IV. Cultivars and Germplasm



P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210, USA.

National Small Grains Collection wheat germplasm evaluations.

H.E. Bockelman, D.M. Wesenberg, C.A. Erickson, B.J. Goates, and S. Nieto, National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility, USDA-ARS, University of Idaho Coöperating, Aberdeen, Idaho.

The USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) is one of the several components of the National Plant Germplasm System. The NSGC is a working collection in contrast to the base collection at the National Seed Storage Laboratory (NSSL) at Fort Collins, CO. The numbers of accessions in the NSGC are summarized Table 1.

Table 1. Number of accessions per genus in the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection, February, 1999.

Taxonomy NSGC Accessions
X Triticosecale
All Species


The systematic evaluation of wheat accessions in the NSGC and other elite germ plasm continued to be coördinated or conducted by National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility (NSGGRF) staff at Aberdeen during 1999. Maintenance and evaluation of NSGC small grains germ plasm, including quarantine entries, also continued at Maricopa, AZ, in 1998-99 under the supervision of S. Nieto. Coöperative NSGC wheat evaluations continued for reaction to Hessian fly, stripe and leaf rust, common and dwarf bunt, and powdery mildew. The Aberdeen staff has been directly involved in the entry of NSGC evaluation data into the GRIN system (www.ars-grin.gov/npgs) and the evaluation of growth habit of NSGC wheat accessions. Under the direction of H.E. Bockelman, the NSGC staff distributed more than 50,000 NSGC accessions in 1999 to scientists in the U.S. and worldwide.

Specific coöperative agreements or within ARS Fund Transfers involving coöperative evaluations and related research for all small grains involve several university and ARS projects in at least 15 states. Fund transfers concerned with wheat germ plasm evaluations involve Pullman, WA (Line); West Lafayette, IN (Ratcliffe); and Davis, CA (Qualset).

A specific coöperative agreement entitled 'Evaluation of Wheat Germplasm for Resistance to Karnal Bunt Disease' was initiated in 1996 with CIMMYT. Dr. G. Fuentes Davila, Dr. S. Rajaram, and Dr. Jesse Dubin have been the principal CIMMYT investigators on the project. The project is designed to evaluate the reaction of established spring wheat varieties, elite spring wheat germ plasm, and selected NSGC accessions to Karnal bunt disease. Research was performed at CIMMYT facilities at Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. The wheats included proprietary varieties developed by AgriPro, Arizona Plant Breeders, Northrup King, Pioneer HiBred International, Inc., Resources Seeds, Inc., Western Plant Breeders, and World Wide Wheat (Seeds West) as well as varieties and selections developed in the public sector in California, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, California/Australia, CIMMYT/California, Pioneer/North Dakota Research Foundation, USDA-ARS/Idaho, USDA-ARS/Minnesota, Washington/Idaho/USDA-ARS, and Washington/Oregon. Selected NSGC wheat accessions also were included in these evaluations. Reports of the Karnal Bunt Evaluation Trials were distributed to coöperators each year. Additional copies of the summary reports are available upon request. A relatively small nursery is currently being evaluated in the 1999-2000 season.

Descriptors appropriate for wheat have been established in collaboration with the Wheat Crop Germplasm Committee. Field evaluation data are recorded on such descriptors as growth habit, number of days from planting to anthesis (heading), plant height, spike or panicle density, lodging, straw breakage, shattering, and awn and glume characteristics, including color. Special nurseries are grown for that purpose at Aberdeen, Idaho and Maricopa, AZ.

Data obtained from evaluations of NSGC germ plasm are entered in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) system by the NSGGRF staff in coöperation with the ARS National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, MD. GRIN is a database containing the characteristics and availability of all genetic resources included in the National Plant Germplasm System. The Database Manager is J.D. Mowder, Beltsville, Maryland. The NSGGRF staff interacts with the GRIN system in recording NSGC orders (seed requests), entering a variety of data, and conducting information searches. No evaluations have been conducted to date for descriptors such as drought tolerance; salt tolerance; winterhardiness; resistance to Cephalosporium stripe, flag smut, leaf blight, loose smut, snow mold, take-all, tan spot, and WSMV; and protein.

Triticum descriptors with data currently on the GRIN system are summarized in Table 2.


