A Database for Triticeae and Avena
PRIMORSKEY RESEARCH INSTITITE OF AGRICULTUREp
Institute of Complex Analysis of Regional Problems, Karl
Marx str. 1054, kr. 167, Khabarovsk, 680009, Russian Federation.
One of the main tasks of selection is combining yield capacity,
quality, and resistance to biotic and abiotic factors in one cultivar.
During selection, properties such as yield and quality are controlled
to a greater degree, but those of plasticity and stability to
a lesser degree.
In the final stage of selection, cultivars with the best productivity
are selected. Nevertheless, their positive properties may not
be manifested in state or comparative strain testing stations
despite their selection process over several years (Abakumanko
1992). Underestimation of ecological plasticity and stability
when studying cultivars may be an explanation.
Although practical selection does not have special methods
for the creation of ecologically stable and plastic
varieties (Kadyrov et al. 1984), a variety must satisfy the following
parameters: possess a high yield potential and be plastic and
stable under different growing conditions.
In our present work, we evaluated spring wheat cultivars for
ecological plasticity under the environmental conditions in the
Primorskey region. Eighteen cultivars were studied each year.
The experiments were planted in an area of 10 m2 for four seasons.
Primorskaya 21 was used as the check cultivar. The best six cultivars
were selected as a result of the trial (Table 1).
The method of Eberhard and Russel, interpreted by Pakudin (l973),
was used to evaluate ecological plasticity and stability of the
selected cutivars. According to the method, ecological plasticity
is assessed by two mathematical indices, the regression coefficient
(hi) and the average quadratic departure from the regression line
(Sd2). Cultivars with a bi > 1 and an Sd2 > 0 grow well
and have stable yields under the conditions in the Primorskey
area. Cultivars that have high bi and Sd2 indices react readily
to changes in the environment and possess considerable variability.
Cultivars with a bi < 1 and an Sd2 near 0 react weakly to changes
in growing conditions and are characterized by high yield stabilities.
The results divided the cultivars into three groups (Table
2): highly plastic and stable (Primorskaya 2798 and Primorskaya
2802), little reaction to improvements in growing conditions but
possessing considerable variability (Primorskaya 2803 and Primorskaya
2804), and highly plastic but possessing considerable variability
(Primorskaya 2797 and especially Primorskaya 2801).
The check cultivar Primorskaya 21 is grown extensively and
has a more stable productivity. The selected cultivars were used
as initial material in spring wheat selections, and Primorskaya
2802, the best in yield, plasticity, and stability, is being transferred
to the state for strain testing.
RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE
IN CENTRAL REGION NONCHERNOZEM ZONE
143026 Nemchinovka-1, Moscow region, Russian Federation.
I.F. Lapochkina, E.V. Vlasova, and G.L. Yatchevskaya.
Translocation, addition, substitution, and recombinant lines
of the common wheat cultivar Rodina and Ae. speltoides
were crossed with rye for selection of genotypes with Ae. speltoides
genes for homoeologous pairing.
We established that F1 plants (Rodina/rye) had a different
frequency of chiasma formation per PMC in meiosis depending on
the genotype of the line. We usually observed asynapsis of chromosomes,
but some genotypes had frequencies of chiasma formation from 3.5
to 6.1 per cell. These levels of pairing were classified as medium
and high. The winter recombinant line 179/98w was selected from
50 tested stocks as a high-pairing type (see Table 1).
We observed an increase in the frequency of both bivalents
(average of 3.3-4.3 II) and trivalents and quadrivalents per cell
in this genotype. The frequency of chiasma formation was 6.12
± 0.21. The results indicate that the level of homoeologous
pairing of this line is lower than that of the ph1b mutant
but more than that of the ph2a mutant. Taking into account
the useful properties of 179/98w line, such as winter hardiness
in the middle climatic zone of Russia, productivity of the main
spike (1.6 g), and 100-kernel weight (5 g), we recommended it
as an alternative to the ph1b mutant.
The line has morphological markers from Ae. speltoides
that include waxlessness, reddish-brown spikes, and stem anthocyanin
and also has a 7A/7S chromosome substitution.
We propose that genes promoting homoeologous pairing are located
on chromosome 7S of Ae. speltoides. However, further research
is required to confirm this hypothesis.
