Barley Genetics Newsletter Vol. 26

Recommendations for the designation of the barley chromosomes and their arms

Ib Linde-Laursen
Department of Botany, Dendrology and Forest Genetics,
The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University,
Rolighedsvej 21, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

At the business meeting of the 7th International Barley Genetics Symposium held at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, on August 5, 1996, the following resolution on the designation of the barley chromosomes and their arms, and on the selection of a reference genome in the Triticeae was passed.

1. Each of the seven barley chromosomes is designated by a figure from 1 to 7 according to its homoeologous relationships with chromosomes of other Triticeae species. The figure is followed by the letter H, e.g. 2H.

2. The genomes of Hordeum vulgare and H. bulbosum are symbolized by the letter H.

3. The chromosome arms are designated by the letters S and L.

4. The barley genome present in the variety 'Betzes' becomes the reference genome in the Triticeae to which definitions of translocations, short arm/long arm reversals, etc. are standardized in all species.

Notes on the four points of the resolution:

1. The seven barley chromosomes should be designated as follows:

Recommendation:

1H 2H 3H 4H 5H 6H 7H

Burnham and Hagberg designations (according to Singh and Tsuchiya 1982):

5 2 3 4 7 6 1

It is not recommended to give the Burnham and Hagberg numbering together with the homoeologous numbers in publications, although authors may choose to do so, with the Triticeae nomenclature given prominence. It is MOST IMPORTANT that the genomic symbol H is included with the number, when the Triticeae system is used. Otherwise readers will tend to confuse the number with the Burnham and Hagberg numbering system.

2. The use of the genomic symbol H instead of I as proposed by Löve (1984) agrees with usage by most barley workers, but goes against a proposal for the designation of all Triticeae genomes presented in the Proceedings of the 2nd International Triticeae Symposium (Wang et al. 1996).

3. The two arms of the chromosomes of barley are designated by the upper case letters S (for the short arm) and L (for the long arm) according to the definitions by Singh and Tsuchiya (1982). The arm designation should follow the chromosome and genome designations without a space, e.g., 6HL. The arm designations given in recent molecular marker maps (e.g., Kleinhofs et al. 1993; Devos et al. 1993) should henceforth be regarded as 'names' not as referring to physically long and short arms, so no further reversals will be made.

4. The selection of the barley genome in the variety 'Betzes' as the reference genome in the Triticeae is based on the fact that barley is an excellent standard. It is diploid (unlike wheat), easy to grow and multiply under laboratory conditions worldwide (unlike Aegilops species), wheat addition lines are available for 'Betzes', and barley is economically important so that other Triticeae workers have an incentive to test their probes, etc. on barley.

Contents of the resolution had previously been discussed and passed at a workshop "Designation of the Barley Chromosomes" on August 2. The discussion was based on recommendations drawn up by a committee consisting of I. Linde-Laursen, Copenhagen, Denmark; J.S. Heslop-Harrison, Norwich, United Kingdom; K.W. Shepherd, Adelaide, Australia; and S. Taketa, Kurashiki, Japan. The committee had been established by the organizers of the 7th International Barley Genetics Symposium with the mandate to prepare recommendations for a standard nomenclature system of the barley chromosomes on the basis of a literature survey of the barley genome. The problem was last discussed at the 6th International Barley Genetics Symposium in Helsingborg in 1991 (Lundqvist and Franckowiak 1992).

On the basis of the information available in the literature, it was obvious that:

(i) the seven chromosomes of barley (H. vulgare L.) largely have the same genetic content as those in other members of the Triticeae; and

(ii) the gene loci in barley are largely collinear with the loci in other members of the Triticeae, with few ancestral translocations involving whole chromosome segments.

All available data thus show a high level of conserved synteny among the chromosomes throughout the Triticeae, and it is clear that the whole group can be treated as a single gene pool. Therefore, the committee recommended that the currently used designations of the chromosomes of barley (Burnham and Hagberg 1956; see Singh and Tsuchiya 1982) were changed to follow a system in accordance with the current wheat homoeologous group numbering (the Triticeae system). This point-of-view was adopted by the barley symposium.

References:

Burnham, C.R., and A. Hagberg. 1956. Cytogenetic notes on chromosomal interchanges in barley. Hereditas 42:467-482.

Devos, K.M., T. Miller, and M.D. Gale. 1993. Comparative RFLP maps of the homoeologous group-2 chromosomes of wheat, rye and barley. Theor. Appl. Genet. 85: 784-792.

Kleinhofs, A., A. Killian, M.A. Saghai Maroof, R.M. Biyashev, P. Hayes, F.Q. Chen, N. Lapitan, A. Fenwick, T.K. Blake, V. Kanazin, L. Dahleen, D. Kudrna, J. Bollinger, S.J. Knapp, B. Liu, M. Sorrells, M. Heun, J.D. Franckowiak, D. Hoffman, R. Skadsen, and B.J. Steffenson. 1993. A molecular, isozyme and morphological map of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) genome. Theor. Appl. Genet. 86:705-712.

Löve, A. 1984. Conspectus of the Triticeae. Feddes Repert. 95: 425-521.

Lundqvist, U., and J.D. Franckowiak. 1992. Committee and workshop summary. Mutations, gene mapping and nomenclature. p. 855-857. In L. Munck, K. Kirkegaard, and B. Jensen (eds.). Barley Genetics VI. Proc. Sixth Int. Barley Genet. Symp., Helsingborg, 1991. Munksgaard Int. Publ., Copenhagen.

Singh, R.J., and T. Tsuchiya. 1982. Identification and designation of telocentric chromosomes in barley by means of Giemsa N-banding technique. Theor. Appl. Genet. 64: 13-24.

Wang, R.R.-C., R. von Bothmer, J. Dvorak, G. Fedak, I. Linde-Laursen, and M. Muramatsu. 1996. Genome symbols in the Triticeae (Poaceae). p. 29-34. In R. R.-C. Wang, K.B. Jensen, and C. Jaussi (eds.). Proc. 2nd Int. Triticeae Symp., Logan, Utah, 1994. Utah State University, Logan.


New and revised names for barley genes

J.D. Franckowiak1, U. Lundqvist2, and T. Konishi3
1Department of Plant Sciences,
North Dakota State University,
Fargo, North Dakota, 58105, USA;
2Svalöf Weibull AB
SE-268 81 Svalöv, Sweden;
3294 Okada, Mabi-cho
Kibi-gun, Okayama 710-13, Japan

Formal approval of the recommended Rules for Nomenclature and Gene Symbolization in Barley was given at the Seventh International Barley Genetics Symposium held July 30 to August 6, 1996 at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. The proposed Rules for Nomenclature and Gene Symbolization in Barley were published in BGN 2:11-14 and BGN 11:1-16. The recommendations as approved, plus a few modifications, are given below.

We were requested to use three letter locus symbols in all new and revised Barley Genetic Stock (BGS) descriptions. Also, replacement of the comma comma scheme for naming new mutants was suggested. To accomplish these tasks, the Rules for Nomenclature and Gene Symbolization in Barley were modified by adding SUPPLEMENTARY AMENDMENTS. Using a period between the locus and allele portions of the gene symbols was recommended to replace the comma comma scheme. Use of a separator to designate allele symbols was proposed by von Wettstein-Knowles (1993, Barley Newsl. 36:182). A supplementary amendment concerning the recommended names for barley chromosomes was added.

Rules for Nomenclature and Gene Symbolization in Barley

    1. In naming hereditary factors, the use of languages of higher internationality should be given preference.

    2. Symbols of hereditary factors, derived from their original names, should be written in Roman letters of distinctive type, preferably in italics, and be as short as possible.

    AMENDMENT: The original name should be as descriptive as possible of the phenotype. All gene symbols should consist of three letters.

      COMMENTS: All new gene symbols should consist of three letters. Existing gene symbols of less than three letters should be converted to the three letter system whenever symbols are revised. When appropriate, one or two letters should be added to existing symbols.

      For example, add the letters "ap" to "K" to produce the symbol "Kap" to replace "K" as the symbol for Kapuze (hooded). As another example, add the letters "ud" to "n" to produce the symbol "nud" to replace "n" as the symbol for naked seed. Similarly the letter "g" can be added to "ms" to produce the symbol "msg" for genetic male sterility and the letter "e" can be added to "ds" to produce the symbol "des" for desynapsis. When inappropriate or when conflicts arise, questions should be referred to the Committee on Genetic Marker Stocks, Nomenclature, and Symbolization of the International Barley Genetics Symposium for resolution.

    3. Whenever unambiguous, the name and symbol of a dominant begin with a capital letter and those of a recessive with a small letter.

    AMENDMENT: When ambiguous (co-dominance, incomplete dominance, etc.) all symbols should consist of a capital letter followed by two small letters that designate the character, a number that represents a particular locus, and a letter or letters that represents a particular allele or mutational event at that particular locus.

      COMMENTS: As an example, the letters "Mdh" can be used to designate the character malate dehydrogenase, "Mdh1" would represent a particular locus for malate dehydrogenase and "Mdh1a", "Mdh1b", "Mdh1c", etc. would represent particular alleles or mutational events at the "Mdh1" locus. Row number can be used as an example of symbolizing factors showing incomplete dominance. At the present time, the symbol "v" is used to represent the row number in Hordeum vulgare, "V" is used to represent the row number in Hordeum distichum, and "Vt" is used to represent the row number in Hordeum deficiens. According to the amendment to Rule 3, if row number were to be designated by the letters "Vul", the designation of the locus on chromosome 2 would then become "Vul1" and the alleles "v", "V", and "Vt" would be designated "Vul1a", "Vul1b", and "Vul1c".

    SUPPLEMENTARY AMENDMENT: A period should be placed before the allele symbol in the complete gene symbol.

