rust and powdery mildew resistant T1BL1RS durum wheat germplasm.  Crop
 Sci. 33:320.
 
 Friebe B, Gill BS, Mukai Y, and Maan SS.  1993.  A noncompensating wheat-rye
 translocation maintained in perpetual monosomy in alloplasmic wheat.  J.
 Hered.  84(2):  126-129.
 
 Friebe B, Gill BS, and Tuleen N.  1993.  Notice of release of KS93WGRC28
 powdery mildew-resistant hard red winter wheat germ plasm.  Kansas Ag. Exp.
 Sta. and Wheat Genetics Resource Center.  Fall Cereals Conf., Manhattan, KS.
 
 Friebe B, Jiang J, Gill BS, and Dyck PL.  1993.  Radiation-induced
 nonhomoeologous wheat-Agropyron intermedium chromosomal translocations
 conferring resistance to leaf rust.  Theor. Appl. Genet.  86:141-149.
 
 Friebe B, Jiang J, Knott DR, and Gill BS.  1994.  Compensation indices of
 radiation induced wheat-Agropyron elongatum translocations conferring
 resistance to leaf rust and stem rust.  Crop Sci.  (In press).
 
 Friebe B, Jiang J, Raupp WJ, and Gill BS.  1993.  Molecular cytogenetic
 analysis of alien genetic transfers in wheat.  In:  Proc. 8th Int. Wheat
 Genet. Symp. 20-25 July 1993, Beijing, China.  
 
 Friebe B, Tuleen N, Jiang J, and Gill BS.  1993.  Standard karyotype of
 Triticum longissimum and its cytogenetic relationship with T. aestivum. 
 Genome  36:731-742.
 
 Gill BS.  1993.  Cytogenetic ladder maps:  construction and applications in
 molecular mapping of the genome of wheat.  In:  Proc. 8th Int. Wheat Genet.
 Symp. 20-25 July 1993, Beijing, China.
 
 Gill BS.  1993.  Molecular cytogenetic analysis in wheat.  Crop Sci. 
 33:902-908.
 
 Gill BS, Friebe B, Wilson DL, and Martin TJ.  1993.  Notice of release of
 KS93WGRC27 wheat streak mosaic virus-resistant hard red winter wheat germ
 plasm.  Kansas Ag. Exp. Sta. and Wheat Genetics Resource Center.  Fall
 Cereals Conf., Manhattan, KS.
 
 Gill BS, Gill KS, Raupp WJ, Delaney DE, Kota RS, Young LA, Hassawi D, Fritz
 AK, Cox TS, Hulbert SH, Sears RG, Endo TR, Namuth D, and Lapitan NLV.  1993. 
 Genetic and physical mapping in Triticum tauschii and Triticum aestivum. 
 In:  Progress in Genome Mapping of wheat and Related Species (Hoisington, D,
 and A McNab, eds.).  CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, p. 10-17.
 
 Gill KS, Gill BS, and Endo TR.  1993.  A chromosomic region-specific mapping
 strategy reveals gene-rich telomeric ends in wheat.  Chromosoma  102:374-
 381.
 
 Gill KS, Gill BS, Endo TR, and Mukai Y.  1993.  Fine physical mapping of
 Ph1, a chromosome pairing regulator gene in polyploid wheat.  Genetics 
 134:1231-1236.
 
 Jellen EN, Gill BS, and Cox TS.  1993.  Genomic in situ hybridization
 detects intergenomic translocations in allopolyploid oat species.  Agron.
 Abstr. 178.
 
 Jiang J, and Gill BS.  1993.  Sequential chromosome banding and in situ
 hybridization analysis.  Genome  36:792-795.
 
 Jiang J, and Gill BS.  1993.  A  zebra  chromosome arising from non-
 homologous multiple translocations.  Chromosoma. 102:612-617 (with cover
 photo).     
 
 Jiang J, and Gill BS.  199-.  New 18S26S ribosomal RNA gene loci: 
 Chromosomal landmarks for the evolution of polyploid wheats.  Chromosoma. 
 (Accepted).
 
 Jiang J, and Gill BS.  199-.  Different species-specific chromosome
 translocations in Triticum timopheevii and T. turgidum support the
 diphyletic origin of polyploid wheats.  Chromosome Res.  (Accepted).
 
 Jiang J, Chen P, Friebe B, Raupp WJ, and Gill BS.  1993.  Alloplasmic wheat
   Elymus ciliaris chromosome addition lines.  Genome 36(2):  327-333.
 
 Jiang J, Friebe B, Dhaliwal HS, Martin TJ, and Gill BS.  1993.  Molecular
 cytogenetic analysis of Agropyron elongatum chromatin in wheat germplasm
 specifying resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus.  Theor. Appl. Genet.
 86:41-48.
 
 Jiang J, Friebe B, and Gill BS.  1994.  Recent advances in alien gene
 transfer in wheat.  Euphytica.  (In press).
 
 Jiang J, Morris KLD, and Gill BS.  1993.  Introgression of Elymus
 trachycaulus chromatin into common wheat. Chromosome Res.  (In press).
 
 Kota RS, Gill KS, Gill BS, and Endo TR.  1993.  A cytogenetically based
 physical map of chromosome -1B in common wheat.  Genome  36:548-554.
 
 Liu DJ, Chen PD, and Raupp WJ.  1993.  Determination of homoeologous groups
 of Haynaldia villosa.  In:  Proc. 8th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp. 20-25 July
 1993, Beijing, China.  (In press).
 
 Ma, Z-Q, Gill BS, Sorrells ME, and Tanksley SD.  1993.  RFLP markers linked
 to 2 Hessian fly-resistance genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) from Triticum
 tauschii (Coss) Schmal.  Theor. Appl. Genet.  85:750-754.
 
 Miller, DE, Raupp WJ, and Gill BS.  1993.  Genetic analysis of leaf rust
 resistance genes in Triticum tauschii, the D-genome progenitor of wheat. 
 Phytopath.  83:885.
 
 Mukai Y, Friebe B, Hatchett JH, Yamamoto M, and Gill BS.  1993.  Molecular
 cytogenetic analysis of radiation-induced wheat-rye terminal and intercalary
 chromosomal translocations and the detection of rye chromatin specifying
 resistance to Hessian fly.  [With cover photo].  Chromosoma.  102:88-95.
 
 Raupp WJ, Amri A, Hatchett JH, Gill BS, Wilson DL, and Cox TS.  1993. 
 Chromosomal location of Hessian fly - Resistance genes H22, H23, and H24
 derived from Triticum tauschii in the D genome of wheat.  J. Hered. 84(2): 
 142-145.
 
 Raupp WJ, Gill BS, Friebe B, Wilson DL, Cox TS, and Sears RG.  1993.  The
 Wheat Genetics Resource Center:  germ plasm conservation, evaluation, and
 utilization.  In:  Proc. 8th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp. 20-25 July 1993,
 Beijing, China.  
 
 Singh S, Gill KS, and Gill BS.  1993.  Molecular tagging of a gene
 conferring resistance to Hessian fly in wheat.  In:  Proc. 8th Int. Wheat
 Genet. Symp. 20-25 July 1993, Beijing, China.  99
 
 ------------------------- 
         Wheat Genetics Resource Center, Kansas State University
 
         Hard red winter wheat germplasm releases.  T. J. Martin and T.L. Harvey
 (Fort Hays Agricultural Experiment Station), T.S. Cox and J.H. Hatchett
 (USDA-ARS), B.S. Gill, B. Friebe, and D. Wilson (Dept. of Plant Pathology),
 R.G. Sears (Dept. of Agronomy), and N. Tuleen (Texas A&M University).
 
         New Releases.  Ike was released by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment
 Station in 1993. Ike, KS 89H48-1 (Dular/Eagle//2*Cheney//
 (Larned//Eagle/Sage)/3/Colt) was developed by Joe Martin at the Fort Hays
 Branch Experiment Station. Ike is best adapted to  western Kansas and has
 very good drought tolerance. 
  
         Experimental Lines. KS84063-9-39-3 (KS82W418/Stephens) is currently
 being
 increased for release consideration in the summer of 1994. Presently it is
 being tested in both state and regional (SRPN) trials. KS84063-9-39-3 is
 adapted across Kansas and has very good general disease resistance. Milling
 and baking properties are comparable to Karl. 
  
         KS92P0363-134 (WX12907/Tam 108//W2440), is a selection coming from the
 former Pioneer Hard Red Winter Wheat breeding program. It has excellent
 general disease resistance with better overall mixing tolerance and test
 weight patterns than 2163, the variety it is expected to replace. 
 KS92P0363-134 is currently being evaluated in both state and regional (SRPN)
 trials and a release decision will be made in the summer of 1995. 
  
         KS92P0263-137 (W2440/W9488/2163) is a selection from the former Pioneer
 Hard Red Winter Wheat breeding program. It has excellent general disease
 resistance, aluminum tolerance and better test weight patterns that 2163. 
 KS92P0263-137 has good adaptation across Kansas, but has performed best in
 central and eastern Kansas. This line is currently being tested in both
 state and regional tests (SRPN) and a release decision would be made in the 
 summer of 1995. 
 
         KS92WGRC24 and KS92WGRC25.  KS92WGRC24 and KS92WGRC25 are resistant to
 the Russian wheat aphid (RWA).  The pedigree of KS92WGRC24 is Yilmaz-
 10/2*KS84HW196 and that of KS92WGRC25 is Yilmaz-10/KS84HW196//Dodge.  Both
 are increases of F(4) head selections.  Yilmaz-10, the RWA-resistant parent,
 is a landrace selection made in eastern Turkey.  The RWA resistance in
 KS92WGRC24 and KS92WGRC25 has been verified in both seedling greenhouse and
 field tests.
 
         KS92WGRC24 is a white-seeded, awned, white glumed, semidwarf, hard
 winter
 wheat.  It was tested in the 1992 Preliminary Yield Nursery (PYN) at Hays,
 KS.  KS92WGRC24 was 2 days later, 2 cm shorter, and had a coleoptile length
 3 cm longer than TAM 107.  The yield of KS92WGRC24 was about 10% less than
 TAM 107.  The mixing strength of this line is slightly stronger than that of
 Larned as measured with the mixograph, while its grain protein was 1% higher
 than TAM 107.
 
         KS92WGRC25 is a red-seeded, awned, white glumed, semidwarf, hard winter
 wheat.  It was also tested in the 1992 Hays PYN.  KS92WGRC25 headed 5 days
 earlier, was 2 cm taller, and had a coleoptile length 1.5 cm longer than TAM
 107.  Grain yields of KS92WGRC24 and KS92WGRC25 were similar.  The mixing
 strength of KS92WGRC25 was equal to Larned and its grain protein was 1%
 higher than TAM 107.
 
         The disease and insect resistance of these two lines are similar.  They
 are resistant to stem rust, but susceptible to leaf rust, soilborne mosaic
 virus, wheat streak mosaic virus, and Hessian fly.
 
         To request seed:  Small quantities (15 seeds) of KS92WGRC24 and
 KS92WGRC25 are available upon request.  Appropriate recognition of source
 should be given when this germplasm contributes to research or development
 of new cultivars.  Seed stocks will be maintained by T. J. Martin, Kansas
 Agricultural Experiment Station at the Fort Hays Agricultural Experiment
 Station, Hays, KS 67601. 
 
          KS92WGRC26 is a hard red winter wheat germplasm line resistant to
 biotype L and a Moroccan population of the Hessian fly.  In greenhouse tests
 repeated over a 2-year period at Manhattan, KS, and in a greenhouse test at
 Settat, Morocco, 100% of KS92WGRC26 plants were resistant, exhibiting only
 dead larvae.
 
         KS92WGRC26 is a BC(2)F(3)-derived line with the pedigree
 'Karl'*3/TA2473. 
 TA 2473 is a Hessian fly-resistant accession of Triticum tauschii collected
 near Ramsar, Iran.  KS92WGRC26 is similar to Karl in height, days to
 heading, disease reactions, and overall phenotype.  Resistance to Hessian
 fly in KS92WGRC26 is conditioned by a single, completely dominant gene, H26,
 from TA 2473, which is located on chromosome 4D. 
         
         KS93WGRC27 is resistant to wheat streak mosaic virus.  It is a
 BC(3)F(2)-
 derived line from the cross 'C.I.17884'*4/'Karl'.  'C.I.17884' is a T.
 aestivum germplasm  homozygous for T7AS-7SS.7SL T. aestivum-T. speltoides,
 T4DL.4Ai#2S T. aestivum-Agropyron intermedium chromosome translocations, and
 'Karl' is a hard red winter wheat cultivar.
 
         KS93WGRC27 is homozygous for the T4DL.4Ai#2S translocation according to
 C-banding analysis.  The 4Ai#2S chromosome arm in KS93WGRC27 has a gene,
 Wsm1, that conditions an effective level of resistance to the wheat streak
 mosaic virus. 
 
         KS93WGRC28 is resistant to powdery mildew.  It is a BC(1)F(4)-derived
 line from the cross MS6RL(6D)/'TAM104'.  MS6RL(6D) is a monosomic 6RL(6D)
 wheat-rye chromosome substitution line where the 6RL chromosome arm was
 derived from Secale cereale L. cv. 'Prolific'.  'TAM 104' is a hard red
 winter wheat germplasm homozygous for a Y6BS.6RL wheat-rye chromosome
 translocation.
 
         KS93WGRC27 is homozygous for a recombined Y6BS.6RL(rec). wheat-rye
 translocation chromosome according to C-banding analysis.  The 6RL arm in
 T6BS.6RL(rec.) has a gene, Pm20, that conditions resistance to the powdery
 mildew fungus.
 
         To request seed:  Small quantities (3 g) of seed of KS92WGRC26,
 KS93WGRC27, and KS93WGRC28 are available upon written request.  It is
 requested that appropriate recognition of source be given when this
 germplasm contributes to research or development of new cultivars.  Seed
 stocks are maintained by B. S. Gill, Wheat Genetics Resource Center,
 Department of Plant Pathology, Throckmorton Hall, Kansas State University,
 Manhattan, KS 66506. 
 
 -------------------------
         Evapotranspiration Laboratory, Kansas State University
 
         Jingxian Zhang and M.B. Kirkham 
 
         Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase in
 drought-stressed wheat species.  
 Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase
 (CAT), and peroxidase (POD), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and
 solute potentials, were studied in seedlings of seven wheat (Triticum)
 species (nine genotypes) subjected to water stress for 4, 8, and 12 days by
 withholding water.  Solute potentials of all genotypes were lowered by water
 stress.  In most species, SOD and CAT activities showed an increase in the
 early phase of drought and then a decrease with further increase in
 magnitude of water stress.  On the contrary, POD activities and MDA contents
 greatly increased in response to water stress.  Enzymatic activities partly
 recovered and MDA contents decreased with rewatering.  Under drought,
 hexaploid wheats had higher POD activities and MDA contents than tetraploid
 and diploid wheats; solute potentials and activities of SOD and CAT,
 however, were similar among the three groups.  These results suggest that
 water stress alters the equilibrium between free radical production and
 enzymatic defense reactions and that hexaploid wheats have less efficient
 antioxidant systems (e.g., the ascorbate-gluthathione cycle and the
 nonenzymatic system) than tetraploid and diploid wheats.  (Acknowledgement: 
 The authors thank Mr. Siping Cui and Junming Li, Hebei Academy of
 Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, China, for their help in getting seed
 material and preparing the enzyme extracts, respectively.)
 
                         Publications
 
 Rachidi, F., M.B. Kirkham, L.R. Stone, and E.T. Kanemasu.  1993.  Soil water
 depletion by sunflower and sorghum under rainfed conditions.  Agric. Water
 Manage. 24:49-62.
 
 Rachidi, F., M.B. Kirkham, L.R. Stone, and E.T. Kanemasu.  1993.  Use of
 photosynthetically active  radiation by sunflower and sorghum.  European J.
 Agron. 2:131-139.
 
 Rachidi, F., M.B. Kirkham, E.T. Kanemasu, and L.R. Stone.  1993.  Energy
 balance comparison of sorghum and sunflower.  Theor. Appl. Climatol. 48:29-
 39.
 
 He, H., M.B. Kirkham, D. Nie, and E.T. Kanemasu.  1993.  Soil-plant-water
 relations of big bluestem under elevated CO2.  Plant Physiology (Life
 Sciences Advances) 12:39-43.
 
 Kirkham, M.B., D. Nie, H. He, and E.T. Kanemasu.  1993.  Responses of plants
 to elevated levels of carbon dioxide, p. 130-161.  In: Proceedings of the
 Symposium on Plant Growth and Environment, October, 1993, Suwon, Korea. 
 Korean Agric. Chem. Soc., Suwon, Korea.
 
 Kirkham, M.B.  1994.  Streamlines for diffusive flow in vertical and surface
 tillage:  a model study.  Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 58:85-93.
 
 -------------------------
         Department of Agronomy,  Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS
 
         Xu Gu and George H. Liang
 
         Tissue Culture and Plant Transformation.   Experiments concerning
 callus induction, cell suspension, and protoplast culture using Mustang, 
 Pavon, Karl 92, and Jianghua #1 as materials have been underway.  Immature 
 embryo and anther culture are used initially to develop diploid and haploid 
 calli and embryogenic calli will be used to initiate cell suspension and 
 thenprotoplast culture.
 
         To produce transgenic plants resistant to insects and some fungi,  we
 plan to test the cloned chitinase gene and the biolistic gun to deliver the
 gene into calli, cell suspension or protoplasts.
 
         The chitinase gene was isolated from tobacco hornworm (Manchuca sexta)
 by Dr. Karl Kramer (USGMRL, USDA-ARS) and the preliminary data showed that
 transgenic tobacco plants are resistant to tobacco hornworm.  Since all
 insects' exoskeleton contains chitin and most insects' gut also contain
 chitin, the transgenic plants could provide a way to protect the plants from
 damaging insects, such as aphids or Hessian fly.  Since some fungi also
 possess chitin in their cell walls, it is likely that the transgenic plants
 may also be resistant to those fungi. 
 
         To produce transgenic plants resistant to insects or disease-inducing
 fungi using available cloned genes, we plan to establish a protocol so that
 calli from embryos and anthers, cell suspension, and protoplasts can be
 initiated, maintained, and utilized for routine research on plant
 transformation.
                         Publications:
 
 Shu, G., S. Muthukrishnan, G. H. Liang and G. M. Paulsen.  1993. 
 Restriction fragment patterns of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA of
 Dasypyrum villosum (L.) candargy and wheats.  Theor. Appl. Genet. 87:44-48.
 
