Items from Germany.

ITEMS FROM GERMANY

 

INSTITUT FÜR PFLANZENGENETIK UND KULTURPFLANZENFORSCHUNG (IPK)

Corrensstraße 3, 06466 Gatersleben, Germany.

 

A. Börner, A. Bálint, K.F.M. Salem, E. Pestsova, M.S. Röder, and E.K. Khlestkina.

 

Copper tolerance. [p. 28]

We evaluated a new testing method to screen for copper tolerance in wheat genetic stocks in the greenhouse. Three copper concentrations (1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 mg/kg) were tested on two hexaploid-wheat genotypes (Chinese Spring and synthetics) to find a suitable concentration for the screening. We found that copper concentrations between 1,000-1,500 mg/kg in the soil are most efficient for testing. Copper tolerance was evaluated by calculating the tolerance index.

Using wheat­rye substitution lines (T. aestivum cultivar Saratovskaya 29 and S. cerale cultivar Vietnamskaya), we found significant effects for copper tolerance. Rye chromosome 5R (5R/5A substitution line) increased copper tolerance, which was significant at P = 0.01 level, whereas rye chromosome 1R had no effect. This result reinforced the idea that wheat chromosome 5A plays a role in reducing the toxic effect of copper. In the coming season, we will screen other wheat genetic stocks available at IPK Gatersleben (ITMI-mapping population, T. aestivum-Ae. tauschii introgression lines) to detect the QTL that determine copper tolerance.

 

Stem reserve mobilization. [p. 28]

A selection of 12 tetraploid and two hexaploid wheat accessions was grown in the field and evaluated for the ability to mobilize stored stem reserves. We used a method for the chemical desiccation of the plant canopy for this investigation. In one replication, the canopies were sprayed with potassium iodide (0.5 %) 2 weeks after anthesis. In order to calculate the rate of reduction in grain weight caused by the treatment, the 1,000-kernel weight of the treated plants was compared with that of the controls after harvest. The percentage reduction ranged between 33.80 % and 77.97 % (Table 1).

 

Table 1. Reduction in grain weight in tetraploid and hexaploid wheats after chemical desiccation of the plant canopy (TKW = 1,000-kernel weight).

 Accession  Species  Ploidy level  Growth habit  Origin  TKW (control)  TKW (treatment)  %
 H 1  T. turgidum subsp. turgidum  4x  Winter  Germany  48.04  20.43  42.53
 H 2  T. turgidum subsp. turgidum  4x  Winter  Europe  40.01  28.45  71.11
 H 3  T. turgidum subsp. turgidum  4x  Winter  Germany  38.85  20.41  52.54
 H 4  T. turgidum subsp. turgidum  4x  Winter  Germany  31.40  11.98  38.15
 H 5  T. turgidum subsp. turgidum  4x  Winter  Europe  30.64  23.89  77.97
 H 6  T. turgidum subsp. turgidum  4x  Winter  Italy  42.63  25.50  59.82
 H 7  T. turgidum subsp. turgidum  4x  Winter  Hungary  34.11  16.73  49.05
 A 1  T. turgidum subsp. turgidum  4x  Spring  Spain  30.70  20.12  65.53
 A 2  T. turgidum subsp. durum  4x  Spring  Tunisia  32.66  24.03  73.58
 A 3  T. turgidum subsp. polonicum  4x  Spring  Germany  41.51  32.13  77.40
 A 4  T. turgidum subsp. polonicum  4x  Spring  Germany  50.89  28.32  55.65
 A 5  T. turgidum subsp. turanicum  4x  Spring  Iran  63.04  21.31  33.80
 A 6  T. aestivum subsp. aestivum  6x  Spring  Canada  33.50  13.39  39.97
 A 7  T. aestivum subsp. aestivum  6x  Spring  Australia  30.26  13.57  44.84

 

Genetic diversity of Siberian wheat cultivars. [p. 28]

