Items from the United States - Texas.

ITEMS FROM THE UNITED STATES

 

TEXAS


TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY

Texas A&M University Agricultural Research & Extension Center, 6500 Amarillo Blvd, West, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA.

Texas A&M University Agricultural Research & Extension Center, Drawer E, Overton, TX 75684, USA.


Personnel.

Dr. David Worrall has resigned his position as Wheat Breeder with the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research & Extension Center at Vernon. He has joined AgriPro Seeds, Inc. and will continue to be located in Vernon, TX.

Dr. Allen Fritz has resigned his position as Wheat Breeder in the Department of Soil and Crop Sciences at College Station. He will be employed by Kansas State University in April of 2000.

 

Amarillo.

M.D. Lazar, G.J. Michels, Jr., B. Bean, G.L. Peterson, K.B. Porter, C.M. Rush, W. Payne, J.E. Simmons, Y. Weng, and S.R. Winter.

Dr. William Payne, previously with Oregon State University at Pendleton, has joined the staff as associate professor in stress physiology beginning 1 March, 2000.

1999 crop year. The summer of 1998 was by far the driest on record, and the 1999 wheat crop began with little stored soil moisture. The situation was reversed with a single rain event of 4-6 inches on 30-31 October. The remainder of the winter was warmer than normal, with above-normal moisture. Higher than normal precipitation continued through the growing season. Record dryland yields were obtained in many commercial fields, ranging from 70 to over 100 bu/acre. Top dryland yields in elite breeding nurseries were obtained from the varieties TAM 302, TAM 202, and Jagger. Early lodging, BYDV, and some leaf rust reduced irrigated yields, but the highest irrigated yields were obtained for the varieties TAM 302, Hickok, Pecos, and 2174. Lodging was greatest for the varieties Lockett, TAM 200, TAM 201, Jagger, and Betty. Significant shattering was observed for the varieties TAM 202, Thunderbolt, Tomahawk, and Ogallala.

 

Dallas.

D. Marshall and R. L. Sutton.

Crystal England, an M.S. graduate student in plant pathology, is continuing her research concerning the effectiveness of new leaf rust-resistance genes and the genetics of disease lesion mimics for leaf rust.

We are increasing the HRWW line TX95D8283 for release in the autumn of 2000 or 2001. The pedigree of the line is 'TAM 200//Siouxland/Tanager/3/Probrand 812', and it has the Lr13 + Lr34 gene combination for adult plant resistance to leaf rust and also the genes Lr16, Lr24, and Lr26 for seedling resistance. The variety TAM 302, released in 1998, continues to gain grower acceptance throughout all the major growing areas of Texas.

In our cereal endophyte research, we discovered systemic, seedborne, nonpathogenic fungal endophytes, resembling those of the species Neotyphodium, in two diploid wheat relatives, Ae. caudata and Am. muticum. Further research may show that the endophytes influenced the ecology and distribution of the two species in Turkey (where they were found) and that they have potential as biological control agents.

 

College Station.

A.K. Fritz, M.E. McDaniel, and L.W. Rooney.

The HRWW line TX93V5722 is being increased and will be released as TAM 400. TAM 400 has resistance to current races of leaf rust and Hessian fly and is adapted to the Concho Valley Region in South Central Texas.

 

Overton.

L. R. Nelson, Steve Ward, and Jim Crowder.

Results from St. nodorum research indicated that some new genetic sources of resistance have been identified. These lines are from 50 CYMMIT amphiploids from crosses between T. durum and Ae. tauschii. Screening data indicated that several of the populations had useful resistance through a delayed incubation period. Crosses have been made to transfer this resistance into adapted wheat. In an unrelated study involving a diallel cross, we reported that incubation period, latent period, and necrosis percentage in seedling plants of parents and F1 and F2 crosses exhibited polygenic inheritance and were controlled by 2-3, 3, and 1-4 genes, respectively. Each of the components showed moderate to high heritabilities.

 

Publications.

  • Boyko EV, Gill KS, Michelson-Young LK, Nasuda S, Raupp WJ, Hassawi D, Ziegle JS, Fritz AK, Namuth D, Lapitan NLV, and Gill BS. 1999. A high-density genetic linkage map of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome progenitor of bread wheat. Theor Appl Genet 99:16-26.
  • Du CG, Nelson LR, and McDaniel ME. 1999. Diallel analysis of gene effects conditioning resistance to Stagonospora nodorum (Berk) in wheat. Crop Sci 39:686-690.
  • Du CG, Nelson LR, and McDaniel ME. 1999. Partial resistance to Stagonospora nodorum in wheat. In: Proc 5th Internat Septoria Workshop. CIMMYT, Mexico. pp. 160-162.
  • Fritts DA, Michels Jr GJ, and Lazar MD. 2000. Greenbug colony formation failure on a resistant winter wheat genotype:antixenosis, antibiosis or both? Southwestern Ent (in press).
  • Fritz AK, Marshall DS, and Nelson LR. 1999. A strategy for combating wheat leaf rust in Texas. Agron Absts:80.
  • Fritz AK, Caldwell S, and Worrall WD. 1999. Molecular mapping of Russian wheat aphid resistance from triticale accession PI 386156. Crop Sci 39:1707-1710.
  • Marshall D, Tunali B, and Nelson LR. 1999. Occurrence of fungal endophytes in species of wild Triticum. Crop Sci 39:1507-1512.
  • Marshall D, Sutton RL, Worrall WD, Lazar MD, Rooney LW, McDaniel ME, Fritz AK, and Nelson LR. Registration of TAM 302 wheat. Crop Sci 39:1532.