BGN 2: DESCRIPTION OF GENETIC STOCKS BARLEY GENETICS NEWSLETTER, VOL. 2, VII. DESCRIPTION OF GENETIC STOCKS
Pages 172-200

An additional 26 descriptions of genetic stocks are included in this issue of Barley Genetics Newsletter. Also included are revised or corrected versions for some stocks.

There is still a considerable number of genetic stocks which have been given gene symbols, some of which have been located on chromosome maps, yet no formal description has been given. Each chromosome coordinator is particularly asked for the preparation of these descriptions. Workers who found mutation(s) and received gene symbol(s), particularly by personal correspondence without formal publication, are urged to prepare a description and send it to T. Tsuchiya.

The descriptions were prepared by the following writers. The writers appreciate receiving comments, suggestions, or a revised version for part or all of a description of any mutant stock.

T. E. Haus. Department of Agronomy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, U.S.A.

U. Hiura. Ohara Institute for Agricultural Biology, Okayama University. Kurashiki, Okayama-ken, Japan.

E. A. Hockett. Research Geneticist, Plant Science Research Division. ARS, U.S.D.A. and Department of Plant and Soil Science, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59715, U.S.A.

R. Takahashi. Ohara Institute for Agricultural Biology, Okayama University, Karashiki, Okayama-ken, Japan.

T. Tsuchiya. Department of Agronomy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, U.S.A.

S. Yasuda. Ohara Institute for Agricultural Biology, Okayama University, Karashiki, Okayama-ken, Japan.

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BGS 0008    Lax (long) spike    L

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:  E for long spike (1)

Inheritance:  Monofactorial dominance (1,2). Located on chromosome 1 (2)

Description:  Rachis internode length varies with varieties, genetic backgrounds, and growing conditions, but the genic effects of L1 for lax (long) vs. dense (short) spike are very strong, and two types can easily be classified visually. In F2 non-uzu population from a Bizen Wase-Sai (uzuzLL) x Bizenwase 36 (UzUzll) cross, mean rachis internode lengths of the lax and dense type plants were found to be 2.89mm (range 2.5-3.3 mm) and 1.88 mm (range 1.5-2.1 mm), respectively (3). A cultivar, Natsudaikon Mugi with LL showed 3.49 +0.1449 (mm) in mean length and Honen 6 with ll showed 1.63+ 0.0866 (mm). The spike length is affected by L1 to the same extent: The spike lengths of Natsudaikon Mugi and Honen 6 were 8.19 cm and 4.34 cm, respectively.

Origin of mutant:  Natural phenotypes in many cultivars and H. spontaneum.

Mutational events:  L in Natsudaikon Mugi and other similar varieties with lax spikes.

Mutants used for description and seed stock:
L in Natsudaikon Mugi   N v k b R S
L in Bizen Wase-Sai 1   N v uz k b R S

References:
1. Takezaki. Y. 1927. Rept. Nat. Agric. Exp. Sta. 46:1-42

2. Takahashi. R. J. Yamamoto. S. Yasuda and Y. Itano. 1953. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Forsch. 10(1):29-52

3. Takahashi. R. 1951. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Forsch. 9 (4):383-398

Prepared:  R. Takahashi 1971
 

BGS 0009    Dense spike    l

Previous nomenclature and gene symbol:  Long vs. short spike, E e (1)

Inheritance:  Monofactorial recessive (1,2,3). Located on chromosome 1 (3)

Description: Mean rachis-internode length is about 2/3 of the ordinary lax spike type, and consequently the spike length is reduced almost the same extent. Genetic study and a test with a number of semi-isogenic line pairs (L1-) has shown that the gene for dense spike has pleiotropic effects to reduce lengths of coleoptile, and stem (2) and also size of grains, but to increase number of spikelets triplets to some extent.

Origin of mutants:  Spontaneously in the cultivars distributed in Japan, Korea, China Praper and Nepal.

Mutational events: 1 in many cultivars in the so-called Oriental region. The gene occurs often associated with lk for short awn in Japanese and Korean varieties.

Mutants used for description and seed stocks:
1 in Bizen Wase 36      lk N v Uz k b R S
1 in Sekitori                Lk N v uz k b R S Hn
1 in Chikurin              Lk N v uz k b R S Hn
1 in Hayakiso 2               N v Uz k b R S Hn
1 in Kochi Wase          Lk n v Uz k b R S
1 in Yakko 52              Lk n v uz k b R S
1 in Aizu Hadaka 3      lk n v Uz k b R S
1 in Kobinkatagi 4       lk n v Uz k b R S
1 Honen 6                    lk n v Uz k b R S

References:
1. Takezaki, Y. Rept. Nat. Agric. Exp. Sta. 46:1-42.
2. Takahashi, R. 1951, Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Forsch. 9 (4): 383-398.
3. Takahashi, R.,  J. Yamamoto,  S. Yasuda and Y. Itano, 1953. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Forsch. 10 (1): 29-52.

