A Database for Triticeae and Avena
UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, VIENNA
Department of Plant Breeding, Gregor Mendel Str. 33, A-1180
Selection for bread-making quality using
Heinrich Grausgruber, Adelheid E. Kreuzmayr, and Peter Ruckenbauer.
Breeding for wheats with a high performance in bread-making
quality has a long tradition in Austria. The acreage of quality
wheats is more than two-thirds of the acreage of wheat seed multiplication.
Selection for bread-making quality traditionally is based on
the Zeleny sedimentation volume, the protein content, and the
grain hardiness. We investigated several tests on a micro-scale
in regard to their effectiveness to separate quality, bread, and
A set of 34 wheat cultivars covering the whole range of quality
groups according to the Austrian quality classification scheme
of 1994 was investigated for protein content, wet gluten content,
sedimentation volume, HMW-glutenin subunit composition, dough
characteristics, and loaf volume. The dough characteristics (stickiness,
extensibility, resistance, and energy) were determined with a
Texture Analyzer TA.XT2 (Stable Micro Systems Ltd.) on 20 g of
dough. The volume of small bread loaves made from 50 g of dough
was determined with a Panasonic home bakery. This home bakery
was used only for fermentation and baking. Kneading of the dough
was carried out by a mixer, because the kneading of the home bakery
is too weak compared with Austrian baking procedures.
The dataset of 11 quality parameters per cultivar was subjected
to a discriminant analysis. The analysis revealed a highly significant
first canonical discriminant function. Dough characteristics
and the loaf volume showed the greatest contributions to discrimination.
Cultivars of foreign origin that are potential crossing partners
for agronomic characters also were evaluated by the microtests,
and their data along with the data of the Austrian cultivars were
subjected to a principal component analysis. The joint relationships
between wheat cultivars and quality traits were depicted by a
biplot. In that way, the quality characteristics of the potential
crossing partners were made comparable to the Austrian classification
scheme. Both statistical analyses revealed that the microtests
allow a reliable assessment of the bread-making quality of Austrian
Because the microtests are more laborious than a simple measurement
of the protein content by NIRS, they cannot be recommended as
selection tools in early generations when thousands of breeding
lines must be evaluated. However, the microtests are particularly
valuable for the evaluation of quality of advanced breeding lines
and/or genotypes of unknown quality characteristics, which are
intended to be used as crossing partners in the breeding program.
Thus, crosses between two genotypes with the same negative dough
and/or baking characteristics can be avoided, which is often not
the case if only indirect quality traits (protein content, sedimentation
volume, HMW-glutenin score) are used.