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Evaluation of selected genetic resources of Triticum aestivum subsp. aestivum, T. turgidum subsp. durum and dicoccum, and T. monococcum subsp. monococcum. [p. 26-29]

Z. Stehno and M. Trcková.

Four wheat species represented by spring cultivars or other genotypes listed in Table 1 were evaluated in 2004 in the Research Institute of Crop Production in Prague. Differences among species T. aestivum subsp. aestivum, T. turgidum subsp. durum and dicoccum, and T. monococcum subsp. monococcum were tested by analysis of variance completed with Tuckey HSD test (homologous groups) at P = 0.05.

Average plant height of durum wheat (86.5 cm) was significantly different (Table 2) from emmer (115.0 cm). Beard wheat cultivars and einkorn genotypes did not differ each from other neither from the species mentioned above. The number of days from sowing to heading for bred and cultivated species and durum and bread wheat (57.8 and 60.4 days-to-heading, respectively) differed from that of emmer and einkorn hulled wheats (72.0 and 79.3 days, respectively). A similar situation was recorded at flowering, which started 6.2 (T. aestivum subsp. aestivum) to 7.5 (T. turgidum subsp. durum) days after heading. The sequence of species and significant differences were the same as for heading. Because a very similar situation was observed in wax ripeness, we can assume that intervals between particular stages are quite similar in tested wheat species.

Table 1. A survey of tested cultivars and other genetic resources. Country codes are Albania (ALB), Argentina (ARG), Austria (AUT), Azerbaijan (AZE), Canada (CAN), Czech Republic (CSK), Denmark (DNK), France (FRA), Georgia (GEO), Germany (DEU), Hungary (HUN), Italy (ITA), Mexico (MEX), Poland (POL), Portugal (PRT), Russian Federation (RUS), Spain (ESP), Switzerland (CHE), Ukraine (UKR), and Yugoslavia (YUG).

 Cultivar  Origin  Cultivar  Origin  Cultivar  Origin
 Triticum aestivum subsp. aestivum  Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum  Triticum turgidum subsp. durum
 Munk  DEU  T. dicoccum (Kromeriz)  CZE  Zenit  ITA
 Sandra  CZE  T. dicoccum (Ruzyne)  CZE  Marmilla  ITA
 Roxo  PRT  Kahler Emmer  DEU  Valbelice  ITA
 Buck Yapeyu  ARG  May-Emmer  CHE  Mojo 2  MEX
 Strela  RUS  Weisser Sommer  DEU  Saadi  FRA
 Pacific  CAN  T. dicoccum (Tapioszele)  HUN  Kharkovskaya 21  UKR
 Saratovskaya 46  RUS  Krajova-Podbranc (Toman)  CZE  Auroc  FRA
 AC Reed  CAN  Poering Jaarma (Nachitch.)  AZE  Olinto  ITA
 Kommissar  AUT  T. dicoccum (Balkan)  YUG  Kievlanka  FRA
 Broma  POL  T. dicoccum (Brno)  CZE  Lyudmila  RUS
 Triticum monococcum subsp. monococcum
 T. monococcum (Leningr.)  RUS  Escana  ESP  T. monococcum  GEO
 T. monococcum  ALB  T. monococcum (Tabor)  CZE  T. monococcum No. 8910  DNK

