A Database for Triticeae and Avena
NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Plant Sciences, Fargo, ND 58078, USA.
W.A. Berzonsky, S.L. Kleven, and G.D. Leach.
Overall, 1999 HRSW production in North Dakota was estimated
to be 8 % lower than for 1998. North Dakota growers harvested
approximately 5.6 million acres of the 5.9 million acres planted
with an average statewide yield of 30 bu/acre. The top HRSW cultivars
for acres planted were 2375, Russ, Amidon, and Gunner. These four
cultivars accounted for nearly 53 % of all HRSW plantings in North
Dakota. Hard white spring wheat production in North Dakota was
limited. The acreage consisted mainly of Argent, which has not
been classified as a white wheat by the U.S. Federal Grain Inspection
Many ND growers experienced delays in planting because of wet
weather, and wet weather at harvest also led to flooding and the
abandonment of HRSW acres. In general, losses to FHB throughout
the state were not nearly as significant as in previous years.
However, losses in 1999 to leaf rust and Septoria leaf spotting
were more significant than in previous years. One estimate was
that leaf rust caused an average yield loss of 4-8 % throughout
In 1999, Argent, the only North Dakota released HWSW, and 35
advanced North Dakota HWSW lines were evaluated for yield and
disease performance in four tests at Casselton and Prosper, ND.
Grain samples from separate individual tests from both locations
were analyzed for bread-making quality and possible noodle quality
using a whole-seed polyphenol oxidase assay. Two advanced North
Dakota HWSW lines exhibited significantly higher yield than Argent
in two of the four tests, and one line exhibited improved disease
resistance across all tests. Twelve lines exhibited bread-making
characteristics equivalent to or better than those of Argent.
One line exhibited low expression of activity, as indicated by
less seed darkening of whole-seeds relative to controls. Therefore,
it may produce a better quality noodle product compared with Argent.
These data were presented as a poster entitled 'Agronomic Performance
and Characterization of North Dakota Hard White Spring Wheat'
at the Annual American Society of Agronomy Meetings. Additional
data on kernel color and sprouting were presented at the National
Association of Wheat Growers Annual Meetings in Las Vegas, NV,
in February 2000. Dr. Berzonsky is growing white wheat hybrids
and increasing seed in New Zealand, and he is making selections
in the New Zealand increase nursery in February 2000. He also
will combine his trip to New Zealand with a visit to Perth, W.
Australia, to observe white wheat production practices and interact
with white wheat breeders and cereal scientists specializing in
developing white wheat for noodle quality.
In 1999, students recruited included David Boehm (Plant Sciences
Department) and Tami Langstaff (Cereal Science Department). Both
students are M.S. degree candidates. David Boehm's advisor is
Dr. Berzonsky, and his research involves transferring genes for
high protein and low-amylose starch into white wheat genotypes
with the help of molecular markers. Dr. Kianian has helped Mr.
Boehm identify a PCR marker for a high-protein gene, which will
be used to follow transfer of this trait to white wheat. Tami
Langstaff's advisors are Drs. Frank Manthey and Monisha Bhattacharya
(Cereal Science Assistant Professor with expertise in carbohydrate
research). Ms. Langstaff's research focuses on examining the quality
characteristics of white wheat genotypes with various levels of
amylose starch and how starch variation impacts end-use quality.
She has examined nine wheat genotypes, grown in the spring of
1999, for variation in starch characteristics. She reports that
three white wheat types appear to have significantly different
starch peak viscosity patterns. Whole grain analyses of white
wheat samples harvested in 1999 are nearly completed, and samples
currently are being milled for processing into noodles for evaluation.
As part of a 1999 USDA Alternative Crops Grant, Dr. Michael Peel
grew white wheat genotypes at several North Dakota locations under
different nitrogen fertility treatments. Samples currently are
being evaluated for protein and other quality characteristics.
Dr. Patricia Berglund, Director, Northern Crops Institute surveyed
over 200 wheat buyers from the Pacific Rim regarding their intended
purchases and end-uses for white wheat, and Dr. William Wilson
is continuing a market analyses to determine marketing strategies.
These will assess the competitiveness of white wheat under current
economic conditions in the region.
In 1999, funds for a double-haploid project were provided by
the North Dakota State Board of Agricultural Research, the North
Dakota Wheat Commission, and the North Dakota Farmers Union. Double-haploids
are produced by 'wheat x maize' crosses. The objectives of this
project are to expedite the development of wheat cultivars and
rapidly produce homozygous lines for the identification of molecular
markers. In 1999, Ms. Sara Kleven was hired as a research specialist
to manage the project. The technique was applied originally to
a limited number of important F1 hybrids produced for transferring
scab resistance, high protein, and/or noodle quality to white
spring wheat genotypes. A total of 551 wheat florets were pollinated,
and 2 % of these were regenerated into haploid plants. We are
working to improve the efficiency of embryo rescue, plant regeneration,
and recovery of double-haploid plants.