      COMMENTS: Since DNA sequences similar to those of the original locus may occur at several positions in the Hordeum vulgare genome, a three letter symbol plus a number is inadequate to represent all potential loci. Also, both numbers and letters have been assigned to specific mutants and isozymes in Hordeum vulgare. The six-rowed spike locus is used as an example although the symbol Vul1 for row number in Hordeum vulgare is not recommended because the botanical classification of Hordeum spp has changed. The locus symbol vrs1 and the name six-rowed spike 1 are recommended for the v locus. Gene symbols recommended for common alleles at the vrs1 locus are vrs1.a, vrs1.b, vrs1.c, and vrs1.t for the "v", "V", "vlr", and "Vt" genes, respectively.

    4. Literal or numeral superscripts are used to represent the different members of an allelic series.

    AMENDMENT: All letters and numbers used in symbolization should be written on one line; no superscripts or subscripts should be used.

    5. Standard or wild type alleles are designated by the gene symbols with a + as a superscript or by a + with the gene symbol as a superscript. In formulae, the + alone may be used.

    AMENDMENT: This rule will not be used in barley symbolization.

    6. Two or more genes having phenotypically similar effects are designated by a common basic symbol. Non-allelic loci (mimics, polymeric genes, etc.) are distinguished by an additional letter or Arabic numeral either on the same line after a hyphen or as a subscript. Alleles of independent mutational origin may be indicated by a superscript.

    AMENDMENT: Barley gene symbols should consist of three letters that designate the character, a number that represents a particular locus, and a letter or letters that represents a particular allele or mutational event at that particular locus. All letters and numbers should be written on the same line without hyphens or spaces. Alleles or mutational events that have not been assigned to a locus should be symbolized by three letters that designate the character followed by two commas used to reserve space for the locus number when determined, followed by a letter or letters representing the particular allele or mutational event. After appropriate allele testing, the correct locus number will be substituted for the commas. Where appropriate (when assigning new symbols or when revising existing symbols) letters representing alleles or mutational events should be assigned consecutively without regard to locus number or priority in discovery or publication.

      COMMENTS: The use of the proposed system of symbolization can be illustrated by the desynaptic mutants. Two loci are known: lc on chromosome 1 (7H) and ds on chromosome 3 (3H). These will be resymbolized as des1a and des2b. A large number of desynaptic mutants have been collected. They will be designated des,,c, des,,d, des,,e, etc. If allele tests show that des,,c is at a different locus than des1 and des2, des,,c will become des3c. If allele tests show that des,,d is at the same locus as des2, des,,d will become des2d. In practical use, the symbol des will be used when speaking of desynapsis in general or if only one locus was known for the character. The symbol des2 will be used when speaking of that particular locus, and the symbol des2b will be used only when speaking of that particular allele or mutational event. If additional designation is needed in particular symbolization, it can be obtained by adding numbers behind the allele letters, and, if still further designation is needed, letters can be added to the symbol behind the last number. Symbolization consisting of alternation of letters and numbers written on the same line without hyphens or spaces will allow for the expansion of the symbol as future needs arise. In any work with large numbers of polymeric gene mutants, every mutant has to be given a designation not shared by any other mutant of this polymeric group and this designation should become a part of the permanent symbol representing that particular allele or mutational event. This requirement can be met by assigning allele designations in consecutive order without regard to locus number.

    SUPPLEMENTARY AMENDMENT: A period should be used instead of two commas in gene symbols for mutants within a polymeric group that can not be assigned to a specific locus.

      COMMENTS: The des symbol should be used when referring to desynapsis in general; des1 and des2, for specific loci; des1.a and des2.b for specific genes or alleles at their respective loci; and des.c, des.d, des.e etc., for desynaptic mutants not assigned to a specific locus.

    7. Inhibitors, suppressors, and enhancers are designated by the symbols I, Su, and En, or by i, su, and en if they are recessive, followed by a hyphen and the symbol of the allele affected.

    8. Whenever convenient, lethals should be designated by the letter l or L and sterility and incompatibility genes by s or S.

    AMENDMENT: This rule will not be used in barley symbolization.

      COMMENTS: J.G. Moseman (BGN 2:145-147) proposed that the first of the three letters for designating genes for reaction to pests should be R. The second and third letters will be the genus and species names of the pest.

      SUPPLEMENTARY COMMENT: A motion was passed during the workshop on "Linkage Groups and Genetic Stock Collections" at the Fifth International Barley Genetics Symposium in 1986 (Barley Genetics V:1056-1058, BGN 17:1-4), that the International Committee for Nomenclature and Symbolization of Barley Genes should "recommend use of Ml as the designation of genes for resistance to powdery mildew."

    9. Linkage groups and corresponding chromosomes are preferably designated by Arabic numerals.

    SUPPLEMENTARY AMENDMENT: The current wheat homoeologous group numbering scheme (the Triticeae system) is recommended for Hordeum vulgare chromosomes. Arabic numerals followed by an H will indicate specific barley chromosomes. The H. vulgare chromosomes should be 7H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 1H, 6H, and 5H instead of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, respectively.

    10. The letter X and Y are recommended to designate sex chromosomes.

    11. Genic formulae are written as fractions with the maternal alleles given first or above. Each fraction corresponds to a single linkage group. Different linkage groups written in numerical sequence are separated by semicolons. Symbols of unlocated genes are placed within parenthesis at the end of the formula. In euploids and aneuploids, the gene symbols are repeated as many times as there are homologous loci.

