A Database for Triticeae and Avena
P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210, USA.
H.E. Bockelman, D.M. Wesenberg, C.A. Erickson, B.J. Goates,
and S. Nieto, National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility,
USDA-ARS, University of Idaho Coöperating, Aberdeen, Idaho.
The USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) is one
of the several components of the National Plant Germplasm System.
The NSGC is a working collection in contrast to the base collection
at the National Seed Storage Laboratory (NSSL) at Fort Collins,
CO. The numbers of accessions in the NSGC are summarized Table
Table 1. Number of accessions per genus in
the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection, February, 1999.
The systematic evaluation of wheat accessions in the NSGC and
other elite germ plasm continued to be coördinated or conducted
by National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility (NSGGRF)
staff at Aberdeen during 1999. Maintenance and evaluation of NSGC
small grains germ plasm, including quarantine entries, also continued
at Maricopa, AZ, in 1998-99 under the supervision of S. Nieto.
Coöperative NSGC wheat evaluations continued for reaction
to Hessian fly, stripe and leaf rust, common and dwarf bunt, and
powdery mildew. The Aberdeen staff has been directly involved
in the entry of NSGC evaluation data into the GRIN system (www.ars-grin.gov/npgs)
and the evaluation of growth habit of NSGC wheat accessions. Under
the direction of H.E. Bockelman, the NSGC staff distributed more
than 50,000 NSGC accessions in 1999 to scientists in the U.S.
Specific coöperative agreements or within ARS Fund Transfers
involving coöperative evaluations and related research for
all small grains involve several university and ARS projects in
at least 15 states. Fund transfers concerned with wheat germ plasm
evaluations involve Pullman, WA (Line); West Lafayette, IN (Ratcliffe);
and Davis, CA (Qualset).
A specific coöperative agreement entitled 'Evaluation
of Wheat Germplasm for Resistance to Karnal Bunt Disease' was
initiated in 1996 with CIMMYT. Dr. G. Fuentes Davila, Dr. S. Rajaram,
and Dr. Jesse Dubin have been the principal CIMMYT investigators
on the project. The project is designed to evaluate the reaction
of established spring wheat varieties, elite spring wheat germ
plasm, and selected NSGC accessions to Karnal bunt disease. Research
was performed at CIMMYT facilities at Ciudad Obregon, Sonora,
Mexico. The wheats included proprietary varieties developed by
AgriPro, Arizona Plant Breeders, Northrup King, Pioneer HiBred
International, Inc., Resources Seeds, Inc., Western Plant Breeders,
and World Wide Wheat (Seeds West) as well as varieties and selections
developed in the public sector in California, Florida, Georgia,
Idaho, Louisiana, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon, South Carolina,
South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, California/Australia, CIMMYT/California,
Pioneer/North Dakota Research Foundation, USDA-ARS/Idaho, USDA-ARS/Minnesota,
Washington/Idaho/USDA-ARS, and Washington/Oregon. Selected NSGC
wheat accessions also were included in these evaluations. Reports
of the Karnal Bunt Evaluation Trials were distributed to coöperators
each year. Additional copies of the summary reports are available
upon request. A relatively small nursery is currently being evaluated
in the 1999-2000 season.
Descriptors appropriate for wheat have been established in
collaboration with the Wheat Crop Germplasm Committee. Field evaluation
data are recorded on such descriptors as growth habit, number
of days from planting to anthesis (heading), plant height, spike
or panicle density, lodging, straw breakage, shattering, and awn
and glume characteristics, including color. Special nurseries
are grown for that purpose at Aberdeen, Idaho and Maricopa, AZ.
Data obtained from evaluations of NSGC germ plasm are entered
in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) system by
the NSGGRF staff in coöperation with the ARS National Germplasm
Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, MD. GRIN is a database containing
the characteristics and availability of all genetic resources
included in the National Plant Germplasm System. The Database
Manager is J.D. Mowder, Beltsville, Maryland. The NSGGRF staff
interacts with the GRIN system in recording NSGC orders (seed
requests), entering a variety of data, and conducting information
searches. No evaluations have been conducted to date for descriptors
such as drought tolerance; salt tolerance; winterhardiness; resistance
to Cephalosporium stripe, flag smut, leaf blight, loose smut,
snow mold, take-all, tan spot, and WSMV; and protein.
Triticum descriptors with data currently on the GRIN
system are summarized in Table 2.
Similar evaluations are currently underway for other major
NSGC components, including barley, oats, rice, and triticale.
Other important coöperative projects, especially involving
wheat, include the Specific Cooperative Agreement 'Acquisition,
Evaluation, and Conservation Strategies for Small Grains Genetic
Resources' (University of California, Davis - C.O. Qualset). B.J.