A set of 54 common spring wheat cultivars grown in the Siberian region of the Russian Federation was analyzed using 22 wheat microsatellite markers that determine 23 loci located on 19 different chromosomes. In total, 151 alleles were detected with an average of 6.6 and a range of 3-11 alleles/locus. The average PIC value was 0.70. A wheat microsatellite located on the B genome produced the most alleles/locus (7.6) compared to those located on the A (6.0) and D (6.0) genomes. Genetic similarity values between cultivars ranged from 0.19 to 0.96 and were used to produce a dendrogram. With a few exceptions, the cultivars clustered in two groups consisting of old (before 1960) and modern cultivars, indicating the qualitative shift in the diversity of the spring wheats grown in Siberia during the last century.

Acknowledgment. E.K. Khlestkina thanks the 'Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft' (Project No. 436RUS17/16/02), the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science (Lavrentjev award and the 45th Anniversary of SB RAS Award for Young Scientists), and the Administration of the Novosibirsk region (special award for young scientists, 2002).

 

Development of wheat­Aegilops tauschii introgression lines. [p. 29]

A set of T. aestivum cultivar Chinese Spring/synthetic, chromosome-substitution lines was used to create single-chromosome recombinant lines for the seven D-genome wheat chromosomes by backcrossing with Chinese Spring. The synthetic wheat used for the production of the substitution lines was obtained from a cross of tetraploid emmer with Ae. tauschii and, therefore, the material produced contains different segments of individual Ae. tauschii chromosomes in the Chinese Spring background. After backcrossing with Chinese Spring, 85 defined homozygous T. aestivum-Ae. tauchii introgression lines were selected using microsatellite markers. Because Ae. tauschii is known to represent a valuable source of genes for resistance against biotic and abiotic stress, the introgression lines produced have a high potential for revealing and studying profitable genes or QTL in wild species. The material is available on request.

Publications. [p. 29-30]