    12. Chromosomal aberrations should be indicated by abbreviations: Df for deficiency, Dp for duplication, In for inversion, T for translocation, Tp for transposition.

    13. The zygotic number of chromosomes is indicated by 2n, the gametic number by n, and basic number by x.

    14. Symbols of extra-chromosomal factors should be enclosed within brackets and precede the genic formula.

The following recommendations made by the International Committee for Nomenclature and Symbolization of Barley Genes at the Fourth International Barley Genetics Symposium in 1981 (Barley Genetics IV:959-961) on gene and mutation designations were as follows.

AMENDMENT:

    A. Present designations for genes and mutations. - Most of the present designations should be maintained. However, new designations may be given, when additional information indicates that new designations would aid in the identification of genes and mutations.

    B. New designations for genes and mutations. - New genes or mutations will be designated by characteristic, locus, allele, and then the order of identification or mutational event. Three letters will be used to identify new characteristics. Consecutive numbers will be used to identify the order of identification or mutational event. Loci will be designated by numbers and alleles by letters when they are identified. For example, des-6 indicates that this is the sixth gene or mutation identified for the characteristic des (desynaptic). des 1-6 and des 2-7 indicate that gene or mutational events 6 and 7 for the desynaptic characteristic have been shown to be at different loci and those loci are then designated 1 and 2, respectively. des 1a6 and des 1b8, indicate that the gene or mutational events 6 and 8 for the characteristic desynaptic have been shown to be at different alleles at locus 1 and those alleles are then designated a and b.

SUPPLEMENTARY COMMENT:

    A motion was passed during the workshop of the "Nomenclature and Gene Symbolization Committee" at the Fifth International Barley Genetics Symposium in 1986 (Barley Genetics V:1056-1058) that "the recommended systems for Nomenclature and Gene Symbolization of the International Committee be published annually in the Barley Genetics Newsletter."

Revised linkage maps for morphological markers in barley, Hordeum vulgare

J.D. Franckowiak
Department of Plant Sciences,
North Dakota State University,
Fargo, ND 58105, USA.

The last linkage map prepared for the barley chromosomes by Dr. T. Tsuchiya was published as the front cover diagram in volume 20 of the Barley Genetics Newsletter. Specific criteria, based on available linkage data and telotrisomic analyses, were used in the development of these maps. Techniques used and the loci included or excluded were questioned by some barley researchers. However, these chromosome maps and their frequent revisions are helpful in learning about barley and its genetic resources. Even though locus positions were not precise, they did provide a convenient means of finding some information about barley genes and estimating their chromosomal locations. Hopefully, the chromosome maps presented here will provide potential users some information about barley genes.

In this volume of the Barley Genetics Newsletter, new or revised Barley Genetic Stock (BGS) descriptions for many of the morphological marker loci are presented. Many BGS descriptions include information about the position of the locus in the barley genome. Based on that information and other published maps, I constructed maps for each of the seven barley chromosomes (Figures 1 to 7). Estimates of locus positions are presented in centi-Morgan units. Relative positions of loci are best guesses of their location based on, in some cases, relatively little recombination data. Since the original data are variable in accuracy and three-point data does not exist from many gene combinations, some locus positions and locus sequence estimates are no better than a guess. Maps developed by Dr. Jens Jensen are much more precise in terms of placing loci in chromosomes and should be given priority when conflicts in marker positions arise.

Names of individual chromosomes and the order in which they are presented was modified to correspond to the Triticeae scheme for naming barley chromosomes (Linde-Laursen, 1996). Revised locus symbols, which are based on a three letter code, are used in the chromosome maps (Figures 1 to 7). Even with relatively few restrictions, some genes associated with specific chromosomes could not be placed in the maps. Morphological markers for which linkage data indicate an association with a specific chromosome are listed in Table 1.

Molecular marker loci, most isozyme loci, and many disease reaction loci are not included in these chromosome maps because time was not taken to review the papers concerning their positions relative to morphological marker loci. Hopefully, this deficiency can be addressed in future versions of these maps.

Many other maps of the barley genes have been constructed. They summarize other data, include different markers, and are often more accurate than those presented here. Those maps should be examined to learn more about specific loci and segments of the barley genome. They may aid, also, in the development future versions of these maps.

References:

Borovkova, I.G., Y. Jin, B.J. Steffenson, A. Kilian, T.K. Blake, and A. Kleinhofs. 1997. Identification and mapping of a leaf rust resistance gene in the barley line Q21861. Genome (in press).

Chicaiza, O. 1996. Genetic control of leaf rust in barley. Ph.D. Thesis. North Dakota State Univ., Fargo.

Falk, D.E. 1985. Genetic studies with proanthocyanidin-free barley. BGN 15:27-30.

Falk, D.E. 1994. Coordinator's report: Chromosome 6. BGN 23:154.

Faue, A.C., A.E. Foster, and J.D. Franckowiak. 1989. Allelism testing of an induced yellow streak mutant with the three known yellow streak mutants. BGN 19:15-16.

Fischbeck, G., and H. Häuser. 1976. Research notes. BGN 6:28-29.

