Items from the United States - Missouri.




Department of Agronomy, and the USDA-ARS, Curtis Hall, Columbia, MO 65211.

A.L. McKendry, J.P. Gustafson, K. Ross, D.N. Tague, Jessica Tremain, R.L. Wright, S. Liu, Z. Abate, T. Chikmawati, X. Ma, A. Mahmoud, Miftahuddin, and M. Rodriguez.


2002 Missouri winter wheat crop. [p. 208-209]

Crop statistics. Missouri's wheat crop was harvested from 760,000 acres, equal to the 2001 acreage and down from 1,000,000 acres harvested in 2000. Statewide, yields averaged 44 bushels, down 10 bu/acre from that reported in 2001. Total Missouri production was 33.4 x 10^6^ bu with the highest regional production being in the southeast (11.1 x 10^6^ bu).

Winter Wheat Performance Tests. The statewide yield of SRWW cultivars tested in 2002 was 55.7 bu/acre, down 7.3 bu/acre from the 2001 test average of 63.0 bu/acre. Statewide yields were down 15.3 bu/acre from the record high yield (71.0 bu/acre) recorded in 1997. Average yields across the six test locations ranged from 39.3 bu/acre at Lamar to 75.0 bu/acre at Trenton. Average regional yields ranged from 41.7 bu/acre in the southwestern region to 58.5 bu/acre in the southeastern region to a high of and 63.2 bu/acre in the northern region of the state.

MO 980725, an experimental line from the university of Missouri's wheat-breeding program, was the highest yielding SRWW tested, averaging 64.3 bu/acre statewide. Five proprietary cultivars, including Excel 400-1 (63.7 bu/acre), MFA Brand 2020 (63.0 bu/acre), Lewis 864 (62.2 bu/acre), MFA Brand 1828 (62.1 bu/acre), and MFA brand 766 (61.5 bu/acre), did not differ significantly in yield from MO 980725. Two other University of Missouri experimental lines, MO 980525 (63.3 bu/acre) and MO 960903 (61.0 bu/acre), rounded out the top yield group. Release of both MO 980725 and MO 980525 is anticipated. Both of these lines have exceptionally high levels of scab resistance

Regional test weights varied significantly due to differential environmental conditions and disease pressures during the 2002 crop season. Statewide, the average test weight was 56.7 lb/bu, down 1.3 lb/bu from the statewide average of 58.0 lb/bu recorded in 2001. Location averages ranged from a low of 54.0 lb/bu at Novelty where disease pressure from FHB was significant, to a high of 58.6 lb/bu at Columbia. Statewide, VA 98W-593 had the heaviest test weight (59.5 lb/bu). Roane (59.3 lb/bu) and Lewis 864 (58.9 lb/bu) did not differ significantly from VA 98W-593.

Complete results of the 2002 Missouri Winter Wheat Performance Tests are available on the WWW under Crop Performance Testing at:


Wheat genetics research. [p. 209]

J.P. Gustafson, K. Ross, T. Chikmawati, J. Layton, X. Ma, A. Mahmoud, Miftahuddin, and M. Rodriguez.

The genes governing Al tolerance on the 4DL and 4RL arms of wheat and rye, respectively, have been bracketed by AFLP and SSR markers using a BAC clone from rice and EST clones from wheat. Our results indicate that a single Al-tolerance (Alt3) gene controls Al tolerance in our rye RIL population derived from a cross between Al-tolerant and AL-sensitive parents. An attempt to construct a high-resolution map of the gene region was initiated by developing codominant PCR markers flanking the gene. One simple codominant PCR marker, SUT1, was developed using primers derived from a rice BAC end. In addition, an EST approach was used to analyze changes in gene expression in roots of rye when grown under Al stress. Two cDNA libraries were constructed (Al ssed and unstressed), and a total of 1,194 and 774 ESTs were generated, respectively. In order to understand the mechanisms responsible for Al toxicity and tolerance in plants, we utilized an EST approach to analyze changes in gene expression in roots of rye when placed under Al stress. In this manner, we were able to study the response of rye roots when placed in Al. Out of all the genes analyzed, we were able to locate 13 that showed significant levels of increased expression when grown in toxic levels of Al.


Wheat germ plasm enhancement. [p. 209-210]

A.K. Klatt.

The variability enhancement/germ plasm development program at Oklahoma State University continued to give priority to transferring durable leaf rust resistance from CIMMYT spring wheats to winter wheats adapted to the southern and central Great Plains. An extensive crossing program with new synthetics and synthetic derivatives developed by CIMMYT is also in progress. These crosses have multiple objectives including new sources of leaf rust resistance, improved kernel size, enhanced stay green characteristics, and improved biomass and yield potential.

During the 2000-01 cycle, more than 1,800 additional winter and spring wheat materials were introduced (primarily from CIMMYT) and cleared through quarantine procedures. These materials are currently being evaluated for multiple disease resistance and agronomic performance. The best materials will be utilized as parents to introduce new genetic variability into the program. For information regarding this program, contact Art Klatt, Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, 274 Ag Hall, Stillwater, OK 74078.


Fusarium head blight research. [p. 209]

A.L. McKendry, D.N. Tague, J.A. Tremain, R.L. Wright, S. Liu, and Z. Abate.