 -------------------------
         Kansas Agricultural Statistics, Topeka
 
         T. J. Byram
 
         Distribution of Kansas winter wheat varieties for the years 1984-1994
 can be obtained from this office:  
 
                         Publications
 
    Monthly Crops.  Wheat cultivars, percent of acreage devoted to each
 cultivar.  Wheat quality, test weight, moisture, and protein content of
 current harvest.  $10.00.
 
    Weekly Crop-Weather.  Issued each Monday, March 1 through November 30. 
 Provides crop and weather information for previous week.  $12.00.
 
    County Estimates.    County data on wheat acreage seeded and harvested,
 yield, and production on summer fallow, irrigated, and continuous cropped
 land.  December.
 
    Wheat Quality.  County data on protein, test weight, moisture, grade and
 dockage. Includes milling and baking tests, by cultivar, from a probability
 sample of Kansas wheat.  September.
 
 -------------------------
 KENTUCKY                                                                     
                                                                
         University of Kentucky, Lexington
 
         D. A. Van Sanford, C. T. MacKown, and W. L. Pearce
 
         Production.  The average wheat yield for the 1992-93 season was 48
 bu/a,
 down 12% from the record yield of the preceding season.  The culprit seemed
 to be, in large part, BYDV, with the most widespread symptom expression
 since 1983.  In this regard it was a good year for evaluating aphid control
 treatments.  Preliminary studies with Amigo seed treatment look quite
 promising, although it may be too expensive to be cost effective in most
 years in Kentucky.  Winterkill was minimal, and fungal disease pressure was
 lighter than usual, with late leaf rust and some glume blotch causing only
 minor yield reductions.- Van Sanford
 
         Powdery mildew study.  We completed the third year of a study designed
 to identify the optimal time for assessing powdery mildew infection.  In a
 population segregating only for minor gene resistance, it appeared that
 powdery mildew score at Feeke's growth stage 9 was the best predictor of
 yield loss from the disease in our environment.  In support of this
 conclusion, we noted minimal yield loss from powdery mildew in varieties
 which had little mildew at GS 9, but heavy mildew on the flag leaf during
 grain fill (e.g. Pioneer Brand 2510). - Pearce, Van Sanford
 
         Personnel changes.  After several years of studying source and sink
 limitations in wheat, Yong zhan Ma completed his Ph.D. and has left for a
 post doctoral position at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station.
 
 Publications
 Van Sanford, D. A., T. W. Pfeiffer, and P. L. Cornelius.  1993.  A selection
 index based on genetic correlations among environments.  Crop Sci. 33: 1244-
 1248.
 
 Cornelius, P. L., D. A. Van Sanford, and M. S. Seyedsadr.  1993.  Clustering
 cultivars into groups without rank-change interactions.  Crop Sci. 33: 1193-
 1200.
 
 Pearce, W. L., and D. A. Van Sanford.  1993.  Growth stage determination of
 powdery mildew and associated yield loss in winter wheat.  1993 Agronomy
 Abstracts , p. 97.     
 
 Ma, Y-Z., C.T. MacKown, and D.A. Van Sanford.  1993.  Source and sink
 reduction:  effects on kernel growth and assimilate supply.  1993 Agronomy
 Abstracts, p. 117.
 
 Van Sanford, D. A., and Herry Utomo.  1993.  Genetic analysis of tillering
 in soft red winter wheat.  1993 Agronomy Abstracts, p. 104.
 
 Barnhisel, R. I., and D. A. Van Sanford.  1993.  Evaluation of soft red
 winter wheat on reconstructed prime farmland.  1993 Agronomy Abstracts, p.
 26.
 
 -------------------------
 LOUISIANA
 
         S.A. Harrison*, C.A. Clark, P.D. Colyer*, C.A. Hollier*, J.S. Russin*,
 B.L. Tillman, and J.D. Thompson, Louisiana State University Agricultural 
 Center
 
         Wheat Production, (Hollier): Wheat was harvested from 98,804 acres by
 711 producers in 1993, a drop from the 160,015 acres harvested by 1160 
 producers in 1992.  Yields for 1993 averaged 26.08 bushels per acre, a 
 decrease from 37.8 bushels per acre, resulting in a total production of 
 2,576,467 bushels, down from the 6,052,192 bushel crop of 1992.  The gross 
 farm value of the 1993 crop was estimated at $8,631,164.  The reduction in 
 acreage was caused by adverse planting conditions, while the decreased yield 
 per acre was due, primarily, to a late season freeze and above normal disease 
 pressure.
 
         Wheat Diseases - General, (Hollier):  Disease pressure for the 1993
 crop was above normal statewide.  The incidence and severity of Septoria 
 nodorum blotch, leaf rust and stripe rust in commercial fields was higher 
 than normal early in the spring especially in the southern half of the state. 
 Yield loss due to leaf rust was estimated at 6%, while stripe rust loss was
 estimated at 1%.
 
         Fungicide Trials (Russin):  Field tests of labelled fungicides were
 conducted at Baton Rouge, Alexandria, and Bossier City.  Leaf rust pressure
 was light-moderate in test plots this year.  Labelled materials (Tilt,
 Bayleton, Manzate 200, and Bayleton + Manzate 200) provided varying amounts
 of leaf rust control.  Control ranged from ca. 20-80% over all treatments,
 with Bayleton (4 oz.) and Bayleton + Manzate 200 (2 oz. + 2 lb.) providing
 the greatest levels of control.  Greater control was observed following
 early rather than late applications, primarily because the late spring
 freeze damaged the crop so much that fungicide applications were not
 advantageous after that time.  Control of Septoria leaf blotch and glume
 blotch was similar to that described for leaf rust.  Fusarium head scab was
 not present in test plots at sufficient levels to provide any control
 evaluations.  Previous years  testing failed to show much control of this
 disease using currently labelled fungicides.
         
      Field tests included three experimental fungicides, i.e., Punch
 (DuPont), Folicur (Miles), and RH7592 (Rohm & Haas), and a new silicone-
 based surfactant, Kinetic (Miles).  Across all tests, superior control of
 leaf rust and Septoria leaf and glume blotch were obtained using Folicur (4
 oz.), when compared to labelled standards.  Control using Punch was not as
 good this year, probably  because rates tested (2-4 oz.) were much less than
 those in previous years (4-8 oz.).  These results suggest that Punch may
 have to be applied at higher rates to achieve desired control.  First-year
 results with RH7592 were very encouraging; disease control was good, ranking
 close to that seen with Folicur.  Comparisons of Kinetic with the standard
 surfactant (CS7) gave mixed results.  Kinetic increased the efficacy of
 Folicur in only one test, but did not enhance efficacy of Bayleton + Manzate
 200.  Further testing is necessary to evaluate the potential role of this
 material in Louisiana.
 
         Bacterial streak (Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens
 (Xct))development was near normal for most of the state.  Evaluations of
 commercial cultivars were continued to determine resistance levels to Xct.
 
         Bacterial Streak Research (Tillman, Harrison, Clark, Russin): 
 Heritability, yield loss and germplasm screening studies on bacterial streak
 caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens were continued in 1993. 
 Estimates from parent-offspring regression (F(2:3) on F(2)) indicate low
 heritability (0.16-0.31) in three crosses when disease severity is measured
 on flag leaves during early flowering.  Data from this study also show that
 severity of  bacterial streak on the flag leaves is negatively correlated
 with days until heading (i.e. later maturing lines tend to develop less
 disease symptoms).   
 
         Results from yield loss studies indicate that some cultivars may lose
 as much as 14% yield in inoculated versus noninoculated plots.  The symptom
 most related to yield loss is flag leaf streaks while the black chaff and
 peduncle lesion symptoms do not appear to contribute to yield loss. 
 Preliminary greenhouse results show that percent of the flag leaf covered
 with streaks and percent of the glumes covered with black chaff may not be
 proportional for a given cultivar.   
 
         Approximately 400 remaining lines from a group of 5,000 from the USDA
 World Wheat Collection will undergo a final year of field testing for
 reaction to bacterial streak.  Data from 1993 showed about 40 lines with
 apparently high levels of resistance.   In addition, about 250 Triticum
 tauschii accessions (Kyoto collection) will be screened in the greenhouse
 and field in 1994.  Dr. Gene Milus (University of Arkansas) is also
 screening this collection and results will be combined.  
 
         Wheat Diseases and Fungicide Evaluation in North Louisiana (Colyer):
 The incidence of bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens)
 was as low as it has been in several years, presumably due to cool spring
 temperatures.  The incidence of Septoria leaf and glume blotch (Septoria
 spp.) and leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. ) were moderate.  Leaf rust
 developed very late in the growing season and probably had little effect on
 grain yield.
 
         Labelled and experimental fungicides were evaluated for the control of
 foliar diseases of wheat (cv. Florida 302).  The incidence of leaf rust and
 Septoria leaf blotch was moderate.  The untreated control averaged 44% leaf
 rust infections.  All ten fungicide treatments reduced leaf rust compared
 with the untreated control.  Folicur (4 oz), Punch (8 oz), and RH7592 (1.3
 oz), an experimental material from Rohm and Haas, had no rust infection. 
 All of the fungicides, except Kocide 101 (1 lb), significantly reduced leaf
 blotch infection on the flag leaf compared with the untreated control. 
 Yield and test weight were not determined because of freeze injury.
 
         Wheat Breeding, Variety Testing, and Genetics (Harrison, Thompson,
 Russin):  Over 300 new wheat crosses were added in 1993.  The wheat and oat
 breeding program switched from 'pedigree selection' to mass selection in F2
 - F3, followed by pedigree selection, with some mass selection.  This change
 was necessary  due to the large size and resource requirement of the
 program, and allows more intensive evaluation of later generations.
 
         Recurrent selection based on a dominant male sterile continued as a
 population improvement method.  The DMS population has been open in the
 past.  Seven LAES were evaluated in the statewide performance trials in
 1993.  Averaged across six locations, LA8644A3-1-1-X (54.4 bu/acre) and
 LA861A23-3-1-X (52.7 bu/acre) ranked second and third in yield, and were not
 significantly different from Coker 9835 (54.9 bu/acre), the highest-yielding
 variety.
 
         Preliminary yield trials were conducted on 181 breeding lines and about
 40,000 genetically different headrows were evaluated in the breeding nursery
 at  Baton Rouge in 1993. Advancement was based on plant type, low
 vernalization, and disease resistance.  
 
         The small-scale oat breeding project continued in 1993.  Forty new
 crosses were added to the LAES breeding program.  Twenty-one LAES breeding
 lines outperformed the best checks by as much as 50 bu/acre in a preliminary
 yield trial at Baton Rouge.  The checks included the highest-yielding
 varieties in the statewide performance trials.  The 1994 LAES oat program
 will include yield testing of LAES lines in statewide performance trials, as
 well as headrows and observation plots.
 
                         Publications
 
 Harrison, S.A. et al.  1993.  Performance of small grain varieties in
 Louisiana, 1990-91.  LAES Mimeo Series No. 81.  74 p.
 
 Jalaluddin, Md. and S.A. Harrison.  1993.  Repeatability of stability
 statistics for grain yield in wheat.  Crop Science 33:720-725.
 
 Oberthur, L., S.A. Harrison, T.P. Croughan, and D.L. Long.  1993. 
 Inheritance of leaf rust resistance in somaclones of wheat.  Crop Science
 33:444-448
 
 Miller, G.L., R.E. Joost, and S.A. Harrison.  1993.  Forage and grain yields
 of wheat and triticale as affected by forage management practices.  Crop
 Science 33:(4):1070-1075.
 
 Russin, J.S., B.A. Tillman, and S.A. Harrison.  1994.  Supplemental spring
 nitrogen reduces severity of black chaff in Louisiana.  Biological and
 Cultural Tests 9:(in press).
 
 Tillman*, B.L., W.S. Kursell, S.A. Harrison, J.S. Russin, and C.A. Clark. 
 1993.  Reaction of five F2-derived wheat populations to bacterial streak in
 Louisiana.  Agronomy Abstracts. P. 103.
 
 Tillman, B.L., J.S. Russin*, S.A. Harrison, and C.A. Clark.  1993. 
 Relationship among symptoms of bacterial streak of wheat caused by
 Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens and their correlation to yield. 
 Phytopathology Abstracts.
 
 -------------------------
 MINNESOTA
 
         Cereal Rust Laboratory, USDA-ARS, St. Paul
 
    A. P. Roelfs, D. L. Long, M. E. Hughes, D. H. Casper, and J. J. Roberts
 
    The Rusts of Wheat in the United States in 1993
 
    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici).  Overwintering stem rust
 sites were found on susceptible wheat cultivars in southern Texas, Louisiana
 and Georgia.  During the last week in March, stem rust was severe in fields
 southwest of Houston.  Disease levels were similar to 1986 when stem rust
 spread from soft red winter wheat fields south of Houston to the southern
 Great Plains.  Spore movement, however, was limited because frequent rains
 kept the infected leaves wet and scrubbed the air of spores.  In late April,
 in central Texas, traces of stem rust were found scattered throughout fields
 of Wintex and 5% severities were found in plots of McNair 701.  By  the
 third week in May, traces of wheat stem rust were found in southwestern
 Oklahoma fields and south central Kansas and northeastern Missouri plots. 
 In southeastern Kansas fields, during the last week in May, rust was
 scattered and in trace amounts.  
 
    By late May, severe stem rust had developed in southwestern Arkansas and
 heavy losses had occurred in fields of CK 9835.  Traces of stem rust were
 found in northeastern Missouri plots of Cardinal and of the old cultivars
 Knox and Riley 67.  This was the most severe and wide spread stem rust in
 Arkansas and Missouri since 1986.  During the second week in June, stem rust
 foci were found in fields in southern Illinois, southern Indiana, and
 western Kentucky.  In Illinois and Indiana, Clark was the most severely
 rusted of the commercial cultivars.   By late June, traces of stem rust were
 reported in fields in central and southern Wisconsin. 
 
    During the third week in June, traces of stem rust were found in north
 central Kansas and south central Nebraska fields.  In this area, 5%
 severities were found in plots of Karl and a one yard diameter focus with
 10% severity was found in a Karl plot in the Nebraska panhandle.  Traces of
 stem rust were observed on some of the other hard red winter wheat cultivars
 while 20% severities were found on the soft red winter wheat cultivars Clark
 and Cardinal in the Nebraska panhandle plots.  In northwestern Kansas plots,
 10% severities were observed on both 2157 (susceptible to Pgt-QCCJ race) and
 McNair 701 (susceptible to races other than QCCJ).  In a south central
 Nebraska irrigated winter wheat plot, 10 or more stem rust pustules per flag
 leaf were common.  This infection was due to a mid-June spore shower.
 
    Traces of stem rust were found in a winter wheat nursery in southeastern
 Minnesota by mid-June.  By early August, 10-40% severities were found in
 east central and northwestern North Dakota plots of winter wheat cultivars.  
 During late June, traces of stem rust were present in plots of susceptible
 spring wheat cultivars in southeastern North Dakota, and south central
 Minnesota.  This is the normal date for the first observation of rust at
 these locations.  The cool weather and frequent rain restricted stem rust
 spread.  Traces of wheat stem rust were in plots of susceptible spring
 wheats in central and north central North Dakota by mid-July.   Commercial
 hard red spring and durum wheat cultivars are stem rust resistant, so losses
 were negligible.  In mid-July, wheat stem rust increased in eastern
 Washington and caused some damage in late-maturing spring wheat cultivars.
 
    Eight Pgt-races were identified from 215 wheat collections made in the
 U.S. in 1993 (Table 1).  Race Pgt-TPMK was the predominant race as it was
 1974-1989 and 1992.  It comprised 74% of the isolates in 1993 compared to
 53% in 1992 and 36% in 1991.  Pgt-QFCS comprised 16% of the isolates in
 1993, 21% in 1992 and 14% in 1991.  Pgt-QCCJ, the barley attacking race,
 comprised 8% of the isolates in 1993, 21% in 1992 and 14% in 1991.  This
 race was identified from collections made throughout the Great Plains and in
 12 states from Alabama to California.
 
    Leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici).  In early March, moderate
 (10-40%) leaf rust severities were reported on wheat in northeastern Mexico
 fields.  Even though leaf rust was widespread across southern Texas, it was
 less severe than normal in late March (Fig. 1).  In the southern plains of
 Texas wheat fields was planted late (December), therefore, less leaf rust
 developed and overwintered than normal.  During late April, 20% leaf rust
 severities were common on susceptible wheat cultivars in central and north
 central Texas fields (late flowering to quarter berry stage).  There was
 less rust observed in 1993 than last year on the same date which probably
 was due to the cooler than normal temperatures and reduced amounts of
 overwintering rust.  Leaf rust severities ranged from 20-60% where the rust
 overwintered but in the other fields only traces developed by mid-May.  In
 north central Oklahoma by mid-May leaf rust was light with a few fields with
 5% severities. 
 
    During the 1992-93 winter, leaf rust survived in much of western and
 southern Kansas, but overwintering in southern Kansas was lighter than
 during the 1991-92 winter.  In northwestern Kansas, leaf rust was severe on
 volunteer wheat in the fall of 1992 and in late March 1% severities occurred
 on TAM 107.  During late April, normal amounts of leaf rust were observed in
 Kansas even though temperatures were cooler than normal.  However,
 severities and incidences were much higher than normal in western Kansas
 where more volunteer wheat existed in the previous fall.  By early May
 (heading), in scattered TAM 107 fields in western Kansas, leaf rust had
 increased and 20% severities were common.
 
    In southern Kansas fields, 5% severities were common on flag leaves and
 in a few fields where rust overwintered 70% severities were observed.  The
 overwintering sites were more apparent in 1993 due to the reduced inter-
 field spread.  Leaf rust was as severe as in 1992 in western Kansas by the
 first of June.  Leaf rust losses in Kansas varied with local conditions but
 many fields suffered 10 to 20% reductions in yield and the state averaged an
 11% loss (Table 2).  Significant rust developed on Karl, the most widely
 grown cultivar in Kansas and TAM 107 the highest yielding cultivar.  During
 mid-June, 60% leaf rust severities were observed in winter wheat fields in
 the south central and panhandle areas of Nebraska.  Losses varied with local
 conditions but some southern Nebraska fields suffered moderate losses.
 