Prepared:  R. Takahashi 1971
 

BGS 0008    Long awn    Lk2

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:  A for long awn (1). Lk for long awn (2)

Inheritance:  Monofactorial dominance (1,2). Located on chromosome 1 (2)

Description:  Awn length varies considerably with spikelets within a spike, spikes of a plant, and varieties as well. The Lk2 genotypes have both central and lateral awns longer than 90 mm in general, while the lk2 genotypes have awns less than 75 mm (3). According to a genetical study, the gene L makes awn length about 1.7 times longer than the gene (1). In Natsudaikon Mugi with Lk2, mean length of the longest awns was 109.7 + 6.49 (mm), as compared with that of Honen 6 with lk2 which was 53.2 + 4.83 (mm).

Origin of mutant:  Natural phenotype in many cultivated varieties and H. spontaneum.

Mutational events:  Lk2 in Natsudaikon Mugi and many other varieties.

Mutants used for description and seed stocks: Lk2 in Natsudaikon Mugi and a number of long awned (Japanese) varieties.

References:
1. Takezaki, Y.  1927. Rept. Nat. Agric. Exp. Sta. 46:1-42.
2. Takahashi, R.,  J. Yamamoto,  S. Yasuda and Y. Itano, 1953. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Forsch. 10 (1): 29-52.
3. Takahashi, R. 1944. Nogaku Kenkyû 36:153-166.

Prepared:  R. Takahashi 1971
 

BGS 0010    Short (fine)awn    lk2

Previous nomenclature and gene symbol:  Long vs. short awn, Aa (1). Lk lk (2). Lk4 lk4 (3)

Inheritance:  Monofactorial recessive to the long awned condition. Like alleles for laterally awnless conditions, the gene for short awn is partially or completely epistatic to K for hooded appendages.

Description:  All the awns of both central and lateral spikelets are simultaneously reduced to about 3/5 of the long-awned type. Texture of the short awn is finer and more flexible than that of the long awn expecially in the non-uzu genotypic background, and it is sometimes called in Japan as fine-awned type.

Origin of mutants: Spontaneous mutation in many cultivars, especially those distributed in Japan, Korea, China Proper and Nepal.

Mutational events: lk2 in many cultivars. The gene occurs often associated with dense head gene 1 in the same linkage group.

Mutants used for description and seed stocks:
lk2 in Kairyo Bozu          n L v uz b S R
lk2 in Aizu Hadaka         n l v Uz b S R
lk2 in Honen 6                n l v Uz b S R
lk2 in Kobinkatagi 4       n l v Uz b S R

References:
1. Takezaki, Y. 1927. Report of National Agr. Exp. Sta. (Tokyo) 46:1-43.
2. Takahashi, R. J. Yamamoto, S. Yasuda and Y. Itano. 1953. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Forsch. 10 (1): 29-52.
3. Eslick, R. F. and E. A. Hockett. 1967. Crop Sci. 7:266-267.

Prepared:  R. Takahashi 1971
 

BGS 0011    Unbranched style    u4

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:  None

Inheritance:  Monofactorial recessive (1). Located on chromosome 1 (1).

Description:  Stigma is provided with only a few very short hairs. Since this prevents the normal reception and germination of the pollen, seed fertility is reduced to 13-30% in the original uzu type mutant, Ao-Hadaka-hen. The number of stigmatic hairs and seed fertility of u4 genotype are strongly affected by the gene pairs, Uzuz and Ss, or the genes closely linked with these genes. The pollen fertility is normal, however.

Origin of mutant: Spontaneous mutation in the cultivar Ao Hadaka (1) .

Mutational event: u4 in Ao Hadaka.

Mutant used for description and seed stock: u4 in Ao-Hadaka-hen (mutant of Ao Hadaka) (1).  n lk2 v uz k Bl b R S

References:
1. Takahashi, R. J. Yamamoto and S. Yasuda. 1953. Nogaku Kenkyû (Agron. Rs.) 41:69-78.
2. Robertson, D. W. and D. Koonce. 1932. J. Agric. Res. 44:445-466 (for the genes, u, u2 and u3 or g, g' and g").

Prepared:  R. Takahashi 1971
 

BGS 0377    Normal vs. male sterile    Ms 22 ms22

Previous nomenclature and symbolization:  Normal vs. male sterile, Ms, e ms, , e (1,2).

Inheritance:  Monofactorial recessive (2). Located on chromosome 1 (2).

Description:  Selfing - None (2). Outcrossing - Complete female fertility (2). Stamen - anthers with no stomium and smaller than fertile sib; no filament elongation.

Origin of mutant:  Spontaneous occurrence in the selection Glacier x Compana, CI 10861 (1)

Mutational events: ms 22 in CI 10861, Spontaneous (1).

