A Database for Triticeae and Avena
UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO
Plant and Soil Science Department, Moscow, ID 83343, USA, and
the Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. Box AA, Aberdeen, ID
R. Zemetra, E. Souza, S. Guy, L. Robertson, B. Brown, N. Bosque-Pérez,
J. Hansen, K. O'Brien, M. Guttieri, D. Schotzko, T. Koehler, L.
Sorensen, J. Clayton, Zhiwu Li, and M. Rehman.
The 2002 Idaho winter wheat production was 54.5 x 10^6^ bu,
an 11 % increase from 2001. Although both acreage planted and
acreage harvested decreased compared to 2001, the reduction in
acreage was offset by an increase in average yield from 73 bu/acre
to 79 bu/acre. Moisture was limiting in some areas in the late
spring and summer resulting in lower test weight. Autumn and winter
conditions were not conducive for root/crown diseases of winter
wheat. In northern Idaho, the highest incidence of stripe rust
in recent years was observed, especially in spring wheat. Statistics
for the Idaho winter wheat production for the last 5 years are
shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Statistics for the Idaho winter
wheat production for the last 5 years, 1998-2002.
Manish Kumar joined the wheat breeding/genetics program in
Moscow as a graduate student in the wheat straw lignin modification
program. Zhiwu Li completed his Ph.D. research on gene silencing
in transgenic wheat. Bob Zemetra started his sabbatical at Oregon
State University conducting research on the potential for gene
migration from wheat to jointed goatgrass and developing molecular
markers for resistance genes of diseases of wheat in the Pacific
The SWWW advanced line 91-34302A from the Moscow program is
being considered for release. The proposed name for 91-34302A
is Simon. Line 91-34302A has good yield potential in both rainfed
and irrigated regions of Idaho and is the first potential Idaho
release with Pch1, a gene for resistance to Pseudocercosporella
In the wheat straw, lignin-reduction project, four copies of
the CCR1 gene in the lignin biosynthesis pathway have been isolated
from the cultivar Hubbard. The genes are currently being sequenced.
An antisense form of CCR1 has been introduced into spring and
winter wheat cultivars using particle bombardment in an attempt
to lower the percent lignin in wheat straw.
Zhiwu Li completed his Ph.D. research on silencing of transgenes
coding for a WSMV coat-protein gene in wheat. He found that by
germinating transgenic seed in 5-azacytidine, gene silencing was
reversed and WSMV coat protein was again expressed in the treated
wheat seedlings. The expression of the coat protein reduced virus
titer of WSMV after inoculation. The effect of the 5-azacytidine
ended after 12-15 days leading to silencing of the coat protein
and increased virus titer. The ability to reverse gene silencing
by 5-azacytidine indicated that methylation was the primary cause
of gene silencing in these transgenic lines.
In an additional study, we found that the copy number of introduced
genes in transgenic plants could be estimated more efficiently
using RT-PCR compared to Southern analysis.