Goates annually conducts evaluations of wheat germ plasm for bunt
resistance at Aberdeen, ID,o and Logan, UT.
The authors wish to acknowledge the important contributions
of the NSGGRF staff in this effort, with special thanks to Glenda
B. Rutger, Scott McNeil, Carol S. Truman, Judy Bradley, Kathy
E. Burrup, Kay B. Calzada, Karla Reynolds, Dave E. Burrup, and
Mark A. Bohning.
An Hang, USDA-ARS, National Small Grains Germplasm Research
Facility, Aberdeen, ID, USA.
A major portion of the E.R. Sears Wheat Genetic Stocks Collection
has been transferred to the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Germplasm
Research Facility at Aberdeen, ID. These stocks consist of various
aneuploids of Chinese Spring wheat, including: monosomic; trisomic;
tetrasomic; nullisomic-tetrasomic; ditelosomic; double monotelosomic;
dimonotelosomic; monotelodisomic; double ditelosomic; and various
addition, substitution, and translocation lines. A list of these
stocks and seed are available upon request to Dr. An Hang, USDA-ARS,
P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210. The stocks can also be found
online on GRIN (www.ars-grin.gov/npgs) under the site name GSTR.
H.E. Bockelman, USDA-ARS, National Small Grains Collection,
Aberdeen, ID, USA.
Cultivar name clearance. Breeders in the United States
are encouraged to have proposed names for new cultivars checked
for duplication. The National Small Grains Collection will be
glad to assist you. Send the proposed name to: Harold E. Bockelman,
USDA-ARS-NSGC, P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210, Fax 208-3974165,
E-mail to email@example.com. If desired, more than one name
may be submitted, listed in order of preference. This will save
considerable time if a conflict is found with the first name.
Available records (GRIN, CI/PI cards, variety files, etc.) here
at Aberdeen are checked for conflicts with the proposed name.
If a conflict is found (previous use of the name for that crop),
the breeder is requested to submit a different name. If no conflicts
are found, the requested name is forwarded to the Federal Seed
Lab, Agricultural Marketing Service where the proposed name is
checked against the databases they maintain. The Agricultural
Marketing Service does not guarantee that its findings are the
final word since their is no single, complete name database. This
clearance procedure generally requires about four weeks. Trademark
searches should be done by the breeder online at http://www.uspto.gov.
Elite germ plasm requested. Breeders are encouraged
to consider submitting their elite lines for inclusion in the
NSGC. Of special interest are lines that have been in uniform
nurseries, but are not to be released as cultivars. Historically,
uniform nurseries been the testing grounds for the most advanced,
elite germ plasm from the various public and private breeding
programs. Entries in uniform nurseries and other breeding materials
that are never released as cultivars are still of potential value
to breeders, pathologists, entomologists, and other researchers.
Breeders should submit 200-500 g of untreated seed to the NSGC
(address: P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210). Seed from outside
of the United States should be sent to the USDA Plant Germplasm
Quarantine Center (address: Bldg. 580, BARC-East, Beltsville,
MD 20705) with enclosed forwarding directions. Provide a description
of the germ plasm, including donor (breeder, institution); botanical
and common name; cultivar name and/or other identifiers (breeder
line or selection number, etc.); pedigree; descriptive information
(of important traits and special characteristics); and growth
habit. Assignment of a PI number and inclusion in the NSGC makes
the germ plasm available for research purposes to bona fide scientists
in the U.S. and worldwide. Please note that a different procedure
applies if you are obtaining Crop Science registration. Follow
directions provided by the crop registration committee.
Guidelines for exporting seed. All seed sent to a foreign
country should be inspected and receive a phytosanitary certificate.
In most cases, a fee payable to APHIS (Animal & Plant Health
Inspection Service) is required to cover the cost of the phytosanitary
certificate. You may wish to work with APHIS personnel in your
state or your State Department of Agriculture to obtain a phytosanitary
certificate. Also, please be aware of any import permits and additional
declarations that certain importing countries may require to accompany
Guidelines for importing seed. Any scientist importing
seed should be aware of any restrictions that apply. APHIS personnel
can provide current information on applicable restrictions. Of
particular importance to wheat researchers are import restrictions
related to flag smut and karnal bunt. Presently, some 34 countries
have flag smut import restrictions. Six countries currently have
karnal bunt import restrictions. Importation of seed from flag
smut and Karnal bunt countries requires a permit from APHIS. Special
handling and grow-out procedures apply to such shipments.
PI Assignments in
Triticum from January 1999-April 2000.
More details about these and other accessions in the NSGC can
be found on the GRIN website: http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/.