A Database for Triticeae and Avena
INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 'SERBIA'
Center for Small Grains, Save Kovacevica 31, Kragujevac 34000,
M. Jelic, S. Lomovic, S. Zivanovic, J. Milivojevic, and J.
Introduction. High soil acidity and Al concentration
are very serious problems in areas of intensive wheat production.
Over 60 % of total arable lands in Yugoslavia are acid soils.
A reduction in grain yield of winter wheat varieties was observed
on these soils. A high Al concentration in the soil is very toxic
to wheat plants. Plants can attempt to alleviate Al phytotoxicity,
but winter wheat varieties and ecotypes differ in their ability.
Great differences between particular wheat genotypes exist with
respect to their tolerance to high soil acidity and Al concentration.
Low-acidity soils cause a very complex problem, and numerous approaches
(cultural, management, and lime application) are required. One
possible solution is to choose and grow tolerant genotypes. To
this end, we tested the degree of resistance of the more important
commercial varieties to Al phytotoxicity.
Results. The experiment was made in a pot trial using
Jarusice and Kragujevac hard clay soils. The Jarusice and Kragujevac
soils had pHs of 4.3 and 5.5 and Al concentrations of 25 and 0
mg/kg, respectively. The experiment was conducted over a 2-year
period (1997-98) in greenhouse conditions. The changes in some
production traits of the studied winter wheat varieties in an
acid soil are shown in Table 1.
The tested varieties had very different responses to low soil
pH and high soil Al concentration. The highest shoot and grain
yields on very acid soil were in PKB, Ranka, Europa, and Dicna.
The reduction in grain yield of these varieties was considerably
lower in comparison to the other tested varieties grown in the
control soil. PKB and Ranka had decreased shoot yields of 22 and
74 % and grain yields of 66 and 117 %, respectively, compared
to the control. The decrease in harvest index in these two varieties
compared to those grown in the control soil was 12.9 and 9.3 %,
respectively. Good tolerance to the detrimental impacts of high
acidity and Al concentration was found in the varieties Takovcanka
On the other hand, a low degree of tolerance was observed in
Zemunka, Partizanka, and A- 21. Zemunka and Partizanka had shoot
and grain yields reduced by 2.6 and 2.0 and 6.3 and 4 times, respectively,
than when grown in the control soil. Zemunka and Partizanka also
had lower harvest index by 27 and 19 %, respectively, when grown
in acid than in the control soil.
The Yugoslav winter wheat varieties possessed some degree of
tolerance to low soil pH and high soil Al concentration. The greatest
degree of tolerance was in PKB Krupna, Ranka, Europa, and Dicna,
whereras Takovcanka and Kosmajka varieties had a good, but lower,
degree of tolerance.
The above-mentioned genotypes could be interesting, not only
from the aspect of their advantage for growing in acid soils,
but also as important sources of genes for tolerance to low pH
and high Al concentration for future wheat breeding.
M. Kuburovic*, M. Pavlovic, M. Milovanovic, Veselinka Zecevic,
and Milomirka Madic*.
* Faculty of Agronomy, Cacak, Yugoslavia.
Introduction. One condition for high grain yield in
wheat is resistance to lodging, in addition to resistance for
disease and drought. Lodging-resistant wheat varieties generally
have shorter stems, although there are some exceptions. Until
now, the wheat breeding program at the Center for Small Grains
in Kragujevac focused special attention on stem shortening to
improve lodging resistance. Our goal is to create new winter wheat
varieties with stem heights between 70-80 cm. Only certain changes
in a plant's architecture lead to yield increases, and extreme
shortening is not desirable (Djokic 1990). The winter wheat breeding
program focuses on genetic divergence, high yield, and quality
characteristics that will enable high and stable grain yields
in different years and environmental conditions (Borojevic 1981).
Breeding and creating new varieties of winter wheat at the Center
for Small Grains - Kragujevac combines high yield and excellent
or very good quality, while retaining other positive traits as
much as possible (Popovic 1989). In this report, we present the
results of investigations of some perspective lines of winter
wheat created at our institute.
Material and methods. Eight lines obtained by single
or complex crosses of different genotypes of winter wheat were
included in micro trials. We used the following lines as crossing
parents for their resistance to low temperature and lodging: Dijana,
Marija, Skopljanka, SK2, OS. 5-68/11, Evropa, Srbijanka, Studenica,
Kg. 8/1222, Kg. 2169, and Jednota (a variety with high quality)
and two lines resistant to diseases (B-159 and PI-159102). These
parental genotypes originated from the Institutes of Novi Sad
and Kragujevac (Yugoslavia), Zagreb and Osijek (Croatia), and
Skopje (FYROM). Desirable traits of the parents and their ancestors
(high grain yield, good technological quality, and good lodging
resistance) were combined in new lines by genetic recombination.