RUSSIAN UNIVERSITY OF PEOPLES'
ul. Miklukho-Maklaya 6, Moskow, 117918, Russian Federation.
The length of the vegetative period of a plant determines its
resistance against unfavorable conditions, diseases, and pests
and affects harvest and quality. However, the ontogenetic factors
that determine the length of the vegetative period remain unclear.
Some authors (Pugsley 1971; Merezhko and Andriash 1987) still
support the theory of phase development proposed by Lysenko in
1936 (Lysenko 1952), in which the length of the vegetative period
is determined by the length and conditions of vernalization. This
theory has been shown to be erroneous (Fedorov 1968, 1996; Gupalo
and Skripchinskii 1971). Plants of any development type can bear
fruit without vernalization. When sown in the spring, spring and
alternate-type varieties produce seed without vernalization, and
winter types form spikes under intense illumination (Fedorov 1968;
The length of the vegetative period does not depend on the
duration of vernalization. If winter and alternate-type varieties
are planted in the autumn, vernalization ends by the start of
winter. These plants are not vernalized in the spring, and their
development during the spring-summer period determines the length
of the vegetative period. All this suggests that the length of
the vegetative period cannot be determined by vernalization. Our
task was to study the specific ontogenetic features that determine
the type of development, length of the vegetative period, and
role of vernalization.
Studies were made on crop, fodder, and vegetable plants that
differed in the type of development and length of vegetative period.
Both unvernalized and vernalized plants, cooled at 0±3°C
during germination or as green plants, were grown. Five light
regimes included natural day, 17-hour day, short (12 h) day, continuous
illumination, and complete darkness. A new, highly efficient,
light device (Fedorov et al. 1986; Fedorov 1989) was used, which
consisted of MGL (DRI2000-6) metal halide lamps with a reflecting
mirror film. The amount of electrical energy (kwt/h/m image space)
used for plant growth from germination through the transition
to phase IV of organogenesis, i.e., formation of rudimentary spike,
was measured. In addition to the standard phenological observations,
differentiation of the growth cone on sprouts was monitored. The
length of time from germination to phase IV of organogenesis determined
the vegetative period and adaption of the plant to unfavorable
conditions. During tillering, when the growth cone is at phase
II of organogenesis, the plant is capable of resisting cold weather.
Therefore, wintering (winter-type and alternate) plants, unlike
spring-type plants, are capable of delayed growth and development
and transition to the generative phase. After the transition to
phase IV of organogenesis, plants of all types lose their capacity
to develop resistance to cold weather.
When grown in artificial light, wheat and triticale plants
germinated from unvernalized seeds differed markedly in the length
of time from germination to phase IV of organogenesis (Table 1).
This period was longest in the winter-types, shorter in the alternate-types,
and shortest in spring-types. After vernalization of seeds, this
period was sharply reduced and was similar in plants of all plant
types. A similar pattern was observed when the periods from germination
to spike formation or maturation were compared.
The greatest amount of electrical energy was required for growing
unvernalized winter-type plants, less energy was required for
the alternate types, and still less for spring types. The longer
the period from germination to phase IV, the more electrical energy
was required. If the light conditions were poor (shorter period
of illumination or less intense illumination), the plants grew
for a longer period, i.e., they required more time to satisfy
their light requirements.
The light requirement was reduced sharply after vernalization,
and the expenditure of electrical energy for plant growth decreased.
The more electrical energy needed to grow unvernalized plants,
the greater the reduction after vernalization. Unvernalized winter
types required the greatest amount of electrical energy, and the
amount of energy saved after vernalization was higher. After vernalization,
plants of different types required similar amounts of electrical
energy for growth.
Cooling sharply reduced the expenditure of electrical energy
during the period from germination to phase IV of organogenesis.
The same pattern was observed when the time of transition to a
later phase was determined. In one experiment, unvernalized plants
of Mironovskaya 808 required 1,887 kwt/h from germination to spike
formation, whereas vernalized plants required 660 kwt/h.
The requirement for light in order to move to the generative
phase and form a rudimentary inflorescence was reduced markedly
under the influence of prolonged cooling (vernalization). We suggest
that the requirements of plants of different types are related
to the different degrees of development of the mechanism underlying
the movement of nutrients to the growth cone apex where spike
buds are formed. The less efficient this mechanism is, the greater
the delay in inflorescence formation. As a result of vernalization
(prolonged cooling), the supply of nutrients increases and less
light is required, so the expenditure of electric energy is less.