Franckowiak, J.D. 1991. Association of male sterility genes with a specific chromosome using multiple marker stocks. BGN 20:31-36.

Franckowiak, J.D. 1995. Notes on linkage drag in Bowman backcross derived lines of spring barley. BGN 24:63-70.

Gardenshire, J.H., N.A. Tuleen, and K.W. Stewart. 1973. Trisomic analysis of greenbug resistance in barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Crop Sci. 13:684-685.

Gymer, P.T. 1977. A new gene for semi-naked grain. BGN 7:33-34.

Häuser, H., and G. Fischbeck. 1979. Genetic analysis of some induced mutants. BGN 9:26-27.

Häuser, H., and G. Fischbeck. 1980. Genetic analysis of induced mutations. BGN 10:30-31.

Häuser, J., and G. Fischbeck. 1976. Untersuchungen zur Lokalisierung einiger Mutationen von Gerste (Hordeum sativum). Z. Pflanzenzücht. 77:269-280.

Häuser, J., A. Jahoor, and G. Fischbeck. 1988. Localization of induced mutants for globe shaped grains. BGN 18:54-58.

Hernandez-Soriano, J.M. 1973. Desynaptic mutants in Betzes barley. M.S. Thesis. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson.

Hockett, E.A., and R.F. Eslick. 1971. Genetic male-sterile genes useful in hybrid barley production. p. 298-307. In R.A. Nilan (ed.) Barley Genetics II. Proc. Second Int. Barley Genet. Symp., Pullman, WA, 1969. Washington State Univ. Press, Pullman.

Hor, K.S. 1924. Interrelations of genetic factors in barley. Genetics 9:151-180.

Jarvi, A.J., and R.F. Eslick. 1975. Shrunken endosperm mutants in barley. Crop Sci. 15:363-366.

Jende-Strid, B. 1993. Coordinator's report: Anthoyanin genes. BGN 22:136-137.

Jensen, J. 1979. Chromosomal location of one dominant and four recessive high-lysine genes in barley mutants. Vol. 1. p. 89-96. In Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes. Proc. Int. Symp., Neuherberg, Germany, 1978. Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.

Kasha, K.J., and G.W.R. Walker. 1960. Several recent barley mutants and their linkages. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 2:397-415.

Linde-Laursen, I. 1997. Recommendations for the designation of the barley chromosomes and their arms. BGN 26:1-3.

Luna Villafaña, A. 1995. Mapping marker genes in chromosome 2 of barley. M.S. Thesis. North Dakota State Univ., Fargo.

Nilan, R.A. 1964. The cytology and genetics of barley, 1951-1962. Monogr. Suppl. 3, Res. Stud. Vol. 32, No. 1. Washington State Univ. Press, Pullman.

Ramage, R.T., and C.L. Crandall. 1981. Shrunken endosperm mutant seg8. BGN 11:34.

Ramage, R.T., and J.F. Scheuring. 1976. Shrunken endosperm mutants seg6 and seg7. BGN 6:59-60.

Shahla, A. and T. Tsuchiya. 1984. Additional information on the association of zbc2 for zoned leaf with chromosome 5. BGN 14:10-11.

Shim, J.W., A. Shahla, and T. Tsuchiya. 1984. Additional information on the primary trisomic analysis of sf (female sterile or gigas) in barley. BGN 14:42-43.

Søgaard, B. 1973. Continued linkage studies on eceriferum mutants in barley. BGN 3:57-61.

Takahashi, R., I. Hayashi, T. Inouye, I. Moriya, and C. Hirao. 1973. Studies on resistance to yellow mosaic disease in barley. I. Tests for varietal reaction and genetic analysis of resistance to the disease. Ber. Ohara Inst. landw. Biol., Okayama Univ. 16:1-17.

Takeda, K., and C.L. Zhang. 1995a. Inheritance and geographical distribution of a phenol reaction-less mutant of barley. BGN 24:32-34.

Takeda, K., and C.L. Zhang. 1995b. Inheritance of a fluorescent reaction mutant of barley. BGN 24:38-40.

Tazhin, O.T. 1982. Value of crossing-over between linked genes mo5 and n in barley BGN 12:18-21.

Tuleen, N.A., and M.E. McDonald. 1971. Location of genes Pa and Pa5. Barley Newsl. 15:106-107.

Walker, G.W.R., J. Dietrich, R. Miller, and K.J. Kasha. 1963. Recent barley mutants and their linkages II. Genetic data for further mutants. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 5:200-219.

Figure 1. Estimated positions for morphological marker loci in chromosome 1H of barley.

Figure 2. Estimated positions for morphological marker loci in chromosome 2H of barley.

Figure 3. Estimated positions for morphological marker loci in chromosome 3H of barley.

Figure 4. Estimated positions for morphological marker loci in chromosome 4H of barley.

Figure 5. Estimated positions for morphological marker loci in chromosome 5H of barley.

Figure 6. Estimated positions for morphological marker loci in chromosome 6H of barley.

Figure 7. Estimated positions for morphological marker loci in chromosome 7H of barley.

Table 1. Other morphological markers not mapped to a relative position in the barley genome, but tentatively associated with a specific chromosome.