Table 2. Significant differences among wheat species for various agronomic characteristics (groups significant at P = 0.05).
 Species  Average  Group  Species  Average  Group
 Plant height (cm)  Number of kernels/spikelet
 T. durum  86.5  a  T. monococcum  0.8  a
 T. aestivum  98.8  ab  T. dicoccum  1.1  a
 T. monococcum  101.7  ab  T. aestivum  2.1  b
 T. dicoccum  115.0  b  T. durum  2.1  b
 Number of days from sowing to heading  Grain weight/spike
 T. durum  57.8  a  T. monococcum  0.39  a
 T. aestivum  60.4  a  T. dicoccum  0.58  a
 T. dicoccum  72.0  b  T. aestivum  1.43  b
 T. monococcum  79.3  c  T. durum  1.45  b
 Number of days from sowing to flowering  1,000-kernel weight (g)
 T. durum  65.3  a  T. monococcum  22.26  a
 T. aestivum  66.6  a  T. dicoccum  27.89  b
 T. dicoccum  78.3  b  T. aestivum  38.15  c
 T. monococcum  86.2  c  T. durum  47.02  d
 Number of days from sowing to wax ripeness  Harvest index (HI)
 T. durum  105.8  a  T. monococcum  0.29  a
 T. aestivum  106.7  a  T. dicoccum  0.36  b
 T. dicoccum  109.8  b  T. aestivum  0.46  c
 T. monococcum  112.7  c  T. durum  0.47  c
 Number of days, sowing to chlorophyll decomposition  Crude protein content (%)
 T. durum  104.1  a  T. aestivum  14.34  a
 T. aestivum  105.3  ab  T. durum  14.70  a
 T. dicoccum  107.3  bc  T. dicoccum  19.32  b
 T. monococcum  109.7  c  T. monococcum  19.80  b
 Number of days, flowering to chlorophyll decomposition  Sedimentation by Zeleny (ml)
 T. monococcum  23.5  a  T. dicoccum  23.80  a
 T. dicoccum  29.0  b  T. monococcum  24.33  a
 T. aestivum  38.7  c  T. durum  25.60  a
 T. durum  38.8  c  T. aestivum  40.50  b
 Spike length (cm)  Wet-gluten content (%)
 T. monococcum  5.4  a  T. monococcum  18.10  a
 T. durum  6.6  a  T. durum  20.87  a
 T. dicoccum  6.9  a  T. aestivum  27.11  a
 T. aestivum  10.0  b  T. dicoccum  34.70  a
 Number of spikelets/spike  Gluten index (GI)
 T. durum  14.8  a  T. dicoccum  19.87  a
 T. aestivum  17.9  b  T. monococcum  20.19  a
 T. dicoccum  29.8  bc  T. aestivum  38.39  a
 T. monococcum  22.2  c  T. durum  47.08  a
 Number of kernels/spike  
 T. monococcum  17.4  a
 T. dicoccum  21.2  a
 T. durum  31.0  b
 T. aestivum  37.6  c

An important period for assimilate transfer from photosynthetic active organs into grain is the parallel existence of photosynthetic active area and developing grain capacity that is period from flowering to total chlorophyll decomposiion. For this trait, cultivated species were very similar; bread wheat 38.7 days and durum wheat 38.8 days. They differed significantly from emmer (29.0 days) and especially from einkorn (23.5 days). Significantly longer spikes were recorded in bread wheat (10.0 cm) in comparison to other species (5.4-6.8 cm). Spike length was not related to the number of spikelets/spike. The lowest number of spikelets/spike, in durum wheat, was significantly different from all other species. For the number of kernels/spike, einkorn and emmer were quit similar (17.4 and 21.2 kernels, respectively) and differed significantly from durum wheat (31.0) and bread wheat (37.6). The number of kernels/spikelet corresponded with number of kernels/spike. Cultivated species did not differ from each other (both 2.1 kernels/spikelet). Nearly one kernel/spikelet was observed in emmer and 0.79 kernels per spike in einkorn.

Grain weight per spike results from number of kernels in spike and average weight of one kernel evaluated as 1,000-kernel weight. Cultivated species (durum wheat 1.45 g and bread wheat 1.43 g) were significantly different from hulled species (emmer 0.58 g and einkorn 0.39 g). All tested species differed in 1,000-kernel weight each from others that was caused by deep differences in this trait (from 22.26 g in einkorn to 47.02 g in durum wheat). Harvest index (HI) also was very different, ranging from 0.29 (einkorn) to 0.47 (durum wheat).

The hulled wheat species (T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum and T. monococcum subsp. monococcum) were lower in production comparison to bread and durum wheat had significantly higher crude protein content. Standard crude protein content in bread wheat (14.34 %) and durum wheat (14.70 %) was significantly overcome by emmer (19.32 %) and einkorn (19.80 %). High sedimentation value by Zeleny was characteristic for bread wheat (40.5 ml) confirming suitability of the tested species representatives for backing purposes. All other three species with low sedimentation (23.8c25.6 ml) can be considered as suitable for other utilization (pasta and biscuits). Nonsignificant differences in the last two quality characters (wet gluten content and gluten index) were caused by high intraspecies variability.

Acknowledgment. The research was supported by Grant No. 521/02/0479 from the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic.