A Database for Triticeae and Avena
AGRONOMIC RESEARCH STATION
Muhammad S. Cheema and Manzoor Hussain.
Area. The province of Punjab contributes a large share
of the area and production of wheat in Pakistan (Table 1). Production
is approximately 71-72 % of the total area of Pakistan sown to
wheat. Acreage under wheat in Punjab remained equal to that of
the previous year because of better canal water supplies at the
time of sowing, distribution of more credit to the wheat growers
through one-window opportunities, and a decrease in area in 1998-99.
The decrease was mainly due to a prolonged dry season from mid
October to the end of December that resulted in less planted wheat
in the barani rain-fed area of Punjab. This decrease was compensated
for by an increase in planting in the canal-irrigated area, but
the overall area sown to wheat in Pakistan decreased.
Production. Wheat production was 17.85 x 106 tons according
to the final estimates for the wheat crop in 1998-99. This amount
compares to 186.94 x 106 tons produced in the previous year; a
decrease of 4.71 %. Less use of fertilizer at sowing, especially
phosphatic fertilizers, because of availability; fog during December
and January that affected crop growth; and a prolonged dry spell
before and during wheat planting are some reasons for the decrease.
The following wheat cultivars were released for general cultivation
in the Punjab province of Pakistan in 1999:
Margala-99. Margala is recommended for the rain-fed
areas of the Punjab province. The pedigree is 'Opata/BPW 'S''
(CM83398-2M-OY-0M-5Y-0M). Yield and performance are listed in
Oqab-99. This cultivar is recommended for the irrigated
areas of the Punjab province. Oqab-99 performed very well in normal
and late sowing. The pedigree is 'Crow 'S'/NAC//Bow 'S'' (Pb22138-3A-0A-0A-231A-0A).
See Table 2 for the yield and performance of this cultivar. Oqab-99
scored 10 MR-MS to leaf rust in 1997-98 and 5 MR-MS and 30 MR-MS
to yellow rust in 1997-98 and 1998-99, respectively. The check
Pak-81 rated 80 S and 60 S to leaf rust and 60 S and 100 S to
yellow rust in 1997-98 and 1998-99, respectively.
Iqbal-99. Iqbal-99 is recommended for medium to late
planting in the irrigated areas of the Punjab province. The pedigree
of Iqbal-99 is 'Burgus/Sort 12-13//KAL/BB/3/Pak-81' (Pb21912-11A-0A-0A-59A-0A-0A).
Yield and performance are listed in Table 2. Iqbal-99 was rated
at 20 MR-MS and 10 R-MR to leaf rust and 10 R and 20 MS to yellow
rust in 1997-98 and 1998-99, respectively. Genetic analysis indicated
that Iqbal-99 has the genes Lr3 and Lr26.
REGIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
Model Town-A, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
S.Z. Siddiqi, M. Ahmad, L. H. Akhtar, M. Hussain, A. Rashid,
G. Hussain, M. Safdar, and M.M. Akhtar.
Wheat is the most important staple food of the Pakistanis.
Pakistan is an agricultural country with 130.58 x 10^7^ people,
and the population is increasing very rapidly. Among the four
provinces of Pakistan, Punjab has the highest population of 72.585
x 10^7^ (354 people/km2). Approximately 69.7 % of the people live
in rural areas that directly or indirectly are engaged in agriculture.
The growth rate of the population is 3.1 % annually, and the government
is facing the challenge of feeding this population. The growth
rate of agricultural production is slower than the population
growth rate. The population for the years 2003, 2013, and 2023
are estimated to be as high as 168, 231, and 315 x 10^7^, respectively.
The food-grain requirement for these populations would be 27,
37, and 51 million tons/year in 2003, 2013, and 2023, respectively.
A yield gap of 72 % has been reported between the potential (6.4
tons/ha) and the average yield of wheat (1.8 tons/ha) in Pakistan.
Area, production, and wheat yields. Pakistan is the
7th largest wheat producer, accounting for 2.73 % of the world's
wheat production from an area of 3.57 % of the world. Punjab is
the main wheat producer in Pakistan. During 1998-99, total wheat
production in Pakistan was 17,853.7 tons, and 74.0 % of the total
or 13,212 tons were produced in Punjab on a total of 72.1 % or
5,934.6 ha of the total national wheat-growing area (8,229.9 ha).
The average yield in Punjab (2,226 kg/ha) is 2.77 % higher than
the Pakistan average (2,166 kg/ha). The irrigated area of Punjab
(5,205.8 ha) produces 12,589.7 tons of wheat, and in the unirrigated
area (728.8 ha) produces 1,217.3 tons. The average yield in irrigated
areas is 2,418 kg/ha or 44.79 % higher than the 1,617 kg/ha yield
in unirrigated areas.
Over the last 13 years, the area under wheat in Punjab has
expanded up to 15.8 % or 7.118 x 10^6^ ha in the irrigated areas,
whereas the area in production in the rain-fed zones has declined
14.2 % or 1.202 x 10^6^ ha. Food grains (wheat, rice, millets,
maize, and barley) occupy about 54 % (12.554 x 103 ha) of the
total (23.040 x 10^3^ ha) cropped area of Pakistan. The share
of wheat in Rabi crops comes to 73 %, compared to 7 % for pulses
and 20 % for other crops in Pakistan. In the wheat-producing areas
of the Punjab, cotton-wheat and rice-wheat rotations are mainly
followed. A maize-wheat rotation also is important in central
Two wheat crossing blocks consisting of 350 entries each are
maintained at the institute for use of the wheat-breeding program.
