Items from Spain.

ITEMS FROM SPAIN



UNIVERSITY OF LLEIDA AND
INSTITUTE FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY (UdL-IRTA)

Center of R&D, Rovira Roure 177, 25198 Lleida, Spain.

Bread wheat.

J. Lloveras and A. López-Querol.

Research in plant density, with high (Rinconada and Gazul), hybrid (Balsamina), and common (Anza) cultivars was conducted in the last 3 years.

 

Durum wheat.

C. Royo.

New variety. The new variety Boabdil has been released. Boabdil is well adapted to the Spanish areas of cultivation of durum wheat and also of good quality according to Spanish standards.

Influence of the T1Bl·1RS translocation on agronomic, storage-protein composition, and quality characteristics of durum wheat. Ph.D. dissertation of J.A. Zarco-Hernández (advisers A. Michelena and R.J. Peña). This study showed that a group of NILs from the cultivar Altar 84 carrying the T1BL·1RS translocation did not have better agronomic performance than the parent. However, the presence of the 1RS segment was associated with significant reductions in rheological properties and overall gluten strength and a significant increase in dough stickiness. These reductions were attributed mainly to the loss of a high amount of LMW glutenins that are controlled by the 1BL chromosome segment of durum wheat.

 

Quality determinations.

A. Michelena, J.A. Zarco-Hernández.

Relationship between the texture-profile analysis and gluten strength quality parameters of wheat dough. The suitability of the TA-XT2 instrument for evaluating dough texture was studied. The results show that dough firmness and dough stickiness are characteristics that could be used to establish genotypic differences. However, significant relationships occur between dough firmness, dough stickiness, dough gluten strength parameters (sedimentation test volume and W-alveograph value), and grain protein content.

 

Publications.

  • Royo C. 1999. Plant recovery and grain-yield formation in barley and triticale following forage removal at two cutting stages. J Agron Crop Sci 182:175-183.
  • Royo C, Voltas J, and Romagosa I. 1999. Remobilization of pre-anthesis assimilates to the grain for grain only and dual-purpose (forage and grain) triticale. Agron J 91(2):312-316.
  • Royo C and Blanco R. 1999. Growth analysis of five spring and five winter triticale genotypes. Agron J 91(2): 305-311.

 


UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID

Departamento de Biotecnología, E.T.S. Ingenieros Agrónomos, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

I. López-Braña, A. Delibes, and M.J. Montes.


CONSEJO SUPERIOR DE INVESTIGACIONES CIENTÍFICAS
Serrano, 115, 28006 Madrid, Spain.


D. Romero, M.F. Andres, and A. Duce.


UNIVERSITY OF LLEIDA AND
INSTITUTE FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY (UdL-IRTA)

Center of R&D, Rovira Roure 177, 25198 Lleida, Spain.


J.A. Martín-Sánchez, E. Sin, C. Martínez, and A. Michelena.


Biochemical, cytological, and agricultural studies of wheat lines with resistance genes to Heterodera avenae.

We have different, advanced lines of bread wheat with the Cre2 gene (from Ae. ventricosa) and others with the CreAet gene (from Ae. triuncialis). These lines are being evaluated for resistance and agronomic quality characters.

Line TR-353 (Romero et al. 1998), derived from the cross 'Ae. triuncialis/T. turgidum//T. aestivum' and with the resistance gene CreAet, is being characterized using cytological and biochemical methods. One segment, possibly translocated from one of the parents, has been observed by in situ hybridization. The 42-chromosome lines of TR-353 have a chromosome pair of D genome substituted by one from the B genome. Using the alkaline phosphatase and ß-amylase isoenzymes, we concluded that the substituted pair is for chromosome 4D.

Three biochemical markers derived from Ae. triuncialis also have been located in the TR-353 line; alkaline phosphatase and alcohol dehydrogenase (both of group 4 of homology) and malate dehydrogenase (group 5). In each of the three cases, the marker seems to be associated with the U genome. A linkage between these markers and nematode resistance has yet to be confirmed. Several crosses of TR-353 have been made with other resistance sources in order to study the relationship between the different genes.

We also have assessed isoenzyme variability among the principal species of the cereal cyst nematode complex to complete and enhance the information provided by classical nematode systematics and to clarify inter- and intraspecific relationships within this complex. Twenty populations of H. avenae, H. filipjevi, H. latipons, and H. mani were compared by means of five different isoenzymatic systems (esterase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucoisomerase, phosphoglucomutase, and superoxide dismutase) using IEF for electrophoretic separation. Polymorphism was detected in all systems analyzed, especially MDH, EST, and PGI. Cluster analyses of isoenzyme data from EST, PGM, PGI, MDH, and SOD were performed, and the resulting matrices were compared. In general, our results are in agreement with previous morphological (Valdeolivas and Romero 1990) and biochemical (López-Braña et al. 1996) characterizations, which established genetic diversity between the Gotland strain and H. avenae and identified the Gotland strain with H. filipjevi. The H. mani population also has been included in the H. avenae group by these isoenzyme analyses.

Experiments in both controlled and in field conditions demonstrated that two pathotypes of Spanish populations of H. avenae, belonging to the strict H. avenae group (P1) and H. filipjevi group (P2) (Romero et al. 1996; Lopez-Braña et al. 1996), were unable to overcome the resistance mechanisms conferred by the Cre2 gene in the H-93-8 resistant line (Delibes et al. 1993). The objectives of the present research (in collaboration with the research group guided by M.T. Bleve-Zacheo from the Istituto di Nematologia Agraria CNR Bari, Italy) were to investigate the outcome of H-93-8 line - P1 and P2 H. avenae pathotypes during infection and delineate the cytological changes associated with nematode restriction in plants. We demonstrated that wheat root cells undergo significant ultrastructural and biochemical modifications that correlate with the synthesis of oxidative enzymes (peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) and deposition of structural barriers that appear to prevent the successful relationship between host and nematode.

