A Database for Triticeae and Avena
RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF CROP PRODUCTION - RICP
Drnovska 507, CZ-161 06 Prague 6 - Ruzyne, Czech Republic.
The collection of spring triticale was launched in the Czech
gene bank in the early 1990s, which means it was relatively early,
because up to now no spring triticale has been registered in the
Czech Republic. At present, our collection consists of 199 accessions,
which are regularly evaluated. The results of field experiments
are compared to spring wheat cultivar Sandra, one of the spring
wheat varieties registered in the country.
Growth and developmental phases and canopy characteristics
are evaluated in 4-m2 plots. Resistance to diseases is evaluated
under natural infection (powdery mildew) or under infection pressure
in an infection nursery (stem and glume rusts). Evaluation of
the most important yield components and grain yield estimation
are done after harvest. Analyses of variance is used to test differences
among the accessions and years.
Phenological characteristics. During the vegetative
periods in 1998 and 1999, numbers of days from the time of seedlings
emergence to the beginning of heading, flowering, and wax ripeness
were recorded (Table 1). No significant differences among cultivars
were found for any of the characters.
The cultivar Chacal was very early for all recorded traits
(51.0, 58.5, and 102.5 days, for beginning of heading, flowering,
and wax ripeness, respectively). On the other hand, the cultivar
Mostral was the latest (57.5, 64.0, and 108.0 days, respectively).
The check spring wheat cultivar Sandra had the shortest grain-filling
stage and relatively late heading but reached wax ripeness very
early. All stages were influenced by growing conditions of the
year (significant differences were noted between years).
Plant height and lodging. The plant heights of the triticale
cultivars ranged from 74.5 to 91.5 cm. The spring wheat Sandra
was the shortest accession (69.0 cm) in the set tested (Table
2). Owing to the influence of different growing (climatic) conditions
of the years, differences among the cultivars were not significant.
Suitable plant height provided resistance to lodging that was
very good and no scores lower than 8 on a 1-9 scale (9 = canopy
without any lodging) were recorded.
Diseases. Resistance to the rusts was tested in the
infection nursery by Dr. Bartos' group (Table 3). No significant
differences were found in spite of low resistance of the check
cultivar Sandra to stem rust. Triticale accessions had good resistance
to stem rust, ranging between 6.0 (Mostral) and 8.5 (10 triticale
Very high resistance was scored in the case of glume rust (8.5
and higher). Only the cultivars Daman, Moloc, and Riegel were
not fully resistant.
Response to powdery mildew was tested under normal field conditions.
Strong infection pressure was provided by appearance of the
disease on check wheat cultivar Sandra and other spring wheat
varieties in the same experimental field. Sandra had significantly
lower resistant to powdery mildew than all accessions of spring
triticale tested in the experiment. The high resistance of spring
triticale to powdery mildew is an important advantage.
Yield and 1000-kernel weight. Among yield components,
1,000-kernel weight plays an important role (Table 4). The spring
wheat Sandra had the lightest seeds (41.4 g) among tested accessions.
The seeds of Mizar were very similar in this character. Thirteen
cultivars formed the major group with 1,000-kernel weights between
45 and 50 grams. Tridoc, Mostral, Rigel, Catria, and Passi belonged
to the group at 50-54 grams. Kernels of AC Alta were exceptionally
large and heavy (58.3 g).
For grain yield, some triticale cultivars (Wanad, AC Alta,
Catria, Rigel, and Kissa) were above the check wheat cultivar
Sandra ( 5.21 t/ha), but others were less productive.
J. Bradová, J. Cerny *, and A. Sasek.
* Czech University of Agriculture, Praha, Czech Republic.
At present, the registration of a variety has become a part of
the purchase of wheat. The variety represents a guarantee of hereditary
traits and properties, including food and baking quality. Czech-registered
varieties of wheat
are divided according to technological properties into quality
grades E, A, B, and C. The grade E (elite) represents varieties
with very good baking quality. Good, varieties are usable alone
designated grade A, and supplementary varieties usable in mixtures
are grade B. Grade C includes varieties unsuitable for food purposes
This study was aimed at determining the effect of admixtures
of a supplementary (Siria) variety and a nonfood (Trane) wheat
on the quality of a food wheat of the elite grade (Brea). At the
same time, the suitability of gliadin and HMW-glutenin electrophoresis
for use as a control of varietal registration was investigated.
Experimental variants were based on electrophoretic analysis of
the varieties Siria, Trane, and Brea and mixtures of Brea with
Siria and Trane in different percentage ratios. To separate gliadins
and to set gliadin allelic blocks, the published procedures (Sasek
and Sykorová 1989) were used. Electrophoresis of HMW-glutenin
subunits by SDS-PAGE and setting of allelic glutenin blocks were
done according to the described methodologies (Laemmli 1970; Payne
at al. 1981). To judge the effects of admixtures on baking quality,
a sedimentation value was determined according to Axford and Zeleny.
Extensograph values were determined, and baking tests were performed.
The data obtained were statistically evaluated using the computer
program MS Excel (Table 5). A prerequisite for control of the
purity of individual wheat varieties using electrophoresis of
protein markers is specific for each registered wheat variety.
The sedimentation test indicated that 15 or 20 % of admixtures
(either Siria or Trane) decreased the sedimentation value of the
control variety Brea. The results of the extensographic assessment
(extensographic maximum and extensographic energy) and direct
baking trial (specific volume of baking and bulk productivity)
confirmed a significant decrease of baking quality after reaching
the 20 % limit of admixture of low-quality variety or the mixture
of low-quality varieties (Table 5).