After vernalization, differences in the nutrient supply to the
growth-cone apex, which were observed previously in plants of
different types and with different lengths of vegetative periods,
level, determined the light energy expenditure necessary for transition
to phase IV of organogenesis. Preliminary treatment of plants
(seeds and root crops) makes it possible to reduce the amount
of electric energy necessary to grow plants and harvest crops.
Plants differing in development type and with vegetative periods
of different lengths differ in their reaction to light at the
vegetative phase and different amounts of light energy are required
for the transition of the sprout growth cones to formation of
rudimentary inflorescences. The more light that is required, the
longer will be the time needed to satisfy the light requirements,
the longer the vegetative development (tillering), the longer
the vegetative period, and the more strongly expressed winter
habit. As a result of vernalization, plants of all types are nearly
equal in their reaction to light and length of the vegetative
period, which approaches that of spring-type plants and provides
for normal development and timely maturity during the favorable
Two photoperiodic reactions occur in plants: one strongly expressed
reaction in unvernalized and one weakly expressed in vernalized
plants. The first type determines the length of the vegetative
period in spring-sown plants and the type of development. The
second type determines the same factors in autumn-sown plants.
Vernalization does not determine differences in the length of
the vegetative period and development, but rather development
is determined after vernalization.
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE
FOR SOUTH-EAST REGIONS - ARISER
410020 Toulaykov str., 7, Saratov, Russian Federation.
N.I. Komarov and N.S. Vassiltchouk.
ARISER was founded in 1910 at Saratov. The main task was, and
continues to be, reducing the influence of severe droughts on
field crops by developing both early ripening and drought-resistant
cultivars using water-preserving technologies. A scientific session
of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences will take place
on 5-7 July, 2000, in Saratov in honor of this occasion.
At present, ARISER is one of the leading research centers in
Russia for plant breeding, producing seed of farm crops, and developing
technologies for growing plants in arid regions. The Institute's
staff numbers 327 including 161 research workers. ARISER has four
experimental stations, an experimental engineering department,
and nine experimental farms in different zones of the Saratov
oblast (region). The Institute possesses 110,000 ha of arable
land for seed production of new cultivars and hybrids and development
of new technologies for growing plants.
The main areas of research are investigating the physiology,
biochemistry, and genetics of drought-, heat-, and frost-resistance
of cereal crops; developing biotechnological methods of plant
breeding; breeding of cereal and other crops resistant to abiotic-
and biotic stresses; developing soil-protective and resource-consuming
technologies for growing plants; improving livestock adapted to
the severe hot, dry summers and cold winter conditions of Volga
River and southeast regions of Russia; and creating new cultivars
of different crops using the achievements of modern genetics and
biotechnology. Among the list are cultivars of winter bread wheat,
winter rye, hard spring bread wheat, spring durum wheat, barley,
proso millet, maize, sorghum, Sudan grass, sorghum-Sudan grass
hybrids, sunflower, soybean, chick-pea, and alfalfa.
According to the Russian National Register of breeding achievements,
103 varieties and hybrids of field crops created by the plant
breeders at ARISER have been admitted for use in 2000. Overall,
the area sown in Russia occupied by cultivars created at the Institute
is about 12 million ha. Among the most popular varieties are winter
bread wheats (Saratovskaya 90, Victoria 95, Saratovskaya ostistaya,
Gubernia, Ershovskaya 10, and Smouglyanka); winter ryes (Saratovskaya
5, Saratovskaya 6, and Saratovskaya 7); hard spring bread wheats
(Saratovskaya 42, Saratovskaya 46, Saratovskaya 55, Saratovskaya
58, Saratovskaya 60, Saratovskaya 62, Saratovskaya 64, Saratovskaya
66, Albidum 29, Albidum 31, L-503, L-505, Dobrynya, Prokhorovka,
Belyanka, and Yugo-vostotchnaya 2; durum wheats (Krasnokkoutka
6, Krasnokkoutka 10, Saratovskaya 57, Saratovskaya 59, Saratovskaya
zolotistaya, Ludmila, Valentina, and Nick); barleys (Nutans 108,
Nutans 553, and Nutans 642); proso millets (Ilinovskoye, Saratovskoye
8, and Saratovskoye 10); sunflowers (Saratovsky 82, Saratovsky
85, Skorospely 87, Stepnoy 81, and Yubileyny 75); soybeans (Soyer
1, Soyer 3, Soyer 4, and Soyer 5); and chick-peas (Krasnokkoutsky
36, Krasnokkoutsky 123, Krasnokkoutsky 195, Yubileyny, and Zavolzhsky).
Cultivars created in past years possess resistance to both drought
and main pathogens and are adapted to favorable conditions.
Cost-consuming and water-preserving technologies for growing
of all these crops have been developed. Optimization and ecology
of field rotations are investigated. The scientific basis of maintaining
and reproducing soil fertility has been developed. These technologies
allow us to realize the genetic potential of new varieties and
stabilize seed production and will provide for secure agricultural
production under the dry conditions in the Saratov oblast and
in other arid regions of Russia.
The southeast region of the European part of Russia is the
most droughty agricultural area of the world. Here, spring durum
wheat is cultivated under nonirrigated conditions. The average
long-term precipitation for the spring durum wheat vegetation
period in this area is only 130 mm, and in some years (e.g., 1972,
1984, 1995, 1998, and 1999) only 46-82 mm of rainfall fell. At
flowering, pressure from meteorological factors grows sharply;
available soil moisture content in the upper 100 cm is reduced
to a critical level of 25-50 mm, and lack of air moisture exceeds
a critical level at 20-40 mb. These conditions indicate a severe
drought in which crops do not yield stably, but provide natural
conditions for evaluating and selecting genotypes with very high
drought resistance and good grain quality.
Our data demonstrate that the average productivity of new durum
wheat varieties released over the past decade increased 9.3 hkg/ha
compared with the period 1920-29, when the first variety Hordeiforme
432 was released (Table 1). If this total increase is set at 100
%, the yield increase achieved from Hordeiforme 432 over the 70-year
period was 4.3 hkg/ha or 46 % of total 9.3 hkg/ha increase. Increases
in yield of newly released varieties in comparison with Hordeiforme
432 for the period 1990-99 reached 5.0 hkg/ha or 54 % of total
9.3 hkg/ha, and those increases were due to plant breeding. Thus,
in 70 years, the gain in durum wheat yields from ARISER-derived
cultivars due to plant breeding was 0.77 % annually. If the tendency
of the climate is to change toward greater dryness, the contribution
of plant breeding to increasing the yield of spring durum wheat
Despite the complexity of the task, which was difficult to
solve in connection with the global climate change, we have gradually
managed to increase the yield ability of durum wheat by creating
both early and drought-resistant varieties. Under conditions of
the most severe droughts in 1995 and 1998, new cultivars gave
a much increased grain yield in comparison with the first selection
Hordeiforme 432 (Table 2).
We determined that productivity increases of the new durum
wheat varieties are mainly due to increases in the 1,000-kernel
weight to 39.1-44.8 g from 33.4 g in Hordeiforme 432 and changes
in the ratio of grain to straw weight for the benefit of TKW (the
harvest index of new varieties was 37.6-39.4 % compared to 33.7
% for Hordeiforme 432). Increasing the number of grains/spike
by increasing the number of spikelets (except in Saratovskaya
57 and Nick) of by increasing the number of grains/spikelet is
impossible.kaya 57, head compactness was decreased significantly:
from 24.3 spikelets per 10 cm of rachis length for Hordeiforme
432 to 22.9 for Saratovskaya 59, 22.4 for Ludmila, 22.2 for Nick,
21.7 for Valentina, and 20.7 spikelets per 10 cm of rachis length
for Saratovskaya zolotistaya. Step by step, we have managed to
improve grain quality. The yellow pigment contents in grain and
gluten strength of newly developed varieties Nick and Zolotaya
volna are equal to those of the best variety Saratovskaya zolotistaya.
O.V. Subcova, R.G. Saifullin, L.G. Ilyina, A.I. Kusmenko, M.L.
Vedeneeva, V.A. Danilova, and T.K. Sotova.