Three nurseries were received from CIMMYT (109 entries in total)
during 1998-99 from which 27 lines were selected for yield trials
during 1999-2000. About 462 crosses were attempted; 611 F1 and
365 F2 entries were harvested for the F2 and F3 generations. Out
of 1,931 entries in the F3 to F7, 137 lines were selected for
yield trials during 1999-2000.
Station wheat yield trials (A Trials). About 176 promising
bread wheat lines along with commercial checks were tested in
11 preliminary yield trials (six normal and five of short duration).
Each trial consisted of 14 lines and two checks. In all these
trials, most of the new strains significantly outyielded their
Regular yield trials (B Trials). Sixty-six promising
wheat lines along with commercial checks were tested in seven
regular yield trials (three normal and four of short duration).
Each trial consisted of eight lines and two checks. Many of the
new lines had higher yields than the checks.
Advanced yield trials (C Trials). Twenty promising wheat
lines were evaluated in two advanced yield trials (one normal
and one of short duration) and compared with the checks. Each
trial consisted of 10 new strains and two checks. The performance
of a few of the strains and checks is in Table 1.
During 1999, the Experts Sub-Committee gave their final approval
for general cultivation, and some newly developed wheat varieties
were recommended by the Punjab Seed Council, including RARI-2000,
Bahawal-2000, Eagle-99, and Iqbal-99.
RARI-2000. This line was selected from an early maturing
screening nursery received from CIMMYT (Mexico) during 1984-85
and given the number V-7061. This line was tested and evaluated
in various yield trials at different locations in preliminary
and advanced yield trials (1985-88), the Micro Wheat Yield Trials
(1988-89), and National Uniform Wheat Yield Trials (1989-90 to
1993-94). V-7061 had 8.12 % and 21.5 % higher grain yields compared
to the check Faisalabad-85 in both the Micro and National Wheat
Trials, respectively. Production technology also was developed.
The yield potential of V-7061 is 5,000 kg/ha. This genotype is
being considered for general cultivation for medium to late planting
for the southern Punjab under the name of RARI-2000. Derived from
Aurora, a Russian line, RARI-2000 has the pedigree of 'AU/UP301//GLL/Sx/3/PEW'S'/4/MAT'S'/MAYA'S'//PEW'S'
(CM.67245-C-2M-OY). The variety is 100 cm tall and awned, with
hard and white-amber grain, a 1.000-kernel weight of 40 g, and
a test weight of 79 kg/ha. RARI-2000 is lodging resistant and
has better yield, quality, and resistance to disease than the
Bahawal-2000. Bahawal-2000 is a local cross between
Punjab-85 and Neelkant (NKT) attempted in 1990-91, and the pedigree
is BR2194-12B-OB. The F1, F2, and F3 were raised between 1991-94.
Seed was bulked in the F3 and given the code number V-2707. The
bulk was tested in preliminary and advanced yield trials during
1994-95 and 1995-96 and in the Micro Wheat Yield Trials during
1996-97. V-2707 yielded 3.36 and 1.29 % higher than the checks
Inqlab-91 and Parwaz-94, respectively. During 1997-98 and 1998-99,
V-2707 was evaluated throughout Pakistan in the National Uniform
Wheat Yield Trials, where it yielded 6.54 % higher than Inqlab-91
and 16.6 % higher than the local check and ranked second on the
basis of 26 locations. Advantages over those of checks include
NKT parentage, more productive tillers per unit area, resistance
to rusts, and better chapati-making quality. V-2707 is being recommended
for general cultivation for medium duration in southern Punjab
under the name Bahawal-2000. The variety is 90-cm tall and is
lodging resistant. Bahawal-2000 has a 1,000-kernel weight of 41.7
g and a test weight of 75.3 kg/ha and is resistant to all foliar
diseases. The yield potential of Bahawal-2000 is 6,833 kg/ha.
Muhammad Saleem and Abdur Rashid.
Insect infestations of wheat have not been of serious concern
in the past. Unfortunately, wheat has suffered from regular infestations
of H. armigera during the last 2 years. The larvae seriously
injure the developing seeds during March and April. One caterpillar
is estimated to eat 2-4 grains in 24 hours. Therefore, studies
were conducted at the Regional Agricultural Research Institute,
Bahawalpur, to elucidate the effects of H. armigera infestation
on wheat grain yield during 1997-98. Eight wheat strains/varieties
(Parwaz-94, Shahkar-95, Punjab-96, Bahawalpur-97, V-7506, V-7394,
V07398, and V-7061) were sown in two trials (protected and unprotected).
Chlorpyrefos at 2 l/ha was sprayed on the protected trial during
the first and third weeks of March to control the H. armigera
population. A randomized complete block design with three replications
was used. Caterpillar infestation was recorded on both trials
at 10-day intervals from March to the second week of April by
selecting 30 tillers from each plot at random. At maturity, the
yield data were taken, and percent loss were calculated. Data
were analyzed statistically. The means were compared by Duncan's
multiple range test and are given in Table 2. The results revealed
significant differences among wheat varieties/strains for H. armigera
infestation. Maximum infestation was found in Shahkar-95, followed
by Punjab-96, V-7394, V-7061, and V-7398. The variety V-7506 was
the least infested. On average, a single caterpillar per tiller
caused a 13.98 % loss in grain yield.