Mutant used for description and seed stock: ms22 in CI 10861.

References:
(1) Hockett, E. A., R. F. Eslick, D A. Reid, and G. A Wiebe. 1968. Crop Science 8: 754-755.
(2) Hockett, E. A. and R. F. Eslick. 1970. Proc. 2nd. Int. Barley Genet Symp.: 298-307 WSU Press, Pullman, Washington.

Prepared:  E. A. Hockett. 1971
 

BGS 0378     Normal vs. male sterile     Ms23 ms23

Previous nomenclature and symbolization:  Normal vs. male sterile, Ms,, b ms,, b (1,2).

Inheritance:  Monofactorial recessive (2). Located on chromosome 1 (2).

Description:  Selfing: None (2). Outcrossing - Complete female fertility (2). Stamen - anthers with no stomium and smaller than fertile sib; no filament elongation.

Origin of mutant:  Spontaneous occurrence in the cultivar Betzes CI 6398 (1).

Mutational events:  ms23 in Betzes CI 6398, spontaneous (1).

Mutant used for description and seed stock:  ms23 in Betzes CI 6398

References:
(1) Hockett, E. A., R. F. Eslick, D A. Reid, and G. A Wiebe. 1968. Crop Science 8: 754-755.
(2) Hockett, E. A. and R. F. Eslick. 1970. Proc. 2nd. Int. Barley Genet Symp.: 298-307 WSU Press, Pullman, Washington.

Prepared:  E. A. Hockett. 1971
 

BGS 0063    Virescent seedling     y

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:  None.

Inheritance:  Monofactorial recessive (1,4). Allelic to yx (yx) (3). Located on chromosome 2 (2).

Description:  The virescent seedlings have a slightly green tip, but fail to survive beyond the seedling stage (2,4).

Origin of mutant:  Spontaneous mutation in Swedish cultivar (1,4).

Mutational events:  y in Swedish cultivar (1).

Mutant used for description and seed stock:  y in Minn 72-8    N v k b r S

References:
1. Hallqvist, C. 1924. Hereditas 5:49-83.
2. Robertson, D, W. and O. H. Coleman. 1940. Jour. Genet. 39:401-410.
3. Robertson, D. W. and O. H. Coleman. 1942. Jour. Am. Soc. Agr. 34:1028-1034.
4. Robertson, D. W., G. W. Deming and D. Koonce. 1932. J. Agr. Res. 44:445-466.

Prepared:  T. Tsuchiya and T. E. Haus 1972.
 

BGS 0115    Non-brittle rachis 1    bt(-Bt2)

Previous nomenclature and gene symbol: non-brittle rachis, either r or b (1,2)

Inheritance:  The gene bt is always associated with Bt2 in the cultivars, and when such a variety is crossed with a brittle barley such as H. spontaneum (BtBt2), non-brittle rachis is inherited as monofactorial recessive. A cross with a cultivar having a Btbt2 genotype give brittle F1 on account of complementary effect of Bt and Bt2, and in the F2 generation 1 brittle:l tough segregation ratio, because bt is semi-allelic to bt2 (3,4). Located on chromosome 3 (3,4).

Description:   As in all the cultivars, rachis is tough or non-brittle, since the joints of the rachis-internodes do not disarticulate at all at maturity.

Origin of mutant: Spontaneous mutation probably in the wild barley having a genetic constitution of BtBt2 (brittle rachis).

Mutational events: bt probably in a wild progenitor of barley in the remote past.

Mutants used for description and seed stock:

References:
1. Ubisch, G. V. 1915. Zeits. ind. Abst. Vererb. 14:226-237.
2. Schiemann, E. 1921. Zeits. ind. Abst. Vererb. 26:109-140.
3. Takahashi, R. and J. Hayashi. 1959. Nogaku Kenkyû 46:113-119.
4. Takahashi, R. and J. Hayashi. 1964. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol. 12:99-105.
5. Takahashi, R. 1955. Advances in Genet. 7:227-266.
6. Takahashi, R. 1963. Barley Genetics I, 19-26.

Prepared:  R. Takahashi 1971
 

BGS 0116    Non-brittle rachis 2    bt2(-Bt)

Previous nomenclature and gene symbol: non-brittle rachis, either r or b (1,2)

Inheritance:  The gene bt2 is always associated with Bt in the cultivars (6), and when such a variety with Btbt2 is crossed with a brittle barley, H. spontaneum (BtBt2), non-brittle rachis is inherited as monfactorial recessive. A cross with a cultivar having a btBt2 genotype gives brittle F1 on account of complementary action of Bt and Bt2, and in the F2 generation 1 brittle :1 tough segregation ratio, because bt and bt2 are semi-allelic (3,4). Located on chromosome 3 (3,4).

