Genetic resources of husked and naked oats from world production are evaluated in the Czech Republic (CR) at the Agricultural Research Institute Kromí, Ltd. where they are also stored for a mid-long period. After their evaluation, the resources are provided to the Gene Bank of the Research Institute of Crop Production in Prague for long-term conservation. Of the total number of 1,915 accessions in the Czech collection, 34 are naked forms.
The planted area of oats is ca. 78,000 ha in the CR and naked cultivars do not exceed 5%. The annual oat production is about 220,000 tons and meets the present demand in the country.
In breeding and production of naked oats the CR ranks among the leading European countries. Naked oat is bred by the Selgen, Co. Ltd., Prague, and its Breeding Station, Krukanice near Pilsen. The cultivars Adam and Abel were released in 1988 and 1994, respectively. They give superior yields (about 6.0 t.ha-1) in our experiments with naked oats. At present, Abel is the best among European naked oat cultivars.
In 1995-1997, we tested a set of 16 new foreign accessions of naked oats provided by breeders from six countries. The EVIGEZ system (a Czech PC system for the evaluation of genetic resources) was used and selected morphological, disease resistance, quality and yield traits were assessed. The table shows individual traits in mean absolute and relative values in relation to the standard cultivar Abel which is best in most evaluated cases. Values of traits are presented as positive (+) or negative (-) differences as compared to the standard Abel.
Stem length: Bandicoot - 45 cm, Neon -
15 cm, No 61 B - 10 cm , OT 258 -10 cm.
Lodging resistance before harvest: Bandicoot +3 points (too short, extensive), AC Percy (+2 points), No 61B (+2 points), OA 504-6 (+2 points), Paul (+2 points).
Early heading: OA 503-1 - 4 days, AC Lotta - 3 days, Bandicoot - 3 days, AC Baton - 2 days, Lisbeth - 2 days.
Leaf blotch diseases (Helminthosporium): OA 504-5 +2 points, Terra +1 point, OT 258 +1 point, Salomon +1 point.
Test weight: Salvius +1 kg.
1000-grain weight: AC Percy +16 g, AC Baton +11 g, OA 504-5 +9 g.
Husk content: AC Percy -3%, AC Baton -2%, NO 61B -2 %.
Grain protein content: OA 503-1 +5.66%, AC Baton +3.35 %.
Starch content: Sallust +9.1%, OA 504-6 +6.1%, OA 504-5 +6.0%.
Yield potential of Czech naked cultivars is high. On the three-year yield average no foreign cultivar surpassed the Czech standard cultivar Abel. In 1996, NO 61B exhibited high yield and other traits values, in 1997, these were cultivars Sallust and oa 504-6.
Use of results obtained in the evaluation
of naked oat genetic resources in breeding new cultivars will allow to
intensify breeding work and to offer higher quantities of this commodity
for food industry.
|Values of important agronomic characteristics of naked oat cultivars in comparison with the standard Czech cultivar Abel. Kromerííz 1995 / 97|
|Heading||Lodging||Pl. height||HE||Husks||Test w.||TGW||Y i e l d||Protein||Starch|
|C u l t i v a r||Country||date||9 - 1||cm||9 - 1||%||kg/hl||g||t / ha||%||%||%|
|NO 61 B||CAN||-1||2||-10||0||-2||-1||3||5.4||90||1.78||2.8|
|OA 503-1 / 97||CAN||-4||1||10||-2||-1||-4||9||2.88||48||5.66||-2.4|
|OA 504-5 / 97||CAN||-1||1||10||2||15||-6||9||4.74||79||-0.17||6|
|OA 504-6 / 97||CAN||-1||2||5||-2||6||-4||1||5.04||84||-0.94||6.1|
|ABEL - standard||CZE||13.6.||6||130||7||3.05||71.4||23.6||6||100||14.8||60.7|
|Note: 9 - 1, 9 = the best, no lodging, no diseases|
|/ 97 - Only in 1997 year|
|Grain yield in absolute ( t/ha) and in relative ( % ) values|
|HE = Helminthosporium avenae of oat exhibited economic impacts in the years studied|