A Database for Triticeae and Avena
KAZAKH RESEARCH-PRODUCTION CENTER OF GRAIN PRODUCITON AND
Yu.I. Zelenskiy and A.I. Morgounov (CIMMYT).
Spring wheat is the main food crop in northern Kazakhstan.
The wheats cultivated in this region have some great disadvantages:
low yield potential in dry years, susceptibility to lodging, and
low disease and pest resistance.
Germ plasm with various biological and agronomic characteristics
is a basis of plant-breeding programs (Vavilov 1935; Kronstad
1996). To develop new cultivars meeting the requirements of modern
agricultural production, we utilize new, primary breeding material
developed by the leading agricultural research centers.
Despite considerable difficulties in transferring germ plasm
across CIS country borders, a significant number of new accessions
where obtained during the last year from different institutions
in the Russian Federation (Omsk, Krasnoyarsk, Novosibirsk, Kurgan,
and Barnaul) and Byelorussia within the germ plasm exchange network.
Considerable contributions to germ plasm collections were made
by CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center).
During 19962003, we evaluated more than 10,000 entries of
After several years of study, the CIMMYT material has shown
that germ plasm from international nurseries, such as the SAWYT
(Semi-Arid Areas Wheat Yield Trial), SAWSN (Semi-Arid Areas Wheat
Screening Nursery), ESWYT (Elite Selection Wheat Yield Trial),
and IDYN (International Durum Yield Nursery), are not always well
adapted to the extreme conditions of our region because of poor
drought tolerance, little growth, or long vegetative periods.
Therefore, our search for new, better-adapted material during
the last 2-3 years has included nurseries such as the GAWYT (Global
Adaptation Wheat Trial), FAWWON (Facultative and Winter Wheat
Observation Nursery), and HLWSN (High Latitude Wheat Screening
Nursery), and among cultivars of North American origin (USA, Canada).
When breeding for resistance to leaf rust, the most widespread
and harmful disease of wheat in northern Kazakhstan, the IDTN
Candidates nursery, including isogenic lines of cultivars with
known Lr genes deserves, the greatest interest. Shuttle
breeding has been employed with the participation of CIMMYTMexico,
and new improved germ plasm has been developed from CIMMYT material
and cultivars from the U.S. and Canada.
Shuttle breeding is implemented through the following plan:
crosses and multiplication of segregating populations are made
in Mexico, selections from segregating populations are made at
various sites in Kazakhstan and western Siberia depending on the
aim of the breeding. Developed material combines resistance to
fungal diseases, which is conferred by Mexican germ plasm, and
high adaptability to local conditions, which is contributed by
the local cultivars. Presently, selections are carried out in
F3-F5 segregation populations of improved germ plasm, which were
developed from the crosses with the Kazakhstan cultivars Akmola
2, Akmola 3, Ishimskaya 92, Kazakhstanskaya early maturing, Tselinnaya
24, Tselinnaya 3C, Skent 1, and Tselinnaya yubileinaya were used
as parents. Progeny of the elite spikes is studied at the initial
stages of the breeding process (F3 and F5 observation nursery).
Along with the study of the yield components in the collection
nurseries, CIMMYT material, we evaluated for resistance to diseases
and pests, which are widespread in the region in the special disease
nurseries using artificial inoculation. Lines are selected based
on yield and other valuable agronomic characters and further evaluated
in breeding nurseries and advanced trials. The best entries are
distributed annually to the breeders in Kazakhstan and Siberia
for the further evaluation and practical use in their programs.
REPUCLICAN STATE ENTERPRISE, BARAYEV
RESEARCH-AND-PRODUCTION CENTRE OF GRAIN FARMING, AND THE MINISTRY
OF AGRICULTURE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN
Akmolinskaya oblast, Shortandy district, village Nauchny, 021601,
Irina Victorovna Rukavitsina and Zorya Petrovna Karamshuk.
In the intensive agricultural production conditions in northern
Kazakhstan, one factor limiting the growth of grain crop productivity
on chernozem soils is a fungal disease caused by pathogenic species
Alternaria, Fusarium, and Bipolaris. Among
existing measures of control, the most widespread and effective
are chemical. However, the use of chemicals quite often promotes
environmental pollution and has a negative effect on public health.
Attention now is given to searching for biological means of plant
protection using fungal antagonists. Antagonism is widely distributed
among fungi and can be a result of competition for nutrients,
the activity of antibiotics developed by fungi, and the direct
effect on pathogenic fungi (hyperparasitism). Our interests include
studying the antagonism between fungi causing black germ disease
and root rots in grain crops.
As an antagonist against plant pathogenic species Alternaria,
Fusarium, and Bipolaris, we investigated the fungus
Trichoderma lignorum (strain 156-T). The study of
antagonistic mutual relationship between the these fungi was done
using counter cultures on Chapek-Dox medium. Fungi were isolated
from soil in the germination zone, the surface of wheat seeds,
and infected tissue in the root-zone of wheat stems. Isolated,
pure-culture, plant pathogenic fungi were identified according
to specific composition.
The results showed that Tr. lignorum has the greatest
antagonistic activity, shown in the form of hyperparasitism related
to Alternaria tenuis. On the Chapek-Dox nutrient
medium, Tr. lignorum mycelium overgrew that of A. tenuis
that had colonized the surface. When growing on A. tenuis,
Tr. lignorum uses the nutritional substances produced for
growth. In this case, Tr. lignorum is hyperparasitic on
In the interaction between Fusarium oxysporum
and species of Trichoderma, territorial antagonism has
been discovered. In the presence of F. oxysporum, Tr.
lignorum actively increases in biomass. Upon encountering
F. oxysporum mycelium the Trichoderma actively occupies
the medium around F. oxysporum and then oppresses and stops
the development of the fungus.
Mutual aggressive antagonism was noted between Tr. lignorum
and Bipolaris sorokiniana. Active growth stops in
both fungi at a distance between the colonies. The basic biomass
of both species is at the border of the colony. The antagonism
is expressed by defusing antibiotics into agar. In this case,
the mutual influence of antibiotics is the short growth of aerial
mycelium both fungi.
This research has shown mutual aggressive antagonism between
B. sorokiniana and Tr. lignorum, territorial antagonism
between Tr. lignorum and F. oxysporum, and hyperparasitism
between Tr. lignorum and A. tenuis. Developing
a biological substance on a basis of Tr. lignorum strain
156-T will promote the increase plant protection against pathogenic
species of Alternaria, Fusarium, and Helmintosporium.