Germ plasm evaluation. We have hypothesized that germ plasm from different geographical regions may possess genes for scab resistance that differ from those currently in use and that these potentially new sources of resistance may complement those already in use to improve either effectiveness or the stability of the scab resistance in breeding programs. Winter wheat germ plasm research over the past 4 years has resulted in evaluation of scab resistance (types I and II and kernel quality) for 4,262 winter wheat accessions. Among these accessions, approximately 180 have shown intermediate to good levels of resistance in replicated testing, however, no accessions with immunity have been observed. Lines possessing resistance on initial screening followed by two subsequent generations of verification have been made available upon request to breeders for incorporation in to breeding programs nationally.

In addition to accessions currently housed in the National Small Grains Collection at Aberdeen, Idaho, researchers worldwide are actively searching for and combining genes for resistance into their own breeding materials. Through a collaborative research agreement with CIMMYT, we are attempting to identify and acquire sources of resistance in improved genetic backgrounds from scab researchers globally. Approximately 320 lines have been introduced into the U.S. through this collaborative effort. Because the putative scab-resistance genes in many of these lines, are in improved genetic backgrounds, this germ plasm also may contain resistance to other important U.S. pathogens (e.g., Septoria spp., leaf rust, and BYDV).

Genetics of resistance to Fusarium head blight. Studies investigating the inheritance of scab resistance in Ernie are ongoing. A set of populations (F1, reciprocal F1, F2, BC1, and BC2) from the cross 'Ernie/MO 94-317' (a high-yielding, scab-susceptible parent) were developed and a replicated six-generation means analysis experiment currently is being completed. Data will be published in the autumn of 2003. A QTL associated with scab resistance in Ernie measured as either disease spread or as the FHB index, are being identified using AFLP and SSR markers in a set of 300 recombinant inbred lines developed from the above cross. To date, QTL on 3B (different region from Sumai 3), 4B, and 5A have been found that are associated with both FHB index and spread, whereas separate QTL on 2B and 2D have been linked to FHB index and spread, respectively. Work continues to construct a fine map of these chromosome regions. QTL for days-to-flower and for spike length also are being mapped and interactions among these QTL will be investigated.


Personnel. [p. 210]

Kara Bestgen, who has been with the scab germ plasm program for the past 4 years, has returned to school. Jessica Tremain, M.S. University of Missouri, has replaced her in this position. Gordana Surlan Momorovic is a visiting scientist.


Publications. [p. 210]

  • Akhunov ED, Goodyear JA, Geng S, Qi LL, Echalier B, Gill BS, Miftahudin, Gustafson JP, Lazo G, Chao S, Anderson OD, Linkiewicz AM, Dubcovsky J, La Rota M, Sorrells ME, Zhang D, Nguyen HT, Kalavacharla V, Hossain K, Kianian SF, Peng J, Lapitan NLV, Gonzalez-Hernandez JL, Anderson JA, Choi D-W, Close TJ, Dilbirligi M, Gill KS, Walker-Simmons MK, Steber C, McGuire PE, Qualset CO, and Dvorak J. 2003. The organization and rate of evolution of the wheat transcriptome are correlated with recombination rates along chromosome arms. Genome Res (in press).
  • Anderson OD, Larka L, Christoffers MJ, McCue KF, and Gustafson JP. 2002. Comparison of orthologous and paralogous DNA flanking the wheat high molecular weight glutenin genes: sequence conservation and divergence, transposon distribution, and matrix-attachment regions. Genome 45:367-380.
  • González JM, Jouve N, Gustafson JP, and Múniz LM. 2002. A genetic map of molecular markers in X Triticosecale Wittmack. In: Proc 5th Internat Triticale Symp, 30 June-5 July, 2002, Radzikow, Poland. 2:85-93.
  • Karakousis A, Gustafson JP, Chalmers KJ, Barr AR, and Langridge P. 2002. A consensus map of barley integrating SSR, RFLP, and AFLP markers. Austr J Agric Res (In press).
  • Kim BY, Baier AC, Somers DJ, and Gustafson JP. 2002. Aluminum tolerance in triticale, wheat, and rye. In: Mutations, In Vitro and Molecular Techniques for Environmentally Sustainable Crop Improvement (Maluszynski M and Kasha KJ eds). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht the Netherlands. Pp.101-111.
  • McKendry AL, Bestgen KS, and O'Day MH. 2001. Types I and II resistance to Fusarium head blight in Asian and Italian germplasm. In: Proc 2001 Nat Fusarium Head Blight Forum, Erlanger, KY, 8-10 December, 2001. p. 198.
  • McKendry AL, Murphy JP, Bestgen KS, Navarro R, and O'Day MH. 2001. Resistance to Fusarium head blight in winter wheat accessions from the Balkans: a progress report. In: Proc 2001 Nat Fusarium Head Blight Forum, Erlanger, KY, 8-10 December, 2001. Pp. 194-197.
  • McKendry AL, Tague DN, and Ross K. 2001. Comparative effects of 1BL·1RS and 1AL·1RS on soft red winter wheat quality. Crop Sci 41:712-720.
  • McKendry AL, Wright RL, Tague DN, Bestgen KS, and O'Day MH. 2002. Missouri Winter Wheat Performance Tests. Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, Food and natural Resources, University of Missouri-Columbia. Special Report 542. 27 p.
  • Rodriguez-Milla M, Butler GE, Rodriguez-Huete A, Wilson CF, Anderson OD, and Gustafson JP. 2002. EST-based expression analysis under aluminum stress in rye (Secale cereale L.). Plant Physiol 130:1706-1716.
  • Rudd JC, Horsley RD, McKendry AL, and Elias EM. 2001. Host plant resistance genes for Fusarium head blight: sources, mechanisms and utility in conventional breeding systems. Crop Sci 41:620-27.