    During the third week in May trace amounts of leaf rust were observed in
 winter wheat plots in the northern Great Plains.  During late June in
 southeastern North Dakota winter wheat plots, 20-30% severities were
 observed on the flag minus 2 leaf.  In mid-July, 40% severities occurred in
 winter wheat plots in east central South Dakota and 5% severities in north
 central North Dakota.  The winter wheat cultivars grown in this area are
 leaf rust susceptible.  In severely rust-infected fields losses occurred and
 statewide losses were 10%, 1% and trace for South Dakota, North Dakota and
 Minnesota, respectively (Table 2).  During late June, traces of leaf rust
 were observed in spring wheat fields in west central Minnesota.  Due to
 resistance little leaf rust developed and losses were minimal.  Durum wheats
 remain resistant and therefore losses were nil.
 
    In the southern soft red winter wheat area, during early April leaf rust
 was generally light in plots and fields from southern Louisiana to eastern
 Virginia.  The winter was mild and rainfall in these areas was above normal
 creating favorable conditions for rust infection.  However, by late March,
 rain and cool temperatures slowed leaf rust spore production and movement. 
 In early April, severe rust (40% severity) was observed on CK 9877 in a
 Baton Rouge, Louisiana nursery.  CK 9877 has the combined resistances Lr9 +
 24, which had been effective in previous years.  Significant rust was noted
 in commercial fields of CK 9877 throughout the southern soft red winter
 wheat area by late April.  The new Prt-race PNM-10,18 (Tables 4 and 5) was
 identified from CK 9877 collections.  On other cultivars, leaf rust was
 moderate to heavy throughout Louisiana.  In Arkansas, severe leaf rust
 occurred in isolated fields of susceptible cultivars.  In most fields, leaf
 rust was present only in the low to mid canopy.
 
    In late May, leaf rust from exogenous rust inoculum had developed and
 increased in wheat plots in northeastern Missouri and southwestern Indiana. 
 In the soft red winter wheat area from southern Indiana to northeastern
 Missouri there was less leaf rust than normal because of reduced
 overwintering infections.  By the second week in June, fields of Clark in
 southern Illinois had 20% severities while other cultivars had only traces
 of leaf rust.  During the first week in June traces of rust were found in
 fields of soft red winter wheats in western New York, and by early July leaf
 rust was widespread throughout winter wheat fields in central New York. 
 However, in most cases wheat matured before the disease caused extensive
 damage.  In early June, leaf rust was observed throughout south central
 Wisconsin and by late June leaf rust was extensive in southern Wisconsin. 
 
    In the western U.S. in late March, leaf rust was observed in irrigated
 plots at Chandler, Arizona where leaf rust does not occur every year.  In
 early April, 30% leaf rust severities occurred in the San Joaquin Valley in
 California and 50% severities were observed by the third week in May on
 susceptible cultivars in the Sacramento Valley.  More leaf rust than normal
 was present in the Pacific Northwest by the end of May.  In early July,
 wheat leaf rust was increasing on spring wheat and light losses occurred
 throughout the area.
 
    Three Prt-races, MBG-10, MFB-10, and TLG-18, comprised 36% of the leaf
 rust isolates identified in 1993 (Tables 4 and 5).  Race MBG-10 has been one
 of the two most frequently identified races in the last five years.  Fifty-
 eight Prt-races comprised the other 64% of the U.S. population.  Prt-races
 PNM-10,18 and MBR-10 were found for the first time in 1993, they comprised 4
 and 6% of the population, respectively.
 
    Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis).  In early March, stripe rust was
 severe in central Louisiana and eastern Arkansas nurseries; however, by late
 March disease development had slowed.  The entire leaf surface area was
 diseased and in some cases many pustules were on the head.  In southeastern
 Arkansas in late April, stripe rust again increased in severity and
 incidence.  Light amounts of stripe rust were found in northeastern North
 Carolina at the Plymouth Experiment Station soft red winter wheat plots
 during the third week of May.  This is the first report of stripe rust this
 far north along the East Coast.
 
    During late March, light amounts (trace - 5% severities) of stripe rust
 were found in two fields in southern Texas at the berry stage.  At the
 Uvalde nursery in southern Texas, 40% severities were observed on March 31
 on the soft red winter wheat cultivar McNair 701.  During late April, foci
 of stripe rust were found in soft red winter wheat plots in central and
 north central Texas.  Generally, 10% of the plants were infected and 10% of
 the leaf area was infected.  Stripe rust was found in soft red winter wheat
 plots in late May in central Kansas.  Little increase or spread occurred as
 temperatures exceeded the optimum for stripe rust.  During late June, traces
 of stripe rust were found in plots in the Nebraska panhandle, Fort Collins,
 Colorado and Hettinger, North Dakota.  Overwintering stripe rust foci were
 found in late June in the Bozeman, Montana area.  It is unusual for stripe
 rust to exist to this extent in the northern plains.  In part it relates to
 the cool and wet conditions and the late maturity of the crop.  Losses were
 light in commercial fields.
  
    During late April, stripe rust was severe on a few entries in plots in
 the San Joaquin Valley, California and in fields in northwestern Washington. 
 Severities of 20% were observed on the most susceptible lines in the Mount
 Vernon nursery.  In early June, light stripe rust occurred uniformly
 throughout most of the Pacific Northwest.  By late June, stripe rust had
 reached l00% severity in a few fields in Washington's central basin, and in
 the Pullman area stripe rust was increasing rapidly on winter wheat and had
 spread to spring wheat.  In mid-July, stripe rust severities ranged from
 traces to 40% in Pacific Northwest fields.  Losses to stripe rust were from
 1% in Oregon to 2% in Washington (Table 2).
 
    Rust losses.  Acreage harvested and yield production records based on
 1993 Crop Production Summary, Agricultural Statistics Board, USDA.  Loss
 data are a summary of estimates made by personnel of the State Departments
 of Agriculture, University Extension and Research Projects, Agricultural
 Research Service, USDA and the Cereal Rust Laboratory.  Losses for 1993 are
 shown in Tables 2 and 3.  Losses were calculated for each rust as follows:
 
 
 Loss (specific rust)=  (Production)  X  (Percent loss)
                       -------------------------------
                     (100%)  -  (Percent loss due to rusts)
 
 
         Losses were indicated as a trace when the disease was present but no
 fields were known to have suffered significant loses.  When a few fields
 suffered measurable losses this was reflected as a percent of the state's
 production.  Zeros indicate the disease was not reported in that state
 during the season.  Blanks for stripe rust indicate that the disease was not
 reported nor does it occur annually in that state.  Trace amounts were not
 included in the calculation of totals and averages.
 
 Table 1.  Races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici identified from wheat in
 1993
 
                     Number of 
 State  Source      Coll.  Isol.
  --------------------------------
 AL     Nursery       2     6
 AR     Nursery      17    51
 CA     Nursery       1     3
 GA     Nursery      10    29
 IL     Field         5    15
        Nursery       5    14
 IN     Field         6    15
        Nursery       4    12
 KS     Field         3     9
        Nursery      20    58
 KY     Field         1     3
 LA     Nursery       4     9
 MN     Nursery      18    53
 MO     Field         3     9
        Nursery       1     3
 MS     Nursery       1     3
 MT     Nursery       7    21
 ND     Nursery      30    88
 NE     Field         3    25
        Nursery      10    28
 NY     Nursery       1     3
 OK     Field        10    30
        Nursery       7    17
 TN     Nursery       1     3
 TX     Field        10    25
        Nursery      11    30
 WA     Field         7    19
 WI     Field         5    15
 
 U.S.(b) Field       46   127
        Nursery     169   486
  --------------------------------
        Total       215   613
 
 
 (a)Pgt- race code, after Roelfs and Martens, Phytopathology 78:526-533.   Set
 four consisted of Sr9a, 9d, 10 and Tmp.
 (b)U.S. totals do not include collections from Washington.
 (c)* = less than 0.6%.
 
 
           Percentage of isolates of Pgt-race(a)  
 
 State    GCCD QCCJ QCCN QCCQ QFCQ QFCS RCRS RKRQ TPMK
  -----------------------------------------------------
    AL  --   50  --  --  --   --    -- --        50
    AR  --   --  --  --  --   --    -- --       100
    CA  --   100 --  --  --   --    -- --       --
    GA  --   --  --  --  --   --    -- --       100
    IL  --   --  --  --  --   --    -- --       100
        --   --  --  --  --   --    -- --       100
    IN  --   --  --  --  --   --     7 --        93
        --   --  --  --  --   --    -- --       100
    KS  --   --  --  --  --   --    -- --       100
        --     3 --  --  --    16   -- --       100
    KY  --   --  --  --  --   --    -- --       100
    LA  --   --  --  --  --   --    -- --       100
    MN  --     2 --  --  --    43   -- --        55
    MO  --   --  --  --  --   --    -- --       100
        --    19 --  --  --    20   --  6        56
    MS  --   100 --  --  --   --    -- --        --
    MT  --    19 --  --  --    28   -- --        52
    ND  --     7 --  --  --    16   -- --        77
    NE  --   --  --  --  --    11   -- --        89
        --    11 --  --  --     4   -- --        86
    NY  --   --  --  --  --   100   -- --        --
    OK  --    20 --  --  --    20   -- --        60
        --    35 --  --  --    53   -- --        12
    TN  --   --  --  --  --   --    -- --       100
    TX   4   --  --   4  --    41   -- --        50
        --   --  --  --  --   --    -- --       100
    WA  --    5   16 --  --    79   -- --        --
    WI  --    7  --  --   7    20   -- --        67
 
    US(b) 1   6  --   1   1    15    1 --        76
        --    9  --  --  --    16   --  1        74
        *C    8  --   *   *    16    *  1        74
  -----------------------------------------------------
 
 
 Table 2.  Estimated losses in winter wheat due to rust in 1993
 
  --------------------------------------------------------------
          1,000 of   Yield in   Production
           acres     bushels     in 1,000
 State    harvested  per acre   of bushels
  -------------------------------------------------------------- 
 AL           95     34.0          3,230
 AR        1,000     40.0         40,000
 CA          500     80.0         40,000
 CO        2,550     37.0         94,350
 FL           25     33.0            825
 GA          360     38.0         13,680
 ID          850     79.0         67,150
 IL        1,550     44.0         68,200
 IN          670     52.0         34,840
 IA           40     25.0          1,000
 KS       11,100     35.0        388,500
 KY          470     49.0         23,030
 LA           95     25.0          2,375
 MI          540     41.0         22,140
 MN           40     30.0          1,200
 MO        1,400     38.0         53,200
 MS          210     33.0          6,930
 MT        2,450     42.0        102,900
 NC          560     42.0         23,520
 ND          130     33.0          4,290
 NE        2,100     35.0         73,500
 NM          270     23.0          6,210
 NY           85     46.0          3,910
 OH        1,010     52.0         52,520
 OK        5,400     30.0        162,000
 OR          860     71.0         61,060
 PA          165     45.0          7,425
 SC          260     38.0          9,880
 SD        1,450     39.0         56,550
 TN          340     41.0         13,940
 TX        3,700     32.0        118,400
 VA          255     53.0         13,515
 WA        2,500     65.0        162,500
 WI          115     38.0          4,370
 WV           11     43.0            473
 WY          205     30.0          6,150
  -------------------------------------------
 Total    43,361               1,743,763
 Ave.                40.2
 U.S.
   Total  43,851               1,769,308
  -------------------------------------------
 (a) T = trace.
 (b) Stripe rust on wheat was reported for the 
  first time in North Carolina                
 
 
 Table 2.  Estimated losses in winter wheat due to rust in 1993 (cont'd)
 
 State      Stem rust              Leaf rust            Stripe rust
         ----------------     -----------------         ------------------
                1,000                1,000                        1,000
          %     bushels       %      bushels             %        bushels
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 AL        0.0        0.0        1.0        32.6                
 AR        2.0      846.6        3.0    1,269.8        0.5     211.6
 CA        T(a)       T         10.0    4,444.4        T         T
 CO        0.0        0.0        1.0      953.0        T         T
 FL        T          T          2.0       16.8
 GA        0.0        0.0        T          T     
 ID        1.0      692.3        1.0      692.3        1.0     692.3
 IL        1.0      703.1        2.0    1,406.2        0.0       0.0
 IN        0.5      186.3        6.0    2,235.7        0.0       0.0
 IA        0.0        0.0        T          T           
 KS        0.1      437.0       11.0   48,070.9        T         T
 KY        T          T          1.5      350.7
 LA        2.0       52.2        6.0      156.6        1.0      26.1
 MI        T          T          2.0      451.8
 MN        0.0        0.0        T          T
 MO        0.1       54.3        2.0    1,086.8        0.0       0.0
 MS        0.0        0.0        5.0      364.7        0.0       0.0
 MT        0.0        0.0        T          T          1.0   1,039.4
 NC        0.0        0.0        2.0      480.0        T(b)      T
 ND        0.0        0.0        1.0       43.3        T         T
 NE        T          T          4.0    3,062.5
 NM        0.0        0.0        0.0        0.0
 NY        0.0        0.0        T          T
 OH        0.0        0.0        1.5      799.8
 OK        T          T          4.0    6,750.0        T         T
 OR        0.5      311.5        0.5      311.5        1.0     623.1
 PA        0.0        0.0        T          T
 SC        0.0        0.0        1.0       99.8
 SD        T          T         10.0    6,283.3
 TN        0.01       1.4        3.0      431.1
 TX        T          T          5.0    6,231.6        T     T
 VA        0.0        0.0        T          T
 WA        1.0    1,692.7        1.0    1,692.7        2.0   3,316.3
 WI        0.0        0.0        1.0       44.1
 WV        0.0        0.0        1.0        4.8
 WY        0.0        0.0        0.0        0.0
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                  4,977.4               8,776.8              5,908.8
           0.27                  4.76                  0.32
 
 
 
 (a) T = trace.
 (b) Stripe rust on wheat was reported for the 
     first time in North Carolina                               
 
 Table 3.  Estimated losses in spring and durum 
           wheat due to rust in 1993
 
                   SPRING WHEAT 
 
             1,000     Yield in       Production
              acres    bushels         in 1,000
 State     harvested   per acre       of bushels
  -------------------------------------------------
 CO             33       80.0            2,640
 ID            540       80.0           43,200
 MN          2,300       33.0           75,900
 MT          2,650       34.0           90,100
 ND          9,100       32.0          291,200
 OR             65       60.0            3,900
 SD          2,020       27.0           54,540
 UT             25       49.0            1,225
 WA            290       52.0           15,080
 WI             10       29.0              290
 WY             13       45.0              585
  ----------------------------------------------------
 Total      17,046                     578,660
 Ave.                    33.9
 U.S.
  total     17,051       34.0          579,060
 
 
 Table 3.  Estimated losses in spring and durum 
 (cont'd)  wheat due to rust in 1993
       
                         SPRING WHEAT  
             
                                     Losses due to
 
                Stem rust                Leaf rust            Stripe rust
            -------------------     -----------------       ---------------
                       1,000                 1.000                1,000
 State      %          bushels       %       bushels         %    bushels 
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 CO           0.0          0.0         T(a)         T        0.0      0.0
 ID           0.2          87.9        0.5      221.5      1.0    443.1
 MN           0.0           0.0        T          T
 MT           0.0           0.0        T          T        1.0    910.1
 ND           0.0           0.0        T          T
 OR           0.5          19.8        0.5       19.8      0.5     19.8
 SD            T             T         2.0    1,113.1
 UT           0.0           0.0        0.0        0.0
 WA           1.0         157.1        1.0      157.1      2.0    314.2
 WI           0.0           0.0        0.0        0.0
 WY           0.0           0.0        0.0        0.0
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          264.8               1,511.5           1,687.2
              0.05                     0.26                0.29
 
 
 
 Table 3.  Estimated losses in spring and durum 
 (cont'd)  wheat due to rust in 1993
 
              DURUM WHEAT
 
           1,000 of        Yield in      Production
             acres         bushels       in 1,000
 State     harvested       per acre      of bushels
  -----------------------------------------------------      
 AZ             50          90.0          4,500
 CA             30          95.0          2,850
 MN              8          30.0            240
 MT            114          33.0          3,762
 ND          1,860          33.0         61,380
 SD             18          24.0            432
  ----------------------------------------------------
 Total       2,080                        73,164
 Ave.                       35.2          
 U.S.
   total     2,080          35.2          73,164
  ----------------------------------------------------
 
 
 Table 3.  Estimated losses in spring and durum 
 (cont'd)  wheat due to rust in 1993
       
                              DURUM WHEAT
                            
                                        Losses due to
 
                Stem rust                Leaf rust            Stripe rust
            ------------------      -----------------        ----------------
                       1,000                 1.000                1,000
 State      %          bushels       %       bushels         %    bushels 
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 AZ           0.0          0.0          0.0    0.0    
 CA           0.0          0.0          0.0    0.0           0.0       0.0
 MN           0.0          0.0          0.0    0.0
 MT           0.0          0.0          0.0    0.0           0.0       0.0
 ND           0.0          0.0          0.0    0.0
 SD           0.0          0.0          0.0    0.0           0.0
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           0.0                                         0.0
              0.0                       0.0                  0.0
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 (a) T = Trace
 
 
 Table 4.  Prt code and corresponding virulence formula
 (cont'd)  for wheat leaf rust collections made in 1993
 
 Prt code(a)                      Virulence formula
  ---------------------------------------------------------
 BBB-10                           10
 BBD-10                           10,17
 CBB-10                           3,10
 CBG                              3,11
 CBM-18                           3,3ka,18,30
 CCB-10                           3,10,26
 DBB-18                           2c,18
 FBB-10                           2c,3,10
 FBM                              2c,3,3ka,30
 FBM-18                           2c,3,3ka,18,30
 FCR-18                           2c,3,3ka,11,18,26,30
 kBG-10                           2a,3c,3,10,11
 KCG-10                           2a,3c,3,10,11,26
 KDB-10                           2a,3c,3,10,24
 KFB-10                           2a,2c,3,10,24,26
 LBB-10,18                        1,10,18
 LCB-10,18                        1,10,18,26
 MBB                              1,3
 MBB-10                           1,3,10
 MBB-10,18                        1,3,10,18
 MBD-10                           1,3,10,17
 MBG                              1,3,11
 MBG-10                           1,3,10,11
 MBG-18                           1,3,11,18
 MBM-10                           1,3,3ka,10,30
 MBR-10                           1,3,3ka,10,11,30
 MCB-10                           1,3,10,26
 MCG-10                           1,3,10,11,26
 MCR-10                           1,3,3ka,10,11,26,30
 MDB-10                           11,3,10,24
 MDG-10                           1,3,10,11,24
 MDR-10                           1,3,3ka,10,17,24,30
 MFB-10                           1,3,10,24,26
 MFM-10                           1,3,3ka,10,24,26,30
 MGB-10                           1,3,10,16
 NBB-10,18                        1,2c,10,18
 NCB-10                           1,2c,10,26
 PBB-10                           1,2c,3,10
 PBD-10                           1,2c,3,10,17
 PBL-10                           1,2c,3,3ka,10
 PBM-18                           1,2c,3,3ka,18,30
 PBQ-10,18                        1,2c,3,3ka,10,11,18
 PGD-10                           1,2c,3,10,16,17
 PLM-10                           1,2c,3,3ka,9,10,18,30
 PLR-10,18                        1,2c,3,3ka,9,10,11,18,30
 PNM-10,18                        1,2c,3,3ka,9,10,18,24,30
 SBB-10                           1,2a,2c,10
 TBB-10                           1,2a,2c,3,10
 TBD-10                           1,2a,2c,3,10,17
 TBG                              1,2a,2c,3,11
 TBG-18                           1,2a,2c,3,11,18
 TBG-10                           1,2a,2c,3,10,11
 TBJ-10,18                        1,2a,2c,3,10,11,17,18
 TBT                              1,2a,2c,3,3ka,11,17,30
 TCG-10                           1,2a,2c,3,10,11,26
 TDB-10                           1,2a,2c,3,10,24
 TDG-10                           1,2a,2c,3,10,11,24
 TDJ-10,18                        1,2a,2c,3,10,11,17,18
 TFB-10                           1,2a,2c,3,10,24,26
 TFG-10                           1,2a,2c,3,10,11,24,26
 TLG-18                           1,2a,2c,3,9,11,18
  ---------------------------------------------------------
 
 (a) Prt code, after Long and Kolmer, Phytopathology 79:525-529.
 