Description:  As in all the cultivars, rachis is tough or non-brittle, since the joints of the rachis-internodes do not disarticulate at all at maturity.

Origin of mutant: Spontaneous mutation probably in the wild barley having a genotype, BtBt2 (brittle rachis).

Mutational events: bt probably in a wild progenitor of cultivars in the remote past.

Mutants used for description and seed stocks:
bt2 in Brachytic (3)    n v br b R
bt2 in Chenchou hood (3)    n v b K
bt2 in Rus s ian 41118 (3)    N v b k R
bt2 in Sakigake (3)    N v uz k R
bt2 in Russian 82 (4)    N v al b k R

Almost all of the cultivars distributed in the so-called Oriental region of the Old World and a part of cultivars (six-row) in the Occidental region are known to have bt 2 in common (5,6).

References:
1. Ubisch, G. V. 1915. Zeits. ind. Abst. Vererb. 14:226-237.
2. Schiemann, E. 1921. Zeits. ind. Abst. Vererb. 26:109-140.
3. Takahashi, R. and J. Hayashi. 1959. Nogaku Kenkyû 46:113-119.
4. Takahashi, R. and J. Hayashi. 1964. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol. 12:99-105.
5. Takahashi, R. 1955. Advances in Genet. 7:227-266.
6. Takahashi, R. 1963. Barley Genetics I, 19-26.

Prepared:  R. Takahashi 1971
 

BGS 0117    Chlorina    f2

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:  None.

Inheritance:  Monofactorial recessive (3,4). Located on the short arm of chromosome 3 (4,5).

Description:   Light yellow color at the early seedling stage. Difference from normal green becomes obvious at later stage of growth under enough sunlight even in the greenhouse. The mutant is viable in homozygous condition (1,3). Highkin and his coworkers (1,2) found complete absence of chlorophyll b in this mutant. The respiratory and photosynthetic rates of detached leaves and intact plants of the mutant were not significantly different from those of normal green plants. Growth rate of the mutant plants decreased after the endosperm of the seeds had been depleted (2).

Origin of mutant: Spontaneous mutation in the hybrids of Moister, CI 2799 X California Coast CI 6115.

Mutational events: f2 in Moister, CI 2799 (Lion X Manchuria) X California Feed (California Coast, CI 6115).

Mutant used for description and seed stock: f2 in 28-3398.    v N k b R r S

References:
1. Highkin, H. R. 1950. Plant Physiol. 25:294-306.
2. Highkin, H.R. and A. W. Frenkel. 1962. Plant Physiol. 37:814-820.
3. Roberton, D. W. Unpublished data.
4. Tsuchiya, T. and D. W. Robertson. 1971. Barley Genetics Newsletter 1:64-65.
5. Tsuchiya, T. 1972. Barley Genetics Newsletter 2:92

Prepared:  T. Tsuchiya
 

BGS O158    Hairy leaf-sheath    Hs

Previous nomenclature and gene symbol: None.

Inheritance:  Monofactorial dominant (1,2). Located on chromosome 4 (2) demonstrated only by trisomic method.

Description:  Hairs of 1-3 mm long scattered on the leaf-sheaths at the basal parts of plant. Density (number) of hairs varies considerably with varieties and growing conditions. With a few exceptions (cultivars, Hayakiso 2 and 3 which are the most dense-haired ones), no hair can be seen in general on the upper leaf-sheaths.

Origin of mutant:  Natural occurrence in many cultivars and also wild barleys.

Mutational events:  Introduced from the wild progenitor(s) into cultivars or spontaneously occurred in the cultivars. (Both hairy and hairless sheath conditions are found in a putative ancestor, H. spontaneum.)

Mutant used for description and seed stock: Hs in the cultivar Kimugi which is also characterized by yh for yellow head and Hn for hairs on lemma nerves, both on chromosome 4 (1,2). N v uz k bl S

Reference
1. Takahashi, R., J. Hayashi and S. Yasuda. 1957. Nogaku Kenkyû 45:-1-10.
2. Takahashi, R. and J. Hayashi. 1966. Berichte Ohara Inst. landw. Biology. 13:185-198.

Prepared:  R. Takahashi 1971
 

BGS 0160    Minute    min en-min

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization.  None.

Inheritance:  Bifactorial recessive (2), the main gene min being located on chromosome 4 (2).

Description:  Characterized by its extreme dwarfness, the adult plant being less than 5 cm tall, Leaves and sheaths are very short and thick with whitish deep-green color. The roots are thick and short with C-tumor-like swellings at their tips. No head is formed, and hence the strain must be maintained as a heterozygote. Among the seeds set on these heterozygous plants, those which will give rise to minute plants can be roughly discriminated by their markedly shrunken endosperm from those for the normal plants. Extreme mixoploidy with cells having chromosome number of 2x, 3x, 4x up to about 60x, which condition is presumably caused by abnormal cytokinesis (1).