This work is being supported by Grant AGF-98-1057-CO4 from the Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología (CICYT) of Spain.

References.

  • Delibes A, Romero D, Aguaded S, Duce A, Mena M, López-Braña I, Andrés MF, Martín-Sánchez JA, and García-Olmedo F. 1993. Resistance to the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae Woll.) transferred from the wild grass Aegilops ventricosa to hexaploid wheat by a "stepping stone" procedure. Theor Appl Genet 87:402-408.
  • López-Braña I, Romero D, and Delibes A. 1996. Analysis of Heterodera avenae populations by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Genome 39:118-122.
  • Romero MD, Andrés MF, López-Braña I, and Delibes A. 1996. A pathogenic and biochemical comparison of two Spanish populations of the cereal cyst nematode. Nematol Medit 24:235-244.
  • Romero D, Montes MJ, Sin E, López-Braña I, Duce A, Martín-Sánchez JA, Andrés MF, and Delibes A. 1998. A cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae Woll.) resistance gene transferred from Aegilops triuncialis to hexaploid wheat. Theor Appl Genet 96:1135-1140.
  • Valdeolivas A and Romero MD. 1990). Morphometric relationship of some members of the Heterodera avenae complex (Nematoda: Heteroderidae). Nematologica 36:292-303.
  • Lagudah ES, Moullet O, Ogbonnaya F, Seah S, Eastwood R, Appels R, Jahier J, López-Braña I, and Delibes A. 1998. Cloning of disease resistance gene sequences at loci conferring cyst nematode resistance genes in wheat. In: Proc 9th Internat Wheat Genet Symp (Slinkard AE ed). University Extension Press, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. 1:184-186.
  • Lagudah ES, Moullet O, Ogbonnaya F, Seah S, Eastwood R, Appels R, Jahier J, López-Braña I, and Delibes A. 1998. Cyst nematode resistance genes in wheat. In: Proc 7th Internat Plant Path Cong, Edinburgh (Scotland). Paper 3.4.3S.
  • Nombela G and Romero MD. 1999. Host response to Pratylenchus thornei of a wheat line carrying the Cre2 gene for resistance to Heterodera avenae. Nematology 1(4):381-388.

 



UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID

Departamento de Biotecnología, E.T.S. Ingenieros Agrónomos, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

A. Delibes, I. López-Braña, M.J. Montes, J.J. Martín-Rodríguez, and E. Ansede.


UNIVERSITY OF LLEIDA AND
INSTITUTE FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY (UdL-IRTA)

Center of R&D, Rovira Roure 177, 25198 Lleida, Spain.


J.A. Martín-Sánchez, E. Sin, C. Martínez, and A. Michelena.


JUNTA DE EXTREMADURA

Servicio de Investigación Agraria, Finca La Orden, 06187 Guadajira, Badajoz, Spain.


J. del Moral, A. Mejías, and J. Jiménez.

A new resistance gene to Mayetiola destructor transferred from the wild grass Ae. triuncialis to hexaploid wheat: new studies about H27.

Resistance to the biotype of Hessian fly, prevailing in Badajoz (southwest Spain) has been detected in the line TR-353 derived from the cross 'Ae. triuncialis/T. turgidum/T. aestivum'. A single dominant gene conditions the resistance. Some data suggest that the resistance gene to Hessian fly could be located on chromosome 6C.

Line TR-353 also has a resistance gene CreAet (see contribution ¨Biochemical, cytological, and agricultural studies of wheat lines carrying resistance genes to Heterodera avenae¨ on page 122 of this publication and Romero et al. 1998).

In order to study the relationship of the resistance gene from TR-353 and other resistance sources, the line TR-353 has been crossed with T. aestivum cultivars Ella (H9 gene) and Kay (H11 gene). The F2 segregant plants were classified into resistant and susceptible, and the results were consistent with the hypothesis regarding two independent dominant genes. Other crosses are in process, and their results will be reported.

The process of transferring H27 from Ae. ventricosa to bread wheat continues. This work is facilitated by the linkage of the resistance gene with Acph-Mv1, an alkaline phosphatase isozyme marker. Isogenic lines, with and without H27 (in different bread wheat backgrounds), are being compared by different characters affecting seed production and bread quality.

Some lines with the gene for resistance look quite promising, such as Ma8 derived from the T. aestivum cultivars Astral and Adalid.

Line H-93-33 (with H27) has been crossed with lines having different Hessian fly resistance genes to study the relationship of gene H27 with the other genes. F2 plants of crosses with Abe (H5 gene) Ella (H9), Kay (H11), Howell (H3), Brule (H18), 841453 (H12), 86925RAI-16 (H24), and KS864 are being evaluated for resistance.

This work is being supported by Grant AGF-98-1057-CO4 from the Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología (CICYT) of Spain.

 

Publications.

  • Del Moral J, Delibes A, Martín JA, Mejías A, López-Braña I, Sin E, Martínez C, Montes MJ, and Jiménez J. 1999. Características genotípicas y fenotípicas de una colección de líneas de trigo resistentes al mosquito (Mayetiola destructor Say). Congreso Nacional de Entomología Aplicada. VII. Jornadas Científicas. Libro de Resúmenes: 96. Ed Junta de Andalucía (in Spanish).
  • Del Moral J, Mejías A, and Jiménez J. 1999. Eficacia de una alternativa de cultivos contra plagas de Mayetiola destructor Say. Congreso Nacional de Entomología Aplicada. VII. Jornadas Científicas. Libro de Resúmenes: 96. Ed Junta de Andalucía (in Spanish).