Recom. symbolBGS no.Chr. loc.* Locus name or phenotypeGSHO no.**Reference
CHROMOSOME 1H
cur5 (cu5)2311HSCurly 5 1710Franckowiak, 1995
des62151HDesynapsis 6 597Hernandez-Soriano, 1973
dsp.ab1H?Dense spike ab 1715Franckowiak, 1995
dsp.ao1HSDense spike ao 1723Franckowiak, 1995
glo-e2301HLGlobosum-e 1755Häuser and Fischbeck, 1980
lax.ae1HLLaxatum ae 1779Franckowiak, 1995
msg203751HMale sterile genetic 20 2372Hockett and Eslick, 1971
mtt1 (mt)5211HSMottled leaf 1 622Kasha and Walker, 1960
pyr.aw1HSPyramidatum aw 2436Franckowiak, 1995
Sil2281HSSubcrown internode length 1604Franckowiak, 1995
yhd2 (yh2)1HYellow head 2 757Eslick (unpubl.)
zeb3 (zb3)2231HLZebra stripe 3 1451Shahla and Tsuchiya, 1984
CHROMOSOME 2H
acr12HLAccordion rachis 1 1617Franckowiak (unpubl.)
cer-v4142HSEceriferum-v +/- ++ ++ 443Søgaard, 1973
cer-yb4452HLEceriferum-yb ++ ++ - 1535Franckowiak, 1995
cur4 (glo-d)4602HLCurly 4 1708Häuser and Fischbeck, 1979
ert-j 902HErectoides-j 484Franckowiak, 1995
ert-q 912HErectoides-q 1562Franckowiak, 1995
ert-u 922HErectoides-u 496Franckowiak, 1995
ert-zd 932HErectoides-zd 504Franckowiak, 1995
des7 642HDesynapsis 7 598Hernandez-Soriano, 1973
fch14 (f14) 872HLChlorina seedling 14 1739Franckowiak, 1995
gig14632H?Gigas 1 1650Shim et al., 1984
glo-c 722HGlobosum-c 1329Häuser and Fischbeck, 1976
lks.m2HLShort awn m 1782Luna Villafaña, 1995
msg354982HLMale sterile genetic 35 2387Franckowiak, 1995
msg485202HMale sterile genetic 48 2401Franckowiak, 1991
mss1 842HMidseason stripe 1 1404Walker et al., 1963
Phr2HLPhenol reactionTakeda and Zhang, 1995a
Rph1 (Pa) 702HReaction to Puccinia hordei 1 1313Tuleen and
McDonald, 1971
Rph152HLReaction to Puccinia hordei 15 1586Chicaiza, 1996
sdw.aw2HLSemidwarf aw 2446Franckowiak, 1995
sld.d2HSSlender dwarf d 2479Franckowiak, 1995
yst4 852HLYellow streak 4 2502Faue et al., 1989
CHROMOSOME 3H
adp3H?Awned palea 1618Franckowiak (unpubl.)
brh.w3HSBrachytic w 1687Franckowiak, 1995
brh.ad3HSBrachytic ad 1671Franckowiak, 1995
cer-ya4443HSEceriferum-ya ++ ++ - 1534Franckowiak, 1995
cer-yd4473HSEceriferum-yd - ++ ++ 1537Franckowiak, 1995
cer-yh4513HSEceriferum-yh - ++ ++ 1541Franckowiak, 1995
des21193HDesynapsis 2 593Hernandez-Soriano, 1973
dsp.ar3HSDense spike ar 1726Franckowiak, 1995
gra-a1313HLGranum-a 1757Fischbeck and Häuser, 1976
msg425053HMale sterile genetic 42 2395Franckowiak, 1991
nec41383HNecrotic leaf spot 4Fischbeck and Häuser, 1976
nec51393HNecrotic leaf spot 5Fischbeck and Häuser, 1976
Pyr.i3HSPyramidatum i 1582Franckowiak, 1995
seg33793HShrunken endosperm 3 752Jarvi and Eslick, 1975
seg63963HLShrunken endosperm 6 2467Ramage and Scheuring, 1976
sex.j3HLShrunken endosperm xenia j 2471Franckowiak, 1995
sld.h3HSSlender dwarf h 2483Franckowiak, 1995
yst34623HSYellow streak 3 48Franckowiak, 1995
CHROMOSOME 4H
brh.m4HBrachytic m 1678Franckowiak, 1995
flo-a182Extra floret-a 1741Lundqvist (pers. com.)
frp4HLFluorescent reaction-pinkTakeda and Zhang, 1995b
msg251664HLMale sterile genetic 25 744Hockett and Eslick, 1971
Rym1 (Ym)1674HLReaction to BaYMV 1Takahashi et al., 1973
sld.e4HSlender dwarf e 2480Franckowiak, 1995
sld.f4HSlender dwarf f 2481Franckowiak, 1995
Zeo.h4HZeocriton h 1611Franckowiak, 1995
CHROMOSOME 5H
ari-h3295HLBreviaristatum-h 1656Franckowiak, 1995
blf2 (bb2)3375HLBroad leaf 2 1667Franckowiak, 1995
brh.j5HLBrachytic j 1675Franckowiak, 1995
brh.s5HLBrachytic s 1684Franckowiak, 1995
cer-za4195HLEceriferum-za ++ ++ - 1521Franckowiak, 1995
cer-ye4485HLEceriferum-ye ++ ++ - 1538Franckowiak, 1995
crl (cl)325Curly lateral 1211Walker et al., 1963
cst (cs)5HCorn stalkNilan, 1964
flo-b3275HLExtra floret-b 1742Franckowiak, 1995
glo-f3425HLGlobosum-fHäuser et al., 1988
int-b3205HLIntermedium spike-b 1764Franckowiak, 1995
Lfb5HLLeafy bract 1577Walker et al., 1963
mnd45HLMany-noded dwarf 4 1798Franckowiak, 1995
msg294665HLMale sterile genetic 29 2381Franckowiak, 1995
msg493355HLMale sterile genetic 49 2402Franckowiak, 1991
pyr.af5HLPyramidatum af 1718Franckowiak, 1995
raw6 (r6)3345HLSmooth awn 6 2437Franckowiak, 1995
Rph2 (Pa2) 885HSReaction to Puccinia hordei 2 1593Borovkova et
al., 1997
Rph5 (Pa5)1225HReaction to Puccinia hordei 5 1597Borovkova et al.,
1997
sdw.ah5HLSemidwarf ah 2451Franckowiak, 1995
sex.i5HLShrunken endosperm xenia i 2470Franckowiak, 1995
Zeo.f5HLZeocriton f 1610Franckowiak, 1995
CHROMOSOME 6H
ant216HAnthocyanin-less 21 1634Falk, 1994
lys62696HHigh lysine 6 1786Jensen, 1979
msg284656HMale sterile genetic 28 2380Franckowiak, 1991
msg344716HMale sterile genetic 34 2386Franckowiak, 1991
msg395026HMale sterile genetic 39 2391Franckowiak, 1991
msg405036HMale sterile genetic 40 2393Franckowiak, 1991
CHROMOSOME 7H
ant187HLAnthocyanin-less 18 1630Jende-Strid, 1993
ant227HLAnthocyanin-less 22 1635Franckowiak, 1995
cer-k4057HSEceriferum-k + ++ ++ 432Franckowiak, 1995
cer-z4187HSEceriferum-z - - ++ 447Franckowiak, 1995
cer-yg4507HSEceriferum-yg - - - 1540Franckowiak, 1995
des1 127HDesynapsis 1 592Hernandez-Soriano, 1973
des4 137HDesynapsis 4 595Hernandez-Soriano, 1973
des5 147HDesynapsis 5 596Hernandez-Soriano, 1973
mov5 (mo5)7HSMulti-ovary 5Tazhin, 1982
msg223837HMale sterile genetic 22 741Hockett and Eslick, 1971
msg263957HSMale sterile genetic 26 745Franckowiak, 1995
msg304677HLMale sterile genetic 30 2382Franckowiak, 1991
msg324697HMale sterile genetic 32 2384Hockett and Eslick, 1971
pbg7HPubescence of glumeHor, 1924
Rsg1 227HReaction to Schizaphis gram 1 1317Gardenshire et al.,
1973
seg53817HSShrunken endosperm 5 754Jarvi and Eslick, 1975
seg84557HShrunken endosperm 8 2469Ramage and Crandall, 1981
smn1 (smn)7HSSeminudoides 1Franckowiak, 1995
smn27HSSeminudoides 2Gymer, 1977
snb (sb) 267HSSubnodal bract 1217Walker et al., 1963