In the hot, dry conditions of 1999, hard spring bread wheat
was affected by several pests: Eurygaster integriceps,
A. austiaca Urbst, M. destructor, Oseinosoma
fritf., and Locusta migratoria. Stem and grain damages
were 0.02 % and 14 %, respectively. Fungal diseases caused a much
lower degree of infection (loose smut, powdery mildew, and leaf
The two cultivars Saratovskaya 68 and Saratovskaya 70 were
resistant to both pest and fungal diseases. The cultivars Saratovskaya
58 and Lutescens 62 are moderately susceptible to leaf rust, but
Saratovskaya 70, with Lr23, is resistant (Table 3).
S.N. Sibikeev and Yu.E. Sibikeeva.
The leaf rust epidemic during the 1999 growing season was evaluated
weekly. Infection types were noted on NILs of Thatcher with different
Lr genes and the lines Agro 139 (LrAgi), Agro 58 (LrAgi2),
L 1732 (LrAgi3), L 503 (Lr19), and Indis (Lr19
+ (Lr13 + Lr17)?). Of the 36 lines with Lr genes,
five lines (Lr9, Lr23, Lr24, Lr34,
and Lr27 + Lr31) had ITs = 0. Surprisingly, the
IT of lines with Lr34 and Lr27 + Lr31 was
0. In previous years, these genes had ITs = 3. An IT = 11+ was
observed for lines with Lr16, Lr17, Lr21,
Lr22a, Lr27, and Lr44. Lines with Lr13,
Lr14a, Lr14b, Lr18, and Lr29 had ITs
= 3-. The IT of plants with genes derived from Agropyron
species, e.g., genes Lr19, LrAgi, LrAgi2,
and LrAgi3 and the combination of genes in Indis (Lr19
+ (Lr13 + Lr17)?) was 3. Thus, the leaf rust population
of 1999 was evaluated as highly virulent.
S.N. Siblkeev and S.A. Voronina.
Resistance to leaf rust and powdery mildew was studied in bread
wheat-alien lines produced by wide crosses with the following
species: A. elongatum (2n = 70, k-43562), Ae. umbellulata
(k-1588), and T. turgidum subsp. dicoccoides (k26118).
For each wide hybrid combination, we obtained a set of lines that
differed from each other by resistance to the leaf rust and powdery
mildew fungi and virus diseases (in the case of wheat-A. elongatum
lines). Resistance was determined by inoculation in a greenhouse
(1998-99 winter season) and under natural infection in the field
Among 72 wheat-A. elongatum lines, 12 were resistant
to leaf rust and powdery mildew, 22 to leaf rust, 24 to powdery
mildew, and 25 to a complex virus diseases. Among 23 wheat-Ae.
umbellulata lines, two lines were resistant to leaf rust and
powdery mildew and six to powdery mildew only. The bread wheat-wild
emmer hybrids had lines with high resistance to powdery mildew.
This resistance was transfered recently to durum wheat. Previous
results show that the resistance was determined by two dominant
A.E. Druzhin and V.A. Krupnov.
We analyzed the natural infections of loose smut on spring
bread wheat from the Saratov population in the Volga region for
the period between 1907-99. Interestingly, infections were reduced
sharply in seasons when the average air temperature was not lower
than 23-24°C and the maximum was 34-39°C, the variation
in relative humidity was 50 to 30 %, and no precipitation was
recorded during flowering. These conditions occur approximately
once every 6 years. During 50 years of observations for susceptibility
to loose smut in the spring bread wheat cultivar Lutescens 62,
an open-flowering cultivar, no infections occurred in the years
1932, 1939, 1951, 1957, 1961, l966, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1988, 1996,
and 1999. In cultivars with closed-flowering such as the highly
resistant Saratovskaya 29, sharp fluctuations did not affect disease
resistance. The maximum infection in this cultivar in years favorable
for the pathogen was 0.07%. However, with no seed treatment, the
infection in Lutescens 62 was 7 % or greater. The combination
of genes for resistance to loose smut and those for flowering
is very important for breeding wheats resistant to loose smut.
A.E. Alexandrov and V.A. Krupnov.
We studied the reaction of two cultivars and four pairs of
NILs, differing in their resistance to leaf rust, in a natural
infection of powdery mildew (Table 4). The highest level of infection
was observed in 1999; the lowest in 1997.
In all four pairs, the Lr sibs, possessing Lr genes, showed
a higher resistance to powdery mildew than lr sibs without them.
Moreover, in two pairs, this advantage was essential. Lutescens
62 (St) the first Saratov-bred cultivar of the Agricultural Research
Institute of South-East Regions, had the highest rate of disease
severity. As Table 4 shows, modern cultivars Saratovskaya 58 and
L 400 (Lr) sibs (Belyanka) are characterized by moderate susceptibility
to powdery mildew and a higher level of resistance to this disease,
The level of significance P = 0.5.
During the 3 years 1997-99, the productivity of durum wheat
cultivars and lines differing for spike and leaf colors was studied
in the field. The year 1997 was favorable for growth and development
of plants, but 1998 and 1999 were very droughty years. The highest
grain yields were obtained in 1997 for L 589 (with light-green
leaf color) and L 590 (with waxy leaves) at 3,658 and 3,117 kg/ha,
respectively. The average grain yield for this trial was 2,630
kg/ha. In the droughty conditions of 1998, yields of these lines
were approximately 100 kg/ha lower than those of the standard
cultivars Saratovskaya zolotistaya and Ludmila. The advantage
of the standards was related to the earlier heading of Ludmila
and greater drought resistance of Saratovskaya zolotistay. The
lines L 597 (with red spike color) and L 598 (with white spike
color) were equal to the standards for grain yield. Thus, these
lines are not different from the standards for drought resistance.
A.V. Borozdina and V.A. Krupnov.
Studies of spring bread wheat lines with the T1BL·1RS
translocation for resistance to leaf rust were made in the field
during 1997-99. The presence of the translocation was verified
by electrophoresis, which identified the Sec1 locus. The studied
lines have infection type 0; 1-3, and a severity of 0-5 % to the
leaf rust pathogen.
The electrophoretic patterns for HMW-glutenin subunits and
other proteins of individuals grains (5-10 seeds) of 81 spring
bread wheat lines from CIMMYT, Mexico, were obtained by SDS-PAGE
electrophoresis of the total fraction of grain protein. These
lines are part of the SAWSN and SAWYT and were kindly provided
by Dr. Fox during 1993-96. Analysis of HMW-glutenin patterns showed
that the Glu-A1b (2*), Glu-B1c (7+9), and Glu-D1a
(2+12) loci occur most frequently among the 81 spring bread wheat
lines. The HMW-glutenin loci composition is typical for spring
bread wheat, especially those from the southeast region of the
Russian Federation. The aim of future investigations will be the
influence of seldom or unknown alleles, Glu-B1f, Glu-D1m,
and Glu-D1x, on quantity and quality parameters of grain.
In a previous report, Panin (1999) described the possibility of
identifying T1BL·1RS translocations in bread wheat genotypes
by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of proteins of the w-secalins, which
encode the Sec1 alleles on chromosome arm 1RS in the rye
cultivar Petcus. The donor of this translocation for the majority
modern bread wheat cultivars was the bread wheat Kavkaz. Electrophoresis
of lines from CIMMYT, in addition to the HMW glutenins, indicated
the marked presence or absence of the above-mentioned omega-secalins
in the zone between omega-gliadins and LMW glutenins. The identification
of w-secalins was easier in lines lacking some omega-gliadins
(Gli-1B) or components of LMW glutenins (Glu-B3).
Among the 81 CIMMYT genotypes, 52 lines have T1BL·1RS translocations
(15 lines were heterozygotes for the Sec1 locus). The lines
without omega-secalins and with high field resistance to leaf
rust were the most interesting to us. Recent cytogenetic data
indicate that rye chromosome 1R is substituted for chromosome
1B in the winter bread wheat cultivar Gubernia (Badaeva, personal
communication). Previously, the subunits identified as Glu-B1
were thought to be encoded by Glu-R1 (Sec3). This
method distinguishes the T1RS·1BL translocation from the
A. Pryanichnicov, E. Maslovskaya, L. Romanova, S. Lyacheva,
and A. Dorogobed.
Winter wheat breeding at ARISER began in 1915. Supervision
was by Dr. G. Meyster between 1918 and 1937, Dr. N. Meyster from
1937 to 1959, and Dr. W. Laskin from 1960 to 1995. From the beginning,
22 cultivars have been created. The first cultivars, Lutescens
329, Lutescens 1060/10, and Hostianum 237, were bred by individual
selection from landraces. Hostianum 237 was cultivated on the
area about 2.5 x 106 ha in the Volga region and steppes of Ukraine
and in northern Caucasus central Russia.
