A Database for Triticeae and Avena
Breeding for proanthocyanidin-free malting barley was initiated at
Washington State University (WSU) in 1976, in collaboration with the
Carlsberg Laboratory in Copenhagen. Considerable progress has been
made in breeding this special brewing quality barley (Wettstein et al.,
1985; Larsen et al., 1987; Cochran and Ullrich, 1988). Mutation
breeding has been the foundation for providing new germplasm with
sodium azide serving as the primary mutagen. In total 175 mutants have
been induced and selected in North American spring barley sources.
Prior to 1987, new mutants were selected from field plantings of
M2 populations by choosing the anthocyanin-free phenotype. Since
anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin are produced in the same biochemical
pathway (Wettstein et al., 1985), most visibly selected anthocyanin
pigment-free mutants are proanthocyanidin-free as well. Since 1987 new
mutants have been selected in the laboratory by non-destructively
screening M3 seed with a vanillin-HCI solution and the Carlsberg Seed
Fixation System (Aastrip, 1985; Kristensen and Aastrup, 1986). Table I
contains a list of proanthocyanidin-free mutants selected at Washington
State University using the Carlsberg Seed Fixation System. It is
interesting to note that only eight of the 35 new mutants are
anthocyanin-free indicating that a broader range of mutants are
selected via M3 seed vs pigment-free M2 plants for the field. Small
quantitites of seed are available to interested scientists.
Allele tests are in progress with these new mutants. Many of the
previously selected WSU mutants (Ant 500-639) have been allele-tested
at the Carlsberg Laboratory or WSU with results reported by Jende-Strid
Aastrip, S. 1985. A test for presence or absence of proanthocyanidins
in barley and malt. Carlberg Res. Commun. 50:37-42.
Cochran, J. S., and S. E. Ullrich. 1988. Progress in breeding for
proanthocyanidin-free barley. Barley Newsl. 31:89.
Kristensen, H., and S. Aastrup. 1986. A non-destructive screening
method for proanthocyanidin-free barley mutants. Carlsberg Res.
Jende-Strid, B. 1988. Coordinator's report: Anthocyanin genes.
Stock list of ant mutants kept at the Carlsberg Laboratory.
Larsen, J., S. E. Ullrich, J. Ingversen, A. E. Nielsen, J. S. Cochran,
and J. A. Clancy. 1987. Breeding and malting behavior of two
different proanthocyanidin-free barley gene sources. In Barley
Wettstein, D. von, R. A. Nilan, B. Ahrenst-Larsen, K. Erdal, J. Inversen,
B. Jende-Strid, K. Nyegaard, J. Larsen, H. Outtrup, and S. E. Ullrich.
1985. Proanthocyanidin-free barley for brewing: Progress in breeding
for high yield and research tool in polyphenol chemistry. MBAA Tech.