* Chromosome numbers and arm designations are based on the Triticeae system. Utilization of this system for barley chromosomes was recommended at the business meeting of the Seventh International Barley Genetics Symposium at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, on August 5, 1996. The Burnham and Hagberg (1956) designations of barley chromosomes were 1 2 3 4 5 6 and 7 while new designations based on the Triticeae system are 7H 2H 3H 4H 1H 6H and 5H, respectively.

** The seed stock associated with each BGS number is held as a GSHO stock number in the Barley Genetics Stock Collection at the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility, Aberdeen, Idaho, USA.


New and revised descriptions of barley genes

Udda Lundqvist1, J.D. Franckowiak2, and T. Konishi3
1Svalöf Weibull AB
SE-268 81 Svalöv, Sweden
2Department of Plant Sciences,
North Dakota State University,
Fargo, North Dakota, 58105, USA
3294 Okada, Mabi-cho
Kibi-gun, Okayama 710-13, Japan.

The process of describing genetic stocks held in the Barley Genetics Stock Center at Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, was initiated in 1971 with volume 1 of the Barley Genetics Newsletter (see BGN 1:103). Ninety-eight descriptions were published in volume 1 and Barley Genetic Stock (BGS) numbers were assigned to specific accessions. It was envisioned that BGS descriptions would be prepared for many mutants in this collection. Since new information was expected to accumulate on specific genes, frequent revision of BGS descriptions was anticipated. Descriptions of new mutants were to be prepared when a gene symbol was requested, and the seed stock was assigned a BGS number. The BGS number served as the identifier for a particular genetic stock; and seed stocks were to be grown, stored, and distributed according to their BGS number. Many new and revised descriptions were published in subsequent volumes of the Barley Genetics Newsletter from 1971 to 1991.

