A Database for Triticeae and Avena
Ant mutants of barley which suppress expression of some or all the
colored pigments in the plant may also affect grain pigments. To
confirm the effect of ant genes on aleurone color, twelve Ant mutants
were crossed to the blue-aleurone experimental line ND6976 (B1B1 B12B12
F2 seeds and F3 progenies were utilized for this study. F2 seeds
of crosses were soaked for 24 hours in a petri plate before scoring for
blue aleurone; seeds of F3 progenies were pearled for ten seconds so
partial removal of hulls occurred. All parents from which ant mutants
were induced had a white aleurone layer and were assumed to be
homozygous for the b1 or b12 allele for aleurone color, because white
aleuroned cultivars usually contain only one gene for white aleurone
(Meyer and Stanford, 1942).
F2 seeds of nine of the crosses showed a fit to a 9:7 ratio for
blue and white aleurone, respectively (Table 1). This segregation is
expected if the mutants are recessive at one locus for white aleurone
(b1 or b12) and are homozygous for an ant allele which prevents the
formation of blue color. Five F3
progenies were analyzed to confirm F2
segregation data (Table 1). F3
results agreed with F2 data and often
showed a better fit to the expected ratio as it was easier to score F2
progenies than F2 seeds for aleurone color.
Three crosses segregated in a different manner (Table 2). Chi-
square values indicated a good fit to a 27:37 blue to white ratio, which
is expected if three genes were segregating for aleurone color.
The F3 generation of one cross was planted to confirm F2 data and
the results showed a better fit to the expected ratio than the
F2 data. It is assumed that the parental lines of Ant 548 (Cree), Ant
581 (Dickson) and Ant 582 (Dickson) have both the b1 and b12 genes
for white aleurone.
The mutants utilized in this study were allelic at the ant13,
ant17, or ant18 loci (Jende-Strid, 1988), which produce a lack of pigments
in all plant parts and are deficient in anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins
and catechins (Jende-Strid, 1984). Thus, the recessive alleles at these
loci also prevent the formation of blue aleurone color, adding several
recessive factors to the list of genes that affect expression of blue
aleurone in barley. Similar affects of the ant genes on blue aleurone
pigment were reported by Boyd and Falk (1988).
Boyd, P.W., and D.E. Falk. 1988. The interaction of blue aleurone
and proanthocyanidin in barley seeds. Barley Newsl. 31:110.
Jende-Strid, B. 1984. Coordinator's report: Anthocyanin genes. BGN
Jende-Strid, B. 1988. Coordinator's report: Anthocyanin genes. Stock
list of ant mutants kept at the Carlsberg Laboratory. BGN 18:74-79.
Myler, J.L., and E.H. Stanford. 1942. Color inheritance in barley.
Agron. J. 34:427-436.