A Database for Triticeae and Avena
UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO
Plant and Soil Science Department, Moscow, ID 83343, USA, and
the Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. Box AA, Aberdeen, ID
R. Zemetra, E. Souza, S. Guy, L. Robertson, P. Berger, N. Bosque-PJrez,
M. Lauver, J. Hansen, P. Shiel, K. O'Brien, M. Guttieri, D. Schotzko,
Y. Wu, L. Sorensen, J. Clayton, T. Linscott, Z. Wang, and R. McLean.
The 1999 Idaho winter wheat production was 53.9 million bushels,
a 15 % decrease from 1998. The decrease in production was due
to a decrease in the number of acres planted and harvested compared
to 1998. Yield per acre also decreased to 76 bu/acre, further
decreasing overall yield. Part of the reduction in yield can be
attributed to winter damage from low temperatures in December.
Temperatures also stayed cool into mid-spring, reducing the potential
for the development of spring tillers to compensate for the tillers
lost to winter damage. Because of a moderately severe winter,
foliar diseases did not develop until late in the growing season
and did not significantly affect production. Because of the short
vegetaive period in the early spring, the wheats were shorter
than normal, resulting in little or no lodging. Statistics for
the Idaho winter wheat production for the last 5 years are in
In the last year, two wheat support personnel have left the
wheat programs in northern Idaho. Mary Moore resigned her position
in the extension program of Dr. Stephen Guy to take a position
in with Dr. R. Line, USDA-ARS, wheat pathology, Pullman, WA. Ying
Wu, hired as her replacement, previously had been one of the scientific
aides in the University of Idaho's barley enhancement program
in Aberdeen. Mary Lauver resigned from the SWWW breeding program
and moved to western New York. Randy Lawrence joined the wheat
breeding program in Moscow as a graduate student. His research
will be in the area of genotypic response to direct seeding technology.
The Aberdeen breeding program released the HRW Hayden, in a
coöperative arrangement with Colorado State University for
the wheat growers of NW Colorado. Hayden was tested under the
line number IDO465.
Foundation seed was produced of the newly released HRSW cultivar
Iona (IDO492). Iona is a tall, high-protein wheat for rain-fed
production where Amidon presently is grown.
The HWSW IDO533 is proposed for release in 2000. IDO533 is
a replacement for Idaho 377s. In 99 yield trials across the PNW
from 1997-99, IDO533 had a 3 bu/acre higher yield than Idaho 377s,
with approximately half the lodging and similar grain quality.
The University of Idaho likely will seek a licensed release of
Breeder seed was produced of IDO523, a second HWSW. Similar
to the Oregon HWS Winsome, IDO523 likely will not be released.
IDO533 was submitted to the Asian Products Collaborative Trials
sponsored by US Wheat Associates. Three HWWWs, IDO539, IDO550,
and IDO551, are currently under evaluation in regional trials.
All three are in a large trial with the HWW NuWest to produce
seed for the PNW Wheat Quality Council next year. We plan to submit
two experimental lines in comparison with NuWest. All four experimental
lines are adapted to rain-fed production in southern Idaho. They
also are in north Idaho trials conducted by Bob Zemetra. Performance
in northern Idaho will be an important factor in selecting HWWW
lines for the PNW Wheat Quality Council. Yields of the lines have
been comparable to those of the best HRRWs and are shown in Table
2. These lines also have good bread quality and noodle color.
The Moscow breeding program decided to not release ID 10085-5
as a cultivar and will instead make it available as a germ plasm
release. Soft white winter wheat usually has moderate RWA resistance,
primarily antibiosis, but ID 10085-5 also shows some tolerance.
In the 1998-99 growing season, dwarf smut was found on the
cultivars Weston and Promontory in the on-farm trial at the Brad
Smith farm near Preston, ID. These cultivars have resistance genes
Bt9 and Bt10 and have been resistant to PNW dwarf
smut populations. In a cursory survey after harvest, the incidence
of disease on these cultivars appeared localized along the eastern
side of the Cache Valley near the Bear River. Yet, in the original
field surrounding the trial, some localized areas had as high
as 30 % incidence of bunted tillers with an average for the whole
field of approximately 1 %. With Blair Goates and Bob Forster,
we are following up to confirm the virulence of these dwarf bunt
populations on the full range of PNW HRWWs. We did not observe
dwarf bunt on Bonneville either in the Smith trial or in commercial
production. Many Idaho HRWW breeding lines and cultivars have
different sources of bunt resistance from Weston and Manning.
If a race change has occurred, cultivars with alternative sources
of resistance like Bonneville may still have viable resistance
in the Cache Valley. Based on host-plant resistance genes, Manning,
Hansel, Utah 100, and Golden Spike have patterns of dwarf bunt
susceptibility similar to those of Weston and Promontory.
Todd Linscott completed his Ph.D. research on the development
of molecular markers for RWA resistance in wheat. An AFLP, bulk-segregant
analysis was used to identify potential markers for resistance
in an F2-segregating population. A marker was identified 5.5 cM
from the resistance gene in PI 151918, and a second marker was
identified 7.5 cM from the resistance gene in PI 225245. Chromosome-specific
microsatellites were used to determine the chromosome location
of the resistance genes. The resistance gene in PI 151918 is on
chromosome 1DS, and the resistance gene in PI 225245 is on chromosome
7DL. The molecular marker in PI 151918 most likely is linked to
Dn4, although based on microsatellite linkage distances,
the gene associated with the molecular marker in PI 225245 is
Screening for Hessian fly resistance in spring wheats is being
done in the laboratory and field. Segregating populations originating
from the crosses 'WGRC20/2*IDO415' and 'IDO470*2/WGRC20' were
evaluated for fly resistance in the laboratory. WGRC20 is a HRWW
that has the H25 gene for Hessian fly resistance. Progeny
plants originating from the crosses exhibited high levels of resistance,
although the percentage of resistant plants varied by genotype.
A molecular marker technique is being used to confirm the presence
of the H25 gene in the resistant plants.
In situ hybridization techniques have been developed to visualize
A-, B-, and C-genome chromosomes in backcross progeny of 'wheat/jointed
goatgrass' hybrids. Retention of 1, 2, and 3 A/B-genome chromosomes
have been observed in BC2S2 plants. A translocation involving
an A/B-genome chromosome and a C/D-genome chromosome also was
observed in one BC2S2. C-genome visualization appears to be a
method to determine the pollen-donor parent in field-derived BC1
plants allowing for a better prediction of the potential for gene
movement from wheat to jointed goatgrass (Ae. cylindrica).