  • Alamerew S, Chebotar S, Huang XQ, Röder MS, and Börner A. 2003. Genetic diversity in Ethiopian hexaploid and tetraploid wheat germplasm assessed by microsatellite markers. Genet Res Crop Evol (in press).
  • Bálint AF, Kovács G, and Sutka J. 2002. Copper tolerance of Aegilops, Triticum, Secale and triticale seedlings and copper and iron content in their shoots. Acta Biol Szeged 46:77-78.
  • Börner A. 2002. Gene and genome mapping in cereals. Cell Mol Biol Lett 7:423-429.
  • Börner A and Worland AJ. 2002. Does the Chinese dwarf variety 'XN0004' carry Rht21? Cereal Res Commun 30:25-29.
  • Börner A, Buck-Sorlin GH, Hayes PM, Malyshev S, and Korzun V. 2002. Molecular mapping of major genes and quantitative trait loci determining flowering time in response to photoperiod in barley. Plant Breed 121:129-132.
  • Börner A, Schumann E, Fürste A, Cöster H, Leithold B, Röder MS, and Weber WE. 2002. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for agronomic important characters in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 105:921-936.
  • Börner A, Schumann E, Fürste A, Cöster H, Leithold B, Röder MS, and Weber WE. 2003. Quantitative trait loci mapping in wheat. In: Proc 12th Internat EWAC Workshop, Norwich, UK (in press).
  • Chebotar S, Röder MS, Korzun V, and Börner A. 2003. Studies of genetic integrity in genebank collections. Schriften zu Genetischen Ressourcen (in press).
  • Chebotar S, Röder MS, Börner A, and Sivalop YuM. 2003. Characterisation of Ukrainian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm by using mocrosatellite markers. In: Proc Symp Biotechnology approaches for exploitation and preservation of plant resources. Yalta, Ukraine (in press).
  • Chebotar S, Röder MS, Korzun V, and Börner A. 2002. Genetic integrity of ex situ genebank collections. Cell Mol Biol Lett 7:437-444.
  • Chebotar S, Röder MS, Worland AJ, Korzun V, and Börner A. 2003. Allele distribution at locus Xgwm261 marking the dwarfing gene Rht8 in the Ukrainian hexaploid wheat varieties. In: Proc 12th Internat EWAC Workshop, Norwich, UK (in press).
  • Chebotar S, Röder MS, Korzun V, and Börner A. 2003. Molecular studies on genetic integrity of open pollinating species rye (Secale cereale L.) after long term genebank maintenance. Theor Appl Genet (in press).
  • Huang XQ, Börner A, Röder MS, and Ganal MW. 2002. Assessing genetic diversity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm using microsatellite markers. Theor Appl Genet 105:699-707.
  • Huang XQ, Börner A, Röder MS, and Ganal MW. 2002. Construction of a dendrogram of 998 wheat accessions from the genebank. http://pgrc.ipk-gatersleben.de/dendro/.
  • Khlestkina EK, Pestsova EG, Röder MS, and Börner A. 2002. Molecular mapping, phenotypic expression and geographical distribution of genes determining anthocyanin pigmentation of coleoptiles in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 104:632-637.
  • Khlestkina EK, Röder MS, Efremova TT, and Börner A. 2003. Genome fingerprinting analysis and investigation of the genetic diversity of Siberian spring common wheat varieties using microsatellite markers. In: Proc 2nd Research Conf Actual Problems in Genetics. Moscow, Russian Federation (in press).
  • Khlestkina EK, Röder MS, Unger O, Meinel A, and Börner A. 2003. Fine mapping and origin of a gene for nonspecific adult plant disease resistance against stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) in wheat. In: Proc 12th Internat EWAC Workshop, Norwich, UK (in press).
  • Khlestkina EK, Salina EA, Leonova IN, Laikova LI, and Koval SF. 1999. The use of RAPD and STS analyses for marking genes of homoeologous group 5 chromosomes of common wheat. Russ J Genet 35:1161-1168.
  • Khlestkina EK, Pestsova EG, Salina E, Arbuzova VS, Koval SF, Röder MS, and Börner A. 2002. Molecular mapping and tagging of wheat genes using RAPD, STS and SSR markers. Cell Mol Biol Lett 7:795-802.
  • Knüpffer H, Filatenko A, Hammer K, Grau M, and Börner A. 2003. The wheat collection of the genebank of IPK Gatersleben, Germany. Report of a working group on wheat. ECPGR Meeting (in press).
  • Korzun V, Malyshev S, Voylokov AV, and Börner A. 2002. A molecular linkage map of rye (Secale cereale L.). In: Proc EUCARPIA Rye Meeting, Radzikow, Poland. pp. 321-325.
  • Leonova I, Pestsova EG, Salina E, Efremova T, Röder MS, and Börner A. 2003. Mapping of Vrn-B1 gene in wheat Triticum aestivum L. using microsatellite markers. Plant Breed (in press).
  • Malyshev SV, Kartel NA, Voylokov AV, and Börner A. 2003. Comparative analysis of QTLs affecting agronomical traits in rye and wheat. In: Proc 12th Internat EWAC Workshop, Norwich, UK (in press).
  • Pestsova EG, Börner A, and Röder MS. 2002. Development of wheat D-genome introgression lines assisted by microsatellite markers. In: Proc 4th Internat Triticeae Symp, Cordoba, Spain. Pp. 207-210.
  • Pestsova EG, Börner A, and Röder MS. 2003. Application of microsatellite markers to develop Triticum aestivum-Aegilops tauschii defined introgression lines. In: Proc 12th Internat EWAC Workshop, Norwich, UK (in press).
  • Salina E, Korzun V, Pestsova E, Röder MS, and Börner A. 2003. The study of the authenticity of three sets of inter-varietal chromosome substitution lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In: Proc 12th Internat EWAC Workshop, Norwich, UK (in press).
  • Wang HJ, Huang XQ, Röder MS, and Börner A. 2002. Molecular mapping of genes determining long glumes in the genus Triticum. Euphytica 123:287-293.