Items from the Russian Federation.



Institute of Complex Analysis of Regional Problems, Karl Marx str. 1054, kr. 167, Khabarovsk, 680009, Russian Federation.


Evaluation of spring wheat varieties at Primorskey for ecological plasticity.

One of the main tasks of selection is combining yield capacity, quality, and resistance to biotic and abiotic factors in one cultivar. During selection, properties such as yield and quality are controlled to a greater degree, but those of plasticity and stability to a lesser degree.

In the final stage of selection, cultivars with the best productivity are selected. Nevertheless, their positive properties may not be manifested in state or comparative strain testing stations despite their selection process over several years (Abakumanko 1992). Underestimation of ecological plasticity and stability when studying cultivars may be an explanation.

Although practical selection does not have special methods for the creation of ecologically stable and plastic
varieties (Kadyrov et al. 1984), a variety must satisfy the following parameters: possess a high yield potential and be plastic and stable under different growing conditions.

In our present work, we evaluated spring wheat cultivars for ecological plasticity under the environmental conditions in the Primorskey region. Eighteen cultivars were studied each year. The experiments were planted in an area of 10 m2 for four seasons. Primorskaya 21 was used as the check cultivar. The best six cultivars were selected as a result of the trial (Table 1).

Table 1. Yield (ml/ha) of the best spring wheat cultivars during the competitive strain testing at Ussuryisk, l997-98.
 Cultivar  1997  1998  1999  Average (3 years)  Departure from check
 Primorskaya 21 (check)  3.13  3.11  3.89  3.38  ---
 Primorskaya 2797  3.39  3.52  4.50  3.80  0.42
 Primorskaya 27g8  3.25  3.23  4.30  3.50  0.21
 Primorskaya 2B01  3.41  3.29  4.72  3.81  0.43
 Primorskaya 2802  3.34  3.41  4.45  3.73  0.35
 Primorskaya 2B03  3.21  3.61  4.21  3.68  0.30
 Primorskaya 2804  3.35  3.08  4.11  3.51  0.13
 LSD (5 %)  0.20  0.23  0.23  0.23  

The method of Eberhard and Russel, interpreted by Pakudin (l973), was used to evaluate ecological plasticity and stability of the selected cutivars. According to the method, ecological plasticity is assessed by two mathematical indices, the regression coefficient (hi) and the average quadratic departure from the regression line (Sd2). Cultivars with a bi > 1 and an Sd2 > 0 grow well and have stable yields under the conditions in the Primorskey area. Cultivars that have high bi and Sd2 indices react readily to changes in the environment and possess considerable variability. Cultivars with a bi < 1 and an Sd2 near 0 react weakly to changes in growing conditions and are characterized by high yield stabilities.

The results divided the cultivars into three groups (Table 2): highly plastic and stable (Primorskaya 2798 and Primorskaya 2802), little reaction to improvements in growing conditions but possessing considerable variability (Primorskaya 2803 and Primorskaya 2804), and highly plastic but possessing considerable variability (Primorskaya 2797 and especially Primorskaya 2801).

Table 2. Ecological plasticity of spring wheat cultivars yield (averaged for l996-98, Ussuriysk).
 Cutivars  Yield (mt/ha)  Regression coefficient (bi)  Dispersion (Sd2)
 Primorskaya (check)  3.38  0.82  0.26
 Primorskaya 2797  3.80  1.10  0.81
 Primorskaya 27gB  3.59  1.11  0.25
 Primorskaya 2801  3.81  1.41  1.22
 Primorskaya 2802  3.73  1.13  0.33
 Primorskaya 2803  3.68  0.86  4.75
 Primorskaya 2804  3.51  0.94  4.34


The check cultivar Primorskaya 21 is grown extensively and has a more stable productivity. The selected cultivars were used as initial material in spring wheat selections, and Primorskaya 2802, the best in yield, plasticity, and stability, is being transferred to the state for strain testing.


  • Abakumenko AV. l992. Yield stability and adaptability of selective forms of winter wheat in a competitive cultivar testing. Scientific and technical bulletin of Selection and Genetic Institute, Odessa. 2(82):4-7.
  • Kadyrov MA, Grib SI, and Baturo FN. 1984. Some aspects of selection of wide agroecologica1 adaptation. Selection and Seed Growing. 7:8-9.
  • Pakudin VS. 1973. Evaluation of ecological plasticity of varieties. Genetic analysis of quantitative and qualitative signs with the help of mathematical and statistical methods. p. 40-44.




143026 Nemchinovka-1, Moscow region, Russian Federation.


Identification of a high-pairing line of common wheat with genes from Aegilops speltoides Taucsh.

I.F. Lapochkina, E.V. Vlasova, and G.L. Yatchevskaya.

Translocation, addition, substitution, and recombinant lines of the common wheat cultivar Rodina and Ae. speltoides were crossed with rye for selection of genotypes with Ae. speltoides genes for homoeologous pairing.

We established that F1 plants (Rodina/rye) had a different frequency of chiasma formation per PMC in meiosis depending on the genotype of the line. We usually observed asynapsis of chromosomes, but some genotypes had frequencies of chiasma formation from 3.5 to 6.1 per cell. These levels of pairing were classified as medium and high. The winter recombinant line 179/98w was selected from 50 tested stocks as a high-pairing type (see Table 1).

