A Database for Triticeae and Avena
RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF CROP PRODUCTION - RICP
Drnovska 507, CZ-161 06 Prague 6 - Ruzyne, Czech Republic.
Z. Stehno and M. Trcková.
Four wheat species represented by spring cultivars or other
genotypes listed in Table 1 were evaluated in 2004 in the Research
Institute of Crop Production in Prague. Differences among species
T. aestivum subsp. aestivum, T. turgidum
subsp. durum and dicoccum, and T. monococcum
subsp. monococcum were tested by analysis of variance
completed with Tuckey HSD test (homologous groups) at P = 0.05.
Average plant height of durum wheat (86.5 cm) was significantly
different (Table 2) from emmer (115.0 cm). Beard wheat cultivars
and einkorn genotypes did not differ each from other neither from
the species mentioned above. The number of days from sowing to
heading for bred and cultivated species and durum and bread wheat
(57.8 and 60.4 days-to-heading, respectively) differed from that
of emmer and einkorn hulled wheats (72.0 and 79.3 days, respectively).
A similar situation was recorded at flowering, which started 6.2
(T. aestivum subsp. aestivum) to 7.5 (T.
turgidum subsp. durum) days after heading. The sequence
of species and significant differences were the same as for heading.
Because a very similar situation was observed in wax ripeness,
we can assume that intervals between particular stages are quite
similar in tested wheat species.
Table 1. A survey of tested cultivars and
other genetic resources. Country codes are Albania (ALB), Argentina
(ARG), Austria (AUT), Azerbaijan (AZE), Canada (CAN), Czech Republic
(CSK), Denmark (DNK), France (FRA), Georgia (GEO), Germany (DEU),
Hungary (HUN), Italy (ITA), Mexico (MEX), Poland (POL), Portugal
(PRT), Russian Federation (RUS), Spain (ESP), Switzerland (CHE),
Ukraine (UKR), and Yugoslavia (YUG).
An important period for assimilate transfer from photosynthetic
active organs into grain is the parallel existence of photosynthetic
active area and developing grain capacity that is period from
flowering to total chlorophyll decomposiion. For this trait, cultivated
species were very similar; bread wheat 38.7 days and durum wheat
38.8 days. They differed significantly from emmer (29.0 days)
and especially from einkorn (23.5 days). Significantly longer
spikes were recorded in bread wheat (10.0 cm) in comparison to
other species (5.4-6.8 cm). Spike length was not related to the
number of spikelets/spike. The lowest number of spikelets/spike,
in durum wheat, was significantly different from all other species.
For the number of kernels/spike, einkorn and emmer were quit similar
(17.4 and 21.2 kernels, respectively) and differed significantly
from durum wheat (31.0) and bread wheat (37.6). The number of
kernels/spikelet corresponded with number of kernels/spike. Cultivated
species did not differ from each other (both 2.1 kernels/spikelet).
Nearly one kernel/spikelet was observed in emmer and 0.79 kernels
per spike in einkorn.
Grain weight per spike results from number of kernels in spike
and average weight of one kernel evaluated as 1,000-kernel weight.
Cultivated species (durum wheat 1.45 g and bread wheat 1.43 g)
were significantly different from hulled species (emmer 0.58 g
and einkorn 0.39 g). All tested species differed in 1,000-kernel
weight each from others that was caused by deep differences in
this trait (from 22.26 g in einkorn to 47.02 g in durum wheat).
Harvest index (HI) also was very different, ranging from 0.29
(einkorn) to 0.47 (durum wheat).
The hulled wheat species (T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum
and T. monococcum subsp. monococcum) were lower
in production comparison to bread and durum wheat had significantly
higher crude protein content. Standard crude protein content in
bread wheat (14.34 %) and durum wheat (14.70 %) was significantly
overcome by emmer (19.32 %) and einkorn (19.80 %). High sedimentation
value by Zeleny was characteristic for bread wheat (40.5 ml) confirming
suitability of the tested species representatives for backing
purposes. All other three species with low sedimentation (23.8c25.6
ml) can be considered as suitable for other utilization (pasta
and biscuits). Nonsignificant differences in the last two quality
characters (wet gluten content and gluten index) were caused by
high intraspecies variability.
Acknowledgment. The research was supported by
Grant No. 521/02/0479 from the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic.