A Database for Triticeae and Avena
I.13. Report from the Barley Genetics Committee of the American Barley
Research Workers' Conference
The Barley Genetics Committee of the American Barley Research Workers'
Conference met in August, 1970 and formulated proposals concerning genetic
and cytological nomenclature and symbolization, maintenance of world colletions
of genetic and cytological stocks, coordinators, Newsletters, and related
subjects. These proposals were published in Barley Genetics
Newsletter 1:4-10. Comments, criticisms and suggestions were solicited
and many were received from both within and outside of the American Barley
Research Workers' Conference.
The Barley Genetics Committee met in August, 1971 to consider comments,
criticisms and suggestions concerning their first proposal. The Committee
then formulated policies and procedures for adoption by the Conference.
These policies and procedures were presented to the members of the Eighth
American Barley Research Workers' Conference in January, 1972. The policies
and procedures were revised and amended. The revised and amended report
was adopted at the business meeting of the Eighth American Barley Research
Workers' Conference, January, 1972.
The American Barley Research Workers' Conference is convinced of the
need for international policies and procedures concerning barley genetics.
To generate ideas and discussions that will lead to international policies,
the report of the Barley Genetic Committee that was adopted by the Eighth
American Barley Research Workers' Conference is presented below.
REPORT FROM THE BARLEY GENETICS COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BARLEY RESEARCH
The following report from the Barley Genetics Committee was adopted
by the Eighth American Barley Research Workers' Conference at Tucson, Arizona
on January 27, 1972.
There shall be a Barley Genetics Committee of the American Barley Research
Workers' Conference. The Barley Genetics Committee shall consist of those
members of the American Barley Research Workers' Conference who have been
appointed as genetic and cytogenetic coordinators by the Committee on Genetic
Marker Stocks, Nomenclature and Symbolization of the International Barley
Genetics Symposium and any others appointed by the chairman of the Barley
Genetics Committee of the American Barley Research Workers' Conference.
The chairman of the Barley Genetics Committee shall be Dr. Takumi Tsuchiya.
Among the responsibilities of the Barley Genetics Committee are:
1. To formulate policies and procedures for genetic and cytogenetic
nomenclature and symbolization, maintenance of world collections of genetic
and cytological seed stocks, duties and responsibilities of coordinators,
and related subjects.
2. To encourage editors of journals to submit manuscripts concerning
barley genetics and cytogenetics to members of the Barley Genetics Committee
3. To integrate policies and procedures of the American Barley Research
Workers' Conference with those of the International Barley Genetics Symposium.
Members of the American Barley Research Workers' Conference will use
the following rules for gene symbolization and nomenclature.
The "Recommended Rules for Symbolization" reported by the International
Committee on Genetic Symbols and Nomenclature 1957, along with amendments
applying to barley will be used for barley gene nomenclature and symbolization.
The following is a list of the "Recommended Rules for Symbolization" followed
by amendments and comments where applicable to barley.
1. In naming hereditary factors, the use of languages of higher internationality
should be given preference.
2. Symbols of hereditary factors, derived from their original names,
should be written in Roman letters of distinctive type, preferably in italics,
and be as short as possible.
AMENDMENT: The original name should be as descriptive as possible of
the phenotype. All gene symbols should consist of three letters.
COMMENTS: All new gene symbols should consist of three letters. Existing
gene symbols of less than three letters should be converted to the three
letter system whenever symbols are revised. When appropriate, one or two
letters should be added to existing symbols. For example, add the letter
"ap" to "K" to produce the symbol "Kap" to replace "K" as the symbol for
Kapuze (hooded). As another example, add the letters "ud" to "n" to produce
the symbol "nud" to replace "n" as the symbol for naked seed. Similarly
the letter "g" can be added to "ms" to produce the symbol "msg" for genetic
male sterility and the letter "e" can be added to "ds" to produce the symbol
"des" for desynapsis. When inappropriate or when conflicts arise, questions
should be referred to the Committee on Genetic Marker Stocks, Nomenclature
and Symbolization of the International Barley Genetics Symposium for resolution.
3. Whenever unambiguous, the name and symbol of a dominant begin with
a capital letter and those of a recessive with a small letter.
AMENDMENT: When ambiguous (co-dominance, incomplete dominance, etc.)
all symbols should consist of a capital letter followed by two small letters
that designate the character, a number that represents a particular locus,
and a letter or letters that represents a particular allele or mutational
event at that particular locus.
COMMENTS: As an example, the letter Mdh can be used to designate the
character malate dehydrogenase, Mdh1 would represent a particular locus
for malate dehydrogenase and Mdh1a, Mdh1b, Mdh1c, etc would represent particular
alleles or mutational events at the Mdh1 locus. Row number can be used
as an example of symbolizing factors showing incomplete dominance. At the
present time, the symbol "v" is used to represent the row number in Hordeum
vulgare, "V" is used to represent the row number in H. distichum,
and "Vt" is used to represent the row number in H. deficiens.
According to the amendment to Rule 3, if row number were to be designated
by the letters "Vul", the designation of the locus on chromosome 2 would
then become "Vull" and the alleles "v", "V" and "Vt" would then
be designated "Vulla", "Vullb" and "Vullc".