Table 1. Comparison of the chiasma formation frequency at MI in crosses of high-pairing type lines with S. cereale or Ae. variabilis.
 F1 hybrid  Number of cells  Average chiasma formation per  Reference
 cell  chromosome
 The varieties
 Rodina x S. cereale  64  0.48  0.02  Lapochkina et al. 2000
 Ch. Spring x S. cereale  880  0.3  0.01  Schneider 1987
 The mutants
 ph1b-mutant x S. cereale  169  7.2  0.26  Schneider 1987
 ph1b-mutant x Ae. variabilis  150  14.3  0.41  Chen et al. 1994
 ph2a-mutant x Ae. variabilis  200  6.55  0.19  Chen et al. 1994
 The high-pairing lines with Ae. speltoides genes
 HP-line (64-1) x Ae. variabilis  65  8.53  0.24  Chen et al. 1994
 Line 10 x S. cereale  60  7.84  0.28  Tsatsenko et al. 1996
 Line 179/98w x S. cereale  51  6.12  0.22  Lapochkina et al. 2000


We observed an increase in the frequency of both bivalents (average of 3.3-4.3 II) and trivalents and quadrivalents per cell in this genotype. The frequency of chiasma formation was 6.12 ± 0.21. The results indicate that the level of homoeologous pairing of this line is lower than that of the ph1b mutant but more than that of the ph2a mutant. Taking into account the useful properties of 179/98w line, such as winter hardiness in the middle climatic zone of Russia, productivity of the main spike (1.6 g), and 100-kernel weight (5 g), we recommended it as an alternative to the ph1b mutant.

The line has morphological markers from Ae. speltoides that include waxlessness, reddish-brown spikes, and stem anthocyanin and also has a 7A/7S chromosome substitution.

We propose that genes promoting homoeologous pairing are located on chromosome 7S of Ae. speltoides. However, further research is required to confirm this hypothesis.


  • Chen PD, Tsujimoto H, and Gill BS. 1994. Transfer of Ph1 genes promoting homoeologous pairing from Triticum speltoides to common wheat. Theor Appl Genet 88:97-101.
  • Lapochkina IF, Vlasova EV, and Yatchevskaya GL. 2000. Introgression of promotor genes of homoeologous pairing to genome of common wheat. In: Proc Second Cong Vavilov Society of Geneticists and Selectionists. Sankt-Petersburg, 1-5 February, 2000 (in Russian).
  • Schneyder TM. 1987. Increase in frequency of chromosome recombination in meiosis of wheat-rye hybrids. Cytol Genet 21(3):175-179 (in Russian).
  • Tsatsenko LV, Bessarab KS, and Konyushaya EA. 1996. Identification of genes for homeologous pairing in Triticum aestivum L. lines. Russian J Genet 32(8):1088-1092.




ul. Miklukho-Maklaya 6, Moskow, 117918, Russian Federation.


Length of vegetative period and light energy requirements of plants for transition to the generative phase.

A.K. Fedorov.

The length of the vegetative period of a plant determines its resistance against unfavorable conditions, diseases, and pests and affects harvest and quality. However, the ontogenetic factors that determine the length of the vegetative period remain unclear. Some authors (Pugsley 1971; Merezhko and Andriash 1987) still support the theory of phase development proposed by Lysenko in 1936 (Lysenko 1952), in which the length of the vegetative period is determined by the length and conditions of vernalization. This theory has been shown to be erroneous (Fedorov 1968, 1996; Gupalo and Skripchinskii 1971). Plants of any development type can bear fruit without vernalization. When sown in the spring, spring and alternate-type varieties produce seed without vernalization, and winter types form spikes under intense illumination (Fedorov 1968; Chailakhyan 1988).

The length of the vegetative period does not depend on the duration of vernalization. If winter and alternate-type varieties are planted in the autumn, vernalization ends by the start of winter. These plants are not vernalized in the spring, and their development during the spring-summer period determines the length of the vegetative period. All this suggests that the length of the vegetative period cannot be determined by vernalization. Our task was to study the specific ontogenetic features that determine the type of development, length of the vegetative period, and role of vernalization.

Studies were made on crop, fodder, and vegetable plants that differed in the type of development and length of vegetative period. Both unvernalized and vernalized plants, cooled at 0±3°C during germination or as green plants, were grown. Five light regimes included natural day, 17-hour day, short (12 h) day, continuous illumination, and complete darkness. A new, highly efficient, light device (Fedorov et al. 1986; Fedorov 1989) was used, which consisted of MGL (DRI2000-6) metal halide lamps with a reflecting mirror film. The amount of electrical energy (kwt/h/m image space) used for plant growth from germination through the transition to phase IV of organogenesis, i.e., formation of rudimentary spike, was measured. In addition to the standard phenological observations, differentiation of the growth cone on sprouts was monitored. The length of time from germination to phase IV of organogenesis determined the vegetative period and adaption of the plant to unfavorable conditions. During tillering, when the growth cone is at phase II of organogenesis, the plant is capable of resisting cold weather. Therefore, wintering (winter-type and alternate) plants, unlike spring-type plants, are capable of delayed growth and development and transition to the generative phase. After the transition to phase IV of organogenesis, plants of all types lose their capacity to develop resistance to cold weather.

When grown in artificial light, wheat and triticale plants germinated from unvernalized seeds differed markedly in the length of time from germination to phase IV of organogenesis (Table 1). This period was longest in the winter-types, shorter in the alternate-types, and shortest in spring-types. After vernalization of seeds, this period was sharply reduced and was similar in plants of all plant types. A similar pattern was observed when the periods from germination to spike formation or maturation were compared.