 
 
 Table 5. Races of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici identified from wheat       
          collections in 1993
 
                   Percent of isolates per state by area(a)
             AL  AR  FL  GA  LA  SC  TN    NY  VA    IL  IN   MO    WI
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 BBB-10                                         
 BBD-10                                                   4
 CBB-10
 CBG                      3
 CBM-18                                                   4
 CCB-10
 DBB-18                                    13
 FBB-10
 FBM                                                  8  15
 FBM-18                              36               8   8    6
 FCR-18                                                  12
 KBG-10       1   5                                            2
 KCG-10                                 
 KDB-10
 KFB-10
 LBB-10,18                                     33
 LCB-10,18                        6
 MBB                                                           2
 MBB-10                                                   8
 MBB-10,18
 MBD-10
 MBG          9          10   3   3                  25
 MBG-10      57  38  60  20  24  10  36        33    58  23   19
 MBG-18                   3
 MBM-10
 MBR-10       6               5                          12    7
 MCB-10                                        33              2
 MCG-10
 MCR-10
 MDB-10       3                                                6
 MDG-10                                                        3
 MDR-10
 MFB-10       1   5           8                                7
 MFM-10                                                        6
 MGB-10                                                        3
 NBB-10,18                                 50
 NCB-10
 PBB-10                                                             50
 PBD-10                              14
 PBL-10                                    38
 PBM-18                                                             25
 PBQ-10,18                                                4
 PGD-10
 PLM-10,18
 PLR-10,18                    5
 PNM-10,18    4  33       3  29       7                             25
 SBB-10
 TBB-10
 TBD-10
 TBG          1                
 TBG-18       1                   6
 TBG-10       1  10       7           7
 TBJ-10,18                    3
 TBT
 TCG-10
 TDB-10       1                   3                            7
 TDG-10
 TDJ-10,18                7
 TFB-10                                                       18
 TFG-10       1           7                                    2
 TLG         12  10  40  40  24  71        
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 No. of
 isolates    69  21   5  30  38  31  14    8   3     12  26   67     4
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 (a) States grouped according to agroecological area (Plant Dis. 76:495-499).
 (b) U.S. total includes nine additional isolates from five collections: Arizona
 PNM-10,18; Kentucky PNM-10,18; Michigan TFG-10; Mississippi MBB-10 (4
 isolates); and North Carolina TBG-10 (2 isolates).
 
 
 Table 5.  Races of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici identified from wheat
 (cont'd)  collections in 1993
 
                   Percent of isolates per state by area(a)
                0K   TX     KS   NE     MN   MT   ND  DS    CA  WA   US   
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 BBB-10               2                                              0.1
 BBD-10                                           13                 0.6
 CBB-10               3                                              0.3
 CBG                                                                 0.1
 CBM-18                                                              0.1
 CCB-10          5           2                               5       0.7
 DBB-18                                                              0.1
 FBB-10               2                                              0.1 
 FBM                                                                 0.7
 FBM-18               2                                              1.9
 FCR-18                                                              0.4
 KBG-10          3           5                                       0.9
 KCG-10                      2                     4                 0.3
 KDB-10                      5                                       0.3
 KFB-10               3           2      6   25        5             1.0  
 LBB-10,18                                                           0.1
 LCB-10,18                                                           0.3
 MBB                                                                 0.1
 MBB-10          3                2                         24       2.5   
 MBB-10,18                                                      10   0.4
 MBD-10                      2                     4   5             0.4
 MBG                                                                 2.1
 MBG-10         11   23     10           9         9   9     5      19.6
 MBG-18                                                      3       0.3
 MBM-10                                  3   25                  7   0.6
 MBR-10         11    5      7   14     18         4  14             6.0
 MCB-10          3           2    2      3   25             57       4.2
 MCG-10          5           5                                       0.6
 MCR-10                           5      3                       3   0.6
 MDB-10          5    5      5           6   25    9            10   3.1
 MDG-10                                                              0.3
 MDR-10          3           2                                       0.3   
 MFB-10         11   17      5   23     21        13  27             7.9   
 MFM-10                      5    2                                  1.0   
 MGB-10                                                              0.3   
 NBB-10,18                                                      23   1.6   
 NCB-10                                                          3   0.1
 PBB-10                                                              0.3 
 PBD-10                                                          7   0.6
 PBL-10                                                              0.4
 PBM-18                                                              0.1
 PBQ-10,18                                                           0.1
 PGD-10                                                         37   1.6
 PLM-10,18            3                                              0.3
 PLR-10,18                                                           0.3
 PNM-10,18                               3                           4.0
 SBB-10               5                                              0.4  
 TBB-10               2                                              0.1
 TBD-10          3    3                            4                 0.6
 TBG                         2                                       0.3   
 TBG-18                                                              0.4   
 TBG-10          5    3      7    5      6         9   5             4.7   
 TBJ-10,18                                                           0.1
 TBT                         2                                       0.1
 TCG-10                                            9                 0.3
 TDB-10          5   11     10   20      6         4  27             5.6
 TDG-10          5    8     10    9               13         5       3.0
 TDJ-10,18            3                                              0.6
 TFB-10         22    2     10   16     12         4   9             5.8
 TFG-10                                  3                           0.9
 TLG-18               3                                              8.5
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 No. of         
 isolates       37   66     41   44     33    4   23  22    3   30   647
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 (a) States grouped according to agroecological area (Plant Dis. 76:495-499).
 (b) U.S. total includes nine additional isolates from five collections: Arizona
 PNM-10,18; Kentucky PNM-10,18; Michigan TFG-10; Mississippi MBB-10 (4
 isolates); and North Carolina TBG-10 (2 isolates).
 
 
 
       Fig. 1 - Leaf rust severities is U.S. wheat fields in 1993
 
                 (see image file Leafrust-severities.gif)
                      
 -------------------------
    USDA-ARS, Cereal Rust Laboratory, Dept. of Plant Pathology, and Dept. of
    Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota
 
    D.V. McVey* and R.H. Busch
 
    Bread Wheat Sources of Resistance to Stem Rust
 
    In the continuation of the evaluation of wheat for the USDA-ARS National
 Small Grain Collection to stem rust, 2139 accessions were subjected to an
 artificial epidemic in the field at St. Paul in 1993.  The nursery was
 inoculated with several isolates of stem rust races of QFBS, QSHS, RKQS,
 RPQQ, RTQQ, TNMH, and TNMK.  Accessions were rated on a 0-9 scale, with zero
 (0) being no visible infection.  Those accessions rated zero (0) are given
 in the following table.  The information for all accessions was provided to
 the GRIN system.
 
 
 Table 1.  Spring bread wheat accessions from the USDA-ARS National Small
 Grain Collection with no visible infection to stem rust at St. Paul, MN. 
 1993.
 
 
   PI           cv. or Sel.           Origin         
  --------------------------------------------------
 189789       Sel. 49-2728 H552      Argentina
 297010       Gala                   Kenya
 410954            -                 So. Africa
 
 419438       Elrina Sel.            So. Africa
 436269            -                 Chile
 436323            -                 Chile
 436408            -                 Chile
 519338            -                 Mexico
 
 
 519501            -                 Chile
 
 519525            -                 Chile
 
 
 519553       Kenya 4500-2           Chile
 
 
 519720       Kenya 4573 L.3.D.2     Ethiopia
 519922       W5865-4-M-3-TM         So. Africa
 519948       Nova Prata             Brazil
 520001       Brochis sib            Mexico
 520050            -                 Mexico
 520080            -                 Algeria
 520248       Veery No. 2            Mexico
  ---------------------------------------------------
 
 
  PI                   Pedigree
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 189789       Renow/Sinvalocho MA
 297010       
 410954       Klein En paeto/Triumph/Cl 1352, stu
              646408
 419438          -
 436269          -
 436408          -
 436408          -
 519338       Narino 59 - 100y/3Penjamo
              62/Gabol/Tezanos Pintos Preoz/Knott
              #2M
 
 519501       Mida/McMurachy//Exchange/3/
              Ceres R64
 
 519525       Platifen/4/II-50-18//Norin
              10/Balilla/3/Yogui54
 
 519553       Hebrad sel/5/WI245/Supresa 51/3/*2
              Frocor/Frontana/
              Yaqui/4/Anhinga
 519720          -
 519922       Timgalen//Bajio/lnia
 
 519948       Veranopolis/Trapeano
 520001           -
 520050       Ciano sib/Sonora 64
 520080           -
 520248        Kavkaz/Buho/Kalyansona/
               Bluebird
 
 
 520248
 Veery No. 2
 Mexico
 Kavkaz/Buho/Kalyansona/
 Bluebird
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 -------------------------
 Robert Busch and Jochum Wiersma,USDA-ARS and Department of Agronomy and
 Plant Genetics, Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul 
                                       
    Wheat Production and Breeding  Minnesota produced and estimated 75.9
 millions bushels (1.54 million MT) in 1993 from 2.5 million acres (1.1
 million ha).  The average yield of spring wheat in 1993 was 33 bu/A compared
 to an average yield of 50 bu/A in 1992 and 31 in 1991.  Weather conditions
 varied greatly from early drought in some areas to reasonably good growing
 conditions until mid-June.  Cool, wet weather over the Red River Valley and
 across the region produced and a devastating attack of  head scab (caused by
 the fungus Fusarium graminearum) .  State-wide estimates of direct yield
 losses in Minnesota will exceed 30%. The major loss is in the quality of
 grain harvested.  A vomitoxin survey of this years' crop in Minnesota
 indicated that less than 50% of the crop has two ppm or less (FDA guidelines
 suggest that vomitoxin not exceed 2 ppm for human consumption).  Millers do
 not wish to purchase or take a chance on purchasing infected grain for human
 consumption. Total economic loss due to reduced yield and quality is
 estimated to exceed $400 million in Minnesota alone.
 
    Farm management practices, such as different types of tillage, have a
 significant role in determining  the survival of Fusarium  inoculum and its
 quantity.  Research on tillage/Fusarium head blight relationships is
 important for disease management.  
 
    The long range solutions to Fusarium head blight will depend upon the
 outcome of research in several areas.  First, the development of Fusarium
 head blight tolerant wheat varieties is paramount.  Improved  germplasm as
 sources of tolerance and improved methods of screening are of utmost
 importance.  True resistance to this pathogen is unknown, and all varieties
 of wheat are considered to be susceptible. However, varieties can differ in
 their amounts of susceptibility (Table 1).  Most breeding programs do not
 have the ability to screen for less susceptible germplasm.  Those varieties
 in 1993 that were least susceptible were there almost by chance, not by
 careful research since few programs with joint plant pathologist-breeder
 teams are in place now.  One of the few programs is the joint  USDA-ARS
 Univ. of Minnesota wheat genetics project  in cooperation with the
 Department of Plant Pathology (Dr. Roy Wilcoxson, 1/3 time -retired) which
 began to focus some attention on Fusarium head blight beginning in 1987. 
 Germplasm had to be found which provided lesser levels of susceptibility
 than was present in the breeding program germplasm.  Obtaining repeatable
 results of lesser susceptibility to the disease of germplasm is difficult
 and expensive to assess and identify. A repeatable inoculation and
 evaluation technique had to be developed for Minnesota conditions before
 germplasm could be screened with some reliability.  Germplasm was obtained
 from CIMMYT of international origins and screened for several years.  Wheat
 varieties from the People's Republic of China had the reputation, from their
 use in South America, of  possessing desirable levels of tolerance to
 Fusarium head blight.  Screening for three years of hundreds of varieties
 including those  from China, indicated that two varieties from China had
 less susceptibility than any other germplasm.
 
    Crosses of these two more tolerant Chinese varieties with adapted
 germplasm were initiated in 1989.  Many problems exist in using these
 varieties from China since they are highly susceptible to stem rust and have
 very poor bread-making quality.  Further, varieties in China are harvested
 by hand before maturity,  laid in the field to dry and are then transported
 to a threshing floor. The wheat is then hand threshed. Thus, the Chinese
 varieties shatter readily to allow easy and clean hand threshing which is a
 major production hazard for USA type of production system. Some of the best
 selections data are given in Table 2.  The scab index defined in the table
 is incidence x severity as measured in the inoculated scab nursery.
 
    Recurrent Selection for Increased Kernel Weight.  Kernel weight is an
 important yield component in spring wheat with a high heritability. There
 are also indications that kernel weight and milling quality are correlated
 positively. Since 1968 a recurrent selection program is running for
 increased kernel weight in hard red spring wheat.
  
    A substantial increase in kernel weight was reported when the first four
 cycles were analyzed (Busch and Kofoid, 1982).The program is currently in
 its eighth cycle of selection. The objective of the current evaluation were
 to evaluate the progress of recurrent selection for increased kernel weight
 and to assess the effects of recurrent selection on other agronomic traits,
 kernel morphology, and milling quality. Forty randomly chosen lines out of
 each cycle were grown in two Minnesota locations. A sets in replicates
 design was used with two replicates and ten sets, each consisting of four
 lines of each cycle and two common checks.
 
    The cycle means combined over locations and the regression analysis of
 cycle means versus cycle of selection are summarized in tables 3 and 4. The
 results indicate that the selection for kernel weight was effective and
 negative responses to selection of other traits appeared to be relatively
 small. Furthermore, genetic variability within cycles has been maintained
 for all traits observed (results not shown). The population hasn't reached a
 plateau for kernel weight, indicating that more progress can be made.
 Finally  the positive changes in increased flour extraction, earlier
 maturity, and increased grain protein offer possibilities for use of the
 germplasm in the breeding program. 
 
 Table 1.Survey  of Minnesota grown varieties in 1993 for DON from farmer
 seed lots.
     
 
 VARIETY     NO. OF SAMPLES    MEAN DON (ppm)
  ------------------------------------------------
 Marshall       10               0.99
 2375           50               1.47
 Grandin        45               1.87
 Butte 86       16               2.22
 Vance          31               3.76
 Bergen         17               4.22
 Gus            10               4.40
 Norm           24               4.55
  -----------------------------------------------
 Data from R. Jones, Dept. of Plant Pathology, 
 Univ. of MN
 
 Table 2.  Chinese by U.S. spring wheat lines grown
           at St. Paul and Crookston, MN in replicated
           trails in 1993 under severe natural scab.
  -------------------------------------------------------
 
 Lines         Yield   Test weight   Date headed   Scab
               bu/A      lb/bu       days (6-1)    index*
 
  23            67       59.4            29          4
  18            66       58.0            29          2
   5            62       58.3            27          3
 116            62       57.5            24          3
  34            61       58.0            24          2
  82            52       60.8            23          1
  83            49       60.8            21          1
 Marshall       57       56.7            27          9   
 Wheaton        54       54.1            27         41
 Sumai #3
 LSD            12        3.7                        8
  ---------------------------------------------------------
 
 
 
 Table 3.  Cycle means of agronomic traits and yield components combined over
 locations, 1992, for recurrent selection for increased kernel weight.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Cycle  Grain yield   200 kernel  Days to    Spike  Spiklet  Kernels 
                        weight     head      length   per      per 
                                                     spike    spike
          (kg/ha)        (g)                  (cm)
 
 1        4322          7.44       58.3       7.88   14.3    31.7
 2        4388          7.89       58.6       8.40   14.3    30.8
 3        4143          8.20       57.0       8.36   14.2    30.0
 4        4075          8.49       55.9       8.64   13.9    28.8
 5        4089          9.04       56.5       8.66   14.1    28.2
 6        4192          9.27       55.8       8.89   13.9    27.7
 7        4296          9.47       55.5       8.65   13.6    28.0
 8        4414          9.78       54.7       8.95   13.7    27.6
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 Regr.    Analysis
 a        4.11          0.33       -0.52      0.12   -0.10   -0.60
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 P-value  0.86          0.01        0.01      0.01    0.01    0.01
 
 
 Table 4.  Cycle means of milling quality and kernel morphology traits combined
 over locations, 1992, for recurrent selection for increased kernel weight.
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Cycle    Kernel    Kernel    Kernel   F-circle    Flour    Protein
          length    width     area
           (cm)      (cm)     (cm2)     width/      (%)      (%)
                                        length
 
 1        0.587     0.309     0.131     0.41        53.1     16.3
 2        0.617     0.315     0.140     0.42        61.7     16.6
 3        0.619     0.319     0.143     0.42        58.8     16.9
 4        0.646     0.326     0.152     0.44        59.5     16.8
 5        0.633     0.333     0.153     0.44        59.7     17.3
 6        0.645     0.338     0.157     0.45        60.1     17.3
 7        0.650     0.345     0.162     0.45        61.4     17.2
 8        0.668     0.348     0.167     0.46        61.7     17.5
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 Regr.    Analysis
 a        0.59      0.30      0.13      0.40        56.19    16.3
 b        0.001     0.006     0.005     0.007        0.74     0.15
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
                         PUBLICATIONS
 
 Busch, R.,D. McVey, J. Wiersma, D. Warnes, R. Wilcoxson, and G. Hareland. 
 1993  Registration of 'Norm' Wheat.  Crop Sci. 33:880-881.
 