4. Literal or numeral superscripts are used to represent the different
members of an allelic series.
AMENDMENT: All letters and numbers used in symbolization should be written
on one line; no superscripts or subscripts should be used.
5. Standard or wild type alleles are designated by the gene symbols
with a + as a superscript or by a + with the gene symbol as a superscript.
In formulae the + alone may be used.
AMENDMENT: This rule will not be used in barley symbolization.
6. Two or more genes having phenotypically similar effects are designated
by a common basic symbol. Non-allelic loci (mimics, polymeric genes, etc.)
are distinguished by an additional letter or Arabic numeral either on the
same line after a hyphen or as a subscript. Alleles of independent mutational
origin may be indicated by a superscript.
AMENDMENT: Barley gene symbols should consist of three letters that
designate the character, a number that represents a particular locus, and
a letter or letters that represents a particular allele or mutational event
at that particular locus. All letters and numbers should be written on
the same line without hyphens or spaces. Alleles or mutational events that
have not been assigned to a locus should be symbolized by three letters
that designate the character followed by two commas used to reserve space
for the locus number when determined, followed by a letter or letters representing
the particular allele or mutational event. After appropriate allele testing,
the correct locus number will be substituted for the commas. Where appropriate
(when assigning new symbols or when revising existing symbols) letters
representing alleles or mutational events should be assigned consecutively
without regard to locus number or priority in discovery or publication.
COMMENTS: The use of the proposed system of symbolization can be illustrated
by the desynaptic mutants. Two loci are known: lc on chromosome
1 and ds on chromosome 3. These will be resymbolized as des1a
and des2b. A large number of desynaptic mutants have been collected.
They will be designated des,,c, des,,d, des,,e, etc.
If allele tests show that des,,c is at a different locus than des1
and des2, des,,c will become des3c. If allele tests
show that des,,d is at the same locus as des2, des,,d
will become des2d. In practical use, the symbol des will
be used when speaking of desynapsis in general or if only one locus was
known for the character. The symbol des2 will be used when speaking
of that particular locus, and the symbol des2b will be used only
when speaking of that particular allele or mutational event. If additional
designation is needed in particular symbolization, it can be obtained by
adding numbers behind the allele letters, and, if still further designation
is needed, letters can be added to the symbol behind the last number. Symbolization
consisting of alternation of letters and numbers written on the same line
without hyphens or spaces will allow for the expansion of the symbol as
future needs arise. In any work with large numbers of polymeric gene mutants,
every mutant has to be given a designation not shared by any other mutant
of this polymeric group and this designation should become a part of the
permanent symbol representing that particular allele or mutational event.
This requirement can be met by assigning allele designations in consecutive
order without regard to locus number.
7. Inhibitors, suppressors, and enhancers are designated by the symbols
I, Su and En, or by i, su and en
if they are recessive, followed by a hyphen and the symbol of the allele
8. Whenever convenient, lethals should be designated by the letter l
or L and sterility and incompatibility genes by s or S.
9. Linkage groups and corresponding chromosomes are preferably designated
by Arabic numerals.
10. The letter X and Y are recommended to designate sex
11. Genic formulae are written as fractions with the maternal alleles
given first or above. Each fraction corresponds to a single linkage group.
Different linkage groups written in numerical sequence are separated by
semicolons. Symbols of unlocated genes are placed within parenthesis at
the end of the formula. In euploids and aneuploids, the gene symbols are
repeated as many times as there are homologous loci.
12. Chromosomal abberations should be indicated by abbreviations: Df
for deficiency, Dp for duplication, In for inversion, T
for translocation. Tp for transposition.
13. The zygotic number of chromosomes is indicated by 2n, the
gametic number by n and basic number by x.
14. Symbols of extra chromosomal factors should be enclosed within brackets
and precede the genic formula.
The American Barley Research Workers' Conference policy on coordinators
is as follows:
Coordinators for the various chromosomes, for special gene collections
and for various chromosomal variations are necessary for the advancement
of barley genetics. These coordinators should be appointed by the Committee
on Genetic Marker Stocks, Nomenclature and Symbolization of the International
Barley Genetics Symposium. Workers studying special gene collections are
encouraged to act as coordinators during the period that they have an interest
in such a collection. The chairman of the Committee on Genetic Marker Stocks,
Nomenclature and Symbolization of the International Barley Genetics Symposium
should coordinate the appointments of coordinators for special gene collections.
He should publish a list of the active coordinators in each issue of the
Barley Genetics Newsletter.
The duties and responsibilities of the coordinators should be:
1. Maintain current information concerning their area and serve as a
source of information concerning that area.
2. Prepare an annual report for the Barley Genetics Newsletter.
3. Maintain world collections of genetic and cytological seed stocks.
4. Perform, and encourage and support others to perform, special work
necessary to the advancement of barley genetics.
5. If a coordinator feels that he cannot meet these and other special
duties and responsibilities as they develop he should notify the Chairman
of the Committee on Genetic Marker Stocks, Nomenclature and Symbolization
of the International Barley Genetics Symposium so that another coordinator
can be appointed.
R. T. Ramage
BGN 2 toc
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