Table 1. Duration of the period from germination to phase IV of organogenesis and amount of electric energy (kwt/h/m) required for transition of plants to this phase.
 Material  Treatment  Duration of period  Amount of electric energy
 Mironovskaya 808 (winter)  Unvernalized  80  1,360
 Vernalized  11  187
 Czech alternate (alternate)  Unvernalized  21  357
 Vernalized  11  187
 Saratovskaya 29 (spring)  Unvernalized  9  153
 Vernalized  9  153
 Leningradku (spring)  Unvernalized  10  170
 Vernalized  10  70
 AD-206 (winter)  Unvernalized  83  1,445
 Vernalized  10  170
 LT-259 (Alternate)  Unvernalized  25  425
 Vernalized  10  170
 Armadillo (spring)  Unvernalized  9  153
 Vernalized  9  53


The greatest amount of electrical energy was required for growing unvernalized winter-type plants, less energy was required for the alternate types, and still less for spring types. The longer the period from germination to phase IV, the more electrical energy was required. If the light conditions were poor (shorter period of illumination or less intense illumination), the plants grew for a longer period, i.e., they required more time to satisfy their light requirements.

The light requirement was reduced sharply after vernalization, and the expenditure of electrical energy for plant growth decreased. The more electrical energy needed to grow unvernalized plants, the greater the reduction after vernalization. Unvernalized winter types required the greatest amount of electrical energy, and the amount of energy saved after vernalization was higher. After vernalization, plants of different types required similar amounts of electrical energy for growth.

Cooling sharply reduced the expenditure of electrical energy during the period from germination to phase IV of organogenesis. The same pattern was observed when the time of transition to a later phase was determined. In one experiment, unvernalized plants of Mironovskaya 808 required 1,887 kwt/h from germination to spike formation, whereas vernalized plants required 660 kwt/h.

The requirement for light in order to move to the generative phase and form a rudimentary inflorescence was reduced markedly under the influence of prolonged cooling (vernalization). We suggest that the requirements of plants of different types are related to the different degrees of development of the mechanism underlying the movement of nutrients to the growth cone apex where spike buds are formed. The less efficient this mechanism is, the greater the delay in inflorescence formation. As a result of vernalization (prolonged cooling), the supply of nutrients increases and less light is required, so the expenditure of electric energy is less. After vernalization, differences in the nutrient supply to the growth-cone apex, which were observed previously in plants of different types and with different lengths of vegetative periods, level, determined the light energy expenditure necessary for transition to phase IV of organogenesis. Preliminary treatment of plants (seeds and root crops) makes it possible to reduce the amount of electric energy necessary to grow plants and harvest crops.

Plants differing in development type and with vegetative periods of different lengths differ in their reaction to light at the vegetative phase and different amounts of light energy are required for the transition of the sprout growth cones to formation of rudimentary inflorescences. The more light that is required, the longer will be the time needed to satisfy the light requirements, the longer the vegetative development (tillering), the longer the vegetative period, and the more strongly expressed winter habit. As a result of vernalization, plants of all types are nearly equal in their reaction to light and length of the vegetative period, which approaches that of spring-type plants and provides for normal development and timely maturity during the favorable spring-summer season.

Two photoperiodic reactions occur in plants: one strongly expressed reaction in unvernalized and one weakly expressed in vernalized plants. The first type determines the length of the vegetative period in spring-sown plants and the type of development. The second type determines the same factors in autumn-sown plants. Vernalization does not determine differences in the length of the vegetative period and development, but rather development is determined after vernalization.


  • Chailakhyan MK. 1988. Regulyatsiya tsveteniya vysshikh rastenii (Regulation of flowering in higher plants). Moskow: Nauka.
  • Fedorov AK. 1968. Biologiya mnogoletnikh trav (Biology of perennial grass). Mockow: Kolos
  • Fedorov AK. 1989. Kormovye rasteniye (Fodder plants). Mockow: Nauka.
  • Fedorov AK. 1996. Reaction of wheat to light and length of vegetation period. Ann Wheat Newslett 42:163-167.
  • Fedorov AK, Mudrak EI, Yur'eva NA, and Feofilova EV. 1986. A light device for vegetation growing. Plodoovoshchnoe Khozyaistvo 8:39-42.
  • Gupalo PI and Skripchinskii. 1971. Fiziologiya individual'nogorazvitiya rastenli (Physiology of plant development). Moskow: Kolos.
  • Lysenko TD. 1952. Agrobiology. Mockow: Sel'khozgiz.
  • Merezhko AF and Andriash IV. 1987. Reaction of some varieties of winter-annual soft wheat to vernalization and day length. Selektsiya i Semenovodstvo 2:22.
  • Pugsley AT. 1971. A genetic analysis of the spring-winter habit of growth. Austral J Agric Res 22(1):21-31.
  • Razumov VI. 1961. Sreda i razvitie rastenii (Environment and plant development). Mockow: Sel'khozgiz.




410020 Toulaykov str., 7, Saratov, Russian Federation.


The Agricultural Research Institute for the South-East Regions is 90 years old.

N.I. Komarov and N.S. Vassiltchouk.

ARISER was founded in 1910 at Saratov. The main task was, and continues to be, reducing the influence of severe droughts on field crops by developing both early ripening and drought-resistant cultivars using water-preserving technologies. A scientific session of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences will take place on 5-7 July, 2000, in Saratov in honor of this occasion.

At present, ARISER is one of the leading research centers in Russia for plant breeding, producing seed of farm crops, and developing technologies for growing plants in arid regions. The Institute's staff numbers 327 including 161 research workers. ARISER has four experimental stations, an experimental engineering department, and nine experimental farms in different zones of the Saratov oblast (region). The Institute possesses 110,000 ha of arable land for seed production of new cultivars and hybrids and development of new technologies for growing plants.

