A Database for Triticeae and Avena
MINUTES OF THE NATIONAL WHEAT IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE (NWIC)
Committee members: Dave Van Sanford (chair), J. Costa
(vice-chair), Bob Graybosch, Kim Garland Campbell, David Garvin,
Harold Bockelman, Scott Haley, S. Perry, Alan Fritz, Elias Elias,
Yue Jin, James Anderson, Joseph Anderson, and Carl Griffey.
Noncommittee members: Kay Walker-Simmons, S. Metz, Robert
Bowden, Jim Kolmer, S. Canty, C. Gaines, Jackie Rudd, Bikram Gill,
Dave Marshall, and Olin Anderson.
The minutes of the January 2002 NWIC meeting were approved
as published in the Annual Wheat Newsletter (48:7-11).
A report on the financial status, publication, and distribution
of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, submitted by Jon Raupp, was presented
by Dave Van Sanford.
Kim Garland Campbell gave a summary of the annual meeting of
the Wheat Crop Germplasm Committee. Efforts to arrange an English
translation of Russian 'Taxonomy of the Triticeae' were described.
The work will be published electronically, and printed copies
will be published if arrangements can be made. The role of CGC
is to advise the USDAARS National Small Grain Collection
on priorities for the evaluation of germ plasm in the collection.
Kay Walker-Simmons gave a summary of items in the U.S. Government
FY2003 budget affecting wheat research and the ARS budget.
All potential cuts of ARS programs have been restored in the present
version of the budget, plus $325,000 for a genotyping lab at Raleigh,
and funding increases for the Cereal Disease Lab, the scab initiative,
the Karnal bunt initiative, and the Western Wheat Quality Lab
at Pullman. However, at this writing, nothing is final until
the budget is approved, which likely will not occur until January
Eastern soft wheat region. Joe Anderson reported the
Eastern Wheat Workers met in January 2002 in St. Louis, MO. The
number of entries in the Eastern Soft Red Winter Wheat Uniform
Performance Nursery will be limited to three per coöperator
due to space limitations. Roger Ratcliff, USDAARS and Purdue
University, was recognized upon his retirement after a successful
career working with Hessian fly. Additional ARS staffing changes
at Purdue were described. The research group now has nine scientists,
six on wheat, including work in virology, Septoria, Hessian fly,
and risk assessment of biotechnology.
Spring wheat region. Carl Griffey reported wheat acreage
was up but freeze damage had hurt yields; wet weather during planting
the autumn of 2002 also has been a problem. The Southern Wheat
Workers will hold a meeting in April in Little Rock, with a field
trip to Stuttgart. The Southern Wheat Workers have requested
USDA waive restriction on grain from CIMMYT raised in Karnal bunt-free
areas and asked that NWIC address this issue. Dave Marshall,
newly installed as Research Leader at Raleigh, gave a report on
the status of research positions at Raleigh. Dave will focus
on leaf rust, powdery mildew and crown rust in wheat, barley,
Western region. Dan Skinner was appointed the new research
leader with the ARS at Washington State. AgriPro will be establishing
a new breeding facility in eastern Washington this June. A decrease
in wheat acreage has occurred, due to both planting reductions
and drought. The next western wheat workers meeting will be around
10 July, 2002, in the Idaho Falls/Aberdeen area. There was a
discussion on the eastern European nursery distributed by Oregon
State University. Monsanto donated the Hybritech germ plasm to
public programs in the region.
Winter wheat region. Scott Haley reported harvested
acreage was at a 30 year low; planted acreage was up this autumn.
Very dry, hot conditions prevailed last season. Recent events
include the rise of a possible new race of leaf rust and the commercialization
of Clearfield wheats. The U.S. Congress has approved a hard white
wheat market incentive program to increase seeded acres of hard
white wheat. The annual breeders' field day was held at Akron,
CO; the 2003 field day will be at Bushland, TX, in May. New positions
in the region include Dirk Hays in the molecular enhancement of
grain quality at College Station, TX. Gayleen Morgan will be
assuming a full-time, small grains extension position, also at
College Station. At Kansas State, Bob Bowden has assumed the
position of Research Leader with the USDAARS and will continue
research on rusts. Dr. Jim Quick, once a wheat breeder at Colorado
State, has announced his retirement from the position of chair
of the Department of Crop Science. The recent passing of Dr.
Kenny Porter, former wheat breeder at Amarillo, TX, was noted.
Pacific Northwest region. Kim Garland Campbell presented
information on changes and conditions in the region. Kulvinder
Gill has assumed the Orvil Vogel chair in wheat research at Washington
State University. Russel Karow was appointed as chair of the
Department of Crop and Soil Science at Oregon State University.
Increased funding at the USDAARS Western Wheat Quality Lab
will allow the addition of a scientist to study Asian food products.
Planting acreage increased this year. AgriPro has established
a breeding facility near Spokane. Potential collaborative research
programs for wheat in central Asian were described.