 Busch, R., and T. Rauch.  1993.  Agronomic performance of tall versus short
 semidwarf lines of spring wheat.  Crop Sci. 33: 941-943.
 
 Warnes, D., R. Busch, and S. Evans.  1993. Interactions of hard red spring
 wheat cultivars with tillage systems, nitrogen rates and chloride
 applications. Proceedings:  In Biostress Symposium "Stress Mechanbiological
 Systems".  South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD.
 
 Busch, R., E. Elias, and G. Linkert.  1993. Report on wheat varieties grown
 in cooperative plot and nursery experiments in the spring wheat region in
 1992.  p.67.
 
 Abadie, T., F. Enfield, R. Stucker, and R. Busch. 1993.  A computer
 simulation of breeding methods for self-pollinated species.  Agron. Abst. p.
 80.
 
 Wiersma, J.J., R.H. Busch, G. Hareland, and G. Fulcher.  1993.  Eight cycles
 of recurrent selection for increased kernel weight in hard red spring wheat. 
 Agron. Abst. p. 105.
  
 -------------------------
                      ITEM FROM MISSOURI
 
 
 A. L.  McKendry, J. P. Gustafson, K. D. Kephart, G. Kimber, J. E. Berg,
 D. N. Tague, S. Penix,  D. J. Somers, K. Houchins, K. Ross, A. Baier, J.
 Chen, Z. L. Ren, Z. Zhou, S. Madsen, J. Monte, M. Wanous, A. Mahmoud, M.
 Christophers, R. Wilman, and C. J. Schlotzhauer.
 
    Genetics and cytogenetics:  Genes and restriction fragment length
 polymorphisms (RFLP) that have been isolated from genomic and cDNA libraries
 of wheat, rye (Secale cereale), and rice (Oryza sativa) located on various
 genetic linkage maps, are currently being physically mapped onto chromosomes
 using in situ hybridization techniques.  The data from this physical mapping
 is presently suggesting that there are large polymorphically blank regions
 present in all species analysed.  These regions range from a whole arm to
 small areas near the centromeres and the telomeres.  All of the linkage
 groups in rice have been physically mapped, the linkage groups in
 homoeologous groups 4 and 7 of hexaploid wheat, and 5 of the linkage groups
 in barley.
 
    Genome-specific DNA sequences are currently being isolated from the
 potential B genome donors of hexaploid wheat.  These sequences will be
 utilized for phylogenetic studies on the origin of the B genome of hexaploid
 wheat as well as for use by plant breeders as genome specific markers.
 
    Studies on the genetics of aluminum tolerance in wheat and triticale are
 showing that more than one gene is present in tolerant wheats and
 triticales.  Screening of old and current Brazilian wheat and triticale
 varieties are currently under way.  Rye gene expression in a wheat
 background appears to indicate that the rye genes are being expressed at a
 fairly high level.  We are currently making backcross 4 in the continuing
 development of a ditelocentric series in the highly aluminum tolerant spring
 wheat "BH1146".  This series will be utilized in studying the genetics of
 aluminum tolerance in wheat as influenced by the genes present in rye
 (Secale cereale L.).
 
    Selfed seed have been obtained from colchicine treated Triticum comosum
 (2n = 2x = 14, genomically MM) and autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 28) plants are
 currently growing.  Hybrids are being made with diploid and tetraploid M-
 genome species.
 
    The set of reciprocal crosses and back-crosses between the Chinese Spring
 double ditelosomics and Hope substitutions have been selfed and plants with
 either four telocentrics (in selfed material from the back crosses to Hope)
 or no telocentrics (in selfed material from the back crosses to Chinese
 Spring) are now growing in the glasshouse.  Quantitative data will be
 collected that will allow an estimation of the genetic effect of the
 interstitial regions of the chromosomes where chiasma formation, and
 consequently recombination, is either restricted or very rare.  Preliminary
 data from observations of the number of days to flowering indicate that
 significant differences exist between the different chromosome lines.
 
    All the stocks of wild wheat species maintained by G. Kimber have been
 placed in the USDA collection.
 
    1993 Missouri Wheat Crop:  The 1993 wheat crop was harvested from 1.4
 million acres, with average statewide yields of 38 bu acre(-1)  Total
 production was estimated at 56 million bushels nearly 8 million bushels
 lower than 1992 production.
 
    Excessive rainfall was the major constraint to wheat production during
 the 1993 crop season.  Cool wet weather during the late winter/early spring
 months slowed crop development and delayed spring applications of nitrogen. 
 Heading was 7 to 10 days later than normal.   Substantial wheat acreage was
 abandoned in the northwestern Missouri due to flooding and excessive sprout
 damage.
 
    Disease pressure was high during the crop season.  Soilborne viruses were
 evident at all locations in the early spring.  Moderate levels of Septoria
 tritici blotch, barley yellow dwarf virus, low levels of Fusarium head
 blight (scab), moderate levels of leaf rust and moderate to severe stem rust 
 impacted yields and test weights at various locations throughout the state.
 
    Sets of genetic materials necessary to study the inheritance of
 resistance to Septoria tritici blotch identified in accessions of Triticum
 speltoides were completed in 1993. Genetic analyses will be done in 1994. 
 Crosses are currently being made to complete inheritance studies of
 resistance identified in accessions of T. tauschii.  Resistance identified
 in the T. tauschii accession TA 2377 has been successfully transferred into
 a Saluda background.  One hundred BC(2)F(3:4) germplasm lines will be field
 evaluated for agronomic traits and resistance during the 1994 crop season. 
 
    A set of near isogenic lines containing wheat-rye translocations (1RS.1BL
 and 1RS.1AL),  are being used to facilitate current field investigations
 into the impact of these translocations on yield and quality of soft red
 winter wheats.  Greenhouse studies of the impact of 1RS on forage quality
 are nearing completion.  Field studies on the impact of the 1RS.1BL
 translocation on grain yield and its components in a series of 80 sister
 lines in two different genetic backgrounds indicated that genotype by
 translocation interactions were highly significant for most yield and yield
 component traits measured.
 
    Triticum tauschii accessions are currently being screened for Fusarium
 head blight resistance.  Accessions are being screened in a controlled
 environment by syringe inoculation of individual florets.  Field studies
 during the 1993 crop season on similarly inoculated plots resulted in the
 identification of several  commercial cultivars with significant levels of
 resistance to hyphal invasion.  This type of resistance was measured using a
 Fusarium head blight index calculated as the number of spikelets infected as
 a percentage of the total number of spikelets in the inoculated head. 
 Results are being verified under controlled environment conditions in the
 greenhouse.
 
    Release of MO12256 soft red winter wheat. 'MO12256' was developed by the
 Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station and was released in December 1993. 
 It is as yet, unnamed.  MO12256 originated from the cross Pike/3/(MO9965,
 'Stoddard'/'Blueboy// 'Stoddard'/D1707) in 1980.  D1707 is a 2 gene semi-
 dwarf line from India derived from CIMMYT germplasm. MO12256 was selected in
 1988 as a F(7:8) line.
 
    MO12256 was tested in Missouri breeding trials from 1989 to 1993.  It has
 been evaluated in Missouri Winter Wheat Performance Tests since 1992.  The
 yield of MO12256 is equal to 'Wakefield' and 9% better than 'Cardinal'
 across 22 location years in Missouri.  Its test weight (56.3 lb bu(-1)) is
 similar to that of 'Pioneer 2548' (56.0 lb bu(-1)  and greater than
 Wakefield (54.7 lb bu(-1))  and Cardinal (53.8 lb bu(-1))  in 22 tests in
 Missouri.  Spike emergence of MO12256 is 3 d earlier than Pioneer 2548, 4 d
 earlier than Wakefield, 5 d earlier than Cardinal and equivalent to 'Clark'. 
 MO12256 is a short cultivar; 1, 5, and 6 in shorter than Pioneer 2548,
 Wakefield and Cardinal respectively.  Winterhardiness is similar to Cardinal
 and Wakefield, but less than Pioneer 2548. 
 
 
 Table 1.  Yield and test weight data for MO12256 compared to public and
 private check cultivars combined over Missouri test sites and years.
 
 Variety                  Yield               Test weight
                          bu acre(-1)         lb bu(-1)
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
 
 MO12256                   53.2 b(1)            56.3 a
 Caldwell                  43.7 d               54.4 b
 Cardinal                  48.7 c               53.8 b
 Pioneer 2548              63.3 a               56.0 a
 Wakefield                 54.8 b               54.7 b
 LSD (0.05)                 3.7                  1.0
 Location years            22                   22
  --------------------------------------------------------------
 
 (1) Numbers followed by the same letter are not significantly 
 different based on the LSD at P = 0.05.
 
    The lodging resistance of MO12256 is similar to 'Caldwell'.  MO12256
 has excellent threshability but does not shatter to the same extent as other
 early cultivars.  MO12256 is moderately resistant to Septoria leaf blotch,
 powdery mildew, and barley yellow dwarf virus. It appears to have some
 tolerance to scab.   MO12256 has excellent milling quality and very good
 baking quality based on testing at the USDA-ARS, Soft Wheat Quality
 Laboratory in Wooster, Ohio.   MO12256 is suited to Missouri, especially in
 the central and southern wheat growing areas.  Data from the Uniform Eastern
 Soft Red Wheat Trials indicated very good performance in Illinois, Arkansas,
 and eastern Kansas.
 
    Commercial Wheat Cultivars of the United States Database.  Gopher is
 a database system that allows the systematic search and retrieval of
 information from documents residing on hosts connected by the Internet
 network.  The documents are indexed using the "Wide Area Information Server"
 (WAIS) indexing strategy  developed at the University of Minnesota.  The
 indexes created by this system provide pointers to each word that occurs in
 the original document.  Large volumes of information can be quickly searched
 with all pertinent records displayed for viewing by the user.  Users gain
 access to many databases at multiple locations in a relatively seamless
 fashion.  Maintenance of a Gopher database at a single location is much
 easier than with distributed software and database packages, while
 permitting access to multiple users from many different locations.
 
    "Commercial Wheat Cultivars of the United States" is now available
 as a document accessible as a Gopher database on the GrainGenes Gopher
 Server at Cornell University via the Internet system.  The database
 presently contains records on approximately 1,600 distinct cultivars. 
 Information presently available includes data fields for the cultivar's true
 name, name abbreviations, name and number alias's, USDA accession numbers,
 PVP certificate numbers and certificate status, date of release or
 introduction, place of origin, originator and pedigree listings as shown in
 the example for 'Hart' soft red winter wheat (Figure 1).  The cultivars are
 cross referenced to nearly 900 citations and reprints of Agronomy
 Journal/Crop Science registration statements are provided.  U.S. acreage
 estimates have been compiled from USDA surveys conducted from 1919 to 1984. 
 Since WAIS searches to the document access all data fields of each record,
 selection for a particular cultivar name will retrieve all records that
 possess that name regardless of where it occurs in the document.  Multiple
 records will occur for searches where a particular cultivar appears in the
 pedigree of other cultivars or may have been named as a check cultivar in
 registration statements.  Searching the database with multiple words
 retrieves all records possessing any one of the search words.  The reserved
 words "and" and "not" allow Boolean searches.  Quotation marks are used to
 group multiple words into search phrases (e.g. "Norin 10 / Brevor").  Use of
 the asterisk "*" as the last character of a search word provides wild card
 searches (e.g. "Car*" locates "Carleton", "Cardon", "Carson", "Cardinal",
 etc.).  Selected records can be electronically mailed to any valid Internet
 address or saved as text files on local host directories.  Updates, new
 records and additional information will be added to this database as new
 information becomes available. 
 
 Figure 1.   Sample record of Hart soft red winter wheat from Commercial
     Wheat Cultivars of the United States database.
 
     This section is from the document '/.cwc/.CommWheatCult/cwc7'.
     
     Cultivar Name:           HART
     Name Abbreviation:       HART
     Other ID Numbers:        MO W7901
     Species:                 T. aestivum
     Market Class:            Soft Red Winter Wheat
     True Growth Habit:       Winter
     USDA Acc. Number:        CItr17426
     CSSA Reg. Number:        CV-590
     Year of Release:         1976
     or Introduction
     Place of Origin:         USA-Missouri
     Originator(s):           Missouri AES; Pennsylvania AES; USDA-ARS
          Pedigree:           Etoile de Choisy /2/ Thorne / Clarkan /4/
                              Pawnee /3/ (Pd3848A5-5-1-26, CItr12454,
                              Trumbull / W38 /2/ Fultz / Hungarian)
     Reference(s):            82, 189, 268, 692, 707
      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      USDA Production Acreage Estimates for HART wheat from 1919 to 1984.
      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    
          Year              Estimated Acreage
          1919:                0
          1924:                0
          1929:                0
          1934:                0
          1939:                0
          1944:                0
          1949:                0
          1954:                0
          1959:                0
          1964:                0
          1969:                0
          1974:                0
          1979:                129,086
          1984:                1,249,384
      --------------------------------------------------------
    
     Registration of Hart Wheat (Reg. No. 590).
     Dale Sechler, J. M. Poehlman, and R. P. Pfiefer
     
     'HART', CI 17426, is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em
 Thell.) developed and released jointly by the Missouri and Pennsylvania
 Agricultural Experiment Stations in 1976.  It originated as a single plant
 selection made from an F7 bulk population of the cross 'Etoile de
 Chosy'/2/'Thorne'/'Clarkan'/3/'Pawnee'/CI 12454 and was tested in state and
 regional trials as Missouri Selection W7901.  Mo. W7901 was first grown in
 the Uniform Eastern Soft Wheat Nursery in 1971-72.
 
     Hart is similar to 'Stoddard' in vegetative growth habit, and
 winterhardiness.  The straw is short, stiff, and light in color.  Spikes are
 medium lax, tapered,  rough-awned, and relatively white at maturity.  Glumes
 are medium wide and narrow at the shoulder and the beak is mid-long. 
 Kernels are soft in texture and red in color.
      
     Although Hart originated as an F7 plant selection, variability was
 present within the strain.  From 1,000 progeny rows of spike selections made
 in the F15 generation, 800 rows similar in appearance were harvested and
 composited to start the breeder seed increase.  Some observable genetic
 variability still exists in Hart.  Height is slightly variable (up to three
 head lengths deviation from the average of the field is allowed).  Awns are
 variable (5 to 7 cm most frequent) in length but may be environmentally
 reduced further in the lower spikelets or in the central florets of the
 spikelet.  For the irregular character of awnless, awnletted, and tall,
 awned types, Hart may contain a maximum of the sum of these types of 1.0%
 for the foundation seed class, 1.5% for the registered seed class, and 3.0%
 for the certified seed class.  A tall, awned plant has its spike more than
 three head lengths above the average head height of the field.  Genetic
 characters not observed in the selection process, such as coleoptile color,
 may not be uniformly expressed.  Further selection within the cultivar, or
 production in different environments, may alter the frequency of such
 characters within the population.
      
     Compared to 'Arthur', Hart has yielded 10% more in Missouri and 15%
 more in Pennsylvania, had less lodging, slightly lower test weight, and was
 about 2 days later in maturity.  In Missouri Hart is more tolerant to glume
 blotch and in Pennsylvania more tolerant to wheat spindle streak than
 Arthur.
 
     Soft wheat quality tests indicate that milling and baking quality of
 Hart is acceptable when grown in areas where it is adapted.  Breeder seed of
 Hart will be maintained by the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station,
 Columbia, MO 65201.  Published in Crop Sci. 17:980.
 
     Access to the Commercial Wheat Cultivars of the United States is
 available a number of ways.  Users with personal computers connected to a
 network can directly access the Gopher server at
 "greengenes.cit.cornell.edu'" using public domain Gopher client software
 available from the University of Minnesota ("boombox.micro.umn.edu").  No
 password is required.  Users with personal computers not connected to
 networks often have dialup access a local host (mainframe or mini computer)
 which may have Gopher client software already installed.  Public access also
 is available through the main Gopher server at the University of Minnesota
 by telnet or remote login to either "consultant.micro.umn.edu" (vt100
 emulation) or "pubinfo.ais.umn.edu" (IBM 3270 emulation).  Page through the
 menus to select "Gopher" > "Other Gophers and Information Servers" > "All
 the Gopher Servers in the World" > "GrainGenes,  the Triticeae Genome
 Gopher".  If problems are encountered in accessing the database, consult
 your local network manager concerning Gopher clients or please contact one
 of the authors by electronic mail, "kephart@teosinte.agron.missouri.edu" or
 "matthews@greengenes.cit.cornell.edu".  This project has been partially
 funded by the USDA/Federal Extension Service and the USDA/Agriculture
 Research Service/Plant Genome Office.
 
                         Publications
 
 Kephart, K. D., A. L. McKendry, D. N. Tague, J. E. Berg and C. L. Hoenshell.
 1993. 1993 Missouri winter wheat performance tests. Special Report 453
 
 Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, Food and
 Natural Resources, University of Missouri Columbia. 32 pages
 
 McKendry, A. L. and G. E. Henke. 1993. Evaluation of wheat wild relatives
 for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch.  Crop Science (in press)
 
 McKendry, A. L., G. E. Henke and P. L. Finney. 1993. Effects of septoria
 leaf blotch severity on soft red winter wheat quality. Cereal Chemistry (in
 press).
 
 Gustafson, J. P, and Sears, E. R.  An effective wheat gene manipulation
 system:  Problems and uses.  in: "Plant Breeding Reviews."  Janick, J., ed.
 11:255-234. 1993.
 