The main areas of research are investigating the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of drought-, heat-, and frost-resistance of cereal crops; developing biotechnological methods of plant breeding; breeding of cereal and other crops resistant to abiotic- and biotic stresses; developing soil-protective and resource-consuming technologies for growing plants; improving livestock adapted to the severe hot, dry summers and cold winter conditions of Volga River and southeast regions of Russia; and creating new cultivars of different crops using the achievements of modern genetics and biotechnology. Among the list are cultivars of winter bread wheat, winter rye, hard spring bread wheat, spring durum wheat, barley, proso millet, maize, sorghum, Sudan grass, sorghum-Sudan grass hybrids, sunflower, soybean, chick-pea, and alfalfa.

According to the Russian National Register of breeding achievements, 103 varieties and hybrids of field crops created by the plant breeders at ARISER have been admitted for use in 2000. Overall, the area sown in Russia occupied by cultivars created at the Institute is about 12 million ha. Among the most popular varieties are winter bread wheats (Saratovskaya 90, Victoria 95, Saratovskaya ostistaya, Gubernia, Ershovskaya 10, and Smouglyanka); winter ryes (Saratovskaya 5, Saratovskaya 6, and Saratovskaya 7); hard spring bread wheats (Saratovskaya 42, Saratovskaya 46, Saratovskaya 55, Saratovskaya 58, Saratovskaya 60, Saratovskaya 62, Saratovskaya 64, Saratovskaya 66, Albidum 29, Albidum 31, L-503, L-505, Dobrynya, Prokhorovka, Belyanka, and Yugo-vostotchnaya 2; durum wheats (Krasnokkoutka 6, Krasnokkoutka 10, Saratovskaya 57, Saratovskaya 59, Saratovskaya zolotistaya, Ludmila, Valentina, and Nick); barleys (Nutans 108, Nutans 553, and Nutans 642); proso millets (Ilinovskoye, Saratovskoye 8, and Saratovskoye 10); sunflowers (Saratovsky 82, Saratovsky 85, Skorospely 87, Stepnoy 81, and Yubileyny 75); soybeans (Soyer 1, Soyer 3, Soyer 4, and Soyer 5); and chick-peas (Krasnokkoutsky 36, Krasnokkoutsky 123, Krasnokkoutsky 195, Yubileyny, and Zavolzhsky). Cultivars created in past years possess resistance to both drought and main pathogens and are adapted to favorable conditions.

Cost-consuming and water-preserving technologies for growing of all these crops have been developed. Optimization and ecology of field rotations are investigated. The scientific basis of maintaining and reproducing soil fertility has been developed. These technologies allow us to realize the genetic potential of new varieties and stabilize seed production and will provide for secure agricultural production under the dry conditions in the Saratov oblast and in other arid regions of Russia.


Results of spring durum wheat breeding for drought resistance and grain quality.

N.S. Vassiltchouk.

The southeast region of the European part of Russia is the most droughty agricultural area of the world. Here, spring durum wheat is cultivated under nonirrigated conditions. The average long-term precipitation for the spring durum wheat vegetation period in this area is only 130 mm, and in some years (e.g., 1972, 1984, 1995, 1998, and 1999) only 46-82 mm of rainfall fell. At flowering, pressure from meteorological factors grows sharply; available soil moisture content in the upper 100 cm is reduced to a critical level of 25-50 mm, and lack of air moisture exceeds a critical level at 20-40 mb. These conditions indicate a severe drought in which crops do not yield stably, but provide natural conditions for evaluating and selecting genotypes with very high drought resistance and good grain quality.

Our data demonstrate that the average productivity of new durum wheat varieties released over the past decade increased 9.3 hkg/ha compared with the period 1920-29, when the first variety Hordeiforme 432 was released (Table 1). If this total increase is set at 100 %, the yield increase achieved from Hordeiforme 432 over the 70-year period was 4.3 hkg/ha or 46 % of total 9.3 hkg/ha increase. Increases in yield of newly released varieties in comparison with Hordeiforme 432 for the period 1990-99 reached 5.0 hkg/ha or 54 % of total 9.3 hkg/ha, and those increases were due to plant breeding. Thus, in 70 years, the gain in durum wheat yields from ARISER-derived cultivars due to plant breeding was 0.77 % annually. If the tendency of the climate is to change toward greater dryness, the contribution of plant breeding to increasing the yield of spring durum wheat will increase.

Table 1. The role of breeding in increasing the yield of spring durum wheat.
 Year    Variety    Average grain yield, hkg/ha Yield increase
 hkg/ha  due to,%:
 agronomy  breeding
 1920-29  Hordeiforme 432  8.7  0  0  0
 1990-99  Hordeiforme 432  13.0  4.3  4.6  0
 1990-99  New varieties  18.0  9.3  ---  54


Despite the complexity of the task, which was difficult to solve in connection with the global climate change, we have gradually managed to increase the yield ability of durum wheat by creating both early and drought-resistant varieties. Under conditions of the most severe droughts in 1995 and 1998, new cultivars gave a much increased grain yield in comparison with the first selection Hordeiforme 432 (Table 2).