However, many accessions in the collection at the Barley Genetics Stock Center were not described because they are parental lines, multiple marker stocks, duplicate accessions, or stocks with unclassified phenotypes. Other stocks have simply inherited traits, but their genetic relationship to previously described barley genes has not been determined. Since descriptions of barley genes have not been compiled in another publication, BGS descriptions often served as descriptions for barley loci. Thus, the BGS description is used as more than just a summary of the information about a specific barley genetic stock.

In 1994, the Barley Genetics Stock Collection was moved to the National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility at Aberdeen, Idaho. A "List of Genetic Stocks in Barley" currently in the collection was published in 1994 by Dr. An Hang, the present curator of the collection. BGS numbers and stocks associated are tabulated in the first list. All accessions in the collection are arranged by their seed stock position numbers in the second list in the booklet. The first list contained 275 entries and the second over 1270 entries.

We felt that BGS descriptions should include more information about gene expression, the chromosomal position of the critical locus, and other mutants at that locus. Mutants that can be observed visually were given priority as the revisions were written. The new and revised BGS descriptions are presented in this special issue of the Barley Genetics Newsletter. Only one BGS description was prepared for each locus, except for the vrs1 (six-rowed spike 1) locus. Information about the vrs1 locus is presented in BGS 6, BGS 58, BGS 66, and BGS 67 because this locus is very complex and critical in classification of barley cultivars. In each BGS description, the first seed stock listed under "Mutant used for description and seed stocks" is associated that BGS number in the USDA-ARS collection. The existence of near-isogenic lines and backcross-derived lines for some barley genes made it desirable to list additional seed stocks in many of the BGS descriptions.

A modified format was used for BGS descriptions to facilitate electron transmission and their conversion to the GrainGenes system. The GrainGenes version of the descriptions will include photographs of many mutants, and the Nordic Gene Bank number for the mutants isolated in Sweden. The recommended format for BGS descriptions is outlined below.

The new and revised barley locus descriptions are listed by BGS number (Table 1) and by alphabetic sequence using the recommended locus symbol (Table 2). Table 2 was prepared because finding a specific gene or locus in a long list of BGS descriptions is difficult.

Barley workers who have assisted in preparing new and revised BGS descriptions for this volume of the Barley Genetics Newsletter are listed below.

Prof. J.P. Cooper, 31 West End, Minchinhampton, Stroud, Glos. GL6 9JA, United Kingdom.

Dr. M.C. Edwards, USDA-ARS Cereal Crops Research Unit, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, USA.

Prof. Dr. G. Fischbeck, Technical University of Munich, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, DE-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.

Dr. L.W. Gallagher, Agronomy and Range Science Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Dr. A. Hang, USDA-ARS, National Small Grains Research Facility, P. O. Box 307, Aberdeen, ID 83210, USA.

Dr. Y. Jin, Plant Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.

Dr. B.J. Steffenson, Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, USA.

Dr. R.I. Wolfe, Alberta Agriculture, Field Crop Development Centre, 5030 50th Street, Lacombe, Alberta, CANADA, T4L 1W8.

Outline for preparation of BGS descriptions

Stock number: BGS number
Locus name:
Locus symbol:

Previous nomenclature and gene symbolization:

Inheritance:
Inheritance pattern
Chromosomal location

Description:

Origin of mutant:

Mutational events:

Mutant used for description and seed stocks:

References:

Prepared:

Revised:

Table 1. A listing of Barley Genetic Stock (BGS) descriptions in Barley Genetics Newsletter volume 26, recommended locus symbols and names, and stock location information.

*Recommended locus symbols are based on utilization of a three letter code for barley genes as approved at the business meeting of the Seventh International Barley Genetics Symposium at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, on August 5, 1996.

+ Chromosome numbers and arm designations are based on a resolution passed at the business meeting of the Seventh International Barley Genetics Symposium at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, on August 5, 1996. The Burnham and Hagberg (1956) designations of barley chromosomes were 1 2 3 4 5 6 and 7 while new designations based on the Triticeae system are 7H 2H 3H 4H 1H 6H and 5H, respectively.

** The seed stock associated with each BGS number is held as a GSHO stock number in the Barley Genetics Stock Collection at the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility, Aberdeen, Idaho, USA.

Table 2. An alphabetic listing of new and revised Barley Genetic Stock (BGS) descriptions for loci in barley (Hordeum vulgare), including information on chromosomal locations, recommended locus names, and original cultivars.

* Chromosome numbers and arm designations are based on the Triticeae system. Utilization of this system for barley chromosomes was recommended at the business meeting of the Seventh International Barley Genetics Symposium at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, on August 5, 1996. The Burnham and Hagberg (1956) designations of barley chromosomes were 1 2 3 4 5 6 and 7 while new designations based on the Triticeae system are 7H 2H 3H 4H 1H 6H and 5H, respectively.