 Monte, J. V, McIntyre, C. L., and Gustafson, J. P.  Analysis of phylogenetic
 relationships in the Triticeae tribe using RFLPs.  Theor.  Appl. Genet.
 86:649-655.  1993.
 
 Dallas, J. F, McIntyre, C.L, and Gustafson, J. P.  An RFLP species-specific
 DNA sequence for the A genome of rice.  Genome. 36:445-448. 1993.
 
 Song Yunchun, and Gustafson, J. P.  Physical mapping of 5S RNA gene in rice
 (Oryza sativa L.).  Genome. 36:658-661.  1993.
 
 Winberg, B.C., Zhou, Z., Dallas, J.F., McIntyre, C.L., and Gustafson, J.P. 
 Characterization of minisatellite sequences from Oryza sativa L.  Genome
 36:978-983.  1993.
 
 Gustafson, J. P., R. Appels, and P. Raven  Gene Conservation and
 Exploitation.  Plenum Press.  1993.
 
 Yen, Y. and Kimber, G. 1992.  Genomic relationships of N-genome Triticum
 species.  Genome 35, 962-966.
 
 Kimber, G. 1993. Genomic Relationships in Triticum and the availability of
 alien germplasm.  In: Evaluation and Utilization of Biodiversity in Wild
 Relatives and Primitive Forms for Wheat Improvement. pp 9-16 Ed. A. B.
 Damania.
 
 Talbert, L. E., Kimber, G., Magyar, G. M., and Buchanan, C. B.  1993. 
 Repetitive DNA variation and Pivotal-differential evolution of wild wheats. 
 Genome 36, 14-20.
 
 Kimber, G. 1993. The use of autotetraploids in genomic analysis in wheat. 
 8th International Wheat Genetics Symposium, Beijing.  In Press.
 
 Talbert, L. E., Storlie, E. W., Chee, P. W., Magyar, G. M., Blake, N. K. and
 Kimber, G. 1993. Molecular studies of Pivotal-Differential Evolution.  8th
 International Wheat Genetics Symposium, Beijing.  In Press.
 
 Kimber, G. 1993.  Hitoshi Kihara: The Golden Foundation.  Proc. XVth Inter.
 Bot. Cong. Yokahama, Jap.  In Press.
 
 Visitors:  A. Baier, Brazil, and Z. L. Ren and J. Chen, P. R. China
 
 Retirement: Gordon Kimber will retire at the end of August 1994 and will
 withdraw from active participation in wheat research.
 
 -------------------------
                           MONTANA
 
     Department of Plant and Soil Science, Montana State University, 
 
     C. F. McGuire, S. P. Lanning, R. L. Burrows, P. L. Bruckner, L. E.
     Talbert, and W. L. Morrill (Ento. Res. Lab)
 
     1993 Wheat Crop.  Montana's 1993 growing season was unusually wet and
 cool. Wheat production was 204.5 million bushels, the largest wheat crop
 ever harvested in Montana. Average yield of 39.2 bushels per harvested acre
 was also a new record high for the state. However, wheat quality was not as
 good as normal with lower protein levels and test weights. Leading spring
 wheat cultivars were Amidon, WestBred Rambo, Newana, Len, and Fortuna.
 Neeley, Rocky, Redwin, Tiber, and Judith were the primary winter wheat
 cultivars.
 
     Cultivar release (winter wheat). MT7811 hard white winter wheat
 (Froid/Winoka//MT6928/Trader) was approved for release on an exclusive basis
 in 1994. MT7811 is broadly adapted to Montana environments and is similar in
 yield to our best hard red winter wheat cultivars.
 
     Winter wheat breeding. Sawfly resistance remains our primary breeding
 objective. We have initiated research to determine biotypic diversity within
 North American Cephus cinctus using RAPD-PCR and have initiated germplasm
 screening to identify new sources of resistance. Several potentially new
 sources of stem solidness were identified in 1993. If anyone has wheat
 germplasm expressing high levels of stem solidness we would appreciate
 either seed or information from you in that regard. We are in the process of
 installing a low temperature growth room (-25degC) which will be used to
 enhance our germplasm screening and selection program for cold tolerance.
 
     Cultivar release (spring wheat).  McNeal hard red spring wheat
 (formerly MT 8849) was released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment
 Station.  Primary justifications for release included high yield with
 acceptable protein and end-use quality.  McNeal has performed exceptionally
 well in eastern Montana.
 
     Spring wheat breeding.  Primary objectives for the spring wheat
 breeding program remain sawfly resistance, Russian wheat aphid resistance,
 and the development of hard white spring wheat adapted to Montana.
 
     Wheat streak mosaic virus. WSMV was widespread across Montana in 1993.
 At the Northern Agricultural Research Center in Havre, winter wheat
 nurseries were heavily and uniformly infested by the wheat curl mite in
 early fall. Genotypes varied significantly in expression of WSMV symptoms
 and in tolerance to the mite or virus as indicated by yield levels ranging
 from 10 to 36 bu/acre (Yield correlation to WSMV disease rating=0.76**). Ten
 foreign plant introductions were selected from this location as potential
 tolerance sources to wheat curl mite or WSMV.  Genotype variation was also
 observed for spring wheat varieties.  Based on data obtained at four
 locations, severely affected varieties included Rambo, Klasic, Olaf,
 Fortuna, Stoa, and Len, while Amidon, Thatcher, Penawawa, Hi-Line, McNeal,
 and Glenman showed the least severe symptoms.
 
 
     Wheat stem sawfly.  Damage caused by the wheat stem sawfly declined in
 1993 due to the cold wet growing season, but the pest continues to be the
 most destructive insect in wheat in Montana.  Application of flowable
 carbofuran during the boot stage gave moderate (50%) control of sawfly
 larvae.  Incidence of parasitism by Bracon spp. ranged from 0 - 40%.  A book
 titled "Small Grain Insect Pests of the US and Canada" is undergoing final
 revision and will be published by APS Press.
 
     Personnel. Lou Kuifu, Ph.D student from P.R. China, is evaluating
 population structure of the wheat stem sawfly in Montana to determine if
 biotypes are present and different sources of resistance are necessary. Doug
 Holen, M.S. student from Minnesota, is examining interactions of spring
 stand and yield potential in "modern" winter wheat cultivars, varietal
 susceptibility to preharvest sprouting, and wheat gene pool relationships.
 
     Cereal Quality Laboratory.  In September of 1993, Dean Barry Jacobsen
 appointed a cereal quality task force to develop a comprehensive program
 that will address cereal quality, nutrition and enhanced value products. 
 The task force was directed to develop a vision statement for this program
 that will consolidate the Cereal Quality and Nutrition Laboratories plus
 link molecular genetics, breeding, and end product research into a single
 program.  This unification coincides with the retirement of Charles McGuire
 who has directed the Cereal Quality Lab for the past 26 years.
 
                         Publications
 
 Bruckner, P.L., J.W. Bergman, R.L. Burrows, G.R. Carlson, J.L. Eckhoff, E.A.
 Hockett, G.D. Kushnak, C.F. McGuire, W.L. Morrill, G.F. Stallknecht, R.N.
 Stougaard, G.A. Taylor, and D.M. Wichman, 1993. Registration of MT88005 hard
 red winter wheat germplasm resistant to wheat stem sawfly. Crop Sci.
 33:1420-1421.
 
 Lanning, S. P., L. E. Talbert, and G. D. Johnson.  1993.  Registration of
 Russian wheat aphid resistant hard red spring wheat germplasm.  Crop Sci.
 33:1420.
 
 McLendon, M. E., S. P. Lanning, C. F. McGuire, J. M. Martin, and L. E.
 Talbert.  1993.  Variation of seed storage proteins within spring wheat
 varieties and its effect on end-use properties.  Cereal Chem. 70:607-610.
 
 Morrill, W.L., J. W. Gabor, and D. Wichman.  1993.  Mortality of the wheat
 stem sawfly (Hymenaptera: Cephidae) at low temperatures.  Environmental
 Entomology 22:1358-1361.
 
 Storlie, E. W., and L. E. Talbert.  1993.  The cause of tall off-types in a
 semidwarf spring wheat.  Crop Sci. 33:1131-1135.
 
 Storlie, E. W., L. E. Talbert, G. A. Taylor, H. Ferguson, and J. Brown. 
 1993.  Effects of the Russian wheat aphid on osmotic potential and fructan
 content of winter wheat.  Euphytica 65:9-14.
 
 Talbert, L. E.  1993.  Molecular biology and wheat improvement.  Plant
 Breeding Reviews 11:235-250.
 
 Talbert, L. E., G. Kimber, G. M. Magyar, and C. B. Buchanan.  1993. 
 Repetitive DNA variation and pivotal-differential evolution of wild wheats. 
 Genome 36:14-20.
 
 Talbert, L. E., N. K. Blake, P. W. Chee, T. K. Blake, and G. M. Magyar. 
 199-.  Evaluation of sequence-tagged-site PCR products as molecular markers
 in wheat.  Theor. Appl. Genet. (in press).
 
 -------------------------
     H. B. Chen, J. M. Martin, and L. E. Talbert
 
     Analysis of Genetic Diversity Within a Wheat Germplasm Pool With
 Molecular Markers.  We were interested in determining the relative genetic
 diversity within hard red spring wheat as compared to a sample of wheat
 accessions representing an array of types and geographic origins.  Three
 groups of accessions were assayed for the frequencies of DNA polymorphism
 using a total of 38 "sequence-tagged-site" (STS) primer sets with PCR. 
 Group I contained ten elite hard red spring wheat cultivars under production
 in Montana and North Dakota, group II included 15 hard red spring wheat
 cultivars and lines from the North American Great Plains, and group III
 contained 20 accessions representing a wide range of collection and
 morphological type.  Twenty-four of 38 primer sets (63%) and 31 of 76
 primer/enzyme combinations (41%) revealed polymorphisms.  The range of
 genetic similarity estimated by percentage of shared restriction fragments
 varied from 0.650 to 0.990 among all pairwise comparisons of the 45 lines. 
 Average genetic similarity was .81.  Genetic similarity among the hard red
 spring wheats was .88, while genetic similarity among the broadly-based
 group III was .78.   Our results showed that the breeding pool for hard red
 spring wheat is narrow relative to levels of diversity in hexaploid wheat.
 
                          Publications
 
 Lanning, S. P., L. E. Talbert, and G. D. Johnson.  1993.  Registration of
 Russian wheat aphid resistant hard red spring wheat germplasm.  Crop Sci.
 33:1420.
 
 McLendon, M. E., S. P. Lanning, C. F. McGuire, J. M. Martin, and L. E.
 Talbert.  1993.  Variation of seed storage proteins within spring wheat
 varieties and its effect on end-use properties.  Cereal Chem. 70:607-610.
 
 Storlie, E. W., and L. E. Talbert.  1993.  The cause of tall off-types in a
 semidwarf spring wheat.  Crop Sci. 33:1131-1135.
 
 Storlie, E. W., L. E. Talbert, G. A. Taylor, H. Ferguson, and J. Brown. 
 1993.  Effects of the Russian wheat aphid on osmotic potential and fructan
 content of winter wheat.  Euphytica 65:9-14.
 
 Talbert, L. E.  1993.  Molecular biology and wheat improvement.  Plant
 Breeding Reviews 11:235-250.
 
 Talbert, L. E., G. Kimber, G. M. Magyar, and C. B. Buchanan.  1993. 
 Repetitive DNA variation and pivotal-differential evolution of wild wheats. 
 Genome 36:14-20.
 
 Talbert, L. E., N. K. Blake, P. W. Chee, T. K. Blake, and G. M. Magyar. 
 1993.  Evaluation of sequence-tagged-site PCR products as molecular markers
 in wheat.  Theor. Appl. Genet. (in press).
 
 -------------------------
                          NEBRASKA
 
      P. S. Baenziger*, C. J. Peterson* (USDA-ARS), R. A. Graybosch* (USDA-
     ARS), D. R. Shelton*, L. A. Nelson*, D. D. Baltensperger*, D. J.
     Lyons*,    and G. L. Hein*, University of Nebraska and USDA-ARS,
     Lincoln 
 
 
      Growing Conditions and Production:  As seems common in recent years,
 the state wheat crop was highly variable with production estimated at 73.5
 million bushels harvested from 2.1 million acres and with a state average
 yield of 35 bushels per acre.  This represents a below average crop, but
 very much better than the 1992 crop which was  55.5 million bushels
 harvested from 1.85 million acres and with a state average of 30 bushels per
 acre.  The major factors affecting the wheat crop in 1993 were 1. a cooler
 than normal growing season, 2. above average rainfall throughout most of the
 state leading to higher foliar disease incidence than normal in eastern
 Nebraska and some field abandonment due to scab, 3. a higher than normal
 incidence of wheat streak mosaic virus in western Nebraska, and 4. a higher
 than normal incidence of barley yellow dwarf mosaic virus in eastern
 Nebraska.  The cooler growing season and higher than normal rainfall were
 beneficial in western Nebraska to reduce the effects of wheat streak mosaic
 virus and increase yield as water is usually the most limiting factor for
 wheat production.  Arapahoe, released in 1988, has been quickly accepted by
 the growers and became the most widely grown variety (28.6% of the state) in
 1993.  
 
     New Cultivars:  Alliance (P. I. 573096, also known as NE88595) was
 released to certified wheat producers in 1993 and formally released in 1994
 by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station, the South Dakota
 Agricultural Experiment Station, and the Agricultural Research Service, U.
 S. Department of Agriculture.  The name was chosen to honor the 40th
 anniversary of the founding of the Nebraska Wheat Utilization, Marketing,
 and Development Board; the 40th anniversary of the founding of the Nebraska
 Wheat Growers' Association; and the support of Nebraska Crop Improvement
 Association, and the Nebraska Foundation Seed Division; and the
 interdisciplinary and interstate cooperative research efforts needed to
 develop this cultivar. 
    
     Alliance is an increase of a hard red winter wheat F(3)-derived line
 from the cross Arkan/Colt//Chisholm sib which was made in 1982 by Dr. J. W.
 Schmidt.  Alliance is a white chaff, awned, short coleoptile, semidwarf
 wheat with medium maturity. In Nebraska, it is 1.5 days later than TAM107
 and 1.5 days earlier than Arapahoe and Redland.  It is similar in plant
 height to Arapahoe and Redland, taller than Vista, and has moderate straw
 strength.  Alliance has exhibited moderate resistance to stem rust and has a
 heterogeneous reaction to the Great Plains Biotype of Hessian fly which may
 indicate it contains the Marquillo-Kawvale gene for resistance or is
 heterogeneous for H3 from Arkan.  Alliance is susceptible to leaf rust and
 soilborne wheat mosaic virus.  Its reaction to wheat streak mosaic virus
 needs further testing, however in greenhouse tests, it is similar to
 Redland, less tolerant than Vista, but better than many Nebraska wheats. 
 When crown rotting diseases are present, Alliance appears to have more
 tolerance than the many Nebraska cultivars.  The winterhardiness of Alliance
 is similar to Scout 66.  Alliance is a genetically lower test weight wheat,
 superior to Redland and similar to Arapahoe.  The recommended growing area
 for Alliance is the dryland wheat production areas of the Panhandle of
 Nebraska.  Alliance is 8% higher yielding than Arapahoe and TAM107, and 4%
 higher yielding than Redland and Vista.  
 
     The milling and baking properties of Alliance were determined using
 five years of testing by the Nebraska Wheat Quality Laboratory with Arapahoe
 and Scout 66 as check cultivars.  The average wheat and flour protein
 content of Alliance is lower than Arapahoe and similar to Scout 66.  The
 dough mixing properties were similar to Arapahoe and stronger than Scout 66. 
 While the baking absorption of Alliance was less than Arapahoe and Scout 66,
 average loaf volumes were greater than these two check cultivars.  The
 external appearance and internal attributes of the baked bread loaf
 indicated generally acceptable quality characteristics. 
 
     Increase of New Experimental Lines:  Four experimental wheats are were
 advanced to large scale increase for possible release in 1994/1995.  
    
     NE89522 (TAM105*4/Amigo//Brule) is a moderately early, semidwarf wheat
 that is similar in height to Arapahoe and Redland.  It is susceptible to
 leaf rust, Hessian fly, and soil borne wheat mosaic virus.  In greenhouse
 tests, it appears to slightly less tolerant to wheat streak mosaic virus
 than Redland.  It is heterogeneous for the Amigo translocation (1A/1R) which
 is reported to convey a non-preference for wheat curl mite, the vector of
 wheat streak mosaic virus.  Hence in the field, the line may have both some
 tolerance to the virus and non-preference to the virus vector.  NE89522 is
 moderately resistance to stem rust (contains genes Sr6 and is heterogeneous
 for the Amigo gene).  NE89522 has adequate test weight characteristics (less
 than Scout 66, similar to Arapahoe, and superior to Redland).  The straw
 strength is adequate (superior to Arapahoe, but less than Redland).  The
 milling and baking quality of NE89522 would be considered as adequate.  The
 recommended growing region will probably be northern Nebraska and the
 panhandle where its winterhardiness, tolerance for cooler weather, and
 disease resistance are most effective.      
 
     NE89526 (Lancota sel/Siouxland//TAM103/KS73167) is a medium height,
 semi-dwarf wheat (slightly taller than Vista and similar to TAM107).  It is
 moderately resistant to leaf rust (contains genes Lr3 and Lr16, the same
 genes in Redland, Vista, and Arapahoe) and stem rust (contains gene Sr17
 which is no longer effective and Sr24 which is effective).  It exhibits the
 heterogeneous reaction to Hessian fly which may indicate it has the
 Marquillo-Kawvale resistance that is common in many Nebraska wheats. 
 NE89526 is susceptible to wheat steak mosaic virus and soilborne wheat
 mosaic virus.  NE89526 has good test weight characteristics (similar to
 Centura and superior to Arapahoe and Redland).  Straw strength is very good
 (similar to Redland, superior to Arapahoe and Vista).  The milling and
 baking quality of NE89526 are good (similar to slightly better than
 Arapahoe).  The recommended growing region for NE89526 needs further
 refinement, however it appears to do well in southern Nebraska where its
 straw strength and disease resistances are advantageous.  
 