Origin of mutant: Spontaneous mutation in the cultivar Kairyô Bozû.

Mutational event: min in Kairyô Bozû having its enhancer en-min in homozygous condition.

Mutant used for description and seed stock: min en-min segregant from Kairyô Bozû hererozygous for min. The seed stock Min/min in Kairyô Bozû. en-min n v uz k b R

References:
1. Takahashi, R.,  A. Mochizuki and J. Hayashi. 1955. Nogaku Kenkyû  (Agron. Rs.) 43:51-62.
2. Takahashi, R.,  A. Mochizuki and J. Hayashi. 1959. Nogaku Kenkyû 47:95-104.

Prepared:  R. Takahashi 1971
 

BGS 0161    Semi-minute    min En-min

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:  Normal vs. dwarf Dd (1)

Inheritance:  Monofactrial recessive (1). The expression of the gene action is controlled by another allele pair (En/min en/min) (2,3). Located on chromosome 4 (min) (3) (See BGS 0160).

Description:  One half as tall as the original variety, heads and awns are slightly shorter than the control, and the number of tillers, spikelets per spike and fertile grains are slightly less than the original variety (1). Polyploid nuclei consisting of 4x, 8x or sometimes the cells with more than 100 chromosomes, together with normal diploid cells with 2n=14 were found in the meristematic tissues of root tips and young shoots of the mutants. Such a mixoploid condition seemed to result from the incomplete cytokinesis following nuclear division, The cells in the epidermal tissue of the leaves were sometiems irregular and variable in shape and size (3).

Origin of mutant:  Spontaneous mutation in the cultivar Taisho-mugi (1).

Mutational events:  min in Taisho-mugi with En/min background (1,3).

Mutant used for description and seed stock:  min in Taisho-mugi (1,3) N v En/min k b R

References:
1. Shakudo, K. and T. Kawase. 1955. Jap. J. Breed, 4:240 (Abst.).
2. Takahashi, R., A. Mochizuki and J. Hayashi. 1959. Nogaku Kenkyû (Agron. Res.) 47:95-104.
3. Takahashi, R., T. Tsuchiya and I. Moriya. 1964. Nogaku Kenkyû (Agron. Res.) 50:123-129.

Prepared:  T. Tsuchiya and T. E. Haus, 1970.

Revised:  R. Takahashi, 1971
 

BGS 0162    Mildew resistance    JMlg

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:  Mildew resistance G (1), Mlg (2)

Inheritance:  Monfactorial incompletely dominant (3). Located on chromosome 4 (3).

Description:  Highly resistant to Japanese races I and IX, and moderately susceptible to Japanese races III and XI (3), and highly susceptible to Canadian culture CAN12 of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei. (4).

Origin of mutant:  Spontaneous.

Mutational events:  JMlg in Goldfoil

Mutant used for description and seed stock:  JMlg in Goldfoil.

References:
1. Briggs, F. N. and Barry, G. L. 1937 Zeits. Zucht. A, 22:75-80.
2. Briggs, F. N. and Stanford, E. H. 1938. Jour. Genetics 37:107-117.
3. Hiura, U. 1960. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol. Okayama Univ. 11:235-300.
4. Moseman, J. G. 1959. Phytopathology 49:469-472.

Prepared:  U. Hiura 1971.
 

BGS 0163    Spring habit    sh

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:  None

Inheritance:  Monfactorial recessive (1). Located on chromosome 4 (3,4). The gene sh is epistatic to recessive winter genes, sh2 and sh3.

Description:  The gene sh makes a plant highly spring habit (grade I) and ready to form ear primordia under long-day condition without cold pre-treatment. Moreover, this type variety, Iwate Mensury C, and some others with sh in homozygous condition behave as the winter type when sown in fall (short-day condition), and therefore these may be called alternate type (1,2,5).

Origin of mutant:  Natural occurrence in many cultivars (2,6).

Mutational events: sh in many cultivars in the so-called Occidental region, and it is in most cases accompanied by another dominant spring gene Sh2 in their genotypes. These with sh alone occur rather rarely.

Mutant used for description and seed stock: sh in Iwate Mensury C.    N v Uz k b O s

References:
1. Takahashi, R. and J. Yamamoto. 1951. Nogaku Kenkyû 40:13-24.
2. Takahashi, R. and S. Yasuda. 1956. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol. 10:245-308.
3. Takahashi, R., J. Hayashi and S. Yasuda. 1957. Nogaku Kenkyû 45:1-10.
4. Takahashi, R. and J. Hayashi. 1966. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol. 13:185-198.
5. Yasuda, S. 1969. Nogaku Kenkyû 53:99-113.
6. Takahashi, R. and S. Yasuda. 1970. Barley Genetics II:388-408.

