A Database for Triticeae and Avena
CIMMYT/ICARDA/TURKEY International Winter Wheat Improvement
P.K. 39 Emek, 06511 Ankara, Turkey.
H.J.Braun *, M. Mergoum *, H. Ketata **, H. Aktas ***, A. Bahci
****, N. Bolat ****, L. Cetin ****, H. Ekiz ****, M. Keser ****,
and K. Yalvac ****.
* CIMMYT, ** ICARDA, *** Plant Protection Institute, Ankara, and
**** Cereal Improvement Program, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
In the European part of Turkey, excessive rains in autumn of
1998 did not allow sowing of nearly 200,000 ha. The coastal areas
had normal rainfall. The Central Anatolian Plateau and southeast
Turkey suffered from severe drought, which reduced the wheat production
to 16 x 10^6^ tons, compared to 21 x 10^^ tons in 1997-98 and
the lowest figure during the last 10 years. Root and crown rots
were widespread on the Central Plateau and in the Marmara and
Thrace region. A severe yellow rust epidemic in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan,
Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan caused significant grain losses.
Forty two coöperators returned data for the 8th FAWWON
(grown in 1998-99), and the final report has been distributed.
Entries with the lowest scores for yellow and leaf rust are given
in Table 1.
Yield data from 14 locations were returned by cooperators of
the 3rd Elite Yield Trial for irrigated areas (3EYT-IRR) and by
18 coöperators of the 3rd Elite Yield Trial for rain-fed
areas (3EYT-RF). Table
2 and Table 3 provide
means for agronomic traits and disease scores. In both trials,
local checks are mostly susceptible to yellow and leaf rusts,
as shown by the high average scores for these two diseases.
Root, crown, or foot root rots are among the major diseases
of wheat worldwide, particularly in the dryland areas of the WANA
region. The occurrence and frequency of the causal agents vary
regionally. The damage caused by these pathogens varies from year
to year, as well as from field to field, depending upon the amount
of inoculum present, cultural practices, soil, and climatic conditions.
Root-rot diseases most often reduce seedling stand, yield, and
grain quality. Root rots can be caused by one or several pathogens
alone or in combination. The most commonly reported causal pathogens
are C. sativus, F. culmorum, F. graminearum,
and F. avenaceum.
Selection for resistant/tolerant cultivars is usually the most
economic, sustainable, and environmentally sound way to control
crop diseases. However, inadequate and inconsistent inoculation
methods and lack of accurate and suitable techniques for disease
evaluation have hindered screening wheat for root rot complex
disease. During the last decade, several studies has been conducted
in the WANA region to address this very complex disease that causes
substantial yield losses for farmers in the region. Recently,
the International Winter Wheat Improvement Program (IWWIP), involving
the National Agricultural Research Institutes in Turkey and the
international Centers of CIMMYT and ICARDA, decided to resume
work on root rots. Hence, in the 1999-00 crop season, more than
1,500 wheat cultivars and advanced lines were inoculated artificially
by root-rot pathogens and planted in Konya, Turkey, where root
rot is observed frequently and will be evaluated and screened
for resistance to this disease.
The bread and durum cultivars released in Turkey in 1997 and
1998 are listed in Table
CUKUROVA UNIVERSITY, ADANA
Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 01330 Adana,
Zinc (Zn) deficiency is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency
in crop plants in Turkey, especially in Central Anatolia, which
is the major wheat-growing area. The Zn-deficient areas in Turkey
cover 14 Mha of cultivated land equivalent to 50 % of the cultivated
Wheats grown in Central Anatolia were found to be highly responsive
to Zn fertilization. Relative increases in grain yield from Zn
fertilization on different locations ranged between 5 to 550 %
and had a mean of 43 %. The highest increases in grain yield (>
100 %) were found at locations where DTPA-extractable Zn concentrations
are below 0.12 mg/kg soil. When wheat is sown in such soils without
Zn fertilization, grain yields are extremely low and usually below
550 kg/ha. Soils containing < 0.3-0.4 mg Zn/kg soil DTPA-extractable
Zn were found to be responsive to Zn fertilization, particularly
in the case of durum wheats. Around 10 kg Zn/ha was adequate to
grow wheat without yield depression on Zn-deficient calcareous
Testing wheat cultivars on Zn-deficient calcareous soils in
Central Anatolia showed the existence of substantial variation
in tolerance to Zn deficiency, especially among bread wheats.
The most Zn-efficient (tolerant) cultivars were those developed
from crosses with local landraces. Anatolian bread wheat landraces
are very tolerant to Zn deficiency.
Several field and greenhouse experiments with different cereal
species have shown that rye and durum wheat have an exceptionally
high and low tolerance to Zn deficiency, respectively. Tolerance
of cereal species to Zn deficiency declined in the order rye >
triticale > barley > bread wheat > oat > durum wheat.
Tolerance to Zn deficiency also was studied in different Aegilops
and wild and primitive wheat species. Certain Aegilops species
were found to be exploited as an important genetic source for
Zn-efficiency genes, particularly Ae. speltoides var. ligustica
and Ae. triuncialis and some accessions of Ae. tauschii.
A large variation in tolerance to Zn deficiency also was found
among and within diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheats. All
wild, primitive and modern tetraploid wheats were extremely highly
sensitive to Zn deficiency, whereas primitive and wild diploid
wheats and most primitive hexaploid wheats had a higher tolerance
to Zn deficiency. These results with wild species of wheat suggest
that the AA and DD genomes possibly have genes responsible for
expression of high Zn efficiency in wheat. The BB genome of tetraploid
wheat also likely has suppressor genes for Zn efficiency. In good
agreement with these suggestions, studies with synthetic wheats
have demonstrated that the addition of the D genome from Ae.
tauschii or the A genome from T. monococcum to tetraploid
wheat markedly increased tolerance of the tetraploid wheat to
The physiological reasons for differential genotypic tolerances
to Zn deficiency were extensively studied, but there are still
questions to be answered. Increasing evidence suggests that an
efficient utilization of Zn at the cellular level seems to be
a major factor affecting expression of high tolerance to Zn deficiency.
However, a better utilization of Zn in tolerant genotypes has
to be associated with an enhanced Zn uptake rate by roots to maintain
high growth rates at low tissue concentrations of Zn.
THRACE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE
P.O. Box 16, Edirne, Turkey.
Saroz-95 was developed in 1995 at the Thrace Agricultural Research
Institute by combination breeding. The cross was 'Cor71-11460/3/Pkg/Lov13//JSW3'
and the pedigree is TE2682-1T-5T-1T-1T-0T. TE stands for Thrace-Edirne
and the T in the pedigree stands for the Thrace region where the
plant selection was made. The cultivar was developed and released
in 1995, but registered in 1999. Saroz-95 was named after the
bay, Saros, located in Thrace region. Some characteristics of
the cultivar are