Lines were selected using the pedigree method and tested in wheat
trials (5 x 4 m2) in the 1997 and 1998 growing seasons and in
a main wheat trial (8 x 4 m2) in 1998, on experimental fields
at Kragujevac. The majority of these lines also were tested in
the 1998 season at a few locations in the Republic of Serbia (Sremska
Mitrovica and Sombor-Vojvodina, and Pec-Kosovo, and Metochia).
The grain yield was compared to that of the winter wheat variety
Pobeda, which is one of the standards of the Federal Commission
for Variety Approval. Technological quality of grain, flour, and
bread were examined in the farinological laboratory at Kragujevac
by the standard methods.
Results and discussion. The most important trait for
the majority of wheat producers in Yugoslavia is grain yield per
hectare. Grain yield is a very complex characteristic, controlled
by numerous genes and environmental factors (Borojevic 1981).
Therefore, breeding for high grain yield is very complex and difficult.
New lines of winter wheat from Kragujevac have high and stable
grain yields. The majority of lines achieved higher grain yield
than the standard Pobeda, averaged over both years of trials and
at all localities. The highest yielding were lines Kg. 191/1,
Kg. 1/1, and Kg. 131/94, which surpassed the grain yield of Pobeda
by an average of more than 800 kg/ha. All winter wheat lines and
Pobeda had higher grain yields in 1998 than in 1997 at Kragujevac.
The winter wheats examined at other locations had higher grain
yield at Sombor than at Sremska Mitrovica and Pec. The maximum
yield was in the wheat line Kg. 14/1 in Kragujevac (9.556 t/ha),
but this line yielded the least in Pec (5.800 t/ha). At the experimental
fields in Kragujevac, line Kg. 131/94 (9.350 t/ha) was the highest
yielder. This line also had high and stable grain yields at other
localities, in addition to lines Kg. 191/1 and Kg. 1/1 (Table
Plant height of the investigated lines of winter wheat ranked
between 71-82 cm, which was 1-12 cm shorter than in Pobeda. All
wheat lines except Kg. 3059-4/93 are very resistant to lodging.
These lines also have medium-large to large kernel sizes, and
1,000-kernel weights between 37.00 and 44.05 g. In addition to
high quality, the hectoliter mass also could be a good indicator
of the biological plasticity of a variety and its better resistance
to drought and high temperatures at grain filling. A majority
of the lines, as well as Pobeda, had a hectoliter mass above 80
kg (Table 3).
Sedimentation values (Zeleny) of the investigated wheat lines
ranged from 29-61 ml. All lines had lower sedimentation values
than the Pobeda check, except for Kg. 381, which was similar.
According to many studies, sedimentation value can be considered
as a good indirect parameter of bread-making quality (Petric et
al. 1982). However, some new investigations on wheat varieties
from crosses of genotypes that have different genes controlling
the technological quality do not always give this result (Misic
and Mladenov 1998). The investigated lines had lower wet-gluten
content (19.75-36.21%) relative to Pobeda, which had the highest
value of 40.06 %. The quality number (farinograph) was the highest
in lines Kg. 381, Kg. 110/95, and Kg. 3059-4/93. In all other
lines, the quality number was lower in relation to the Pobeda
check. According to the values for quality number and water retention
capacity, the lines were separated into quality groups. Wheat
lines Kg. 381, Kg. 110/95, Kg. 3059-4/93, and Pobeda belong to
A1 and A2 quality groups, and the rest of lines are in either
the B1 or B2 quality group.
The most important bread-making quality parameters are bread
yield, bread volume, and crumb value (Kovacev-Djolai et al. 1987).
According to bread volume and crumb value parameters, the best
quality wheats were Pobeda and Kg. 3059-4/93. A new line Kg. 3059-4/93
also has a majority of technological quality parameters at levels
similar to that of Pobeda. High values for these characteristics
also are found in line Kg. 381 (Table 4).
From all investigated lines of winter wheat created in Center
for Small Grains-Kragujevac, the most promising are Kg. 381 and
Kg. 191/1. These lines possess high and stable grain yield and
excellent or very good technological quality, as well as good
lodging resistance. Thus, in a single variety, it is possible
to unite high yield potential, excellent or very good technological
quality, and other desirable characteristics (Misic et al. 1987).