Prepared:  S. Yasuda 1971.
 

BGS 0164    Hairs on lemma nerves    Hn

Previous nomenclature and gene symbol: None.

Inheritance: Monofactorial dominant only when crossed with a variety having abundant barbs, but no hair, on lemma nerves. Presumably located on chromosome 4, since the gene was shown to be completely linked with Hs for hairy sheath on chromosome 4 (2).

Description:  A few hairs of 1-2 mm long mixed with ordinary teeth or barbs on two lateral nerves next to the mid-nerve of the lemma.

Origin of mutant: Spontaneous mutation in a number of cultivars distributed in Japan and Korea.

Mutational events: A dominant mutation Hn in a number of cultivars, both covered and naked, in Japan and Korea.

Mutant used for description and seed stock:  Hn in Kogane Mugi.    N v l uz gs6 b S R

References:

1. Takahashi, R., J. Hayashi and S Yasuda. 1957. Nogaku Kenkyû 45: 1-10.
2. Takahashi, R. and J. Hayashi. 1966. Berichte Ohara Inst. landw. Biol. 13:185-198.

Prepared:  R. Takahashi 1971.
 

BGS 0165    Glossy seedling (leaf) 3    gl3

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:  None.

Inheritance:  Monofactorial recessive (1,2,3). Located on chromosome 4 (1,2,3).

Description:  Seedlings glossy, fully viable (1), From seedling stage to near maturity leaves have shiny or glossy appearance, because of lack of waxy bloom on leaf blades.

Origin of mutant:  Spontaneous mutation in the cultivar Geseshikoku (1).

Mutational event:  gl3 in Goseshikoku.

Mutant used for description and seed stock:  gl3 in Goseshikoku.   N v uz Hs k b R S

References:
1. Takahashi, R., J. Hayashi and I. Moriya. 1962. Barley Newsletter 5:41.
2. Takahashi, R., J. Hayashi and Ch. Hirao. 1968. Barley Newsletter 11:59.
3. Takahashi, R., J. Hayashi and I. Moriya. 1971. Barley Genetics Newsletter 1:55-57.

Prepared:  R. Takahashi 1971.
 

BGS 0379    Normal vs. male sterile    Ms24 ms24

Previous nomenclature and symbolization:  Normal vs. male sterile, Ms,, v ms,, v (1,2)

Inheritance:  Monofactorial recessive (2). Located on chromosome 4 (2).

Description:  Selfing - None (2). Outcrossing - Complete female fertility (2). Stamen - anthers with no stomium and smaller than fertile sib; no filament elongation.

Origin of mutant: Spontaneous occurrence in the cultivar Betzes CI 6398 (1).

Mutational events: ms24 in Betzes CI 6398, spontaneous (1). ms24 ok in Betzes CI 6398, spontaneous (3). ms 24 ok in Betzes CI 6398, spontaneous (3).

Mutant used for description and seed stock: ms24 in Betzes CI 6398.

References:
1. Hockett, E. A., R. F. Eslick, D. A. Reid, and G. A. Wiebe. 1968. Crop Science 8:754-755.
2. Hockett, E. A. and R. F. Eslick, 1970. Proc. 2nd. Int. Barley Genet. Symp.: 298-307. WSU Press, Pullman, Washington.
3. Hockett, E. A 1972. Barley Genet. Newsletter. 2:138-143

Prepared:  E. A. Hockett 1971
 

BGS 0208     Fragile stem 2    fs2

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:  None.

Inheritance:  Monofactorial recessive (2,3). Located on chromosome 3 (3). Later it was proven that fs2 is located on chromosome 5 (1).

Description:  The characteristics of this mutant were similar to fs of Kamairazu (2). At later stages of growth the stems and leaves are very fragile, and easily broken when slightly bent (3). More or less dwarf growth. The young leaves generally wither in the afternoon in the glass house and also in the field in spring. Most of the leaf-tips turn yellow in spring to early summer.

Origin of mutant:  Spontaneous mutation in the cultivar Oshichi (1,3).

Mutational events:  fs2 in Oshichi (1,3).

Mutant used for description and seed stock:  fs2 in Oshichi-hen.    n v k b R uz

References:
1. Takahashi, R. and J. Hayashi. 1966. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol. 13:199-212.
2. Takahashi, R., J. Yamamoto, S. Yasuda and Y. Itano. 1953. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Forsch, 10:29-52.
3. Walker, G. W. R., J. Dietrich, R. Miller and K. J. Kasha. 1963. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 5:200-219.

Prepared:  T. E. Haus and T. Tsuchiya 1970.

Revised:  R. Takahashi 1971.
 