To increase winter hardiness to the level of winter rye, wheat-rye
hybrids were used widely for the first time. Eritrospermum 46-131,
Lutescens 27-36, and Lutescens 434-154 were obtained by this method.
These cultivars were characterized by winter hardiness, high productivity,
and better grain quality. Interlinear crosses between wheat-rye
hybrids and Lutescens 230 were obtained later. Lutescens was grown
in the Volga region, western Siberia, and Kazakhstan. A number
of cultivars for the steppe ecological group also were obtained
from these crosses. However, the winter hardiness of wheat was
never raised to the level of winter rye.
The cultivars Saratovskya yubilyeinaya, Saratovskya 8, Saratovskya
10, and Saratovskya 11 were created using topcrosses. These cultivars
are hard bread wheats with high levels of productivity and adaptability.
Sharply changing conditions in the climate of the Volga River
region required a wider diversity of winter wheat cultivars. This
problem was tackled using complex-step hybridization. Local breeding
material was used as a basis, and the cultivars Saratovskaya 90,
Saratovskaya ostistaya, and Victoria 95 were produced. Saratovskaya
90 was registered in the Volga River region, western Siberia,
and the Ural regions of the Russian Federation. This cultivar
occupied about 300 x 103 ha. Saratovskaya 90 is a winter hardy,
hard, bread wheat tolerant to drought. Saratovskaya ostistaya
is a later-ripening cultivar that benefits from rainfall in the
second half of the vegetative period. Victoria 95 has high productivity
and is adapted to the steppe regions of the Volga region and is
characterized by high gluten quality. Gubernya is a new cultivar
for the steppe ecotype and has much better winter hardiness and
high gluten content.
T.I. Djatchouk, O.V. Tkachenko, and Yu.V. Lobachev.
We have investigated the in vitro influence of Rht genes on
somatic embryogenesis capacity. Lines differing in alleles of
the Rht genes (Rht1, Rht3, and Rht14
in the background of the bread wheat Saratovskaya 29 and Rht1
and Rht14 in the background of the durum wheat Charkovskaya
46) were used as donor plant material. The Rht genes have
different influences on embryogenic callus induction in each background.
In bread wheat, the dominant gene Rht3 had a significantly
positive effect. Rht1 was not an influence in the Saratovskaya
29 background, but the rate of embryogenic callus formation was
higher in comparison to sibs lines in the durum wheat Charkovskaya
46. Rht14 had a positive effect on embryogenic callus induction
in both bread and durum wheat backgrounds, but its influence was
not significant at any stage. Rht genes did not influence
plant regeneration, except for Rht3, which increased plant
regeneration at the third stage in a bread wheat background.
K.N. Sher, N.A. Aleshina, and V.A. Kumakov.
The influence of different rates of water availability on spike
composition and grain yield (GY) under nonroot fertilizer application
was studied for 3 years in the spring bread wheat Saratovskaya
29. In 1996, water availability was favorable in the first half
of vegetative period (nitrogen concentration [N] in the upper
leaves at boot stage was 5.4 %) and unfavorable in the second
half, 1997 was favorable (3.5 % N), and 1998 was a hard drought
(4.3 % N). The fertilizer applications were provided during different
stages of ontogenesis at a rate under 100 kg/ha. The most common
negative nfluence of a nonroot fertilizer application was on GY.
The average decrease of GY was l0-15 %, except when fertiziler
was applied early in favorable conditions. Negative effects were
observed under applications at the end of vegetative period. A
decrease in GY possibly was induced by the underdevelopment of
reproductive organs, which may have caused death and a decrease
in the quantity of grain (in 1996, the decrease was from 28 to
24). Furthermore, the decrease also may have been due to poor
grain filling and a resulting decrease in 1,000-kernel weight
(in the 1997, the decrease was from 39 to 38). In 1998, the decrease
of GY was induced by both factors.
The influence of a nonroot fertilizer application on GY is
dependent on the initial N concentration in the plant. In conditions
favorable for vegetative growth, a nonroot application has a negative
effect on GY under high initial N in the early stages and in a
decrease in the number of grains/spike (1996). Under low [N] (1997),
fertilizer applied at later stages induced a decrease in 1,000-kernel
weight. We explain the lack of a decrease in 1,000-kernel weight
in 1996 by a decrease in grain quantity and not enough growth
in the unfavorable conditions.