     NE88427 (TAM107/Bennett) is a medium height semi-dwarf wheat (slightly
 taller than Vista and similar to TAM107) with a intermediate coleoptile
 (longer than TAM107).  It is susceptible to leaf rust, and soilborne and
 wheat streak mosaic viruses, and Hessian fly.  It is moderately resistant to
 stem rust (contains genes Sr6 and is heterogeneous for the Amigo gene). 
 NE88427 has good test weight characteristics (similar to Siouxland, and
 superior to Redland and Arapahoe) and winterhardiness.  Straw strength is
 adequate (superior to Vista).  The recommended growing region for NE88427
 needs further refinement, however it appears to do well in most parts of
 Nebraska in the absence of leaf rust.  The end-use quality of NE88427 is
 adequate, most similar to Scout 66 for protein and ash content, gluten
 strength as determined by the mixograph, and loaf characteristics. 
 
     N87V106 (NB69565//NB65671/NB69655/3/Homestead/4/Centurk/3/Atlas
 66//Cmn//Tx2607-6) is a selection from the USDA-ARS breeding program
 currently under breeder seed increase. It is a medium height semidwarf
 (similar to, or shorter than, Arapahoe and Redland) with short coleoptile
 and medium-early maturity.   N87V106 possesses good leaf and stem rust
 resistance and straw strength.  Performance data from 1992 and 1993 suggests
 potential adaptation to SE, SC, and SW Nebraska; NC and central Kansas. 
 N87V106 is susceptible to soilborne mosaic and wheat streak mosaic viruses,
 Hessian fly, and crown rot.  Overall baking quality is similar to Arapahoe
 with mellow mixing characteristics.  
 
 -------------------------
      Doubled Haploid and Wheat Tissue Culture Studies.  L. E. Oberthur, V.
 D. Gustafson, C. Wildhagan, and P. S. Baenziger
 
     This year's efforts concentrated on understanding how the system may
 work in practice.  Dr. L. E. Oberthur compared a doubled haploid derived
 population with a single seed descent population (this would be the
 conventionally derived reference population for the double haploid
 population).  Though differences were identified between the single seed
 descent and doubled haploid populations, the differences could be attributed
 to various forms of gene interaction and not necessarily to tissue culture
 induced variation (known as gametoclonal variation).   In a second
 experiment, she studied the inheritance of gametoclonal variation and
 determined it to be heritable.  This is the first documentation that
 gametoclonal variation in wheat is caused by genetic effects.  All in all,
 double haploidy remains a viable system for line development when double
 haploids can be routinely made.  
 
     Improving our ability to make doubled haploids is part of the research
 of Ms. Vicki Gustafson who is attempting to develop wheat isolated
 microspore cultures.  She has been successful in regenerating over 100
 plants from these cultures, but at present the system is highly variable. 
 Future efforts will concentrate on improving the repeatability of the
 procedures.  
 
     As part of the overall tissue culture effort, Ms. Carla Wildhagen, in
 cooperation with Dr. Amit Mitra, is developing methods for transferring
 genes from any organism to wheat.  
 
 -------------------------
     Chromosome Substitution Lines. Yang Yen and P. S. Baenziger.
 
     A series of lines in which single pairs of chromosomes were transferred
 from Cheyenne, the most important ancestor in the Nebraska Wheat Improvement
 efforts, to Wichita, an important wheat from Kansas, and vice versa have
 been developed by Dr. M. R. Morris.  Previous research showed that
 chromosomes 3A and 6A have major effects on agronomic performance (can
 reduce or enhance yield by 20%).  Current efforts by Dr. Yang Yen are
 concentrating on developing recombinant chromosome lines which will be used
 to determine how many genes on the identified chromosomes affect yield and
 other agronomic traits.  The first field experiment was undertaken in 1993. 
 In cooperation with Agripro Biosciences, hybrids of the chromosome
 substitution lines have been made to identify chromosomal heterosis.  The
 1992 trials indicated the hybrids have predominantly additive gene effects.
 The 1993 trials are questionable due to adverse weather at Lincoln and
 take-all at North Platte.  This work will allow us to better understand and
 hopefully manipulate genes for agronomic performance. 
 
 -------------------------
     Effect of 1B/1R on Agronomic Performance. B. Moreno, P. S. Baenziger,
 R. A. Graybosch, and C. J. Peterson.
 
     Previously, Mr. Benjamin Moreno-Sevilla, a graduate student and project
 leader, had shown that lines containing 1B/1R from the cross Siouxland x Ram
 were 9% higher yielding than lines with 1B or lines heterogeneous for 1B/1R. 
 Rawhide, a recent release, is heterogeneous for 1B and 1B/1R.  1B/1R and 1B
 lines were extracted from Rawhide and grown in four environments in Nebraska
 in 1992 and in 1993.  No difference was found for yield between the 1B and
 1B/1R lines in 1992 and in 1993 trials.  Hence the often suggested
 beneficial effect of 1B/1R may be related to cultivar background.
 
 -------------------------
     Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Research. Roy French, Jill Petrisko, and P.
 S. Baenziger 
 
     Ms. Jill Petrisko has initiated research with Dr. Roy French (USDA-ARS)
 to determine if races exist within the wheat streak mosaic virus.  She
 amplifies DNA complementary to the coat protein RNA using polymerase chain
 reaction.    So far, the virus seems to have great variability in the
 region.  In cooperation with Drs. Hein, Baltensperger, and Joe Martin (KSU),
 she is also developing an improved field assay for tolerance under Nebraska
 growing conditions.  Dr. Martin and his co-workers have developed some
 germplasm with the first real resistance/tolerance to wheat streak mosaic
 virus.  The gene is rapidly being transferred to Nebraska germplasm. 
 
 -------------------------
     Environmental Effects on Plant Height. N. Budak, P. S. Baenziger, and
 K. M. Eskridge.
 
     With the continued interest in taller wheats for western Nebraska, Mr.
 Necdet Budak, a graduate student, has been studying how to better understand
 factors determining plant height.  As part of this research, all
 experimental lines are being classified by their response to gibberellic
 acid (an indicator of the main semi-dwarfing genes) and all of the height
 data are being analyzed to look for lines that are not too tall in eastern
 Nebraska, but are tall in western Nebraska.  He has determined that tall
 wheats tend to be tall in all locations (e.g. Buckskin) or to be tall in
 eastern Nebraska (where they are generally too tall) and rapidly become
 shorter in western Nebraska (where the tall wheats are needed).  The latter
 group is well represented by most modern tall wheat experimental lines.  The
 semi-dwarf wheats can be short in every environment (e.g. Vista) or
 moderately tall in eastern Nebraska and retain their height in western
 Nebraska (e.g Arapahoe).  It may be possible to select for tall semi-dwarfs
 that retain their height under stress conditions.  Research is continuing to
 determine which climatic factors affect plant height.  In the past, tall
 wheats in eastern Nebraska may or may not be tall in western Nebraska which
 has caused problems with line selection and variety recommendations. 
 
 -------------------------
     Virulence pattern and distribution of the natural wheat leaf rust
 population in Nebraska.  J. Watkins and S. Rutledge.
 
     In 1993, 133 samples of leaf rust were collected in May and June
 throughout the wheat growing regions of Nebraska.  A fall collection was
 attempted, but leaf rust was not found.  More than 70% of the spring
 collected isolates were virulent on Lr1, Lr2a, Lr2c, Lr3, Lr10, and Lr18. 
 Less than 13% of the isolates were virulent on Lr9, Lr16, Lr3ka, Lr17, or
 Lr21.  Lr16 is the major leaf rust resistance gene used in Brule, Redland (a
 selection from Brule), Arapahoe, and Vista.  Compared to the 1992 survey,
 virulence was found for the first time on Lr3ka and there was a drop in the
 virulence to LR24 and Lr26.   Lr24 and Lr26 are the main genes in Siouxland
 which is declining in its popularity. 
 
 -------------------------
     Environmental modification of hard red winter wheat flour protein
 composition.  Robert A. Graybosch, C. James Peterson, and David R. Shelton
 
     The effects of environmental conditions during grain fill on flour
 protein composition of hard red winter wheat were investigated.  Thirty hard
 red winter wheat cultivars and experimental lines were grown in 9 locations
 in the state of Nebraska (northern Great Plains of North America) during
 1990 and 1991.  Environmental conditions, including grain fill duration,
 temperatures and relative humidity during grain fill, were monitored.  Grain
 yield and test weight also were determined as environmental indicators. 
 Significant linear correlations between flour protein content, as measured
 by near-infrared spectroscopy, were observed only with grain fill duration. 
 Protein quality, as measured by SDS sedimentation volumes and size-exclusion
 high-performance liquid chromatography, was highly influenced by increasing
 frequency of high temperatures during grain fill, and by decreasing relative
 humidities.  Observed ranges in genotypic responses (variance) at locations
 also was altered by environmental factors.  While high linear correlations
 were observed between SDS sedimentation volumes and environmental factors,
 optimal protein quality was observed with exposure to between 60 and 90
 hours of temperature greater than 32 C during grain fill.  Protein quality
 declined with exposure to either fewer, or greater, hours of elevated
 temperature.
 
 -------------------------
     Identification of 1RS wheats in grain mixtures: a comparison of
 methods.  R.A. Graybosch, C.J. Peterson and L.E. Hansen. 
 
     Rye chromosome arm 1RS, in the form of wheat-rye chromosomal
 translocations, confers both unique agronomic and quality properties to
 recipient varieties.  Three methods, HPLC separation of 70% ethanol soluble
 proteins and two ELISA formats (antigen-on-plate and competition assays),
 for the identification of 1RS in grain mixtures were compared.  HPLC was
 found to be effective at identifying 1AL/1RS only in pure samples, while
 1BL/1RS could be detected in both 80% and 100% samples.  ELISA formats were
 both able to detect 1RS, either as 1AL/1RS or 1BL/1RS, at a frequency of
 40%.  The competition assay could detect 1BL/1RS at frequencies as low as
 10%.  Identification of 1BL/1RS was more accurate in the competition assay,
 while assay formats were equally effective in detecting 1AL/1RS.
 
 -------------------------
     Development of Hard White Wheat Quality Tests. D. R. Shelton and W.
 Park.
 
     In 1993, the USDA-ARS and University of Nebraska wheat projects began a
 collaborative project in hard white wheat (HWW) variety development. 
 Development of small-scale quality tests, requiring a maximum of 200g flour,
 will be critical to facilitate breeding efforts.  The primary end-use target
 of the program will be domestic and international sheeted noodle products. 
 Quality goals include intermediate dough mixing properties, protein content
 of 11 to 12% (12% mb), and ability to maintain noodle color through
 processing and storage. 
 
     The Nebraska Wheat Quality Lab has purchased a small scale sheeted
 noodle machine for less than $300.  The noodle machine has been modified so
 that real-time dough temperature determinations can be made and stored on
 computer media.  Computer software development was done by AEW Consulting,
 Lincoln, Nebraska.  Mr. WooJoon Park, graduate research assistant, has
 started intensive research to achieve appropriate noodle dough development. 
 Mixing bars with various pin lengths and diameters have been made and
 tested.  Achieving water dispersion at low absorptions (35 to 40%) and good
 dough development continues to be a challenge.  A Korean Snack Food Trade
 Team suggested changes in the mixing bar to more closely approximate sheeted
 noodle production.  Also, the mixing speed has been reduced with a variable
 voltage transformer, which may improve noodle dough development.  Key
 components in noodle development include the structure of mixer, flour
 quality, mixing time (15-20 min), temperature of the mixing dough (25-35
 degC), the amount of water added (35-40 %), and the mixing speed (40-60
 rpm).  Work with domestic and international end-users of hard white wheat
 will continue to ensure appropriate processing quality in Nebraska developed
 HWW's.
 
 -------------------------
     Grain elevator sampling for jointed goatgrass. D. J. Lyon
 
     A grain elevator sampling study was initiated in 1990 to quantify the
 existence of jointed goatgrass in western Nebraska and determine the
 geographic distribution of jointed goatgrass within western Nebraska.  Grain
 elevators in the nine major wheat producing counties in Nebraska were
 identified.  These elevators represented over 1.1 million m(3)(64 million
 bu) of wheat storage, ranging in size from over 116,800 m(3)to less than
 2,800 m(3).  
 
        Managers were asked to collect a sample of approximately 1.4 to 2.3
 Kg (3 to 5 lb) per truck taken from a random sample of trucks delivering new
 crop wheat to their facility.  They were told not to sample trucks on the
 basis of their knowledge of the trucks containing, or not containing,
 jointed goatgrass; but rather decide that the next truck that drives over
 their scales will be sampled.  Samples were to be collected in the same
 manner that each elevator used to sample wheat loads.  Elevator managers
 were asked to take samples over the course of the harvest season and not all
 in one or two days.  
 
     The sampling program was repeated in 1991 and 1992 to account for
 possible variations in jointed goatgrass populations as a result of yearly
 climatic variability.  
 
     Wheat samples were weighed prior to removing jointed goatgrass joints
 from the wheat samples.  Despite yearly climatic variations over the course
 of the survey, jointed goatgrass infested at least 1 out of 5 loads of wheat
 delivered to elevators in western Nebraska.  
 
     This elevator sampling program has allowed us to state that: 1) jointed
 goatgrass joints contaminate 20 to 29% of all winter wheat deliveries made
 at harvest in western Nebraska, suggesting that jointed goatgrass is a
 serious pest in winter wheat production for western Nebraska producers, 2)
 the counties bordering Colorado have the greatest jointed goatgrass
 contamination levels in western Nebraska, and 3) of the samples containing
 jointed goatgrass joints, the average number of joints per 1 Kg wheat sample
 was as high as 169 in 1991, indicating a potentially serious reduction in
 grain quality as a result of dockage and foreign material discounts.  
 
 
 -------------------------
     Cattle feeding. D. J. Lyon.
 
     In a 1990 study, jointed goatgrass seed was found to pass through the
 digestion system of cattle in quantities, and at viability rates, that posed
 a potential dissemination problem.  A jointed goatgrass processing study was
 completed in 1992 to investigate the ability of different processing methods
 to reduce the viability of jointed goatgrass seed prior to feeding the seed
 to cattle.  A roller mill and hammer mill were used to coarse- and fine-
 grind the joints.  Germination and emergence were reduced, but not
 eliminated, by processing alone.  Seed from jointed goatgrass joints fine-
 ground with a hammer mill and placed in the rumen of a fistulated steer for
 24 h did not germinate.  The hammer mill may be used to reduce the risk of
 disseminating jointed goatgrass when the milled jointed goatgrass-
 contaminated wheat is fed to cattle.  
 
                         Publications:
 
 Baenziger, P. S.,J. W. Schmidt, C. J. Peterson, V. A. Johnson, P. J.
 Mattern, D. R. Shelton, L. A. Nelson, D. V. McVey, and J.H. Hatchett.  1993. 
 Registration of three wheat germplasm lines.  Crop Sci.33:884-885. 
 
 Baenziger, P. S.,  J. W. Schmidt, C. J. Peterson, D. R. Shelton, D. D. Bal-
 tensperger, L. A. Nelson, D. V. McVey, and J. H. Hatchett.  Registration of
 'Vista' Wheat.  Crop Sci. 33:1412. 
 
 Eskridge, K. M. and C. J. Peterson.  1994. Probability of wheat quality
 traits falling within acceptable limits. Crop Science. In Press.
 
 Foy, C. D., and C. J. Peterson. 1994. Acid tolerance of wheat lines selected
 for high grain protein content.  J. of Plant Nutrition. Vol. 17, No. 2. In
 Press.
 
 Graybosch, R.A., C. J. Peterson, J.H. Lee and D.R. Shelton.  1994.  Effects
 of gluten protein polymorphisms on the breadmaking quality of winter wheats. 
 Crop Science.  In press.  
 
 Lee, J.H., R.A. Graybosch and D.J. Lee.  1994.  Detection of rye chromosome
 2R using PCR and sequence-specific DNA primers.  Genome.  In press.
 
 Lyon, D. J. and I. G. Rush. 1993. Processing reduces seed germination and
 emergence of jointed goatgrass. J. Prod. Agric. 6:395-398. 
 
 Lyon, D. J., J. A. Smith, and D. D. Jones. 1994. Sampling wheat at the
 elevator for jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Weed Technol. 8:(in
 press).
 
 Stroup, W. W., P. S. Baenziger, and D. K. Mulitze. 1994. A comparison of
 methods for removing spatial variation from wheat yield trials.  Crop Sci.
 34:62-66.
 
 Yen, Y. and P. S. Baenziger. 1993. Identification, characterization, and
 comparison of RNA-degrading enzymes of wheat and barley. Biochem. Genetics
 31: 133-145.
 
 -------------------------
                           NEW YORK
 
     Department of Plant Breeding and Biometry, Cornell University, Ithaca,
     NY
 
     M. E. Sorrells* and A.Neiss
 
     1993 Winter Wheat Production:    The 1993 soft white winter wheat crop
 for New York was 85,000 acres, down 25,000 acres compared to 1992.  This was
 largely due to heavy rainfall in September of 1992.  Yield was estimated to
 be 46 b/a, 10 b/a lower than 1992 and 12 b/a below the record yield of 1985. 
 Overall the 1993 growing season was close to normal.  A near record amount
 of precipitation was received in April but May and July were well below
 normal.  Projected acreage for 1994 is 120,000.
 
     Soft White Winter Wheat:  Harus and Geneva are cultivars currently
 recommended to New York farmers.  NY73116-4W and NY262-37-422 (reselection
 of NY262-37-10W) soft white winter lines are pending release.  NY73116-4W
 has moderate resistance to sprouting and improved yield while NY262-37-10W
 has very good resistance to preharvest sprouting, high test weight, and
 yield slightly below Geneva.  They will be named and officially released
 late this year.
     
     Soft Red Winter Wheat:  Susquehanna soft red winter wheat was first
 available to farmers for 1991 production and popularity of this cultivar is
 growing.  Wakefield and Madison have also shown good performance in New
 York.  The soft red winter market class is gaining popularity, especially
 following years where there was considerable damage due to preharvest
 sprouting in the white wheats.
 
     Hard Red Spring Wheat:  Production of hard red spring wheat continues
 at a low level.  Stoa and lines related to Stoa have demonstrated very good
 milling and baking quality and yield performance.  We have made arrangements
 with North Dakota State University to release ND594.  We are currently
 producing breeder seed and will name this variety late this year.
 