BGN 0209    Mildew resistance    JMlk

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:  Mildew resistance Mlk (1)

Inheritance:  Monofactorial incompletely dominant (2). Linked with Mlab located on chromosome 5 (2,4,5)

Description:  Moderately resistant to all Japanese 11 races (2) and susceptible to Canadian culture CAN12 of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei (3).

Origin of mutant:  Spontaneous.

Mutational events:  JMlk in Kwan

Mutant used for description and seed stock:  JMlk in Kwan

References:
1. Briggs, F. N. and Stanford, E. H. 1938. Jour. Genetics 37:107-117.
2. Hiura, U. 1960. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol. Okayama University 11:235-200
3. Moseman, J G. 1959. Phytopathology 49:469-472.
4. Moseman, J. G., Macer, R. C. F. and Greeley, L. W. 1965. Trans. Brit. mycol Soc. 48:479-489.
5. Takahasi, R., Hayashi, J. and Hiura, U. 1966. Ber. Ohara Inst. Landw. Biol. Okayama Univ. 13:199-212.

Prepared:  U. Hiura 1971.
 

BGN 0210     Mildew resistance    JMlnn

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization: None.

Inheritance:  Monofactorial incompletely dominant (1). Linked with Mlab located on chromosome 5 (1,2,3).

Description: Moderately resistant to all 11 Japanese races of Erysiphe graminis F. sp. hordei (1)

Origin of mutant: Spontaneous.

Mutational events:  JMlnn in Nigrinudum.

Mutant used for description and seed stock:  JMlnn in Nigrinudum.

References:
1. Hiura, U. 1960. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol. Okayama University 11:235-200
2. Moseman, J. G., Macer, R. C. F. and Greeley, L. W. 1965. Trans. Brit. mycol Soc. 48:479-489.
3. Takahasi, R., Hayashi, J. and Hiura, U. 1966. Ber. Ohara Inst. Landw. Biol. Okayama Univ. 13:199-212.

Prepared:  U. Hiura 1971.
 

BGN 0211   Mildew resistance    JMlr12

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization: None.

Inheritance:  Monfactorial incompletely dominant (1). Linked with Mlab located on chromosome 5 (1,2,3).

Description:  Moderately resistant to Japanese race I, and susceptible to Japanese races V and IX of Erysiphe graminis F. sp. hordei (1).

Origin of mutant:  Spontaneous.

Mutational events:  JMlr12 in Russian 12.

Mutant used for description and seed stock:  JMlr12 in Russian 12.

References:
1. Hiura, U. 1960. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol. Okayama University 11:235-200
2. Moseman, J. G., Macer, R. C. F. and Greeley, L. W. 1965. Trans. Brit. mycol Soc. 48:479-489.
3. Takahasi, R., Hayashi, J. and Hiura, U. 1966. Ber. Ohara Inst. Landw. Biol. Okayama Univ. 13:199-212.

Prepared:  U. Hiura 1971.
 

BGN 0212    Mildew resistance    JMlnz

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization: None.

Monofactorial incompletely dominant (1). Linked with Mlab located on chromosome 5 (1,2,3).

Description:  Moderately resistant to Japanese race I, and susceptible to Japanese race V of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei (1).

Origin of mutant:  Spontaneous.

Mutational events:  JMlnz in Nakaizumi Zairai

Mutant used for description and seed stock:  JMlnz in Nakaizumi Zairai.

References:
1. Hiura, U. 1960. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol. Okayama University 11:235-200
2. Moseman, J. G., Macer, R. C. F. and Greeley, L. W. 1965. Trans. Brit. mycol Soc. 48:479-489.
3. Takahasi, R., Hayashi, J. and Hiura, U. 1966. Ber. Ohara Inst. Landw. Biol. Okayama Univ. 13:199-212.

Prepared:  U. Hiura 1971.
 

BGS 0213    Spring habit 3    Sh3

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization: None.

Inheritance:  Monfactorial dominance (1). Located on chromosome 5 (3,4). The gene Sh3 is epistatic to winter genes, Sh and sh2 (1,2).

Description:  The cultivars with Sh3 exhibit the highly spring habit (grade I), and form ear primordia under long-day condition without cold pre-treatment.

Origin of mutant:  Natural occurrence in many cultivars.

Mutational events:  Sh3 occurs in many cultivars distributed mostly in the regions of extremely lower or higher latitude, and is always accompanied by Sh2 or shSh2 in their genotypes (2,4). Spring cultivars having only Sh3 have never been found so far.

Mutant used for description and seed stock:  ShShsh2sh2Sh3Sh3 from a Tammi x Hayakiso 2 cross.

References:
1. Takahashi, R., S. Yasuda, J. Hayashi and I. Shiojiri. 1954. Nogaku Kenkyû 41:87-96.
2. Takahashi, R. and S. Yasuda. 1956. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol. 10:245-308.
3. Yasuda, S. 1969. Barley Newsletter 12:57-58
4. Takahashi, R. and S. Yasud. 1970. Barley Genetics II: 388-408.

