A Database for Triticeae and Avena
V.1. New linkage maps of barley.*
T. Tsuchiya. Department of Agronomy, Colorado State University, Fort
Collins, Colorado 80521, U.S.A.
*Supported in part by NSF Research Grant GB4482X and GB30493 and Colorado
State University Experiment Station Project (Hatch 8).
Since the preparation of the last linkage maps of barley (20), linkage
data have been critically reviewed. As a result, considerable changes have
been made in the new maps. The following explanations are given for the
changes of each gene:
A. Revision of linkage map for chromosome 5. Based on cytogenetic data
the linkage map of chromosome 5 was revised (22,23).
B. Elimination of genes from the map
1. gh for glume hairs; insufficient and conflicting linkage
2. ert-d, ert-a and ert-m for erectoides genes;
ert-a and ert-d showed no recombination with Nn, which
showed no recombination with ari-d, which also showed no recombination
with ert-m. Therefore, all those five genes (n, ari-d,
ert-a, ert-d and ert-m) should be in the same locus
(11, 12). Yet, they have been located at different loci (10,11,12,15).
Persson (12) mentioned that ert-m should be somewhere in the short
arm. Also readers probably have noticed that these three erectoides genes
have been moving a great deal in the past 10 years, since 1963 (10,11,12,15,16,25).
Therefore, it is reasonable to drop these genes from the map until more
concrete data for linkage relations with well established genes are obtained
in the future.
3. gs 7 for glossy sheath; this gene is now known as allelic
to gs 6 and was erroneously located in the short arm of chromosome
2. The gene gs 6 has never been located on the map (9,19).
In Barley Newsletter Vol. 9, pp. 68-69 (1965), Takahashi erroneously
gave gene symbol gs 7 for gs 8 in var. Okaiku 3. The gene
gs 8 was found to be allelic to gs 5 (19).
4. ine (ie ) for inhibitor of glume
awn expression; not enough information to locate it on the map (6).
5. wst 3 for white streak; the results and arguments on this
gene are presented in this volume of BGN (17,21,24). Based on these results,
it may be fairly safely concluded that wst 3 is allelic to wst,
though the data are rather circumstantial. Direct evidence is necessary
to prove that the inversion has occurred in chromosome 3 by cytogenetic
method of analysis which is now under way.
6. ari-a for short awn; no reliable data for the location are
7. ert-c for erectoides; no reliable data for this location are
8. int-c for intermedium; no reliable data for this location
are available (11).
9. ert-i for erectoides; only one test with K is not enough
locate this gene at that position in the map (11).
10. lg for light green; because of confusion in gene symbolization
and genetic stock maintenance this was dropped until this confusion is
straightened out (5).
11. gl 2 for glossy seedling; gl 2 was proved to be allelic
to gl (4).
12. ert-b for erectoides; the tests with Bb and Trd
trd are conflicting with each other and the data are not enough for
mapping (11,12). Also refer to T. Tsuchiya (23).
13. int-a for intermedium; no reliable data are available (11,12).
14. ms for male sterile; only one test with at
is not enough for mapping (13).
15. ert-g and ert-n for erectoides; no reliable data
16. ari-e for short awn; no reliable data for mapping this gene
17. lax-a for lax spike; no reliable data (12).
C. Addition of genes to the map.
1. l for compact spike (7 and the literature).
2. Xa for incompletely dominant xantha (7).
3. Ha for dominant resistant gene to cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera
4. ms1O and ms14 for male sterility (2).
5. cu 2 for curly 2 (17,22).
6. br 2 for brachytic (18).
7. gl 3 for glossy seedling (18).
8. nld for narrow leafed dwarf (18).
D. Changing the location in the map:
Critical analysis of linkage data resulted in these changes shown in
lr for awnless lateral florets: No information is available
to support the location of lr at v-lk locus (3,8).
Considerable changes have been made by Takahashi (17).