The majority of these lines is included in the network of trials
of the Yugoslav Commission for Varieties Approval.
Conclusions. in the micro trials at the Center for Small
Grains in Kragujevac and three other locations, we examined eight
perspective winter wheat lines during two seasons relative to
the standard variety Pobeda. A majority of the investigated lines
yielded higher than Pobeda.
Nearly all the wheat lines had shorter stems and better lodging
resistance than Pobeda. These lines had medium-large to large
kernels, and majority had a hectoliter mass above 80 kg. Pobeda
and line Kg. 3059-4/93 had the best technological quality parameters.
Perspective wheat varieties include Kg. 381 and Kg. 191/1, because
they have high and stable grain yield, excellent or very good
technological quality, and very good lodging resistance. Some
of these lines are included in trials of the Yugoslav Commission
for Varieties Approval.
Desimir Knezevic, Veselinka Zecevic, Dusan Urosevic, Milanko
Pavlovic, Ivana Marinkovic, Danica Micanovic, and Vesna Urosevic.
Introduction. Wheat grain and its products are very
important in human nutrition. The great nutritional importance
of wheat has stimulated the investigation of quality parameters.
During the last few decades, significant advancements have been
made in biochemical, genetic, and molecular biology studies of
protein components. Proteins play major roles in determining quality
of grain, flour, dough, and bread. A number of genes encoding
proteins have been isolated and sequenced. Very intensive investigations
of milling, dough forming, and baking properties have been conducted
in the last few decades. The results of these investigations,
along with the results of a study of morphological traits, have
led to new methods of breeding and wheat production.
To resolve the genetics of grain quality in wheat, the main
investigations focused on protein sedimentation volume, protein
and gluten contents, grain hardness, and farinograph characteristics,
which are controlled genetically. A combination of these parameters
and flour protein content can be used as a basis for estimating
the technological quality of selected materials. To improve wheat
grain quality, identifying biotype polymorphisms with numerous
favorable traits and gene donors controlling high protein content
with high grain yield is important (Bebyakin 1985).
Materials and methods. The technological quality of
10 winter wheat cultivars created at the Center for Small Grains
were studied. We used the cultivars KG-56, KG-56S, Srbijanka,
Bistrica, Takovcanka, Levcanka, Gruza, Toplica, and KG-100. The
quality of the wheat cultivars was estimated on the basis of protein
sedimentation volume, water absorption, gluten content, loaf volume,
bread yield, and crumb number. Standard milling was performed
with a Buller-type MLU-202 experimental mill (Buller, Uzwill,
Switzerland). Sedimentation value was analyzed according to Zeleny,
modified so that 2 or 5 g of wheat could be evaluated satisfactorily.
Rheological quality was analyzed with a micro-Brabender farinograph
using 10-g flour sample.
Results-protein sedimentation volume. Differences in
technological quality parameters among the cultivars are shown
in Table 5. Sedimentation volume varied between 33 ml (Levcanka)
and 61 ml (Toplica). Cultivars with a sedimentation volume higher
than 40 ml in the first quality group included KG-56S, Takovcanka,
Gruza, and Toplica. The remaining cultivars belong to the second
quality group. In the second year of analysis, the highest sedimentation
volume was 53 ml in Tolica, and the lowest was 28 ml in KG-100
(Table 6). The sedimentation volumes of the cultivars were different
in different growing seasons.
A high protein-sedimentation volume depends on protein contents
and the amounts of gliadins and glutenins and the gliadin/glutenin
ratio. Glutenin content is related directly to protein content
and influences sedimentation volume (Kevresan et al. 1990). High
protein-sedimentation values indicate high protein content and
good gluten quality (Vombergar 1985; Knezevic and Menkovska 1994).
Glutenin content had positive genetic correlations with the technological
quality of flour and sedimentation volume, whereas gliadin content
had negative correlations. The HMW-glutenin subunits 5+10 had
a positive correlation with protein sedimentation (Lorenzo et
al. 1987; Pogna et al. 1990). The influence of HMW-glutenin subunits
on protein-sedimentation volume (Vapa and Mihaljev 1990) and gluten
content and loaf volume (Menkovska et al. 1995) have been established.
Cultivars with the Glu-A1 HMW-glutenin subunit fractions
2* and 1 have higher sedimentation volumes than cultivars that
have the null allele on chromosome 1A (Knezevic et al. 1993).
The cultivar Toplica has high values for these parameters.
Protein-sedimentation volume has a positive correlation with other
quality parameters such as gluten quality and loaf volume (Zuoji
et al. 1989), and this was confirmed by the results of this study.