The leaf mesophyll cells of cereals are lobed. The number of
lobes is significant for each variety. We studied the polymorphism
of leaf mesophyll cells in spring bread wheats between 1994 and
2000. The influence of genotype (cultivar), leaf age, number of
nodes (shoots), and growing conditions (water, temperature, and
nitrogen) on changes in the form of mesophyll cells was investigated
in field experiments. Supposedly, the morphology of mesophyll
cells is the mechanism for the adaptation of photosynthetic function.
A.I. Pozdeev, A.M. Grigoriev, and V.A. Kumakov.
The effect of drought on the structural and functional indexes
of leaves was studied in the four spring bread wheat cultivars
Saratovskaja 29 (drought resistant), Lutescens 758 (drought resistant),
Diamant (drought susceptible), and Leningradka (drought susceptible)
under field conditions. The area of the leaf blade, mesophyll
cell number, and chloroplast number per 1 cm2 of leaf blade; mesophyll
cell volume; chloroplast number in a mesophyll cell; chlorophyll
content; nitrogen concentration; water content; and photosynthetic
activity (^14^CO^2^-fixation) of young, mature, and senescing
leaves were analyzed. No connection between drought resistance
and the structural-functional organization of leaves was found.
Drought-resistant cultivars had a larger leaf area in drought
A.I. Pozdeev, I.A. Grigoruk, and A.M. Grigoriev.
Photosynthetic activity in the spike provides for a degree
of grain growth, especially during high leaf senescence. The effects
of drought on photosynthetic activity in the spike were studied
in the spring bread wheat cultivars Saratovskaja 29 (drought resistant)
and Leningradka (drought susceptible) under field conditions.
The ^14^CO^2^-fixation on the spike scales, external and internal
flower scales, spike internodes, and grain were analyzed during
flowering and grain maturation. The drought-resistant Saratovskaja
29 was superior to Leningradka for all characters in drought conditions.
SARATOV STATE AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY
named after N.I. VAVILOV
Department of Biotechnology, Plant Breeding and Genetics,
1 Teatralnaya Sg., Saratov 410600, Russian Federation.
The effects of the 15 identified and some as-yet unidentified
Rht genes were studied for more than 20 years using NILs
of the spring bread wheat Saratovskaya 29. The specific influence
of each Rht gene on spike height and internode length was
revealed, and, on this basis, the studied Rht genes were classified
(see Table 1) (Lobachev 1999).
All the studied genes have an influence on the spike height
and internode length and can be classified into five types. The
first type, which includes the RhtA, RhtK, and RhtN
genes, reduces plant height approximately 10-18 %, but does not
differ from Saratovskaya 29 in spike height and internode length.
The Rht-B1b, Rht-D1b, Rht4, and Rht14
genes make up the second type, which reduces plant height 15-40
%, somewhat increases (4 %) the spike, and reduces (6 %) the height
of the first internode without any influence on the other internodes.
The third type includes the Rht-B1c, Rht-B1b + Rht-D1b,
and Rht-D1b + Rht-B1c genes, which strongly reduce
plant height (45-75 %) and significantly increase the spike (22
%), but reduce the height of the first internode (17 %) without
any influence on the other internodes. The fourth type, comprised
of the Rht5 and RhtML genes, reduces plant height
12-30 %, has no influence on the height of the spike (difference
from Saratovskaya 29 is 1 %), but increases the height of the
first internode lobe (about 4 %). The RhtR, s1,
and Q genes could be classified as a fifth type. These
genes reduce height nearly as much as those of the second group,
but by the decrease (about 7 %) of the second internode from the
spike. Some genes (i.e., RhtPK) are difficult to classify
into any type, because of their peculiar influence on the spike
and internode length.
In the Volga Region, the genes of the first, second, and fourth
types do not have a negative influence on grain yield (except
for Rht4), but genes of the third and fifth types have
a distinctly negative effect on the grain yield.
On the basis of suggested gene types, it is possible to classify
new and already known dwarfing genes with the aim of selecting
the best of them to use in breeding wheat for certain regions
of the world.