Table 2. The grain yield of new varieties of spring durum wheat in dry (1995 and 1998) and favorable (1993 and 1997) years in comparison with Hordeiforme 432.
 Variety  Year of release    Grain yield in years
   very dry  favorable
 hkg/ha  %  hkg/ha  %
 Hordeiforme 432  1929  3.0  100  22.6  100
 Saratovskaya 57  1989  4.0  134  26.1  115
 Saratovskaya 59  1992  4.5  151  30.0  133
 Saratovskaya zolotistaya  1993  5.0  168  24.8  110
 Ludmila  1995  4.9  164  28.3  125
 Valentina  1998  4.5  153  32.5  144
 Nick  2000  5.7  193  30.2  136
 LSD (0.95)    0.9  30  3.8  17


We determined that productivity increases of the new durum wheat varieties are mainly due to increases in the 1,000-kernel weight to 39.1-44.8 g from 33.4 g in Hordeiforme 432 and changes in the ratio of grain to straw weight for the benefit of TKW (the harvest index of new varieties was 37.6-39.4 % compared to 33.7 % for Hordeiforme 432). Increasing the number of grains/spike by increasing the number of spikelets (except in Saratovskaya 57 and Nick) of by increasing the number of grains/spikelet is impossible.kaya 57, head compactness was decreased significantly: from 24.3 spikelets per 10 cm of rachis length for Hordeiforme 432 to 22.9 for Saratovskaya 59, 22.4 for Ludmila, 22.2 for Nick, 21.7 for Valentina, and 20.7 spikelets per 10 cm of rachis length for Saratovskaya zolotistaya. Step by step, we have managed to improve grain quality. The yellow pigment contents in grain and gluten strength of newly developed varieties Nick and Zolotaya volna are equal to those of the best variety Saratovskaya zolotistaya.


The resistance in Saratov spring-wheat cultivars to pest and fungal pathogens.

O.V. Subcova, R.G. Saifullin, L.G. Ilyina, A.I. Kusmenko, M.L. Vedeneeva, V.A. Danilova, and T.K. Sotova.

In the hot, dry conditions of 1999, hard spring bread wheat was affected by several pests: Eurygaster integriceps, A. austiaca Urbst, M. destructor, Oseinosoma fritf., and Locusta migratoria. Stem and grain damages were 0.02 % and 14 %, respectively. Fungal diseases caused a much lower degree of infection (loose smut, powdery mildew, and leaf rust).

The two cultivars Saratovskaya 68 and Saratovskaya 70 were resistant to both pest and fungal diseases. The cultivars Saratovskaya 58 and Lutescens 62 are moderately susceptible to leaf rust, but Saratovskaya 70, with Lr23, is resistant (Table 3).

Table 3. Fungal and pest damage to Saratov wheat cultivars in 1999.
 Cultivar    Damages under natural field conditions
 Loose smut (%)  Intrastem pests (% plant injury)  Powdery mildew  Leaf rust (average)
 Lutescens 62  0.10  19.0  w  0.20
 Saratovskaya 29  0.002  12.0  w  0.69
 Saratovskaya 55  0.003  19.0  w  0.26
 Saratovskaya 58  0.01  22.0  tr  0.34
 Saratovskaya 64  0.17  40.0  tr  0.33
 Saratovskaya 66  0.01  22.0  w  0.66
 Saratovskaya 68  0.02  29.0  s  0.22
 Saratovskaya 70  0.00  18.0  w  0.00


Field analysis of the leaf rust population of bread wheat in 1999.

S.N. Sibikeev and Yu.E. Sibikeeva.

The leaf rust epidemic during the 1999 growing season was evaluated weekly. Infection types were noted on NILs of Thatcher with different Lr genes and the lines Agro 139 (LrAgi), Agro 58 (LrAgi2), L 1732 (LrAgi3), L 503 (Lr19), and Indis (Lr19 + (Lr13 + Lr17)?). Of the 36 lines with Lr genes, five lines (Lr9, Lr23, Lr24, Lr34, and Lr27 + Lr31) had ITs = 0. Surprisingly, the IT of lines with Lr34 and Lr27 + Lr31 was 0. In previous years, these genes had ITs = 3. An IT = 11+ was observed for lines with Lr16, Lr17, Lr21, Lr22a, Lr27, and Lr44. Lines with Lr13, Lr14a, Lr14b, Lr18, and Lr29 had ITs = 3-. The IT of plants with genes derived from Agropyron species, e.g., genes Lr19, LrAgi, LrAgi2, and LrAgi3 and the combination of genes in Indis (Lr19 + (Lr13 + Lr17)?) was 3. Thus, the leaf rust population of 1999 was evaluated as highly virulent.


Evaluation of bread wheat-alien lines resistant to leaf rust and powdery mildew.

S.N. Siblkeev and S.A. Voronina.

Resistance to leaf rust and powdery mildew was studied in bread wheat-alien lines produced by wide crosses with the following species: A. elongatum (2n = 70, k-43562), Ae. umbellulata (k-1588), and T. turgidum subsp. dicoccoides (k26118). For each wide hybrid combination, we obtained a set of lines that differed from each other by resistance to the leaf rust and powdery mildew fungi and virus diseases (in the case of wheat-A. elongatum lines). Resistance was determined by inoculation in a greenhouse (1998-99 winter season) and under natural infection in the field in 1999.

Among 72 wheat-A. elongatum lines, 12 were resistant to leaf rust and powdery mildew, 22 to leaf rust, 24 to powdery mildew, and 25 to a complex virus diseases. Among 23 wheat-Ae. umbellulata lines, two lines were resistant to leaf rust and powdery mildew and six to powdery mildew only. The bread wheat-wild emmer hybrids had lines with high resistance to powdery mildew. This resistance was transfered recently to durum wheat. Previous results show that the resistance was determined by two dominant genes.


Influence of weather on floral infection of spring bread wheat by loose smut.

A.E. Druzhin and V.A. Krupnov.