     Markers for Powdery Mildew Resistance:  Near-isogenic lines (NILs) and
 their recurrent parent Chancellor were used to identify restriction fragment
 length polymorphic markers linked to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis (DC.)
 E.O. Speer f. sp. tritici ) resistance genes Pm1, Pm2, Pm3 and Pm4a in wheat
 (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell).  By mapping these polymorphic markers in
 F2 progenies from crosses of the NILs with Chancellor (Cc), it was found Pm1
 co-segregated with a polymorphic locus detected by BCD347; Pm2 was linked to
 a locus detected by marker BCD1871 with a distance of 3.5 cM; Pm3b was
 linked to a locus detected by marker BCD1434 with a distance of 1.3 cM; Pm4a
 co-segregated with Xcnlbcd1231-2A(2) and Xcnlcdo678-2A, and was closely
 flanked by Xcnlbcd1231-2A(1) and Xcnlbcd292-2A  both with a distance of 1.5
 cM.  Aneuploid mapping of these markers indicated that loci Xcnlbcd292-2A
 and Xcnlcdo678-2A are on 2AL,  Xcnlcdo347-7A on 7AL and Xcnlbcd1434-1A on
 1AS.  The same polymorphic fragments detected in the Pm3b NIL by
 Xcnlbcd1434-1A were found in Pm3a NIL using several enzyme digestions.  Two
 of the three NILs for Pm1 had duplicate segments of the Xcnlcdo347-7A locus,
 while the third NIL, Norka/*8Chancellor, had only a single copy.
 
     RFLP Mapping:  RFLP linkage maps for chromosomes 1 and 3 were developed
 for hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the cross  M6/Opata-85.   Linkage
 groups for chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D were developed with probes from genomic
 and cDNA libraries from wheat (WG, ksu), barley (BCD, MWG), oats (CDO) and
 rice (RZ).  Chromosome designations and centromere locations were estimated
 using ditelosomic lines.
 
     A total of 68 markers derived from 48 probes were allocated to
 chromosome 1 linkage groups.  Chromosome 1A spanned 169 cM (Kosambi mapping
 function) with  23 markers derived from 18 probes.  Similarly, 1B spanned
 132 cM with 34 markers derived from 30 probes.  In 1A and B, a large
 proportion of the markers were concentrated near the centromere as
 expected..  1D consists of 3 linkage groups made up of 11 markers from 9
 probes.  The relative postioning of the linkage groups was determined by
 making comparisons with common markers from the 1D RFLP map for T. taucshii
 (Gill et al. 1992).  Two probes mapping near the ends of the long arm
 (ksuE11) and short arm (ksuD14) in the T. tauschii map produced markers for
 the three genomes.  The linear order of markers was conserved relative to
 barley chromosome 5 (Heun et al. 1991); rice chromosomes 5 (1S and 1L) and
 10 (1L) (Tanksley et al. 1992); and chromosome A of oat (O'Donoughue et al.
 1992).  Chromosome rearrangements were indicated in hexaploid oat
 (O'Donoughue et al. manuscript in preparation) relative to wheat.
 
     We have constructed RFLP maps of the A, B, and D chromosomes of wheat
 homoeologous group 3 in 114 F(7) lines derived from M-6/ Opata85.  M-6 is a
 synthetic hexaploid derived from Altar durum /T. tauschii.  To date,
 chromosome 3A carries 43 markers spanning 275 cM, 3B 23 markers spanning 180
 cM, and 3D 22 markers spanning 200 cM.  Ten libraries, from various
 laboratories, of wheat genomic clones or oat or barley cDNAs are
 represented, facilitating the alignment and comparison of these maps with
 other grass-species maps.  Many clones were selected for mapping on the
 basis of previous localization to chromosome by aneuploid analysis or
 mapping in other grass species.  Fourteen clones display pairs of
 segregating bands corresponding to homoeoloci on two of the three genomes,
 as does a tobacco ATPase clone.  Linkage distances within sets of such loci
 are comparable across genomes.  About 30 of the clones have been previously
 mapped in barley, rice, or T. tauschii and the orders and linkages in those
 maps are consistent with those in ours, except in the relatively expandedT.
 tauschii map.  Comparison of our group-3 map with current maps of diploid
 oat (O'Donoughue et al., 1992), hexaploid oat (O Donoughue et al., in
 preparation), and maize (Ahn et al.., 1993) shows much rearrangement of
 chromosome segments among species.
 
                         Publications
 
  Ahn, S. J.A. Anderson, M.E. Sorrells, and S.D. Tanksley. 1993 Homoeologous
 relationships of rice, wheat, and maize chromosomes. Mol. Gen. Genet. in
 press.
 
 Heun M, Kennedy AE, Anderson JA, Lapitan NLV, Sorrells ME, Tanksley SD
 (1991)  Construction of restriction fragment length polymorphism map for
 barley (Hordeum vulgare). Genome 34:437-447
 
 O'Donoughue LS, Wang Z, Roder M, Kneen B, Leggett M, Sorrells ME and
 Tanksley SD (1992) An RFLP-based map of oats on a cross between two diploid
 taxa (Avena atlantica x A. hirtula). Genome 35:765-771
 
 Tanksley SD, Causse, Fulton T, Ahn N, Wang Z, Wu K, Xiao J, Ronald Z, Yu Z,
 Second G, and McCouch S (1992) A high density molecular map of the rice
 genome.  Rice Genetics Newsletter 9: 111-115
 
 Ahn, S., J.A. Anderson, M.E. Sorrells, and S.D. Tanksley. 1993 Homoeologous
 relationships of rice, wheat, and maize chromosomes. Mol. Gen. Genet. in
 press.
 
 Anderson, J.A., G.A. Churchill, J.E. Autrique, S.D. Tanksley, and M.E.
 Sorrells. 1993. Optimizing parental selection for genetic linkage maps. 
 Genome. 31:181-186.
 
 Anderson, J.A., M.E. Sorrells, and S.D. Tanksley. 1993. Detection of QTLs
 affecting pre-harvest sprouting resistance in wheat by RFLPs. Crop Sci.
 33:453-459.
 
 Beer, S.C., J. Goffreda, T.D. Phillips, and M.E. Sorrells. 1993. Assessment
 of genetic variation in Avena sterilis using morphological traits, isozymes,
 and RFLPs.  Crop Sci. 33:1386-1393.
 
 Kleinhofs, A., A. Kilian, M.A. Saghai Maroof, R.M. Biyashev, P. Hayes, F.Q.
 Chen, N. Lapitan, A. Fenwick, T.K. Blake, V. Kanazin, E. Ananiev, L.
 Dahleen, D. Kudrna, J. Bollinger, S.J. Knapp, B. Liu, M. Sorrells, M. Heun,
 J.D. Franckowiak, D. Hoffman, R. Skadsen, B.J. Steffenson. 1993. A
 molecular, isozyme and morphological map of the barley (Hordeum vulgare)
 genome. Theor. Appl. Genet. 86:705-712.
 
 Ma, Z.Q., B.S. Gill, M.E. Sorrells, and S. D. Tanksley. 1993. RFLP markers
 linked to two Hessian fly-resistance genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
 from Triticum tauschii (coss.) Schmal. Theor. Appl. Genet. 85:750-754.
 
 Roder, Marion S., Nora L. V. Lapitan, Mark E. Sorrells and Steven D.
 Tanksley. 1993. Genetic and physical mapping of barley telomeres  Mol. Gen.
 Genet. 238:294-303.
 
 Rogowsky, P.M., M.E. Sorrells, K.W. Shepard, and P. Langridge. 1993.
 Characterization of wheat-rye recombinants with RFLP and PCR probes. Theor.
 Appl Genet. 85:1023-1028.
 
 -------------------------
     Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca
 
     G. C. Bergstrom*, J. E. Carroll, S. M. Gray (USDA-ARS), D. W. Kalb,
 and A. M. C. Schilder
 
     Winter wheat pathology research:  A polyclonal antiserum produced
 against a New York isolate of wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV)
 detected WSSMV in plant tissues from throughout North America. It also
 reacted with isolates of WSSMV, wheat yellow mosaic virus, and barley yellow
 mosaic virus from Europe and Asia. It did not react with isolates of barley
 mild mosaic virus, soilborne wheat mosaic virus, or wheat streak mosaic
 virus. Data from a 1992-93 field study in Ithaca, NY indicated that WSSMV
 infection of winter wheat plants occurred during a long period in autumn and
 that virus replicated during winter leading to maximum virus incidence in
 May. It was suggested that acquisition  of the virus by its vector, Polymyxa
 graminis, and secondary spread begins within a month after sowing and
 continues throughout the crop cycle. This experiment is being repeated in
 1993-94.
 Nontoxic bicarbonates were evaluated as alternatives to synthetic fungicides
 for winter wheat disease control. Two applications of Church and Dwight
 2126-17A (115 to 230 fl oz per acre) suppressed significantly development of
 powdery mildew, but not of leaf rust, on flag leaves of winter wheat under
 natural epiphytotics.
 
     A survey (in cooperation with Gustafson Inc.) of randomly collected
 seedlots of soft red winter wheat, produced in midwestern states in 1993,
 revealed the presence of seedborne pathogens in nearly every lot. On
 average, more than 7% and 10% of individual seeds were infected by
 Stagonospora nodorum and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, respectively. A major
 portion of our research effort is now focused on elucidating the role of
 seedborne inocula in the epidemiology of Septoria nodorum blotch and tan
 spot.
                         Publications
 
 Bergstrom, G. C. 1993. Scab (Fusarium Head Blight). Pages 83-93 in: Seed-
 borne Diseases and Seed Health Testing of Wheat, ed. S. B. Mathur and B. M.
 Cunfer. Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing
 Countries. Copenhagen. 168 pp.
 
 Bergstrom, G. C. and S. M. Gray. 1993. Effect of imidacloprid seed treatment
 on yellow dwarf epidemiology in winter wheat in New York, 1991-92. Fungicide
 and Nematicide Tests 48:313.
 
 Bergstrom, G. C., D. W. Kalb, W. J. Cox, and D. Otis. 1993. Evaluation of
 fungicides and bicarbonate for control of foliar diseases on winter wheat in
 New York,1992. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 48:224.
 
 Bergstrom, G. C., D. W. Kalb, W. J. Cox, and D. Otis. 1994. Evaluation of
 fungicides and bicarbonate for control of foliar diseases of winter wheat in
 New York,1993. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 49:in press.
 
 Bergstrom, G. C. M. E. Sorrells, and T. S. Cox. 1993. Resistance of winter
 wheat cultivars and breeding lines to wheat spindle streak mosaic virus
 under natural infection in New York, 1992. Biological and Cultural Tests for
 Control of Plant Diseases 8:94.
 
 Bergstrom, G. C. M. E. Sorrells, and T. S. Cox. 1994.  Resistance of winter
 wheat cultivars and breeding lines to wheat spindle streak mosaic virus
 under natural infection in New York, 1993. Biological and Cultural Tests for
 Control of Plant Diseases 9:in press.
 
 Carroll, J. E., G. C. Bergstrom, and S. M. Gray. 1993.  Temporal aspects of
 winter wheat infection by wheat spindle streak mosaic virus in New York,
 USA. Pages 79-82 in: Proc. Second International Working Group on Plant
 Viruses with Fungal Vectors, ed. C. Hiruki. Montreal. 156 pp.
 
 Carroll, J. E., G. C. Bergstrom, and S. M. Gray. 1993. Antiserum to New York
 isolate of wheat spindle streak mosaic virus detects geographically diverse
 baymoviruses. Phytopathology 83:1355.
 
 Kalb, D. W., G. C. Bergstrom, and W. J. Cox. 1993. Effect of seed treatments
 on foliar diseases and yield of winter wheat in New York, 1992. Fungicide
 and Nematicide Tests 48:327.
 
 Kalb, D. W., G. C. Bergstrom, and W. J. Cox. 1994. Effect of seed treatment
 on powdery mildew and yield of winter wheat in New York, 1993. Fungicide and
 Nematicide Tests 49:in press.
 
 Kalb, D. W., G. C. Bergstrom, and M. E. Sorrells. 1994. Effects of seed
 treatment on common bunt of winter wheat in New York,1993. Fungicide and
 Nematicide Tests 49: in press.
 
 Peever, T. L., A. Brants, G. C. Bergstrom, and M. M. Milgroom. 1994.
 Selection for decreased sensitivity to propiconazole in experimental field
 populations of Stagonospora nodorum. Can. J. Plant Pathol.:in press.
 
 Schilder, A. M. C. and G. C. Bergstrom. 1994. Infection of wheat seed by
 Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Can. J. Bot. : in press.
 
 Schilder, A. M. C. and G. C. Bergstrom. 1994. Pyrenophora tritici- repentis
 as a component of the fungal flora of soft white winter wheat seed in New
 York. Seed Sci. Tech.:in press.
 
 Schilder, A. M. C. and G. C. Bergstrom. 1993. Tan Spot. Pages 113-122 in:
 Seed-borne Diseases and Seed Health Testing of Wheat, ed. S. B. Mathur and
 B. M. Cunfer. Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing
 Countries. Copenhagen. 168 pp.
 
 Shah, D. and G. C. Bergstrom. 1993. Assessment of seedborne Stagonospora
 nodorum in New York soft white winter wheat. Plant Dis. 77:468-471.
 
 -------------------------
                         NORTH DAKOTA
   
     Crop and Weed Sciences Dept., North Dakota State University, Fargo
 
     J.A. Anderson*, C.R. Riede*
 
     Hard Red Winter Wheat Breeding Project  Approximately 150,000 acres
 were planted to hard red winter wheat in North Dakota in the fall of 1992. 
 Average yield of the 1993 crop was estimated at 33 bu/a, compared to 35 bu/a
 in 1992.  The 1993 growing season was extremely wet statewide, with many
 regions receiving more than twice the normal precipitation from May through
 July.  This contributed to severe outbreaks of leaf and head diseases
 (predominantly Septoria nodorum, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, and Fusarium
 graminearum).  'Roughrider' was grown on about 56% of the acreage; 'Seward',
 24%; and 'Agassiz', 10%.  Two hundred ninety nine crosses were made during
 the 1992-1993 greenhouse season.  Matings were mostly between elite
 winterhardy lines and high yielding, rust-resistant lines from the Central
 Great Plains.  A preliminary yield trial at two locations and an advanced
 yield trial at four locations were used to evaluate 130 and 36 lines,
 respectively.  The most advanced yield trial, the variety trial, was
 harvested at seven locations and contained eight ND lines and five
 cultivars.  Four of the ND lines were advanced to the 1994 variety trial.  A
 preliminary seed increase was initiated for ND8933 and ND8955.  In 20
 trials, ND8933 has yielded an average of 15.4% higher than Roughrider, and
 9.1% higher than Seward.  ND8955 yielded an average of 7.5% higher than
 Roughrider, and 1.5% higher than Seward.  Both have winterhardiness
 intermediate between Roughrider and Seward, stem rust resistance, moderate
 leaf rust resistance, and good quality. (J.A. Anderson)
 
     Tan Spot  Tan spot resistance is being analyzed in a population of
 recombinant inbred lines from the cross of the synthetic bread wheat W-7984
 (resistant) and Opata 85 (susceptible).  This population is also the subject
 of an extensive molecular mapping effort by International Triticeae Mapping
 Initiative investigators.  Markers explaining about 40% of the resistance in
 seedlings have been identified using markers mapped by researchers at
 Cornell University.  This population will be screened in the field for adult
 plant resistance to one or more isolates of the pathogen. (J.A. Anderson,
 J.D. Faris, L.J. Francl, J.G. Jordahl)
 
     Several potential sources of tan spot resistance reported in the AWN
 Vol. 39 and additional HRSW lines were evaluated as adults in the field. 
 Plants from four replications were inoculated with the Pti-2 isolate after
 emergence of the flag leaf.  Infection type (range of 1, resistant; to 5,
 susceptible) and percent of leaf area diseased were rated 10 days after
 inoculation.  Adult field reaction of genotypes did not always agree with
 greenhouse seedling evaluations, suggesting that different genes may govern
 tan spot resistance at the different growth stages.  Further  research is
 necessary to determine whether there are different genes responsible for the
 resistance present in these genotypes. (C.R. Riede, J.A. Anderson, L.J.
 Francl, J.G. Jordahl)
 
 Table 1. Reaction of field-grown Hard Red Spring Wheat genotypes and
 synthetic hexaploids that were rated as moderately resistant (infection type
 less than 3) after artificial inoculation with the Pti-2 isolate of P.
 tritici-repentis.
 
                 Infection  % Leaf Area   Growth Stage   
 Genotype Origin   Type      Diseased      (Zadoks)
  -------------------------------------------------------
 TRIGO BR 34   1    1.3       2.0       76.5
 IAPAR 42      2    1.5       3.2       72.0
 PF844007
 (synthetic)   1    1.5       2.9       70.0
 FO.2568       3    1.7       3.3       80.8
 CEP 17        4    1.8       3.4       78.8
 CEP 14        4    1.9       3.8       72.3
 PF844005
 (synthetic)   1    1.9       3.8       73.0
 IA 807        2.5  2.0       6.3       72.5
 Fontana       1    2.2       3.9       77.8
 CEP 11        4    2.3       5.9       80.3
 CEP 76146     4    2.4       6.4       78.5
 Erik          6    2.5       9.5       75.0
   (Resis. check)   
 PF84403
   (synthetic) 1    2.5       11.8      75.0
 FO.2683       3    2.6       5.3       80.3
 ND 678        3    2.6       7.3       80.8
 Mon'S'/MN
   72131       2.5  2.7       6.0       78.5
 CW 149        5    2.8       6.9       78.3
 W-7984
   (synthetic) 5    2.8       8.8       75.0
 IA 905        2.5  2.8       4.2       78.5
 IAS 63        1    2.8       6.8       79.5
 IAPAR 41      2    2.9       12.9      71.8
 BH1146        7    3.8       33.1      81.8
   (Mod.Res.check)            
 Columbus
   (Sus.check) 8    4.5       21.5      78.0
 ND 495
   (Sus.check) 3    5.0       71.5      82.3
 LSD (0.05)         1.0       16.11      5.1     
  -----------------------------------------------------                 
 1=EMBRAPA; 2=IAPAR; 3=NDSU; 4=FECOTRIGO; 5=CIMMYT; 6=AgriPro; 7=EPAMIG;
 8=Agriculture Canada.
 
     RFLP Markers for Aluminum Tolerance.  An RFLP marker has been
 identifi