Toplica had the highest loaf volume (470 ml) in the second year
A positive correlation between the value of some gliadins and
the sedimentation value was established by Sasek et al. (1987).
Generally, gliadins have negative correlations with technological
quality of flour and sedimentation volume.
Gluten quality and content. Different values of gluten
content in wheat cultivars were established in this study. On
average, higher values for gluten content occurred in cultivars
grown in 1997 than in the same cultivars grown during 1998. The
cultivar Toplica had the highest gluten content (39.19 %) in the
first trial, and KG-100 had the lowest (28.37 %). During the 1998
season, Bistrica had the highest gluten content, and KG-100 had
the lowest (24.81 %).
Grain gluten content varied from 16-52 % (crude) and 5-20 %
(dry) and depended on the cultivar and growing conditions (Pavlovic
et al. 1994). Gluten content depends on grain consistency more
than on grain size. Such changes are similar for baking quality
of the flour. Gluten of high quality depends on temperature and
moisture conditions during maturation. High temperature and low
moisture produce a strong gluten with less extensibility, and
the opposite conditions produce flours with weak glutens and extensible
doughs (Kodanev 1976). Gluten is formed in the early stages of
ripening (milk stage), but its quality changes during maturity
to the final characteristics. Later, quality changes in gluten
are not important.
Gluten color changes from an intense green to bright yellow
at maturity. Gluten structure has a great influence on flour rheological
properties and quality. Gluten quality depends on the ability
of dough to keep CO2 from fermentation in gas cells in order to
provide loaf volume and bread crumb. A high positive correlation
(r = 0.9) exists between protein content and grain gluten content
in wheat. Gluten quality depends on the amount and ratio of HMW
and LMW glutenins, gliadins, their structure, and amino acid content.
HMW-glutenin subunits join end-to-end through disulfide bonds
to provide a backbone for the gluten complex (Pogna et al. 1996).
Loaf properties. The analyzed cultivars differed in
water absorption (Table 5). In the first year of analysis, Toplica
was the highest at 68.6 ml and in KG-56 was the lowest at 55.8
ml. Water absorption in the second year was highest in Gruza (68
ml) and lowest in KG-100 (58.2 ml) (Table 6). These differences
indicate the characteristics of bread-making quality of flour
in wheat cultivars.
A flour of good bread-making quality should have a high water
absorption, a medium to medium-long mixing requirement, a small
to medium oxidation requirement, satisfactory mixing tolerance
and dough-handling properties, and good loaf volume. The cultivar
also should yield a loaf that has a good internal crumb grain
and color (Finney et al. 1987). Baking properties are influenced
by the presence of proteins in the endosperm of the grain. Gliadins
and glutenins are the predominant proteins in the endosperm. Glutenins
are known to contribute to protein quality, playing an important
role in the bread-making process.
The results of loaf properties are presented in Tables 5 and
6. In the first year of analysis, the highest loaf volume was
in the cultivars Bistrica and Levcanka (430 ml), and the lowest
(310 ml) was in KG-56. The loaf volume averages were higher in
the second year than in the first. The highest loaf volume (470
ml) was in Toplica, and the lowest (400 ml) in KG-56. Other cultivars
had loaf volumes greater than 400 ml. Both Bistica and Levcanka
had lower loaf volumes (400 ml) than in the previous year (430
Loaf volume is related inversely to the proportion of acetic
acid-soluble glutenin. Orth and Bushuk (1973) found no correlation
between the proportions of albumins, globulins, and gliadins and
bread-making quality. Thus, they concluded that glutenin was responsible
for the variation in loaf volume at a constant protein content
among varieties of bread wheat. The highest value of bread yield
was in Levcanka in both years of the study, and the lowest value
was in Studenica (Tables 5 and 6).
Conclusions. Estimation of the technological quality
of Yugoslav wheat was conducted by using micro methods to determine
the following parameters: protein sedimentation volume, gluten
quality and content, and bread-baking and loaf parameters.
Protein content is the most important parameter to assess wheat
quality. Success of breeding depends mostly on heritable traits
and methods to identify the quality of grain in early hybrid generations.
Gluten quality depends on the amount and ratio of HMW and LMW
glutenins, gliadins, their structure, and amino acid content.
Cultivars Toplica, Takovcanka, and Levcanka expressed high values
of tested technological quality parameters and can be used as
a parents in the wheat breeding programs.
Increasing grain quality by the wheat breeding process is difficult
because of the negative correlation between grain protein content
and grain yield, but a permanent goal of Yugoslav wheat breeders
is to resolve this.