We analyzed the natural infections of loose smut on spring bread wheat from the Saratov population in the Volga region for the period between 1907-99. Interestingly, infections were reduced sharply in seasons when the average air temperature was not lower than 23-24°C and the maximum was 34-39°C, the variation in relative humidity was 50 to 30 %, and no precipitation was recorded during flowering. These conditions occur approximately once every 6 years. During 50 years of observations for susceptibility to loose smut in the spring bread wheat cultivar Lutescens 62, an open-flowering cultivar, no infections occurred in the years 1932, 1939, 1951, 1957, 1961, l966, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1988, 1996, and 1999. In cultivars with closed-flowering such as the highly resistant Saratovskaya 29, sharp fluctuations did not affect disease resistance. The maximum infection in this cultivar in years favorable for the pathogen was 0.07%. However, with no seed treatment, the infection in Lutescens 62 was 7 % or greater. The combination of genes for resistance to loose smut and those for flowering is very important for breeding wheats resistant to loose smut.


The reaction of cultivars and lines of spring bread wheat to powdery mildew.

A.E. Alexandrov and V.A. Krupnov.

We studied the reaction of two cultivars and four pairs of NILs, differing in their resistance to leaf rust, in a natural infection of powdery mildew (Table 4). The highest level of infection was observed in 1999; the lowest in 1997.

In all four pairs, the Lr sibs, possessing Lr genes, showed a higher resistance to powdery mildew than lr sibs without them. Moreover, in two pairs, this advantage was essential. Lutescens 62 (St) the first Saratov-bred cultivar of the Agricultural Research Institute of South-East Regions, had the highest rate of disease severity. As Table 4 shows, modern cultivars Saratovskaya 58 and L 400 (Lr) sibs (Belyanka) are characterized by moderate susceptibility to powdery mildew and a higher level of resistance to this disease, respectively.

Table 4. The infection of cultivars and lines by powdery mildew in 1997 and 1999.
 Cultivar or line  Lr or Pm genes    Lesion, %
 1997  1999  Average
 Lutescens 62  none  33.85 f  49.75 g  41.80 f
 Saratovskaya 58  none  14.30 d  27.00 def 20.65 cde 
 Saratovskaya 29 (1r)  none  11.90 cd  36.15 f  24.03 de
 AS 29 (Lr)  Lr14 + Pm5 ?  6.70 bc  3.45 a  5.07 ab
 L 874 (lr)  none  10.95 bcd  29.00 ef  19.98 bcde
 L 894 (Lr)  Lr13  4.10 ab  4.80 abc  4.45 a
 L 359 (lr)  none  21.75 e  31.25 f  26.50 e
 L 359 (Lr)  Lr19  9.30 bcd  15.10 c  12.15 abcde
 L 400 (lr)  Lr14 + Pm5 ?  7.20 bc  14.90 bc  11.05 abcd
 L 400 (Lr)  Lr23 + Lr14 + Pm5 ?  0.00 a  0.00 a  0.00 a
 The level of significance P = 0.5.


Productivity of durum wheat cultivars and lines in favorable (1997) and droughty conditions (1998 and 1999).

V.A. Elesin.

During the 3 years 1997-99, the productivity of durum wheat cultivars and lines differing for spike and leaf colors was studied in the field. The year 1997 was favorable for growth and development of plants, but 1998 and 1999 were very droughty years. The highest grain yields were obtained in 1997 for L 589 (with light-green leaf color) and L 590 (with waxy leaves) at 3,658 and 3,117 kg/ha, respectively. The average grain yield for this trial was 2,630 kg/ha. In the droughty conditions of 1998, yields of these lines were approximately 100 kg/ha lower than those of the standard cultivars Saratovskaya zolotistaya and Ludmila. The advantage of the standards was related to the earlier heading of Ludmila and greater drought resistance of Saratovskaya zolotistay. The lines L 597 (with red spike color) and L 598 (with white spike color) were equal to the standards for grain yield. Thus, these lines are not different from the standards for drought resistance.


Positive influence of wheat-rye translocation in lines of spring bread wheat on resistance to leaf rust.

A.V. Borozdina and V.A. Krupnov.

Studies of spring bread wheat lines with the T1BL·1RS translocation for resistance to leaf rust were made in the field during 1997-99. The presence of the translocation was verified by electrophoresis, which identified the Sec1 locus. The studied lines have infection type 0; 1-3, and a severity of 0-5 % to the leaf rust pathogen.


The study of HMW glutenins and identification of the T1BL·1RS translocation in spring bread wheat lines from CIMMYT.

V.M. Panin.

The electrophoretic patterns for HMW-glutenin subunits and other proteins of individuals grains (5-10 seeds) of 81 spring bread wheat lines from CIMMYT, Mexico, were obtained by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of the total fraction of grain protein. These lines are part of the SAWSN and SAWYT and were kindly provided by Dr. Fox during 1993-96. Analysis of HMW-glutenin patterns showed that the Glu-A1b (2*), Glu-B1c (7+9), and Glu-D1a (2+12) loci occur most frequently among the 81 spring bread wheat lines. The HMW-glutenin loci composition is typical for spring bread wheat, especially those from the southeast region of the Russian Federation. The aim of future investigations will be the influence of seldom or unknown alleles, Glu-B1f, Glu-D1m, and Glu-D1x, on quantity and quality parameters of grain. In a previous report, Panin (1999) described the possibility of identifying T1BL·1RS translocations in bread wheat genotypes by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of proteins of the w-secalins, which encode the Sec1 alleles on chromosome arm 1RS in the rye cultivar Petcus. The donor of this translocation for the majority modern bread wheat cultivars was the bread wheat Kavkaz. Electrophoresis of lines from CIMMYT, in addition to the HMW glutenins, indicated the marked presence or absence of the above-mentioned omega-secalins in the zone between omega-gliadins and LMW glutenins. The identification of w-secalins was easier in lines lacking some omega-gliadins (Gli-1B) or components of LMW glutenins (Glu-B3). Among the 81 CIMMYT genotypes, 52 lines have T1BL·1RS translocations (15 lines were heterozygotes for the Sec1 locus). The lines without omega-secalins and with high field resistance to leaf rust were the most interesting to us. Recent cytogenetic data indicate that rye chromosome 1R is substituted for chromosome 1B in the winter bread wheat cultivar Gubernia (Badaeva, personal communication). Previously, the subunits identified as Glu-B1 were thought to be encoded by Glu-R1 (Sec3). This method distinguishes the T1RS·1BL translocation from the DS1R (1B).