See Tsuchiya (23)
These changes do not mean that the maps are in final form. However,
this operation, though it is by no means perfect, will make future genetic
and linkage studies easier. I urge that many barley geneticists, particularly
the coordinator of each chromosome, try to locate those dropped genes on
the map by using good marker genes on each chromosome for further linkage
analysis. Any suggestions and/or comments are appreciated to improve our
linkage map of barley chromosomes.
The maps of chromosomes 3, 4 and 5 were basically prepared by the coordinators
Dr. R. Takahashi (chromosome 3), Dr. T. E. Haus (chromosome 4) and Dr.
N. A. Tuleen (chromosome 5) to whom special thanks are extended for their
1. Cotten, J. and J. D. Hayes. 1969 Genetic resistance to the cyst nematode
(Heterodera avenae) Heredity 24:593-600
2. Eslick, R. F., E. A. Hockett and G. D. Kushnak. 1972 Recombination
values of four genes on chromosome 1. BGN 2:122.
3. Haus, T. E. 1972. Location of the lr gene on chromosome 2
4. Haus, T. E. and T. Tsuchiya. 1972, Allelic relationships among glossy
seedling mutants BGN 2:78.
5. Haus, T. E. and Tsuchiya, T. Unpublished.
6. Helgason, S. B, 1964. Inheritance of glume characteristics in some
barley crosses. Barley Genetics I (Proc 1st Intern. Barley Genet Symp ):181-185
7. Konishi, T. 1972 An incomplete dominant chlorophyll mutation on chromosome
1. BGN 2:43
8. Leonard, W. H. 1942. Inheritance of reduced lateral spikelet appendages
in the nudihuxtoni variety of barley. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 34:211-221.
9. McProud, W. L. and R. F. Eslick. 1971. Glossy sheath 5. BGN 1: 171-172.
10. Nilan, R. A. 1964. The cytology and genetics of barley, 1951-1962.
Washington State University Press, 278 pp.
11. Persson, G. 1969a. An attempt to find suitable genetic markers for
dense ear loci in barley, I. Heredites 62:25-96.
12. Persson, G. 1969b. An attempt to find suitable genetic markers for
dense ear loci in barley, II. Hereditas 63:1-28.
13. Ramage, R. T. 1962. Genetic and cytogenetic studies of barley. Barley
Newsletter 6:67 (Robertson, 1971).
14. Rasmusson, D. C. and J. W. Lambert. 1965. Inheritance of glossy
sheath character in barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Crop Sci. 5:251-253.
15. Robertson, D. W. 1971. Recent information of linkage and chromosome
mapping. Barley Genetics II (Proc. 2nd Intern. Barley Genet. Symp.):220-242.
16. Robertson, D. W., G. A. Wiebe, R. G. Shands and A. Hagberg. 1965.
A summary of linkage studies in cultivated barley, Hordeum species:
Supplement III, 1954-1963. Crop Sci 5:33-43
17. Takahashi, R. 1972. Information of linkage and mapping of genes
on chromosome 3. BGN 2:127-131.
18. Takahashi, R., J. Hayashi and I. Moriya. 1971. Linkage studies in
barley. BGN 1:51-58.
19. Takahashi, R., J. Hayashi, I. Moriya and C. Hirao. 1965. Linkage
studies. Barley Newsletter 9:68-69. (Robertson, 1971).
20. Tsuchiya, T. and T. E. Haus. 1971. Current linkage maps of barley.
21. Tsuchiya, T. 1972. Allelism testing of various mutations in barley.
BGN 2 80-87.
22. Tsuchiya, T. 1972. Cytogenetics of telotrisomics in barley. BGN
23. Tsuchiya, T. 1972. Karyotype analysis of telotrisomic type for the
telocentric chromosome 5 A. BGN 2:90-92.
24. Tsuchiya, T. 1972. A case of paracentric inversion affecting genetic
behavior of a white streak gene. BGN 2:104-105.
25. Anonymous. 1963. The chromosomes of barley. Barley Genetics I. (Proc.
Ist Intern. Barley Genet. Symp.):188-189.
BGN 2 toc
BGN Main Index