Table 2. National Small Grains Collection evaluation of disease; insect; and agronomic, taxonomic, and quality data for wheat on the GRIN system (updated February, 1998).
 Character  Years  Location  Number of accessions
 Disease evaluations.
 Barley yellow dwarf virus  1985-92  Davis, CA  2,287
 Barley yellow dwarf virus  1988-94  Urbana, IL  17,517
 Soilborne mosaic virus  1985-89  Urbana, IL  6,587
 Leaf rust  1983-89, 91-95  Manhattan, KS  38,753
 Stripe rust - adult  1984-99  Mt. Vernon, WA  33,430
 Stripe rust - adult  1984-99  Pullman, WA  24,402
 Stripe rust - Cdl 17  1984-98  Pullman, WA  16,642
 Stripe rust - Cdl 20  1984-95  Pullman, WA  12,508
 Stripe rust - Cdl 25  1984-95  Pullman, WA  1,682
 Stripe rust - Cdl 27  1984-95  Pullman, WA  14,511
 Stripe rust - Cdl 29  1984-95  Pullman, WA  14,259
 Stripe rust - Cdl 37  1984-98  Pullman, WA  3,118
 Stripe rust - Cdl 43  1984-98  Pullman, WA  3,113
 Stripe rust - Cdl 45  1984-98  Pullman, WA  3,139
 Stem rust - adult  1987-94  Rosemount, MN  8,078
 Stem rust - adult  1987-94  St. Paul, MN  19,141
 Stem rust - HJCS  1987-92  St. Paul, MN  4,342
 Stem rust - QFBS  1987-92  St. Paul, MN  8,639
 Stem rust - QSHS  1987-92  St. Paul, MN  4,455
 Stem rust - RHRS  1987-92  St. Paul, MN  4,312
 Stem rust - RTQQ  1987-92  St. Paul, MN  8,973
 Stem rust - TNMH  1987-92  St. Paul, MN  4,402
 Stem rust - TNMK  1987-92  St. Paul, MN  8,938
 Stem rust - HNLQ  1987-92  St. Paul, MN  4,705
 Stem rust - RKQS  1987-92  St. Paul, MN  4,682
 Stem rust - genes  1987-92  St. Paul, MN  1,018
 Common bunt - R36  1981-92  Aberdeen, ID *  74
 Common bunt - R39  1981-92  Aberdeen, ID *  1,422
 Common bunt - R43  1981-92  Aberdeen, ID *  318
 Common bunt - T-1  1981-92  Aberdeen, ID *  6,301
 Common bunt - multiple  1981-99  Aberdeen, ID *  13,874
 Dwarf bunt  1978-99  Aberdeen, ID **  12,646
 Septoria nodorum  1970-78  Bozeman, MT  8,095
 Insect evaluations.
 Hessian fly - B  1983-94  W. Lafayette, IN and Manhattan, KS  449
 Hessian fly - C  1983-94  W. Lafayette, IN and Manhattan, KS  24,165
 Hessian fly - E  1983-94  W. Lafayette, IN and Manhattan, KS  24,149
 Hessian fly - GP  1983-94  W. Lafayette, IN and Manhattan, KS  14,441
 Hessian fly - L  1983-97  W. Lafayette, IN and Manhattan, KS  8,315
 Russian wheat aphid  1988-95  Stillwater, OK  40,842
 Cereal leaf beetle  1963-70  Indiana and Michigan  16,347
 Agronomic, taxonomic, and quality evaluations.
 Growth habit  1987-99  Aberdeen, ID  43,433
 Chromosome number  1988-91  Columbia, MO  519
 Market class      1,411
 Lysine content  1966-69  Lincoln, NE  10,367
 Awn color  1983-97  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  22,652
 Awn type  1983-97  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  26,563
 Glume color  1983-97  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  22,814
 Glume pubescence  1983-97  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  24,314
 Heading date  1983-94  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  18,365
 Kernel color  1983-94  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  21,319
 Kernels / spike  1983-94  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  3,666
 Kernel weight  1983-94  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  3,669
 Leaf pubescence  1983-94  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  20,890
 Plant height  1983-97  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  21,841
 Rachis length  1995  Maricopa, AZ  2,512
 Shattering  1983-94  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  10,637
 Spike density  1983-98  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  15,825
 Spikelets / spike  1995  Maricopa, AZ  2,502
 Spike type  1983-97  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  15,553
 Straw breakage  1983-94  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  16,831
 Straw color  1983-97  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  19,624
 Straw lodging  1983-94  Aberdeen, ID and Maricopa, AZ  23,077
 * 1985-86 Pendleton, OR; ** field tests are conducted at Logan, UT, by Aberdeen ARS staff.