Prepared: S. Yasuda 1971.
 

BGS 0214    Early heading (light insensitive)     eak

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization: None.

Inheritance:  Monofactorial recessive (1,2). Located on chromosome 5 (2).

Description:  When sown outdoors in fall at Kurashiki, Japan, the "early" variety heads about 20 days earlier than the standard mid-season variety, Akashinriki, because it is day-neutral or insensitive to short-photoperiod. The gene has a pleiotropic effect of changing leaf color into yellow green responding to a specific growing condition that is 8 to 12-hour illumination at low temperature (below 10°C) during the light period, and high temperature (20°C or higher) during the dark period, though the plant color is soon recovered when the plant is returned to the normal condition (1) .

Origin of mutant:  Spontaneously in the cultivars, Kinai 5 and Kagoshima, Goldenmelon, and radiation-induced in the cultivar Bonus (1,2).

Mutational events:  eak in Kinai 5, Kagoshima Goldenmelon and Mari (1,2).

Mutant used for description and seed stock:  eak in Kinai 5.   N V Uz k b O R

References:
1. Yasuda, S., T. Konishi and H. Shimoyama. 1965. Nogaku Kenkyû 51:53-65.
2. Takahashi, R. and S. Yasuda. 1970. Barley Genetics II:388-408.

Prepared:  S. Yasuda 1971.
 

BGS 0309    Spring habit 2    Sh2

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization: None.

Inheritance:  A multiple allelic series (ShI, Sh2II...sh2), located on chromosome 7, are responsible for the highest spring to winter habit of growth. The genes for higher grade of spring habit (Sh2I, Sh2II etc.) are always dominant over those for lower spring habit, and epistatic to dominant (Sh) and recessive winter genes (sh3) locating on two other loci (1,2,3,4).

Description:  When sown under long-day condition in a greehouse, the plant with the gene Sh2I for highly spring habit (grade I) takes about 40 days for heading. The plant with Sh2II (grade II) is 10 days or more later than that with Sh2I, and needs about 10 days pre-chilling in order to make up the differences in heading times (2, 4).

Origin of mutant: Natural occurence in many cultivars. Sh2II is prevalent in the Oriental region, while Sh2I is confined to the Occidental region (2,4).

Mutational event: Sh2 in many cultivars or some wild progenitors.

Mutant used in description and seed stock:  Sh2I in Indian Barley   N v Uz k b O R
Sh2II in Marumi 16    n v Uz k b O R

References:
1. Takahashi, R., S. Yasuda, J. Yamamoto and I. Shiojiri. 1952 Nogaku Kenkyû 40:157-168.
2. Takahashi, R. and S. Yasuda. 1956 Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol. 10:245-308.
3. Yasuda, S. and R. Takahashi. 1961. Barley Newsletter 5:42.
4. Takahashi, R. and S. Yasuda. 1970. Barley Genetics II: 388-408.

Prepared:  S. Yasuda 1971.
 

BGS 0310    Winter habit    Shsh2sh3

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:  None

lnheritance:  Winter habit can be expressed only in the presence of one dominant and two recessive genes for winter habit (Sh, sh2 and sh3), located on the chromosome 4, 7 and 5, respectively, because the dominant winter gene, Sh, is hypostatic to dominant spring genes, Sh2 and Sh3, and recessive winter genes, sh2 and sh3, to recessive spring gene, sh (1,2,3,4,5,6). A range of differences in grade of winter habit between winter varieties are governed by multiple allelic series on sh2 locus (3,6).

Description:  Under long-day condition, winter variety does not develop ear primordia without cold pre-treatment or short-photoperiodic treatment. Practically, there is a range of extent of winter habit from near spring to completely winter growth habit, which may be defined as differences in requirements of pre-chilling between varieties (3).

Origin of mutant:  Natural occurrence in many cultivars as well as a number of wild barleys.

Mutant used for description and seed stock: Shsh2sh3 in Iwate Omugi 1.    N v Uz b O R

References:
1. Takahashi, R. and J. Yamamoto. 1951. Nogaku Kenkyo 40:13-24
2. Takahashi, R., S Yasuda, J. Yamamoto and I. Shiojiri. 1952 Nogaku Kenkyû 40:157-168
3. Takahashi, R. and S. Yasuda. 1956 Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol. 10:245-308
4. Takahashi, R., J. Hayashi and S. Yasuda 1957. Nogaku Kenkyu 45:1-10.
5. Takahashi, R. and J. Hayashi. 1966. Ber. Ohara Inst landw. Biol. 13:185-198
6. Takahashi, R. and S. Yasuda. 1970. Barley Genetics II: 388-408.

Prepared:  S. Yasuda 1971.

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BGN 2 toc
BGN Main Index