Results of winter bread wheat breeding in ARISER.

A. Pryanichnicov, E. Maslovskaya, L. Romanova, S. Lyacheva, and A. Dorogobed.

Winter wheat breeding at ARISER began in 1915. Supervision was by Dr. G. Meyster between 1918 and 1937, Dr. N. Meyster from 1937 to 1959, and Dr. W. Laskin from 1960 to 1995. From the beginning, 22 cultivars have been created. The first cultivars, Lutescens 329, Lutescens 1060/10, and Hostianum 237, were bred by individual selection from landraces. Hostianum 237 was cultivated on the area about 2.5 x 106 ha in the Volga region and steppes of Ukraine and in northern Caucasus central Russia.

To increase winter hardiness to the level of winter rye, wheat-rye hybrids were used widely for the first time. Eritrospermum 46-131, Lutescens 27-36, and Lutescens 434-154 were obtained by this method. These cultivars were characterized by winter hardiness, high productivity, and better grain quality. Interlinear crosses between wheat-rye hybrids and Lutescens 230 were obtained later. Lutescens was grown in the Volga region, western Siberia, and Kazakhstan. A number of cultivars for the steppe ecological group also were obtained from these crosses. However, the winter hardiness of wheat was never raised to the level of winter rye.

The cultivars Saratovskya yubilyeinaya, Saratovskya 8, Saratovskya 10, and Saratovskya 11 were created using topcrosses. These cultivars are hard bread wheats with high levels of productivity and adaptability.

Sharply changing conditions in the climate of the Volga River region required a wider diversity of winter wheat cultivars. This problem was tackled using complex-step hybridization. Local breeding material was used as a basis, and the cultivars Saratovskaya 90, Saratovskaya ostistaya, and Victoria 95 were produced. Saratovskaya 90 was registered in the Volga River region, western Siberia, and the Ural regions of the Russian Federation. This cultivar occupied about 300 x 103 ha. Saratovskaya 90 is a winter hardy, hard, bread wheat tolerant to drought. Saratovskaya ostistaya is a later-ripening cultivar that benefits from rainfall in the second half of the vegetative period. Victoria 95 has high productivity and is adapted to the steppe regions of the Volga region and is characterized by high gluten quality. Gubernya is a new cultivar for the steppe ecotype and has much better winter hardiness and high gluten content.


In vitro influence of Rht genes on bread wheat and somatic embryogenesis of durum wheat.

T.I. Djatchouk, O.V. Tkachenko, and Yu.V. Lobachev.

We have investigated the in vitro influence of Rht genes on somatic embryogenesis capacity. Lines differing in alleles of the Rht genes (Rht1, Rht3, and Rht14 in the background of the bread wheat Saratovskaya 29 and Rht1 and Rht14 in the background of the durum wheat Charkovskaya 46) were used as donor plant material. The Rht genes have different influences on embryogenic callus induction in each background. In bread wheat, the dominant gene Rht3 had a significantly positive effect. Rht1 was not an influence in the Saratovskaya 29 background, but the rate of embryogenic callus formation was higher in comparison to sibs lines in the durum wheat Charkovskaya 46. Rht14 had a positive effect on embryogenic callus induction in both bread and durum wheat backgrounds, but its influence was not significant at any stage. Rht genes did not influence plant regeneration, except for Rht3, which increased plant regeneration at the third stage in a bread wheat background.


The influence of available water and initial nitrogen concentration on yield and productivity under a nonroot application of urea.

K.N. Sher, N.A. Aleshina, and V.A. Kumakov.

The influence of different rates of water availability on spike composition and grain yield (GY) under nonroot fertilizer application was studied for 3 years in the spring bread wheat Saratovskaya 29. In 1996, water availability was favorable in the first half of vegetative period (nitrogen concentration [N] in the upper leaves at boot stage was 5.4 %) and unfavorable in the second half, 1997 was favorable (3.5 % N), and 1998 was a hard drought (4.3 % N). The fertilizer applications were provided during different stages of ontogenesis at a rate under 100 kg/ha. The most common negative nfluence of a nonroot fertilizer application was on GY. The average decrease of GY was l0-15 %, except when fertiziler was applied early in favorable conditions. Negative effects were observed under applications at the end of vegetative period. A decrease in GY possibly was induced by the underdevelopment of reproductive organs, which may have caused death and a decrease in the quantity of grain (in 1996, the decrease was from 28 to 24). Furthermore, the decrease also may have been due to poor grain filling and a resulting decrease in 1,000-kernel weight (in the 1997, the decrease was from 39 to 38). In 1998, the decrease of GY was induced by both factors.