Similar evaluations are currently underway for other major NSGC components, including barley, oats, rice, and triticale. Other important coöperative projects, especially involving wheat, include the Specific Cooperative Agreement 'Acquisition, Evaluation, and Conservation Strategies for Small Grains Genetic Resources' (University of California, Davis - C.O. Qualset). B.J. Goates annually conducts evaluations of wheat germ plasm for bunt resistance at Aberdeen, ID,o and Logan, UT.

The authors wish to acknowledge the important contributions of the NSGGRF staff in this effort, with special thanks to Glenda B. Rutger, Scott McNeil, Carol S. Truman, Judy Bradley, Kathy E. Burrup, Kay B. Calzada, Karla Reynolds, Dave E. Burrup, and Mark A. Bohning.


Wheat Genetic Stocks Collection.

An Hang, USDA-ARS, National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility, Aberdeen, ID, USA.

A major portion of the E.R. Sears Wheat Genetic Stocks Collection has been transferred to the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility at Aberdeen, ID. These stocks consist of various aneuploids of Chinese Spring wheat, including: monosomic; trisomic; tetrasomic; nullisomic-tetrasomic; ditelosomic; double monotelosomic; dimonotelosomic; monotelodisomic; double ditelosomic; and various addition, substitution, and translocation lines. A list of these stocks and seed are available upon request to Dr. An Hang, USDA-ARS, P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210. The stocks can also be found online on GRIN (www.ars-grin.gov/npgs) under the site name GSTR.


National Small Grains Collection activities.

H.E. Bockelman, USDA-ARS, National Small Grains Collection, Aberdeen, ID, USA.

Cultivar name clearance. Breeders in the United States are encouraged to have proposed names for new cultivars checked for duplication. The National Small Grains Collection will be glad to assist you. Send the proposed name to: Harold E. Bockelman, USDA-ARS-NSGC, P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210, Fax 208-3974165, E-mail to nsgchb@ars-grin.gov. If desired, more than one name may be submitted, listed in order of preference. This will save considerable time if a conflict is found with the first name. Available records (GRIN, CI/PI cards, variety files, etc.) here at Aberdeen are checked for conflicts with the proposed name. If a conflict is found (previous use of the name for that crop), the breeder is requested to submit a different name. If no conflicts are found, the requested name is forwarded to the Federal Seed Lab, Agricultural Marketing Service where the proposed name is checked against the databases they maintain. The Agricultural Marketing Service does not guarantee that its findings are the final word since their is no single, complete name database. This clearance procedure generally requires about four weeks. Trademark searches should be done by the breeder online at http://www.uspto.gov.

Elite germ plasm requested. Breeders are encouraged to consider submitting their elite lines for inclusion in the NSGC. Of special interest are lines that have been in uniform nurseries, but are not to be released as cultivars. Historically, uniform nurseries been the testing grounds for the most advanced, elite germ plasm from the various public and private breeding programs. Entries in uniform nurseries and other breeding materials that are never released as cultivars are still of potential value to breeders, pathologists, entomologists, and other researchers. Breeders should submit 200-500 g of untreated seed to the NSGC (address: P.O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210). Seed from outside of the United States should be sent to the USDA Plant Germplasm Quarantine Center (address: Bldg. 580, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705) with enclosed forwarding directions. Provide a description of the germ plasm, including donor (breeder, institution); botanical and common name; cultivar name and/or other identifiers (breeder line or selection number, etc.); pedigree; descriptive information (of important traits and special characteristics); and growth habit. Assignment of a PI number and inclusion in the NSGC makes the germ plasm available for research purposes to bona fide scientists in the U.S. and worldwide. Please note that a different procedure applies if you are obtaining Crop Science registration. Follow directions provided by the crop registration committee.

Guidelines for exporting seed. All seed sent to a foreign country should be inspected and receive a phytosanitary certificate. In most cases, a fee payable to APHIS (Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service) is required to cover the cost of the phytosanitary certificate. You may wish to work with APHIS personnel in your state or your State Department of Agriculture to obtain a phytosanitary certificate. Also, please be aware of any import permits and additional declarations that certain importing countries may require to accompany the shipment.

Guidelines for importing seed. Any scientist importing seed should be aware of any restrictions that apply. APHIS personnel can provide current information on applicable restrictions. Of particular importance to wheat researchers are import restrictions related to flag smut and karnal bunt. Presently, some 34 countries have flag smut import restrictions. Six countries currently have karnal bunt import restrictions. Importation of seed from flag smut and Karnal bunt countries requires a permit from APHIS. Special handling and grow-out procedures apply to such shipments.


PI Assignments in Triticum from January 1999-April 2000.


More details about these and other accessions in the NSGC can be found on the GRIN website: http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/.