Oat Breeding in the Priamury Region of Russia
Galorm Karmohova
Candidate of Agricultural Science
Chief of Cereal Selections
Far Eastern Research Institute of Agriculture
Vostochny v1. Kharbarovsk, Russia 682321
Oats is one of the primary forage crops in the Russian Far East and is well suited to local crop rotations. During times of stress it appears to suffer less yield loss than either wheat or barley.

The oat selection program of Far Eastern Research Institute of Agriculture, Vostochny village started in 1976 with the evaluation of introduced oat cultivars. Those cultivars which appeared best adapted to the region where used to make new hybrids. Selections were made in the second generation and evaluated until the fifth generation. This process has resulted in three new oat varieties "Amurskey Utyos", "Soyuznick", and "Express".

Amurskey Utyos was selected as an individual plant from an F-2 population of a cross of "Marino" from Holland and "Cucy" from Finland. This variety is useful for both food and forage in northern Kahzakhatan and is listed in the catalogue of valuable varieties. It is of medium maturity, lodging resistant, and resistant to kernel germination in the panicle as well as being drought tolerant. It is resistant to local field races of crown rust and loose smut. Thousand kernel weight is usually 29 to 33 grams, but can weigh an much as 38 to 42 grams. Protein content ranges from 12.5 to 13.5 percent. Lysine content is from 312 to 394 mg per 100 grams. Groat percent ranges from 60 to 65 percent depending on the year. Average grain yield from 1988 through 1992 was 4.1 tons per hectare, though it has yielded 6.8 tons per hectare. Green forage yields are up to 23.8 tons per hectare with the digestible protein at 57.5 grams per kilogram.

Soyuznik was created at The Far Eastern Agricultural Institute at Kharbarovsk and the Research Institute of Agriculture of Central Regions of Nechernozemya at Nemchinovka from a cross of "A Bigwhite" from Canada and "Ruslan," from Russia. Soyuznik is a mid-season stiff-strawed variety resistant to loose smut and crown rust. Average yield during the development process was 4.72 tons of grain per hectare. Its highest recorded yield was 7.12 tons per hectare. Glume percent of fluorescence ranges from 22.1 to 27.0 percent. Grain protein averages 12.5 percent and Lysine at 336 mg per 100 grams. Green forage yields were as high as 22.2 tons per hectare with digestible protein at 59.5 grams per kilogram.

Express originated from the same institutes as Soyuznik as a selection from an F-3 population of the cross "Marie Tabard" from Great Britain and line B6H178 of the cross Patnem 61, from USA/Serbo, from Sweden. Express is mid-season and mid-drought tolerant. Glume percent ranges from 19.4 to 25.8 percent and averages 22.3 percent depending on the year. Average grain yield is 4.51 tons per hectare and ranged from 2.73 to 6.16 tons per hectare. The variety is recommended for both rain and forage production. It is entered in The State Register of Breeding Achievements.

At present our program intends to submit a new oat selection for the state tests which has superior lodging resistance and yields.


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