The influence of a nonroot fertilizer application on GY is dependent on the initial N concentration in the plant. In conditions favorable for vegetative growth, a nonroot application has a negative effect on GY under high initial N in the early stages and in a decrease in the number of grains/spike (1996). Under low [N] (1997), fertilizer applied at later stages induced a decrease in 1,000-kernel weight. We explain the lack of a decrease in 1,000-kernel weight in 1996 by a decrease in grain quantity and not enough growth in the unfavorable conditions.


Polymorphism in the mesophyll cells of wheat leaves.

A.I. Pozdeev.

The leaf mesophyll cells of cereals are lobed. The number of lobes is significant for each variety. We studied the polymorphism of leaf mesophyll cells in spring bread wheats between 1994 and 2000. The influence of genotype (cultivar), leaf age, number of nodes (shoots), and growing conditions (water, temperature, and nitrogen) on changes in the form of mesophyll cells was investigated in field experiments. Supposedly, the morphology of mesophyll cells is the mechanism for the adaptation of photosynthetic function.


The structural and functional changes in leaves of spring bread wheats with different levels of drought resistance.

A.I. Pozdeev, A.M. Grigoriev, and V.A. Kumakov.

The effect of drought on the structural and functional indexes of leaves was studied in the four spring bread wheat cultivars Saratovskaja 29 (drought resistant), Lutescens 758 (drought resistant), Diamant (drought susceptible), and Leningradka (drought susceptible) under field conditions. The area of the leaf blade, mesophyll cell number, and chloroplast number per 1 cm2 of leaf blade; mesophyll cell volume; chloroplast number in a mesophyll cell; chlorophyll content; nitrogen concentration; water content; and photosynthetic activity (^14^CO^2^-fixation) of young, mature, and senescing leaves were analyzed. No connection between drought resistance and the structural-functional organization of leaves was found. Drought-resistant cultivars had a larger leaf area in drought conditions.


The photosynthetic activity in the wheat spike of different drought-resistant cultivars.

A.I. Pozdeev, I.A. Grigoruk, and A.M. Grigoriev.

Photosynthetic activity in the spike provides for a degree of grain growth, especially during high leaf senescence. The effects of drought on photosynthetic activity in the spike were studied in the spring bread wheat cultivars Saratovskaja 29 (drought resistant) and Leningradka (drought susceptible) under field conditions. The ^14^CO^2^-fixation on the spike scales, external and internal flower scales, spike internodes, and grain were analyzed during flowering and grain maturation. The drought-resistant Saratovskaja 29 was superior to Leningradka for all characters in drought conditions.




Department of Biotechnology, Plant Breeding and Genetics, 1 Teatralnaya Sg., Saratov 410600, Russian Federation.


The classification of wheat Rht genes according to their influence on spike and internode length.

Yu.V. Lobachev.

The effects of the 15 identified and some as-yet unidentified Rht genes were studied for more than 20 years using NILs of the spring bread wheat Saratovskaya 29. The specific influence of each Rht gene on spike height and internode length was revealed, and, on this basis, the studied Rht genes were classified (see Table 1) (Lobachev 1999).

Table 1. Characteristics of the model Rht gene types.
   Variety, gene    Loss in plant height, %
 Spike  First internode  Second internode  Spike and two upper internodes
 Recipient variety:  Saratovskaya 29    10    45    20    75
 Model types:
First Type
RhtA, RhtK, RhtN
 10  45  20  75
 Second Type
Rht-B1b, Rht-D1b, Rht4, Rht8, Rht14
 13  42  20  75
 Third Type
+ Rht-D1b,
Rht-D1b + Rht-B1c
 20  30  20  70
 Fourth Type
Rht5, RhtML
 10  50  20  80
 Fifth Type
RhtR, s1, Q
 10  40  25  75


All the studied genes have an influence on the spike height and internode length and can be classified into five types. The first type, which includes the RhtA, RhtK, and RhtN genes, reduces plant height approximately 10-18 %, but does not differ from Saratovskaya 29 in spike height and internode length. The Rht-B1b, Rht-D1b, Rht4, and Rht14 genes make up the second type, which reduces plant height 15-40 %, somewhat increases (4 %) the spike, and reduces (6 %) the height of the first internode without any influence on the other internodes. The third type includes the Rht-B1c, Rht-B1b + Rht-D1b, and Rht-D1b + Rht-B1c genes, which strongly reduce plant height (45-75 %) and significantly increase the spike (22 %), but reduce the height of the first internode (17 %) without any influence on the other internodes. The fourth type, comprised of the Rht5 and RhtML genes, reduces plant height 12-30 %, has no influence on the height of the spike (difference from Saratovskaya 29 is 1 %), but increases the height of the first internode lobe (about 4 %). The RhtR, s1, and Q genes could be classified as a fifth type. These genes reduce height nearly as much as those of the second group, but by the decrease (about 7 %) of the second internode from the spike. Some genes (i.e., RhtPK) are difficult to classify into any type, because of their peculiar influence on the spike and internode length.

In the Volga Region, the genes of the first, second, and fourth types do not have a negative influence on grain yield (except for Rht4), but genes of the third and fifth types have a distinctly negative effect on the grain yield.

On the basis of suggested gene types, it is possible to classify new and already known dwarfing genes with the aim of selecting the best of them to use in breeding wheat for certain regions of the world.


  • Lobachev YuV. 1999. Classification of wheat Rht genes on the base of morphological characteristics of ear and stem // Issues of seed production, plant breeding and genetics of crops in the arid Volga Region. Collected papers: Saratov State Agrarian University. Pp. 29-38 (in Russian).