Northern region. Dave Garvin has filled the USDAARS
position formerly held by Bob Busch (happy retirement, Bob!) at
St. Paul, MN. The position will work on germ plasm enhancement,
including disease resistance, and will continue to coördinate
the regional nursery. The Cereal Disease lab needs an increase
in funding for current positions and facilities. At North Dakota
State University, Drs. Maan and Frohberg retired, and Dr. Mohamed
Mergoum from CIMMYT has been hired to assume the spring wheat
breeding duties. Also at NDSU, Mike Edwards has been appointed
as the ARS new research leader. The spring wheat crop acreage
remains stable, with recurring problems with scab in the eastern
zone. New races of stem rust seem to be appearing.
Elias Elias described staffing changes in the region. Mohamed
Mergoum has assumed the position of spring wheat breeder at North
Dakota State University, and Xiwen Cai has joined the faculty
at NDSU as a wheat cytogeneticist. Steven S. Xu, research geneticist,
also joined USDAARS at Fargo. Dr. Karl Glover is now the
spring wheat breeder at South Dakota State University. Crop conditions
in 2002 were variable. Fusarium head blight took most of the
crop in the Red River Valley, dry conditions hurt the west, and
sprout damage hit the middle. There will be two ARS genotyping
positions started at Fargo. Dave Garvin reported on his position
with ARS at St. Paul, MN. His duties will include basic research
on scab; novel sources of resistance; genetic basis of suppressor
effects in T. turgidum subsp. dicoccoides; stem and leaf rust
resistance, especially mapping and genomics of leaf rust-resistance
genes; components of wheat grain that will enhance human health,
and he will coördinate the Hard Spring Wheat Regional Nurseries.
Funding is available to replace Don McVey's (now retired) position
in leaf and stem rust, and an offer has been extended. Dr. William
Bushnell, plant physiologist, has retired from the Cereal Disease
Lab and will be replaced in the spring, pending availability of
Bikram Gill reported on the IGROW initiative (International
Genome Research on Wheat) and on National Science Foundation funding
(or lack thereof) for wheat genomics research. Wheat is not on
the NSF priority list at the moment, the only thing coming close
is some mention of 'sequencing the gene-rich regions of crop species'.
The need for a national wheat meeting to coördinate wheat
research and better its position for increased funding was discussed.
It was noted that lobbying, the national wheat research meetings,
and a planning workshop should be part of a three-pronged approach
to increase research funding for wheat genomics. Kim Campbell
motioned that Olin Anderson and Bikram Gill organize a wheat genomics
planning workshop. Joe Anderson seconded. Motion passed. Scott
Haley, Kim Campbell, and Carl Griffey were appointed to a subcommittee
to determine if a national wheat meeting is warranted.
Sally Metz, Monsanto Corp., gave an overview of the status
of Roundup Ready Wheat and described the company's necessary milestones
before commercialization. These include 1) demonstrating food,
feed, and environmental safety and resultant regulatory approvals
in the U.S., Canada, and Japan; 2) making sure the appropriate
regulatory trade approvals, thresholds, or marketing agreements
must be in place in major export markets; 3) appropriating grain-handling
protocols must be developed, as well as agronomic stewardship
and controling pollen-mediated gene flow; 4) meeting or exceeding
industry standards for grain end-use quality in cultivars; and
5) identifying buyers who will procure and use wheat ingredients
with biotech traits.
Rust screening at the Cereal Disease
Jim Kolmer reported on the future of rust screening at the
Cereal Disease Lab. Don McVey has retired, and a search for his
replacement is underway. Future rust screening likely will be
limited to lines submitted to the Uniform Regional Nurseries.
Material transfer agreements and germ
Scott Haley described and discussed CIMMYT's material transfer
agreement. CIMMYT may now claims rights to all materials derived
from crossing with their materials. The ARS is attempting to
negotiate a new MTA to be used between public institutions and
CIMMYT. Allan Fritz, Carl Griffey, and Bob Graybosch will form
a subcommittee to address Wheat Breeder's Code of Ethics; should
it be modified to reflect changing times ?
Olin Anderson reported that the current goal is to try to define
the role of GrainGenes in the future and to formalize a way to
obtain feedback from users. Site visits are underway to visit
specific locations, evaluate the usefulness of GrainGenes, and
provide instruction in the operation of the system.
Jim Anderson reported on the status license agreements for
SSRs from Gatersleben, Germany.
Quality Laboratories. Scott Haley and Charles Gaines
provided update on the financial situation and use of new funds.
Genotyping centers. Three labs (Fargo, ND; Manhattan,
KS; and Raleigh, NC) now are established but not yet at full funding
levels. The laboratory at Pullman, WA, has received no funding.
Karnal Bunt Initiative. The KB initiative is asking
for approximately $1.8 million in research funding. The KB initiative
has formed an executive committee and an advisory committee that
will include growers who will provide oversight and advice to
the executive committee. A meeting planned for South Padre Island
in March, in association with the Caribbean Section of American
Members voted to establish priorities for increase funding
in FY2004. In order of priority, these include
The committee voted to support efforts to improve ARS building
facilities in the following order of priority:
Jim Anderson moved we meet again with the Scab Forum; Dave
Garvin seconded. Motion passed. The NWIC will meet 15-16 December,
2003, in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
R. Graybosch, Secretary, NWIC.